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# UTOMATIC YNAMIC NCREMENTAL ONLINEAR NALYSIS

**ADINA User Interface Command Reference Manual
**

Volume II: ADINA Heat Transfer Model Definition

Report ARD 05-3 ADINA R & D, Inc.

October 2005

**ADINA User Interface
**

Command Reference Manual

Volume II: ADINA Heat Transfer Model Definition

Report ARD 05-3

October 2005 for the ADINA System version 8.3

ADINA R & D, Inc. 71 Elton Avenue Watertown, MA 02472 USA tel. (617) 926-5199 telefax (617) 926-0238 www.adina.com

Notices ADINA R & D, Inc. owns both this software program system and its documentation. Both the program system and the documentation are copyrighted with all rights reserved by ADINA R & D, Inc. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Trademarks ADINA is a registered trademark of K. J. Bathe / ADINA R & D, Inc. All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Copyright Notice © ADINA R & D, Inc. 1994 - 2005 October 2005 Printing Printed in the USA

Table of contents

Table of contents

Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1-1 Program execution ................................................................................................ 1-3 Command syntax ................................................................................................... 1-3 Input details .......................................................................................................... 1-6 Messages ............................................................................................................ 1-10 File input/output .................................................................................................. 1-11 The AUI database ................................................................................................ 1-11 Listings ................................................................................................................ 1-12 Units .................................................................................................................... 1-13 Tips for writing batch files ................................................................................... 1-13 Related documentation ........................................................................................ 1-13

Chapter 2 Quick index .......................................................................................................... 2-1 2.1 New commands, parameters and options ............................................................. 2-1 2.2 Quick overview of commands .............................................................................. 2-3 Chapter 3 Input/output .......................................................................................................... 3-1 3.1 Database operations ............................................................................................. 3-1 3.2 Analysis data files ................................................................................................ 3-7 3.3 External data ......................................................................................................... 3-8 3.4 Auxiliary files ....................................................................................................... 3-18 3.5 Program termination ............................................................................................. 3-25 3.6 Auxiliary commands ............................................................................................ 3-28 Chapter 4 Interface control and editing ............................................................................... 4-1 4.1 Settings ................................................................................................................. 4-3 4.2 Editing ................................................................................................................... 4-7 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Control data .......................................................................................................... 5-1 General .................................................................................................................. 5-1 Analysis details .................................................................................................... 5-2 Options ................................................................................................................. 5-9 Automatic control ................................................................................................ 5-11 Time-dependence ................................................................................................ 5-12 Iteration ............................................................................................................... 5-14 Tolerances ........................................................................................................... 5-15 Solver details ....................................................................................................... 5-17 Analysis output ................................................................................................... 5-19

Chapter 6 Geometry definition ............................................................................................. 6-1 6.1 Coordinate systems .............................................................................................. 6-3

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6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Points .................................................................................................................... 6-6 Lines ..................................................................................................................... 6-8 Surfaces ............................................................................................................... 6-33 Volumes ................................................................................................................ 6-48 Solid models ........................................................................................................ 6-61 Spatial functions .................................................................................................. 6-72 Transformations ................................................................................................... 6-79 Miscellaneous ..................................................................................................... 6-89 ADINA - M .......................................................................................................... 6-91 Model definition ................................................................................................... 7-1 Material models .................................................................................................... 7-1 Element properties ............................................................................................... 7-17 Radiosity conditions ........................................................................................... 7-31 Boundary conditions ........................................................................................... 7-39 Loading ................................................................................................................ 7-52 Initial conditions .................................................................................................. 7-65 Systems ............................................................................................................... 7-71 Finite element representation ............................................................................. 8-1 Element groups ..................................................................................................... 8-1 Mesh generation.................................................................................................. 8-11 Elements ............................................................................................................... 8-86 Direct finite element data input ........................................................................... 9-1 Nodal data ............................................................................................................. 9-1 Element data ......................................................................................................... 9-5 Element generation .............................................................................................. 9-16 Boundary conditions ........................................................................................... 9-22 Loads ................................................................................................................... 9-24

Command index ............................................................................................................... Index-1

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AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. II — ADINA Thermal Model Definition

Chapter 1 Introduction

Sec. 1.1 Program execution

1. Introduction

This reference manual provides concise descriptions of the command input requirements for the ADINA User Interface (AUI). This introduction serves to give some background information and indicate the general command syntax including descriptions of the conventions used.

1.1 Program execution

Commands can be entered in the following modes: Interactive (a) AUI is running with the user interface displayed – you can enter commands into the user interface command window – see the AUI Users Guide. (b) AUI is running in command mode (using the "-cmd" option) – you can enter commands from standard input. Batch (a) AUI is running with the user interface displayed – you can read commands from a file by choosing File→Batch (UNIX versions) or File→Open (Windows version) – see the AUI Users Guide. (b) Commands can be read from a given file using the aui startup options -s (UNIX versions) or -b (Windows version). You can also read commands from a file using the READ command (see Section 3).

1.2 Command syntax

Here is the layout of a typical command reference page:

COMMAND[1]

PARAM1 PARAM2[2]...

data1i data2i[3]... General description of command function.[4]

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PARAM1 Description of parameter PARAM1[5]. {<input choices>}[7] PARAM2 Description of parameter PARAM2. ...

[<default>][6]

[<default>] {<input choices>}

[<default>][6] data1i [5] Description of data line entry data1i (ith row, column 1). {<input choices>}[7] data2i [<default>] Description of data line entry data2i (ith row, column 2). {<input choices>} ... Auxiliary commands[8] LIST COMMAND Brief description of this command. DELETE COMMAND Brief description of this command.

Issuing a command allows you to alter the data associated with the command. This data comprises the values associated with the command parameters and possibly a table, input via "data lines", associated with the command. In the above, the command name "COMMAND"[1], given at the top of the reference page, has the first few characters emphasized to show the minimum number of characters required to be input to uniquely identify the command. A list of parameters[2] and data lines[3] for the command then follows. In this list the first few characters in the parameter and data line names are emphasized to show the minimum number of characters required to uniquely identify the parameter and data line names. Following a general outline of the command function[4], a description of the command parameters and data line entries is given below the relevant keynames[5]. The parameters usually have default values[6] which are assumed if the parameter is not explicitly specified. The default values are indicated in brackets [ ] – a bold value indicates a default value (number or string) and an italicized string indicates the source of the default value, which is either (a) a text description of the default, (b) a parameter name from the same

