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FAMILIARIZATION OF

ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION
LINE EQUIPMENT
ENGR. ROMEO F. CEDIÑO, JR.
Manager For
Technical Services Department
SORECO II
GENERAL DEFINITION:

TRANSFORMER IS A DEVICE THAT TRANSFERS ELECTRICAL

ENERGY FROM ONE ELECTRIC CIRCUIT TO ANOTHER

WITHOUT A CHANGE IN FREQUENCY, DOES SO BY THE

PRINCIPLE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND HAS

ELECTRIC CIRCUITS THAT ARE LINKED BY A COMMON

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.
POWER TRANSFORMER
• BY TYPE (SUBSTATION POWER TRANSFORMER):

– STEP UP
– STEP DOWN

* THE POWER TRANSFORMER IS


CONSIDERED AS THE “HEART” OF THE
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS
POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER

DEFINITION:
AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE CAPABLE OF:
1. CARRYING NORMAL LOAD CURRENT TO WHICH IT IS DESIGNED

2. MAKING AND BREAKING NORMAL LOAD CURRENT


(CAPABLE OF MULTIPLE INTERRUPTION OF NORMAL LOAD
CURRENT)
3. INTERRUPTING RATED FAULT CURRENT TO WHICH IT IS DESIGNED
(CAPABLE OF MULTIPLE INTERRUPTION OF RATED FAULT
CURRENT)
4. WITHSTANDING MOMENTARY FAULT CURRENT
MAIN FUNCTIONS/PURPOSES OF POWER
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

1. INTERRUPT FAULT CURRENT AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE

2. ISOLATE AFFECTED CIRCUITS TO MINIMIZE DAMAGE TO


OTHER EQUIPMENT

3. ENSURES CONTINUITY OF SERVICE


TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO ARC QUENCHING MEDIUM

1. OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER (OCB)

2. AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER (ACB)

3. GAS CIRCUIT BREAKER (GCB)

4. VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER (VCB)


TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO OPERATING MECHANISM

1. MAGNETIC OR MAGNEBLAST
2. PNEUMATIC

3. SPRING OPERATED
4. HYDRAULIC
METHODS OF ARC DISTINGUISHING
1. OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER
A. COOLING THE ARC BY PUMPING OIL INSIDE THE INTERRUPTER
B. ABSORBS HEAT BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE ARC
C. GOOD INSULATING MEDIUM WHICH PREVENTS RESTRIKING
OF INTERRUPTED CURRENT
2. AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER
A. BLOWING OF AIR TO THE ARC TOWARDS THE ARC CHUTES

3. GAS CIRCUIT BREAKER


A. PUFFING SF6 GAS TO THE INTERRUPTER AND ABSORBING HEAT
BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE ARC.
B. HIGH DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF SULFUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SF6)
PREVENTS RESTRIKING OF INTERRUPTED CURRENT.
4. VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER
A. AIR WHICH CONTRIBUTES TO ARC PRODUCTION IS ABSENT,
THUS NO ARC IS PRODUCED DURING CURRENT INTERRUPTION.
SAMPLE OF A TYPICAL WITHDRAWABLE TYPE
AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER
TYPICAL
COMPONENTS
OF AN OIL
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
SAMPLE OUTLINE OF A PNEUMATIC GAS CIRCUIT BREAKER
VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER (WITHDRAWABLE TYPE)
CUTAWAY
VIEW OF A
VACUUM
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
SWITCHGEARS
CONVENTIONAL SUBSTATION
GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW
DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
Typical Distribution Transformer
Tap Changer
(External/Internal) Primary H2
Primary H1 Bushing
Bushing (At the Back)

Secondary
(X1, X2, X3)
KVA Bushings
Rating

Company Nameplate
Number (Hidden)
Symbols Used in Transformer Voltage Ratings

NAME SYMBOL APPLICATION EXAMPLES

To separate the voltage


Dash
- rating or ratings of 7620 V - 240/120 V
separate windings.