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Sec. 1.2 Command syntax

command, or (c) a combination of command + parameter names, indicating that the default is taken from the setting of another (different) command parameter. A parameter for which no default is provided means that there is no default – i.e., some choice must be entered for that parameter. One important parameter type is that of an entity identifier – for which the parameter keyname "NAME" is normally reserved. If the object identified by NAME has already been defined, then the other parameter defaults are set to the previous settings for that object. If a new NAME is given then the defaults, as indicated by the command reference pages herein, are taken. In the former case, execution of the command redefines the named object. The choice of parameter values is often discussed within the parameter description, but, where appropriate, a simple list of choices follows the parameter description[7]. For example, parameters with simple logical choices will have the list "{YES/NO}" appended to the description. When a table is associated with the command, the command includes data input lines. For some commands, the table is initially empty, but for other commands the table already includes data lines. The columns of a data line can be divided into two types: key columns and data columns. When a data line has key columns, the key value columns always precede the data value columns. In this case the values of the key columns uniquely identify the data line, and, therefore, two data lines cannot have the same key column values – for such input, the second input data line overwrites the data associated with the key column values. You can delete a data line by preceding the key column values with the DELETE prefix. When a data line does not have key columns, two or more data lines can have the same values – but you cannot use the DELETE prefix to delete data lines without key columns. However, you can always delete all of the data lines of a table using the @CLEAR or CLEAR keywords. This is of course especially useful for those tables in which there are no key columns. For data line input, not all the columns need be specified; the ENTRIES keyword, which can be input as the first data line following the command line, can be used to select a subset of the data column entries (see below). Then the values you enter in the subsequent data lines are associated with the columns indicated by the ENTRIES parameters, the other data columns taking default values whenever possible. Note, however, that key columns are required input, and should thus be included in the ENTRIES column list. Many commands have "auxiliary" commands[8] which are entered with one of the following prefixes:

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LIST DELETE UPDATE RESET COPY SET SHOW

List object definitions. Delete objects from the database. Update command defaults. Reset command defaults. Copy objects. Set "currently active" objects. Show "currently active" objects.

A LIST prefixed command has several forms: LIST COMMAND LIST COMMAND LIST COMMAND NAME FIRST LAST List all object identifiers (names). List definition of object with identifier NAME. List definitions of a range of objects with integer label numbers. Parameters FIRST, LAST may also take the string values ‘FIRST’, ‘LAST’, ‘ALL’.

A DELETE prefixed command has the following forms: DELETE COMMAND DELETE COMMAND NAME FIRST LAST Delete the object with identifier NAME. Delete a set of objects with integer label numbers in the specified range.

Note that an object may not be deleted if another model entity depends on its existence as part of its own definition. For example, a geometry line cannot be deleted if it forms a bounding edge of some geometry surface.

1.3 Input details

Command input Please refer to command AUTOMATIC LOAD-DISPLACEMENT in the following discussion (Section 5.5): AUTOMATIC LOAD-DISPLACEMENT POINT DOF DISPLACEMENT ALPHA DISPMAX CONTINUE RPRINT TYPE NODE

When entering commands, only as many characters as necessary to uniquely specify the command name need be entered. The same rule applies to the parameters and data line entry

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Sec. 1.3 Input details

key names within a command. The minimum number of characters necessary are indicated in bold. Note that command / parameter is case insensitive. All commands, parameters, values are stored in upper case, except for string variables (headings, graph legends, etc.). Parameter values may be input in any order if the keynames are used, e.g., AUTOMATIC LOAD-DISPLACEMENT DOF=3 RPRINT=YES DISPMAX=5.0 DISPLACEMENT=4.0 POINT=17 Some or all of the parameters can be excluded if the positional order of the parameters is observed, e.g., AUTOMATIC LOAD-DISPLACEMENT 17 3 4.0, ,5.0, ,YES

(the parameters ALPHA and CONTINUE have been omitted by the use of the commas). A mix of keyname parameters and positional input is allowed, e.g., AUTOMATIC LOAD-DISPLACEMENT 17 DISPLACEMENT=4.0 DOF=3,,5.0,, YES The above uses of the AUTOMATIC LOAD-DISPLACEMENT command are all equivalent. The omitted parameters in each case take the default values. Data lines Many commands require data line (tabular) input, e.g., MODAL-DAMPING (see Section 5.3): MODAL-DAMPING modei factori Use the ENTRIES keyword to select only the data columns that you want to enter (the other data columns will be given default values): MODAL-DAMPING ENTRIES MODE FACTOR 1 1.0 2 0.5 3 2.5 4 1.5 DATAEND Most commands which take this form of input also allow for incremental row generation via the "STEP inc TO" option where "inc" represents an increment in the generation, i.e., in the above

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example modei+k, modei+2k, ..., modej-k, are all generated, with the corresponding values for "factor" linearly interpolated between factori and factorj. When generating integer values, the difference between the first and last values must be an integer multiple of the STEP increment (i.e., modulo((modej-modei),k) = 0). There is a default step increment, which for integer values is normally 1; in this case "STEP 1 TO" may be input simply as "TO". Here are some examples: MODAL-DAMPING 1 5.5 TO 3 7.5 @ or MODAL-DAMPING 1 5.5 STEP 1 TO 3 7.5 DATAEND Both of these are equivalent to MODAL-DAMPING 1 5.5 2 6.5 3 7.5 @ Note that data line input may be terminated either by entering the symbol "@" or the string "DATAEND" – data line input will be terminated automatically by input of the next command. Data line rows can be deleted by preceding the key value by the prefix DELETE. This method of deletion also supports row "generation" – i.e., "DELETE i STEP k TO j" may be used to delete a range of values. All the data lines associated with a command may be deleted simultaneously using the CLEAR or @CLEAR keywords. This is useful when you want to define a table if you do not know if the table is already defined or not: TIMEFUNCTION 1 CLEAR which removes all the currently defined data lines of timefunction 1. The columns for data line input can be selected by use of the keyword ENTRIES in the first input data line following the command line, e.g.,

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Sec. 1.3 Input details

COORDINATES POINT ENTRIES NAME Y Z which indicates that only global Y and Z coordinates are to be input for geometry points in the subsequent data lines. The X coordinate assumes the default value 0.0, and thus subsequent data lines entered describe points in the global Y-Z plane. Names AUI names are usually of two types – alphanumeric strings of up to 30 characters or integer label numbers. Integer label numbers are normally greater than or equal to 1. Integer values Integers can be input with a maximum of 9 significant digits. For positive values, a preceding + sign may, if desired, be input. Real values Specification of real values can include a decimal point and/or an exponent. The exponent must be preceded by the letters E, e, D, or d, e.g., 2E5 2.0d+05 200000. all refer to the same real number. Alphanumeric values Alphanumeric values must start with a letter (A-Z, a-z) or number (0-9). The only permissible characters allowed are the letters A-Z, a-z, the digits 0 to 9, the hyphen (-), and the underscore (_). Lower-case characters in an alphanumeric value are always converted to upper-case by the AUI. String values A string should be enclosed by apostrophes ('). Any apostrophe within the string must be entered twice. Any character can be included in a string. Lower-case characters in a string value are not converted to upper-case. Filenames A filename should be enclosed by apostrophes ('). Filenames can be up to 256 characters long. Length of input lines Input lines to the AUI can each contain up to 256 characters. Line continuation, line separator, blanks, and commas If the last non-blank character of a command or data line is a comma (,), then the command or

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data is continued on the next input line. The total length of an input line and all of its continuations can be up to 2000 characters. A slash (/) in an input line can be used to end a command or data input line; more commands or data can then be entered on the same input line. A blank, several blanks, <Tab> characters, a comma, or a comma surrounded by blanks act as delimiters. Commands, parameter keynames and values must be separated by delimiters. Comments Comment lines can appear anywhere in the input and are identified by an asterisk (*) in column 1, e.g., * This is a comment line Parameter substitution You can define parameters as numeric expressions, and use the parameter values in later commands. This feature is useful when creating batch files used in structural optimization. For example: PARAMETER A `5 + 7` PARAMETER B `2*A` PARAMETER C `3 + A + 4*B` BODY BLOCK DX1=$A DX2=$B DX3=$C

1.4 Messages

Commands will often echo messages confirming their successful completion, or provide other information. Otherwise you may get error/warning messages with varying levels of severity: *** INPUT ERROR You have entered an unacceptable parameter value or data. The command will not execute with invalid input. *** WARNING The command has completed, but has detected a possible inconsistency which may have to be resolved. *** ALERT The command has completed, but has detected a definite modeling inconsistency which has to be resolved in order to create a valid model. *** ERROR The command has not completed.

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Sec. 1.5 File input/output

*** INTERNAL ERROR The program has determined some conflict in the database, normally indicating a software bug. You should contact ADINA R & D Inc. if you encounter such a message. In order to track down the source of the problem it would be most useful if the input responsible for this condition is made available to the support engineers. *** MEMORY OVERFLOW The command has not completed, due to the program running out of memory. Increse the memory allocation to the program

**1.5 File input/output
**

The AUI uses several files for handling I/O. Here is a brief description of some of them, together with a suggested filename extension convention (for the UNIX operating system – other filename conventions may be appropriate for other operating systems) : <file>.in <file>.idb <file>.plot <file>.pdb <file>.ses <file>.ps <file>.dat <file>.port <file>.out ADINA-IN batch command input. ADINA-IN permanent database. ADINA-PLOT batch command input. ADINA-PLOT permanent database. AUI session file (echo of command input). PostScript snapshot. Analysis data. Analysis porthole. Analysis printout.

See the AUI Users Guide, Chapter 6 for more information.

**1.6 The AUI database
**

The AUI uses an internal database to store and retrieve data used during program execution. The internal database is stored in main memory and, if main memory is not sufficient, a temporary database file is created to hold the excess data. The internal database can be saved in a disk file, called a permanent database file, so that it can be retrieved in a future run. Five commands are used to create, open and save databases. DATABASE NEW creates a new empty internal database. DATABASE OPEN initializes the internal database using a specified permanent database file. DATABASE SAVE saves the internal database to disk, allowing you to specify the name of the database file. DATABASE ATTACH causes the AUI to use the specified permanent database file as the internal database. DATABASE DETACH renames the internal database file as a permanent database file. All of these commands are described in Section 3.1.

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The permanent database file is similar to a text file used in a word processing program. Like the text file, the permanent database file resides on disk and can be retrieved by the program in a future run. The permanent database file can be saved on disk periodically during program execution to protect against loss of data due to computer failure. During each save operation, a different permanent database file can be selected so that several versions of the database are available for retrieval. (This is similar to saving several versions of a text file on disk when working with a word processing program.) For the differences between DATABASE OPEN and DATABASE ATTACH, see the command description for DATABASE ATTACH. For the differences between DATABASE SAVE and DATABASE DETACH, see the command description for DATABASE DETACH.

1.7 Listings

Many AUI commands generate lists. For example, the ZONELIST command (see The AUI Command Reference Manual, Volume IV) lists the values of variables. You can also specify whether listings are to be sent to your terminal or to a disk file (see the FILELIST command). When the listings are sent to your terminal, you are prompted by --More--( %) after each screen of the listing. The number printed before the percent sign represents the percentage of the file that has been displayed so far. Responses to this prompt are as follows: <return> <space bar> <i><space bar> D or d <i>D or <i>d <i>Z or <i>z <i>S or <i>s <i>F or <i>f <i>B or <i>b Q or q = . Display another line of the listing. Display another screenful of the listing. Display i more lines. Display the next half-screen (a scroll) of the listing. Set the number of lines in the scroll to i and display the next scroll. Set the number of lines in each screen to i and display the next screen. Skip i lines and print a screenful of lines. Skip i screenfuls and print a screenful of lines. Skip back i screenfuls and print a screenful of lines. Stop the listing. Print the current line number in the listing. Repeat the last prompt response.

In these responses, <i> represents an optional integer argument, defaulting to 1. If you are familiar with the UNIX operating system, you will recognize that the above options correspond closely to the options of the 'more' command.

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Sec. 1.8 Units

1.8 Units

In model definition no particular unit system is assumed. Any consistent unit system may be adopted. Certain thermodynamic constants do, however, have a choice of temperature unit system (Celsius/Centigrade/Kelvin, Fahrenheit/Rankine).

**1.9 Tips for writing batch files
**

Increasing execution speed: The AUI contains features that are useful when you enter commands using the dialog boxes, but are not useful when you read commands from a batch file. These features are activated by default. You can deactivate the features to increase the speed at which batch files are processed, and to reduce the memory requirements of the AUI. The features are Undo/redo storage: Command CONTROL UNDO=-1 turns off storage for undo/redo information. Automatic model rebuilding: Command CONTROL AUTOMREBUILD=NO turns off automatic model rebuilding. Session file creation: Command FILESESSION NO turns off creation of the session file. Storage of session file information in the database: To turn off this feature, use the command CONTROL SESSIONSTORAGE=NO. Stopping after an error or memory overflow is detected: Command CONTROL ERRORACTION=SKIP activate a feature that AUI skips the remaining commands in a batch file after an error or memory overflow is detected. Summary: Use the following commands to perform all of the above actions: FILESESSION NO CONTROL UNDO=-1 AUTOMREBUILD=NO SESSIONSTORAGE=NO, ERRORACTION=SKIP

1.10 Related documentation

At the time of printing of this manual, the following documents are available with the ADINA System:

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Installation Notes Describes the installation of the ADINA System on your computer. ADINA User Interface Command Reference Manual Volume I: ADINA Solids & Structures Model Definition, Report ARD 05-2, October 2005 Volume II: ADINA Heat Transfer Model Definition, Report ARD 05-3, October 2005 Volume III: ADINA CFD Model Definition, Report ARD 05-4, October 2005 Volume IV: Display Processing, Report ARD 03-5, October 2005 These documents describe the AUI command language. You use the AUI command language to write batch files for the AUI. ADINA User Interface Primer, Report ARD 05-6, October 2005 Tutorial for the ADINA User Interface, presenting a sequence of worked examples which progressively instruct you how to effectively use the AUI. Theory and Modeling Guide Volume I: ADINA Solids & Structures, Report ARD 05-7, October 2005 Volume II: ADINA Heat Transfer, Report ARD 05-8, October 2005 Volume III: ADINA CFD & FSI, Report ARD 05-9, October 2005 Provides a concise summary and guide for the theoretical basis of the analysis programs ADINA, ADINA-T, ADINA-F, ADINA-FSI and ADINA-TMC. The manuals also provide references to other publications which contain further information, but the detail contained in the manuals is usually sufficient for effective understanding and use of the programs. ADINA Verification Manual, Report ARD 05-10, October 2005 Presents solutions to problems which verify and demonstrate the usage of the ADINA System. Input files for these problems are distributed along with the ADINA System programs. TRANSOR for PATRAN Users Guide, Report ARD 05-14, October 2005 Describes the interface between the ADINA System and MSC.Patran®. The ADINA Preference, which allows you to perform pre-/post-processing and analysis within the Patran® environment, is described. A tutorial example is given. TRANSOR for I-DEAS Users Guide, Report ARD 05-15, October 2005 Describes the interface between the ADINA System and UGS I-deas®. The fully integrated TRANSOR graphical interface is described, including the input of additional data not fully described in the I-DEAS® database. A tutorial example is given. ADINA System 8.3 Release Notes, October 2005 Provides update pages for all ADINA System documentation published before October 2005.