To separate voltage to be
Slant or 13200 GRDY / 7620 V -
Slash / applied or to be obtained
from the same winding. 120 / 240 V

To designate separate
voltages which can be
obtained by reconnecting 13200 GRDY / 7620 V -
Cross X the coils of a winding in 120/240 X 139/277 V
series or multiple
combinations
DT Nameplate Sample

Primary
Voltage Rating KVA Rating

Secondary
Voltage
Rating Polarity
(Additive)

Voltage
Rating
per tap Schematic
position Diagrams
A Transformer Rated 13200 Grd.Y/7620 V
External Tap-Changers
Operation
1. De-energize the DT
2. Loosen lock screw
3. Rotate switch to
desired position
4. Tighten lock screw
5. Energize the DT

Lock Screw
Other Types of External Tap-Changers
Internal View of a DT With an
External Tap-Changer

Tap-
Changer
Internal Tap-Changers

Rotary Tap-Changers
Samples of DTs With Dual Voltage Tap

Internal Tap changer

Dual
Voltage
Taps

Always
refer to
nameplate
for actual
ratings.
Samples of DTs With Dual Voltage Tap
Tap changer Dual Voltage Taps

Changing the DUAL


VOLTAGE TAP is done
by transferring the
connection of the
primary lead
Samples of DTs With Dual Voltage Tap

Changing the DUAL


VOLTAGE TAP is done by
transferring the connection
of the outer end of the
curved copper strip

Dual
Voltage
Taps
SECTIONALIZING
EQUIPMENT
SECTIONALIZING
Sectionalizing is the proper application of
isolating and overcurrent protective
devices to:

1. Facilitate manual and automatic


line switching
2. Limit power interruption to the
smallest practical segment of the
line
RATIONALE
The primary objective of sectionalizing
is to minimize the extent and effect
of power interruption in a circuit
through the proper application of
isolating and protective line
equipment.
EQUIPMENT USED FOR
SECTIONALIZING
• Switch
• Fuse
• Recloser
• Sectionalizer
• Fault Indicator
SWITCH
• A device for making, breaking
or changing the connection in
an electric circuit

• It should be able to carry the


normal load current
continuously

• It should also be able to handle


abnormal or short circuit
currents for short periods
TYPES OF SWITCHES
• Disconnect Switch (DS)
• Air Break Switch (ABS)
• Load Break Switch (LBS)
• Remote-Controlled Line
Switch (RCLS)
TYPES OF DISCONNECT SWITCHES

1. HORIZONTAL MOUNTING

2. VERTICAL MOUNTING
3. UNIVERSAL MOUNTING

4. CENTER BREAK
Disconnect Switch
• Plain knife-blade
switch

• Has no interrupter
and is intended to be
operated only when
the circuit has been
de-energized by some
other means

• Applications: primary
line switch (PLS),
disconnect switch
Air Break Switch
• A disconnecting switch
equipped with an arcing
horn
• Can be operated with
the circuit energized but
carrying only charging or
magnetizing current
• The arcing horn helps
extinguish the opening
arc by extending it as
the switch contacts open
Load Break Switch
• A disconnecting
switch equipped with
an interrupter

• Can be operated
when the circuit is
energized and
carrying normal load
current

• Can also be closed


against a fault
Remote-Controlled Line Switch
• An LBS that can be
operated remotely through
SCADA

• It has the capability to


measure voltage, current
and other circuit
parameters

• If provided with the more


advanced type of electronic
control, an RCLS can
function like a sectionalizer
FUSE
• An overcurrent
protective device which
is placed in series in a
circuit and has an
element that melts
during the passage of
an overcurrent through
it and thus interrupts
the circuit

• A fuse must be replaced


after its operation
TYPES OF FUSES
• Fuselinks
• Power Fuses
– Type SMD-5
– Type SMD-20
– Type SMD-50
– Type SMD-100
• Current Limiting Fuses (CLF)
Fuse Link
• Used in protecting
distribution
transformers, line
capacitor banks, and
lateral taps

• Can be applied for fault


currents up to 5,000
amperes and load
below 4 MVA

• Easily opened and


closed using a
telescopic hot stick
Power Fuse
• Used in protecting transformer vaults
and primary-metered services in high
fault areas

• Can be applied for fault currents up to


28,000 amperes and loads up to 12 MVA
Type SM-5 Power Fuse
• Can be applied for
fault currents up to
28,000 amperes and
loads up to 12 MVA
• Uses a porcelain
fuse holder
• Can be opened with
a telescopic hot
stick but must be
closed using a hook
stick from a basket
truck
Type SMD-20 Power Fuse
• Can be applied for
fault currents up to
10,000 amperes and
loads up to 8 MVA
• Uses a fiber fuse
holder
• Can be opened and
closed using a
telescopic hot stick
Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)
• Used in conjunction with
a fuse link to protect
distribution transformers
in high fault areas as well
as station service
transformers
• Has no time-current
characteristic (TCC) and
operates only at high
fault current magnitudes
• Has no external moving
parts that could indicate
its operation
DESCRIPTION
An Automatic Circuit Recloser is a self-
contained device with the necessary
intelligence to sense an overcurrent
condition, interrupt the current flow,
and then after a predetermined time
delay, recloses automatically to re-
energize the line. If the fault is
permanent, it locks open after a pre-set
number of operations thus isolating the
faulted portion from the main part of
the system.
RECLOSER
• A self-contained device with the
necessary intelligence to sense
an overcurrent condition,
interrupt the current flow, & then
after a predetermined time delay,
recloses automatically to re-
energize the line.