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Sec. 1.10 Related documentation

You will also find the following book useful: K. J. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. Provides theoretical background to many of the solution techniques used in the ADINA System.

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Chapter 2 Quick index

Quick index

Chap. 2 Quick index

2.1 New commands, parameters and options In version 8.3, the following new commands, parameters and options were added to Volume II of the AUI Command Reference Manual. The commands are listed in the order in which they appear. Command LOADSOLID NASTRAN-ADINA LNTHICKNESS SFTHICKNESS VOLUME EXTRUDED FACE-THICKNESS BODY-DISCREP BODY-DEFEATURE BODY-CLEANUP BODY-RESTORE

GET-EDGE-FACES/POINTS

Parameter REPAIR DUPLICATE THICK THICK RATIO, PROGRESSION, CBIAS THICK

Option/[Default]

[0] [0]

Page 3-13 3-15 6-32 6-46 6-55 6-63 6-68 6-67 6-70 6-71 6-91 6-92 6-93 6-94 6-118 6-122 6-123 7-17 7-17 7-25 7-25 7-27 7-27

[0]

GET-FACE-EDGES REM-EDGE REM-FACE BODY PROJECT BODY SECTION BODY SEW LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION CONSTRAINT

OPTION, body AREA AREA THICK THICK THICK THICK OPTION 2/3/4

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Quick index

Command CONSTRAINT-MS EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION EGROUP CONVECTION EGROUP RADIATION GBCELL ELTHICKNESS

Parameter OPTION AREA THICKNESS THICKNESS PROPERTY PROPERTY BCELL THICK1

Option/[Default] 2/3/4

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[0]

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Quick index

Chap. 2 Quick index

2.2 Quick overview of commands The following is a quick overview of all AUI commands in Volume II of the AUI Command Reference Manual and their functions. The commands are listed by chapter in the order in which they appear.

Chapter 3: Input/output Section 3.1: Database operations DATABASE NEW, creates a new database. DATABASE OPEN, creates a new database using the specified permanent database file. DATABASE WRITE, saves the modified current internal database as a permanent database file. DATABASE SAVE, saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. DATABASE ATTACH , allows access to the specified file as an AUI database file. DATABASE DETACH , creates a permanent database file by detaching a working copy of the database file. Section 3.2: Analysis data files ADINA-T , initiates model validation and/or creates an ADINA-T data file. Section 3.3: External data LOADDXF, loads an AutoCAD7 DXF file into the database. LOADIGES, loads an IGES file into the database. LOADPROE, loads a Pro/ENGINEER7 model into the database. LOADSOLID, the LOADSOLID command loads a Parasolid7 part (or "transmit") file into the database. NASTRAN-ADINA, maps a NASTRAN8

data file into the database. EXPORT UNIVERSAL, exports the mesh in ADINA-AUI to an I-DEAS7 universal file format. Section 3.4: Auxiliary files READ , reads AUI input commands from the specified file. FILEREAD, controls the source of input commands to the AUI. FILESESSION, controls the generation and output of a session file. FILELIST, controls the format and output of listings. FILEECHO, controls the echoing of input commands. FILELOG, controls the output of log messages. COMMANDFILE, creates a file of commands to recreate the current model. Section 3.5: Program termination PAUSE, when the AUI reads the PAUSE command, it stops processing commands until you hit a key. END, terminates the program. Section 3.6: Auxiliary commands PARAMETER, defines a parameter that can be substituted in a later command. REBUILD-MODEL, forces the AUI to rebuild the whole model.

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Quick index

Chapter 4: Interface control and editing Section 4.1: Settings CONTROL, defines certain parameters that control program behavior. Section 4.2: Editing UNDO, cancels the effects of previous commands. REDO, cancels the effects of previous UNDO commands. Chapter 5: Control data

Section 5.4: Automatic control AUTOMATIC TIME-STEPPING, defines parameters controlling the automatic timestepping procedure. Section 5.5: Time dependence TIMESTEP, defines a timestep sequence which controls the time/loadstep incrementation during analysis. TIMEFUNCTION, defines a timefunction, which may be referenced, e.g., by an applied load. Section 5.6 Iteration

Section 5.1: General FEPROGRAM, specifies the finite element analysis program to be used to solve the problem. Section 5.2: Analysis details HEADING, specifies a title for the problem described by the model database. MASTER, defines the data controlling the execution of ADINA-T. ANALYSIS TRANSIENT, defines time integration parameters for transient heat transfer analysis. FREQUENCIES, specifies control data for a frequency solution. Section 5.3: Options TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE, defines reference temperatures for both initial conditions and loads. HEAT-MATRIX, selects the type of heat capacity matrix to be used in transient analysis. TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC, specifies certain geometric tolerances. TOLERANCES ITERATION, specifies the convergence criteria and corresponding tolerances controlling the equilibrium iteration scheme. Section 5.8 Solver details SOLVER ITERATIVE, defines control data for the iterative solution of a matrix system of equilibrium equations. PPROCESS, specifies number of processors - used to split element groups into subgroups. Section 5.9 Analysis output PRINTOUT, controls the amount of output printed by ADINA-T. ITERATION, selects the equilibrium iteration scheme to be employed for a nonlinear analysis. Section 5.7 Tolerances

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PORTHOLE, controls the saving of input data and solution results on the porthole file. PRINTNODES, selects nodes (defined by "blocks" or geometry entities) for which solution results shall be printed. Chapter 6: Geometry definition Section 6.1: Coordinate systems SYSTEM, defines a local coordinate system. Section 6.2: Points COORDINATES POINT, defines geometry point coordinates. Section 6.3: Lines LINE STRAIGHT, defines a straight geometry line between two geometry points. LINE ARC, defines a geometry line as a circular arc, or as an arc with varying radius. LINE CIRCLE, defines a circle geometry line. LINE CURVILINEAR, defines a geometry line as a linearly interpolated curve in a given local coordinate system. KNOTS, defines a vector of “knot” values for NURBS definition. LINE POLYLINE, defines a geometry line as a polyline, i.e., a curve controlled by a series of geometry points. LINE SECTION, defines a geometry line to be part of another geometry line. LINE COMBINED, defines a geometry line as a combination of other geometry lines. LINE REVOLVED, defines a geometry line (a circular arc) by rotating a geometry point about an axis.

LINE EXTRUDED, defines a geometry line by displacing a geometry point in a given direction. LINE TRANSFORMED, defines a geometry line to be a geometrical transformation of another geometry line. SPLIT-LINE, creates two geometry lines of type SECTION by “splitting” a given line into two parts connected at some point on the given line. LNTHICKNESS, defines line thicknesses (e.g. for defining axisymmetric shell thicknesses). Section 6.4: Surfaces SURFACE PATCH, defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified geometry lines. SURFACE VERTEX, defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified by their end geometry points the vertices of the surface. SURFACE GRID, defines a geometry surface as a grid (array) of geometry points, which control the shape of the surface. SURFACE EXTRUDED, defines a geometry surface by displacing a geometry line in a given direction. SURFACE REVOLVED, defines a geometry surface by rotating a geometry line about some axis. SURFACE TRANSFORMED, defines a geometry surface via a transformation of another surface. SFTHICKNESS, defines surface thicknesses. CHECK-SURFACES, checks geometry surface connections looking for two adjoining surfaces which are oppositely oriented, i.e., with opposite surface normals.