• If the fault is permanent, it locks


open after a pre-set number of
operations thus isolating the
faulted portion from the main
part of the system.
RECLOSER CLASSIFICATIONS

1. Phase
Single-phase or three-phase

2. Control
Hydraulic or electronic

3. Interrupters
Oil or Vacuum

4. Insulation
Oil , Air or Epoxy
SINGLE-PHASE RECLOSERS
• Used to protect single-phase
lines such as single-phase
laterals

• Can also be used on three-


phase circuits where the load is
predominantly single-phase

• Examples are the Type D (15.5


kV) and DV (38 kV) Kyle
Reclosers from Cooper Power
Systems
THREE-PHASE RECLOSERS

1. Triple-Single tripping
(Ex. NOVA Type TS
reclosers)

2. Three-phase tripping
(Ex. Type KFME, WE, WVE,
VWVE reclosers)
TYPES OF CONTROL
1. Hydraulic Control
• Built as an integral part of the recloser
• Overcurrent is sensed by a trip coil that is
connected in series with the line. When the
overcurrent flows through the coil, a plunger
is drawn into the coil to trip open the recloser
contacts.
• Timing and
sequencing are
accomplished by
pumping oil
through separate
hydraulic
chambers or
ducts.
TYPES OF CONTROL
2. Electronic Control
• More flexible, more easily
customized and programmed,
and many have advanced
protection, metering, and
automation functionality.
• Line current is sensed by special
sensing current transformers in
the recloser
• The electronic control is housed
in a cabinet separate from the
recloser and conveniently
permits changes to operational
settings.
TYPES OF INTERRUPTING MEDIUM

1. Oil Interrupters
• Reclosers using
oil for current
interruption use
the same oil for
basic insulation.
• Some reclosers
with hydraulic
control also use
the same oil for
timing and
counting
functions.
TYPES OF INTERRUPTING MEDIUM

2. Vacuum Interrupters
• Vacuum interrupters provide
fast, low-energy arc
interruption with long contact
and interrupter life, low
mechanical stress, and
maximum operating safety.
• With arc interruption taking
place in a vacuum, contact and
interrupter life far exceeds
other interrupting media.
OPERATING LEVERS & INDICATORS
1. Manual Operating Handle
• A yellow lever that is used to
manually trip the recloser
• For the Type DV recloser, this
is also used to close the
recloser.
• For the Type KFME, WE, WVE
& VWVE reclosers, this is used
for manual tripping & to
override the controls to keep
the recloser open. This cannot
be used to manually close the
recloser but must be in the
closed position (up) before the
recloser contacts can be
closed.
OPERATING LEVERS & INDICATORS

2. Contact Position Indicator


• A red flag that is also linked
to the interrupter
mechanism but
independent of the yellow
handle
• It drops down from under
the sleethood when the
interrupter contacts are
open.
OPERATING LEVERS & INDICATORS
3. Operations Counter
• Cumulatively records
each time the recloser
opens.

4. Non-reclosing Lever
• Found on Type DV
reclosers, this sets the
unit to one shot to
lockout after fault
interruption
THE KYLE TYPE DV
HYDRAULICALLY-
CONTROLLED
RECLOSER
Specifications Summary
Nominal System Voltage (kV) 24.9 - 34.5
Maximum Rated Voltage (kV) 38

BIL (kV) 150

Max Continuou Current 560


Max Interrupting Rating (Sym.) 8000

Interrupting Medium Oil


Control Type Hydraulic
THE KYLE TYPE DV RECLOSER

Construction features, operating levers, and


indicators for the Type DV Recloser
THE KYLE TYPE DV RECLOSER
Operating Levers and Indicators

The DV Reclosers’
sleet hood,
showing the
manual operating
handle, non-
reclosing lever
and contact
position indicator.
Also found under
the sleet hood is
the operations
counter.
THE KYLE TYPE DV RECLOSER
Major Components