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Section 6.5: Volumes VOLUME PATCH, defines a geometry volume to be bounded by faces which are specified geometry surfaces. VOLUME VERTEX, defines a geometry volume in terms of the vertices. VOLUME REVOLVED, defines a geometry volume by rotating a geometry surface about some axis. VOLUME EXTRUDED, defines a geometry volume by displacing a geometry surface in a given direction. VOLUME SWEEP, defines one or more geometry volumes by sweeping one or more geometry surfaces along a line. VOLUME TRANSFORMED, defines a geometry volume to be a geometrical transformation of another volume. Section 6.6: Solid models BODY SURFACES, defines a solid body via a collection of oriented surfaces. BODY VOLUMES, defines a solid body via a collection of volumes. FACE-THICKNESS, defines solid geometry face thicknesses. FACELINK, establishes a link, for meshing purpose, between two faces of distinct solid models, or between a face of a solid model and a surface. BODY-DISCREP, creates a "discrete boundary representation" for a given body. BODY-DEFEATURE, removes “small” features from a discrete boundary representation of a body. BODY-CLEANUP, removes "short" body edges and/or "thin" body faces from the AUI representation of a body. BODY-RESTORE, restores the AUI topological representation of the body corresponding to its state before commands such as BODY-CLEANUP, REM-EDGE or REM-FACE are executed.

Section 6.7: Spatial functions LINE-FUNCTION, describes the variation of a quantity along a line. SURFACE-FUNCTION, describes the variation of a quantity over a surface. VOLUME-FUNCTION, describes the variation of a quantity within a volume. Section 6.8: Transformations TRANSFORMATION COMBINED, defines a general transformation as an ordered sequence of existing transformations. TRANSFORMATION DIRECT, defines a general 3-D transformation by directly specifying the transformation matrix. TRANSFORMATION POINTS, defines a rigid-body 3-D transformation by the specification of 6 geometry points, 3 “initial” points and 3 “target” points. TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION, defines a 3-D reflection (mirror) transformation. TRANSFORMATION ROTATION, defines a 3-D rotation transformation. TRANSFORMATION SCALE, defines a 3-D scaling transformation. TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION, defines a 3-D translation transformation. TRANSFORMATION INVERSE, defines a 3-D geometry transformation as the inverse of another transformation. Section 6.9: Miscellaneous DOMAIN, defines a geometry “domain”, which is a collection of geometry entities. MEASURE, determines the distance between two points or the length of an edge or a line. GET-EDGE-FACES, lists the body faces connected to a body edge. GET-EDGE-POINTS, lists the AUI points bounding a body edge.

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GET-FACE-EDGES, lists the body edges bounding a body face. REM-EDGE, removes a body edge by collapsing one end point onto the other. REM-FACE, removes a body face by collapsing one bounding edge onto the other. Section 6.10: ADINA – M BODY BLEND, modifies specified edges of a body to have “a radius” blend. BODY BLOCK, defines a solid geometry or “brick” shape. BODY CHAMFER, applies chamfers to edges of a solid body. BODY CONE, defines a cone shape solid geometry. BODY CYLINDER, defines a cylinder shape solid geometry. BODY HOLLOW, hollows a solid geometry with thickness THICKNESS. BODY INTERSECT, modifies an existing solid body by taking the intersection of it with other, overlapping body. BODY MERGE, modifies an existing solid body by joining it with a set of other solid bodies. BODY PARTITION, partitions body with a set of faces of the body. BODY PIPE, defines a pipe shape solid geometry. BODY PRISM, defines a prismatic shape solid geometry. BODY PROJECT, projects lines into a face of the body. BODY REVOLVED, creates a body by revolving face of existing body around an axis. BODY SECTION, partition solid body using sheets. BODY SEW, sews a set of sheet bodies into sewn bodies. BODY SHEET, defines a sheet body by a set of geometry lines.

BODY SPHERE, defines a sphere shape solid body. BODY SUBTRACT, modifies an existing solid body by removing from it a set of other solid, overlapping bodies. BODY SWEEP, creates a body by sweeping existing face of a body in a given direction or along a line. BODY TORUS, defines a torus shape solid geometry. BODY TRANSFORMED, defines a solid geometry by copying or moving an existing Parasolid® body. SHEET PLANE, defines a planar sheet used for partition of bodies. VOLUME BODY, converts a body into a geometrical volume. SURFACE FACE, converts a face of a body into a geometric surface. Chapter 7: Model definition Section 7.1: Material models MATERIAL ISOTROPIC, defines a constant isotropic conductivity and a constant specific heat material. MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC, defines an orthotropic conductivity and constant specific heat material. MATERIAL TEMPDEP-K, defines a material with temperature dependent conductivity and constant specific heat. MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC, defines a material with temperature dependent specific heat and constant isotropic conductivity. MATERIAL TEMPDEP-CORTHOTROPIC, defines a material with constant, orthotropic, conductivity and temperature dependent specific heat. MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-K, defines a material with temperature dependent specific heat and conductivity. MATERIAL TIMEDEP-K, defines a

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material with time dependent conductivity and constant specific heat. MATERIAL SEEPAGE, defines a constant permeability seepage material. MATERIAL CONSTH, defines a constant convection coefficient. MATERIAL TEMPDEP-H, defines a material with a temperature dependent convection coefficient. MATERIAL TIMEDEP-H, defines a material with a time dependent convection coefficient. MATERIAL CONSTE, defines a constant radiation coefficient. MATERIAL TEMPDEP-E, defines a material with a temperature dependent radiation coefficient. MATERIAL CONDENSATION, defines a material with time-pressure-condensationconvection dependence. MATERIAL USER-SUPPLIED, defines a user-supplied material. Section 7.2: Element Properties

LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION,

**elements on geometry surfaces.
**

FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION,

**assigns data for ONEDCONDUCTION elements on geometry lines.
**

EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION,

**assigns data for ONEDCONDUCTION elements on edges.
**

SURF-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION,

assigns data for SHELLCONDUCTION elements on faces. LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION, assigns data for RADIATION elements on geometry lines. EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION, assigns data for RADIATION elements on edges. SURF-ELEMDATA RADIATION, assigns data for RADIATION elements on geometry surfaces FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION, assigns data for RADIATION elements on faces. LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, assigns data for CONVECTION elements on geometry lines. EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, assigns data for CONVECTION elements on edges. SURF-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, assigns data for CONVECTION elements on geometry surfaces. FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, assigns data for CONVECTION elements on faces. HEATCAPACITIES, assigns concentrated heat capacities to the nodes on a set of geometry entities. Section 7.3: Radiosity conditions RGROUP RADIATION2, defines a radiation-surface group consisting of parallel, planar or axisymmetric radiationsurfaces. RGROUP RADIATION3, defines a radiation-surface group consisting of 3-D radiation surfaces. RADIATIONSURFACE, defines a radiation-surface, i.e., a set of radiating geometry boundaries.

**assigns data for TWODCONDUCTION elements on geometry surfaces.
**

FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION,

**assigns data for TWODCONDUCTION elements on faces.
**

VOL-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION,

**assigns data for THREEDCONDUCTION elements in geometry volumes.
**

BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION, assigns data for

**THREEDCONDUCTION elements in solid bodies.
**

SURF-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION,

**assigns data for SHELLCONDUCTION
**

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RSDELETE, deletes radiation segments generated on a geometry line, edge, surface or face for a specified radiation group. Section 7.4: Boundary conditions CONSTRAINT, specifies a constraint equation which expresses a slave (dependent) degree of freedom as a linear combination of a set of master (independent) degrees of freedom. CONSTRAINT-MS, similar to the CONSTRAINT command, but also allows the specification of multiple slave entities for a single master entity. FIXITY, defines a fixity boundary condition. FIXBOUNDARY, assigns fixity conditions to a set of geometry entities. BCELL, defines a boundary cell using a 4node or 3-node cell. Section 7.5: Loading LOAD TEMPERATURE, defines a temperature load. LOAD CONVECTION, defines a convection load. LOAD RADIATION, defines a radiation load. LOAD HEATFLUX, defines a heatflux load. LOAD NODAL-HEATFLOW, defines a nodal-heatflow load. LOAD LATENT, defines a latent heat load. LOAD INTERNALHEAT, defines an internal-heat load. APPLY-LOAD, specifies loads applied to model geometry LOAD CURRENT-DENSITY, defines a current density load. Note that the command only defines a current density load. To apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD.

LOAD ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL, defines an electrical potential load. Note that the command only defines a electrical potential load. To apply it to the model you must use the APPLY-LOAD command. LOAD NODAL-CURRENT, defines a nodal current, i.e., a concentrated current load. Note that this command only defines the load. To apply it to the model you must use the command APPLY-LOAD. Section 7.6: Initial conditions INITIAL-CONDITION, defines an initial condition. THERMOSTAT, defines a setting for a thermostat sensor specified by a POINT or NODE, cut-in temperature, and cut-off temperature. SET-INITCONDITION, assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry entities. INITIAL-MAPPING, loads an initial mapping file and interpolates variable values at nodes. Section 7.7: Systems AXES CONSTANT, defines an "axessystem" in terms of constant direction vectors. AXES LINE1, defines an "axes-system" via a geometry line. AXES LINE2, defines an "axes-system" via two geometry lines. AXES NODES, defines an "axes-system" via three nodes. AXES POINT2, defines an "axes-system" via two geometry points. AXES POINT3, defines an "axes-system" via three geometry points. AXES POINT-LINE, defines an "axessystem" via a geometry line and a geometry point.

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AXES SURFACE, defines an "axes-system" via a geometry surface. AXES EDGE, defines an "axes-system" via a geometry edge. AXES FACE, defines an "axes-system" via a geometry face. AXIS-ROTATION, defines a rotational axis which can be referenced by other commands. SET-AXES-MATERIAL, assigns material axes-systems, defined by command AXES, to a set of geometry entities. Chapter 8: Finite element representation Section 8.1: Element groups EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION, defines an element group consisting of onedimensional elements. EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION, defines an element group consisting of planar or axisymmetric elements. EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION, defines an element group consisting of three-dimensional elements. EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION, defines an element group consisting of shellconduction elements. EGROUP CONVECTION, defines an element group consisting of node, planar, axisymmetric or surface convection elements. EGROUP RADIATION, defines an element group consisting of node, planar, axisymmetric or surface radiation elements. EGCONTROL, specifies general control data for an element group. Section 8.2: Mesh generation SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT, defines default mesh subdivision data.

SUBDIVIDE MODEL, assigns mesh subdivision data to the entire current model geometry. SUBDIVIDE POINT, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry points. SUBDIVIDE LINE, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry lines. SUBDIVIDE SURFACE, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry surfaces. SUBDIVIDE VOLUME, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry volumes. SUBDIVIDE EDGE, assigns mesh subdivision data to edges of a solid geometry body. SUBDIVIDE FACE, assigns mesh subdivision data to faces of a solid geometry body. SUBDIVIDE BODY, assigns mesh subdivision data to solid geometry bodies. POINT-SIZE, specifies the element size at geometry points. SIZE-FUNCTION BOUNDS, defines a mesh size function using the vertices of the model bounding box. SIZE-FUNCTION HEX, defines a mesh size function using the vertices of an input box. SIZE-FUNCTION POINT, defines a mesh size function via a point source. SIZE-FUNCTION AXIS, defines a mesh size function via a line source. SIZE-FUNCTION PLANE, defines a mesh size function via a planar source. SIZE-FUNCTION COMBINED, defines a mesh size function as a combination of others. SIZE-LOCATIONS, specifies the mesh size at certain locations (other than geometry points). GPOINT, creates a node at a point with the same coordinates. GLINE, creates elements along a set of geometry lines. GSURFACE, creates elements along a set of geometry surfaces.

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GVOLUME, creates elements on a set of geometry volumes. GEDGE, creates elements along a set of solid geometry edges. GFACE, creates elements on a set of solid geometry faces. GBODY, creates elements for a set of solid geometry bodies. GHEXA, generates brick element dominant free-form meshes for a given body. GBCELL, creates 3-D elements from boundary cells. NLTABLE, creates a table which specifies the minimum number of layers across thin sections in a body or on a face. BLAYER, generates boundary layers on specified body faces/edges for the specified group. RSURFACE, creates a set of radiation elements on a radiation-surface. ELDELETE, deletes elements generated on specific geometry for a given element group. Section 8.3: Elements RADIATION-POINTS, defines radiation elements at geometry points. CONVECTION-POINTS, defines convection elements at geometry points. ELTHICKNESS, defines shell-conduction element thicknesses.

via three model nodes. NODESET, defines a collection of nodes. INITIAL TEMPERATURES, assigns initial temperatures to nodes. Section 9.2: Element data ENODES, defines element nodal connectivity for the element group specified. EDATA, specifies property data associated with individual elements in a group. COPY-ELEMENT-NODES, copies all elements and nodes (in groups) between database models for two analysis programs. DELETE-FE-MODEL, deletes all finiteelement data from the database. ELEMENTSET, defines an element set containing elements. ELEDGESET, defines an element edge set containing edges of 2-D elements. ELFACESET, defines an element face set containing faces of 3-D and shell elements. Section 9.3: Element generation SWEEP, generates a volume of THREEDCONDUCTION elements by extruding TWODCONDUCTION elements along a given vector. REVOLVE, generates a volume of THREEDCONDUCTION elements by revolving TWODCONDUCTION elements about an axis. Section 9.4: Boundary conditions BOUNDARIES, assigns boundary conditions to nodes. CONSTRAINT-NODE, specifies a constraint equation between nodal degrees of freedom.

Chapter 9: Direct finite element data input Section 9.1: Nodal data COORDINATES NODE, defines coordinates for nodes. HEATCAPACITIES NODES, assigns concentrated heat capacities to nodes. AXES-NODES, defines an "axes-system"

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Section 9.5: Loads APPLY CONCENTRATED-LOADS, defines concentrated heat flows applied to nodes. APPLY CONVECTIONS, defines convection temperatures applied to nodes. APPLY RADIATIONS, defines radiation temperatures applied to loads. APPLY TEMPERATURES, defines temperatures applied to nodes.

APPLY INTERNALHEAT, defines prescribed time-dependent internal heat generation for elements in a specified group. LOADS-ELEMENT, used to apply heat flux loads onto element edges or faces. RADIATION-NODES, defines a radiationsurface via node connectivities within the current radiation-surface group.