1. Arc interrupting assembly


2. Closing solenoid
3. Closing solenoid contactor
4. Hydraulic integrator assembly
5. Series trip solenoid
6. Time-delay unit
7. Head mechanism
THE KYLE TYPE DV RECLOSER

Manual Closing
of a De-energized
Type DV Recloser
THE KYLE TYPE KFME
ELECTRONICALLY-
CONTROLLED
RECLOSER
Phase 3

Nominal System Voltage (kV) 2.4 - 14.4


Maximum Rated Voltage (kV) 15.5

BIL (kV) 110


Max Continuou Current 400

Max Interrupting Rating (Sym.) 6000

Interrupting Medium Vacuum


Control Type Electronic
THE KYLE TYPE KFME RECLOSER
Operation
• Tripping & closing are initiated by signals from
the electronic control
• When currents in excess of the programmed
minimum-trip value are detected in one or more
phases, a signal from the control actuates a
solenoid in the operating mechanism to trip the
opening springs & open the interrupter contacts

Form 3A Control Form 4C Control


THE KYLE TYPE KFME RECLOSER
Operation
• Closing
energy and
the force to
charge the
opening
springs is
supplied by
a closing
solenoid
energized
from the
source side
of the
recloser
THE KYLE TYPE KFME RECLOSER
Operation
• Arc interruption
takes place
within the 3
sealed vacuum
interrupters.

• Oil is used for


electrical
insulation, but
is not involved
in arc
interruption.
THE KYLE TYPE KFME RECLOSER
Operating Levers and Indicators

Contact position indicator

Non-reclosing Operations
lever counter

Manual operating handle (yellow)


THE KYLE TYPE KFME RECLOSER
Electronic Control

• All operating
parameters, like
phase- and ground-
fault minimum trip
levels, TCC selection &
sequence of recloser
Form 3A Control operation are done via
the electronic control
• The Form 3A control is
a solid-state electronic
type while the Form 4C
is a microprocessor-
based control type

Form 4C Control
THE KYLE TYPE KFME RECLOSER

Typical Pole Installations


THE TYPE WE, WVE & VWVE RECLOSERS
Operation
• Closing energy & the force to required to
charge the opening springs is supplied by a
closing solenoid
• Oil interrupters are used in WE & WVE. Vacuum
interrupters are used in VWVE.
• All are oil-insulated.

WE Recloser VWVE Recloser


THE TYPE WE, WVE & VWVE RECLOSERS

Untanked view of Type WE recloser. Construction of WVE is similar.


THE TYPE WE, WVE & VWVE RECLOSERS

Untanked Type VWVE vacuum recloser


THE TYPE WE, WVE & VWVE RECLOSERS
Manual Operating Lever & Indicator

Yellow manual operating


(trip-and-reset) handle
• Used to manually trip
the recloser & override
the control to keep the
recloser open

Contact position Indicator


• A red flag labeled OPEN independent of the yellow handle
• Drops down from under the sleethood when the
interrupter contacts open
THE TYPE WE, WVE & VWVE RECLOSERS
Electronic Control
• As with the Type KFME recloser, all operating
parameters for the Type WE, WVE & VWVE
reclosers are provided by the electronic control
• The controls used by MERALCO are the Form 3A
solid-state electronic control & the Form 4C &
Form 5 microprocessor-based controls

Form 3A Control Form 4C Control Form 5 Control


Type WE & WVE
Reclosers in
service
FAULT INDICATOR
A device that
indicates fault
current flow
Senses the
magnetic field
caused by the
current flowing
through the
conductor
Classified either as
manual reset or
automatic reset
SECTIONALIZERS
DESCRIPTION
A SECTIONALIZER is a self-contained
electrical device that interrupts its
load side after sensing the passage
of a predetermined number of
successive fault currents and the
corresponding trippings of the back-
up device at its source side.
SECTIONALIZER
• A self-contained electrical
device that interrupts its
load side after sensing the
passage of a pre-
determined number of
successive fault currents &
the corresponding trippings
of the back-up device at its
source side
• It opens during the open
interval of the backup
device
OPERATION
• It opens during the open interval of
the backup device
• It does not interrupt fault current
but can be closed into a faulted line
• It can be used to interrupt normal
load current
• Once open, the sectionalizer will
remain open until manually closed
The Type GW Sectionalizer