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Chapter 3 Input/Output

DATABASE NEW

Sec. 3.1 Database operations

DATABASE NEW SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT DATABASE NEW creates a new database. The new database is initially empty. Before creating the new database, you have the option of saving any current internal database to disk. This option is controlled by parameters SAVE and PERMFILE. SAVE [UNKNOWN] Used only when a database has been modified. YES The program saves the current internal database to disk using the filename specified by parameter PERMFILE. Then the program creates a new internal database. NO The program does not save the current internal database before creating a new internal database. The program asks you if you want to save the database.

UNKNOWN PERMFILE

[the last permanent database name previously specified] Used only when the database has been modified. PERMFILE is the filename of the permanent database file when saving the current database file to disk. You will be prompted for this name if you do not enter a value for this parameter and no permanent database name was previously specified. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted "Ready to save permanent database file?" UNKNOWN You will be prompted "Permanent database file already exists" if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.

NO

Auxiliary commands DATABASE CREATE SAVE PERMFILE DATABASE CREATE has the same effect as DATABASE NEW.

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DATABASE OPEN

DATABASE OPEN FILE SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT DATABASE OPEN creates a new database using the permanent database file specified in this command. Before creating the new database, the current internal database is optionally saved to disk. FILE [the last previously specified permanent database filename] The filename of the permanent database file to be opened. If you do not enter a filename and there is no default value, the program will prompt you for the filename. SAVE [UNKNOWN] Used only when a database has been modified. YES The current internal database is saved to disk using the filename specified by parameter PERMFILE. NO The current internal database is not saved before clearing the current database and opening the specified database. The program will ask you if you want to save the database.

UNKNOWN PERMFILE

[the last previously specified permanent database filename] Used only if the database has been modified. PERMFILE is the filename of the permanent database file when saving the current database file to disk. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted "Ready to save permanent database file?". UNKNOWN You will be prompted "Permanent database file already exists," if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.

NO

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DATABASE WRITE

Sec. 3.1 Database operations

DATABASE WRITE PERMFILE PROMPT DATABASE WRITE saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. It is the same as the DATABASE SAVE command except that DATABASE WRITE is available only when the database has been modified. [the last previously entered permanent database filename specified] Specifies the filename of the permanent database file. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted "Ready to save permanent database file?". UNKNOWN You will be prompted "Permanent database file already exists" if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt. PERMFILE

NO

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DATABASE SAVE

DATABASE SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT DATABASE SAVE saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. [the last previously entered permanent database filename specified] Specifies the filename of the permanent database file. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted "Ready to save permanent database file?". UNKNOWN You will be prompted "Permanent database file already exists" if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt. PERMFILE

NO

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DATABASE ATTACH

Sec. 3.1 Database operations

DATABASE ATTACH FILE DATABASE ATTACH allows access to the specified file as an AUI database file. Unlike DATABASE OPEN, DATABASE ATTACH does not make a working copy of the database file prior to opening it. Instead you work directly with the specified file as you use the AUI, possibly modifying the file's contents. The advantages of DATABASE ATTACH as compared to DATABASE OPEN are: disk requirements are reduced because the AUI does not create a copy of the database file, and the CPU time to attach a database is much less than the CPU time required to open the same file. The disadvantages of DATABASE ATTACH are: (1) important information can be inadvertently modified or deleted from an attached database file, (2) the attached database cannot shrink, but can only grow as the AUI is used and (3) an attached database file cannot be saved, but can only be detached using DATABASE DETACH. Before DATABASE ATTACH can be used, any current database must first be saved, and then DATABASE CREATE or DATABASE NEW must be used to create a new database. DATABASE ATTACH can be used only if the current database is new and unmodified. Exiting the AUI when a database is attached causes the database to automatically detach. FILE The filename of the permanent database file to be attached. If no file name is entered, the AUI will prompt you for the filename.

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Chap.3 Input/output

DATABASE DETACH

DATABASE DETACH PERMFILE PROMPT DATABASE DETACH creates a permanent database file by detaching the working copy of the database file. Unlike DATABASE SAVE, DATABASE DETACH does not create a new permanent database file. The advantages of DATABASE DETACH as compared to DATABASE SAVE are: disk requirements are reduced because the AUI does not create a copy of the database file, and the CPU time to detach a database is much less than the CPU time required to save it. The disadvantage of DATABASE DETACH is the AUI does not compress the database file by removing unused records. After the database is detached, the AUI creates a new empty internal database. A database can be detached at any time whether or not it was attached using DATABASE ATTACH. PERMFILE The working copy of the database file is renamed to PERMFILE. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted "Ready to save permanent database file?". UNKNOWN You will be prompted "Permanent database file already exists" if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.

NO

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ADINA-T

Sec. 3.2 Analysis data files

ADINA-T

OPTIMIZE STARTNODE OVERWRITE

FILE

FIXBOUNDARY

MIDNODE

ADINA-T initiates model validation and, if the model is valid, creates an ADINA-T input data file, if requested. OPTIMIZE [SOLVER] Equation numbering may be optimized so as to minimize the profile and bandwidth of the ADINA-T solution matrices depending on the solver selected. The node label numbers are not affected by the equation numbering. {SOLVER / YES / NO} SOLVER If the sparse solver is used (see parameter SOLVER in command MASTER), then equation numbering is not optimized. Otherwise, equation numbering is optimized. Equation numbering is optimized. Equation numbering is notoptimized.

YES NO

STARTNODE [automatically selected] Label number of a main structure node, used to initiate the optimized equation numbering algorithm. If such a node is not given, one will be automatically selected. The starting node should be a peripheral node on the boundary of the model. FILE The filename of the ADINA-T input file to be generated. If no filename is given, only model validation is performed. FIXBOUNDARY [YES] Inactive degrees of freedom, i.e., those which are not connected to any elements and are not used as slaves in constraint equations, may be automatically deleted. {YES / NO} MIDNODE [NO] Midside nodes on element edges may be moved to the straight line connecting the relevant vertex nodes. {YES / NO} OVERWRITE [UNKNOWN] Determines, if the filename given by FILE already exists, whether the command will overwrite its contents with the currently generated input data. If set to UNKNOWN, a prompt will be given requesting confirmation for overwriting an existing file. {YES / NO / UNKNOWN}

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Chap.3 Input/output

LOADDXF

LOADDXF FILE GCOINCIDE GCTOLERANCE LOADDXF loads an AutoCAD7 DXF file into the database. The points and lines are converted into AUI geometry entities. FILE The DXF file to be loaded in this command. Only a file saved in R-12 DXF is accepted. GCOINCIDE [YES] Point coincidence checking. If GCOINCIDE is set to YES then point coordinates are checked, and if within GCTOLERANCE * (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous points) then no new point number is created at that location, i.e., the previous point label number is assumed. {YES / NO} GCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine point coincidence [1.0E-5]

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LOADIGES

Sec. 3.3 External data

LOADIGES

FILE GCOINCIDE GCTOLERANCE TWOD-XY ADINA-M LABEL SEWING SEWGAP TOLER1 TOLER2 OPTION1 REVERSE OPTION3 OPTION4 SCALEFACTOR PRECS PLABEL LLABEL XZERO

Loads an IGES file into the database. FILE The IGES file to be loaded in this command. Only a formatted and uncompressed file is accepted. GCOINCIDE [YES] Point coincidence checking option. If set to YES, then point coordinates are checked, and if within GCTOLERANCE * (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous points) then no new point is created at that location, i.e., the previous point label number is assumed. {YES / NO}. GCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine point coincidence. [1.0E-5]

TWOD-XY [NO] Indicates whether or not to rotate the IGES geometry model so that the XY plane is transformed into the YZ plane (as used in two-dimensional ADINA, ADINA-T, and ADINAF models). {YES / NO} ADINA-M [NO] Indicates whether IGES data is to be loaded into ADINA-M. {YES/NO} Parameters GCOINCIDE, GCTOLERANCE and TWOD-XY are ignored by ADINA-M. LABEL [(highest current sheet body or solid body label number) + 1] Sheet body or solid body label number.