OPERATING DATA
Phase-Minimum-Actuating 16, 24, 40, 56, 80,
Current (Amps) 112, 160, 224, 256,
296, 320, 448, 640,
768, 896
Ground-Minimum-Actuating 3.5, 7, 16, 20, 28,
Current (Amps) 40, 56, 80, 112,
160, 224, 320, 384,
448, BLOCK
Number of Counts to Open 1, 2, 3
BASIC SECTIONALIZER RATINGS Count Resest (Seconds) 15, 30, 60, 120, 180
Nominal Voltage 34.5 kV
Phase Actuating Level X1, X2, X4, X6, X8,
Rated Maximum Voltage 38 kV
Multiplier (Inrush Restraint) BLOCK
BIL 150 kV
Continuous Current Rating 400 A Phase Inrush Reset 5, 10, 15, 20
Rated Symmetrical Interrupting Current 880 A rms (Cycles)
Rated Making Current, Asymmetrical 15000 A Ground Inrush Reset 0.3, 0.7, 1.5, 3, 5
Momentary Maximum, Asymmetrical 15000 A (Seconds)
A Pole-mounted Type GW Sectionalizer
A Pole-mounted Type GW Sectionalizer

This
sectionalizer
is installed
on an open-
wye primary
lateral
External Features of Kyle Electronically
Controlled Sectionalizer
Internal Details of the Type GW
Sectionalizer
Operating Mechanism and Electronic Control
MANUAL OPERATING CONTROLS

The sectionalizer’s manual operating controls are located on


the underside of the operator mechanism housing placed on
one side of the sectionalizer’s tank.
AUTOMATIC
VOLTAGE
REGULATORS
Automatic Voltage
Regulator
• A tap-changing autotransformer with
the ability to continuously monitor its
output voltage and automatically
adjust itself by changing taps until the
desired voltage is obtained.

• It regulates line voltage from 10%


raise (boost) to 10% lower (buck) in
32, approximately 5/8 steps.
Reasons for Installing AVRs

• To improve system voltage


• To improve quality of service
• To meet regulatory standards
Effects of AVRs on Voltage Problems
Problems Solved by AVRs
• Undervoltage
• Overvoltage
• Unbalanced voltage

Problems Not Solved by AVRs


• Voltage sags
• Voltage swells
• Voltage flickers/fluctuations
Sample AVR Installation
(Pole Mounted)
Sample AVR Installations
(Platform Mounted)
4
1 2 3
MAJOR COMPONENTS
OF AN AVR

1. S (Source) Bushing
5
2. L (Load) Bushing
3. SL (Neutral) Bushing
4. Series Arrester
5. Position Indicator 6

6. Electronic Control
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AVR
Position Indicator
• Has a pointer mechanically
connected to the tap-
changing switch
• Indicates the actual
position of the tap-changer
through the yellow pointer
• Indicates the maximum &
minimum positions
attained during raise &
lower operations through
its drag hands.
• Allows load bonus setting
of the regulator
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AVR

Series Arrester

• A bypass arrester
connected across the
series winding between
the S & L bushings.
• Limits the voltage
developed across the
series winding during
lightning strikes,
switching surges & line
faults.
Typical Features of an Electronic
Control
1. Voltage Level Selector
2. Bandwidth Selector
3. Time Delay Selector
4. Band-edge Indicator
5. Line Drop Compensation
Selectors
6. Neutral Indicating Light
7. Drag hand Reset/Neutral
Light Test Button
8. Internal/External Power
Switch
Typical Features of an Electronic
Control

9. Control Switch
10. External Power
Terminals
11. Voltmeter Terminal
12. Motor & Panel
Fuses
13. Operations Counter
14. Data Port
15. LCD Display
16. Keypads
The Cooper/McGraw Edison VR-32
Step-Voltage Regulator

CONTROL TYPES

1. CL-2 / CL-2A
2. CL-4C
3. CL-5A
Cooper AVR with a CL-2A Control
Cooper AVR with a CL-4C Control

1 LCD Display
2 Keypad
3 Data Port
4 Power Switch
5 Voltmeter Terminals
6 External Power
Terminals
7 Panel Fuse
8 Differential Voltage
Fuse
9 Motor Fuse
10 Manual RAISE-
LOWER Switch
11 AUTO/REMOTE-
OFF-
MANUAL Switch
12 Neutral Lamp Test-
Drag Hand Reset
Switch
13 Neutral Indicating
Input Voltage: Light
80 - 170 V
45 - 65 Hz
Cooper AVR with a CL-5A Control

Input Voltage:
80 - 137 V
45 - 65 Hz
Cooper AVR Bank with a CL-5E Control
Nameplate of a Cooper VR-32 AVR
The GE Type VR-1 Step-Voltage
Regulator

CONTROL TYPES

1. VR-1
2. SM-3
The Siemens Type JFR
Step-Voltage Regulator

A 250 kVA, 7.62


kV Type JFR
AVR with an
MJ-3A control
The Siemens Type JFR
Step-Voltage Regulator

A 400 kVA, 19.92


kV Type JFR AVR
with an MJ-XL
control
Nameplate of a Siemens Type JFR AVR
Line Capacitors
CAPACITOR
• A device for introducing a capacitive
reactance in a circuit to counteract the
effects of inductive reactance

• It reduces the impedance of a circuit with


a consequent reduction in the voltage
drop and an improvement in the PF

• By reducing the current required to supply


a load, it decreases losses in a circuit
SAMPLE 200 KVAR, 13200 V, CAPACITOR UNIT
CAPACITOR BANKS
FACTORY-ASSEMBLED BLOCK WITH HORIZINTALLY
MOUNTED CAPACITOR UNITS
ADVANTAGES OF HAVING A CAPACITOR
BANK INSTALLATION

1. RAISE AND LOWER VOLTAGE WHEN NEEDED


2. RAISE VOLTAGE ON SOURCE SIDE

3. REDUCES LOSSES IN THE SYSTEM

4. REDUCES THERMAL LOADING

5. RAISES SYSTEM LOADING CAPABILITY


TYPES OF CAPACITOR BANKS
Series Capacitor Bank
• Connected in series with the line
• Used to compensate for the reactive
voltage drop in the circuit
• Typically used in low-voltage, heavy-
current applications such as furnaces &
welders, to compensate for the voltage
drop in the conductors
Shunt Capacitor Bank
• Connected in parallel with the load
• Used to correct the component of current
caused by inductive loads
• Typically used for PF correction
BENEFITS DERIVED FROM SHUNT
CAPACITOR BANKS

1. Released Capacity
- due to PF improvement
kW

kVAR2
kVA2
kVAR1
kVA1 CkVAR

2. Voltage Rise
- due to reduction in line impedance

3. Loss Reduction
- due to reduction in line impedance
TYPES OF CAPACITOR CONTROL

1. Fixed
2. Time
3. Voltage
4. Current
5. Power Factor
6. KVAR
7. Temperature
GUIDELINES IN HANDLING
CAPACITOR BANKS

1. Before placing a capacitor bank in service,


inspect individual units for bulged or cracked
tanks. Proper care should be exercised in
handling capacitor units to prevent damage
to or denting of capacitor case.

2. Before working upon capacitor units, the


capacitor bank must be allowed to stand at
least five (5) minutes after disconnecting
from source of power, after which it shall be
short-circuited and grounded before work is
started.
ENERGIZING & DE-ENERGIZING
LINE CAPACITOR BANKS

Always use the capacitor oil switch when energizing


& de-energizing a capacitor bank. When the oil
switch is inoperable, the following shall be
observed:

1. Closing of FCOs shall be done only while the


line is de-energized
2. For line capacitor banks installed on 13.8kV
circuits & below, opening of FCOs shall be done
with the use of load buster
3. For line capacitors installed on 34.5kV circuits,
opening of FCOs shall be done only when the
line is de-energized
Cooper’s Type TSC Three-Phase Oil Switch

Nominal System Voltage 34.5 kV


Rated Maximum Voltage 38 kV
Rated Momentary Current 12000 A
Rated Making Current 12000 A
Capacitive Continuous Current 135 A
Type TSC Oil Switch Operation

1. The oil switch is manually operated by means of the


red handle under the sleet hood. Pulling down the
handle will either open or close the switch depending
upon its previous position.
2. A disc-type contact-position indicator shows the switch
position.
Type TSC Oil Switch Operation

3. When the operating 4. When the operating


handle is pulled down, the handle is released, it
manual reset lever is also automatically returns
pulled down. to its up position
under the sleet hood.

5. The manual reset


lever, however, must
be returned to its up
position before the
motor circuit is armed
& the switch is
returned to remote
electrical control.
Cooper’s Type NR Single-Phase Oil Switch

Nominal System Voltage 14.4 kV


Rated Maximum Voltage 15 kV
Rated Momentary Current 9000 A
Rated Making Current 9000 A
Capacitive Continuous Current 200 A
Manual Operation of the Type NR Oil Switch

The oil is
manually
opened &
closed by
operating the
yellow handle
under the sleet
hood.
End of Presentation

Thank You!