SEWING [NO] Indicates wether ADINA-M sheet bodies are to be sewn together. {YES / NO} SEWGAP [0.01] ADINA-M sewing body gap ratio. The gap value used to sew the body is SEWGAP * (max. difference in global coordinate between the maximum and minimum of the IGES body). TOLER1 This parameter is obsolete.

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Chap.3 Input/output

LOADIGES

TOLER2 This parameter is obsolete. OPTION1 This parameter is obsolete. REVERSE This parameter is obsolete. OPTION3 This parameter is obsolete. OPTION4 This parameter is obsolete. SCALEFACTOR ADINA-M scale factor - input IGES coordinate values are to be divided by, i.e., (x-coordinate, y-coordinate, z-coordinate)/scalefactor. PRECS This parameter is obsolete. PLABEL [(current highest point label number) + 1] Point label number of the importing IGES model into AUI native geometry database. LLABEL [(current highest point label number) + 1] Line label number of the importing IGES model into AUI native geometry database XZERO The flag to set the x coordinate to 0. {NO / YES} [NO] [1.0]

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LOADPROE

Sec. 3.3 External data

LOADPROE

TYPE PART ASSEMBLY BODYNAME XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN AX AY AZ BX BY BZ PCOINCIDE PCTOLERANCE

LOADPROE loads a Pro/ENGINEER7 model (part or assembly) into the database. The model may be displayed or meshed, and loads or boundary conditions may be assigned to its faces, edges, and vertices. A solid geometry BODY is created for each Pro/ENGINEER7 part, which is used to reference the part. This command is only active when ADINA/AUI has been initiated from Pro/ENGINEER. TYPE The type of Pro/ENGINEER model to be loaded: PART A single Pro/ENGINEER part. [current Pro/ENGINEER model]

ASSEMBLY A collection of Pro/ENGINEER parts, with coordinate transformations giving their relative position. PART [currently loaded part in Pro/ENGINEER] The name of a Pro/ENGINEER part (i.e., for part file name "abcdef.prt.123" you input PART = abcdef). Only valid for TYPE = PART. ASSEMBLY [currently loaded assembly in Pro/ENGINEER] The name of a Pro/ENGINEER assembly (i.e., for assembly file name "abcdef.asm.123", you input ASSEMBLY = abcdef). Only valid for TYPE = ASSEMBLY. BODYNAME [(current highest body label number) + 1)] For TYPE = PART, this is the label number of the body to be created which is used to refer to the part. For TYPE = ASSEMBLY, this is the label number of the first body to be created which is used to refer to the root part of the assembly. Other parts in the assembly will be automatically assigned body label numbers incremented from the parameter, i.e., (BODYNAME + 1), (BODYNAME + 2), ..., etc. XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN The global coordinates of the origin of the model. AX AY AZ A vector (in global coordinates) giving the direction of the X-axis of the model. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

[1.0] [0.0] [0.0]

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Chap.3 Input/output

LOADPROE

BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] A vector (in global coordinates) which together with vector (AX, AY, AZ) gives the X-Y plane of the model. PCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether or not the vertices of the part are to be checked for coincidence with existing geometry point coordinates. {NO/YES} PCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine whether two points are coincident. Auxiliary commands SET BODY NAME DELETE BODY FIRST LAST [0.00001]

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LOADSOLID

Sec. 3.3 External data

LOADSOLID

PARTFILE BODYNAME XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN AX AY AZ BX BY BZ PCOINCIDE PCTOLERANCE MANIFOLD FORMAT OLD-UNIT NEW-UNIT SYSTEM REPAIR

The LOADSOLID command loads a Parasolid7 part (or "transmit") file into the database. The model can be displayed, meshed, and loads, boundary conditions may be assigned to its faces, edges, and vertices. For each body within the Parasolid7 file a solid geometry BODY is created which is used to reference that body. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. PARTFILE The name of a Parasolid7 part file (i.e., for part file name "abcdef.x_t" you input PARTFILE=abcdef). BODYNAME [(current highest body label number) + 1] This is the label number to be assigned to the first BODY to be created which is used to refer to the first body in the part file -- other bodies in the part file will automatically be assigned BODY label numbers incremented from this parameter (i.e., (BODYNAME+1), (BODYNAME+2), ... .) XORIGIN [0.0] YORIGIN [0.0] ZORIGIN [0.0] ADINA-M translates the imported model so that the origin of the model is assigned these global coordinates. AX [1.0] AY [0.0] AZ [0.0] ADINA-M rotates the imported model so that the model X-axis has this direction (in global coordinates). BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] ADINA-M rotates the imported model so that the model X-Y plane lies in the plane given by (AX, AY, AZ) and (BX, BY, BZ) (in global coordinates). PCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether or not the vertices of the model are to be checked for coincidence with existing geometry point coordinates. {NO / YES}

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LOADSOLID

PCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine whether two points are coincident.

[0.00001]

MANIFOLD [NO] Indicates whether non-manifold bodies are converted into manifold bodies. {NO / YES} FORMAT Parasolid7 part file format. TEXT text format. BINARY binary format. [METER] [TEXT]

OLD-UNIT The unit of the part in the Parasolid7 file to be imported. { METER / CMETER / MMETER / INCH / FOOT } NEW-UNIT The unit of the part after it is imported into ADINA-M. { METER / CMETER / MMETER / INCH / FOOT }

[METER]

SYSTEM [0] If system label is greater than 0 and it is Cartesian coordinate system, replace XORIGIN, YORIGIN, ZORIGIN, AX, AY, AZ, BX, BY, BZ with the values from the given system. REPAIR Repair the bodies if errors are detected. {NO / YES} [NO]

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NASTRAN-ADINA

Sec. 3.3 External data

NASTRAN-ADINA

FILE XY-YZ SUBCASE SHELL BCELL DUPLICATE

NASTRAN-ADINA maps a NASTRAN® data file into the ADINA-IN database. FILE The NASTRAN® data filename. XY-YZ This parameter is now obsolete. The program will automatically rotate 2D models in the XY plane to the YZ plane. SUBCASE The label number of a subcase defined in the NASTRAN® data file. If not specified, the first subcase is used. {≥1} SHELL [SHELL-CONDUCTION] Shell element convert flag, only for ADINA-T. Converts shell elements into ADINA-T elements as follows: NONE SHELL-CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION Ignore shell elements Convert to shell-conduction elements Convert to Convection Boundary elements (Subtype = SURFACE) Convert to Radiation Boundary elements (Subtype = SURFACE)

BCELL [NO] Indicates whether boundary cells (see command BCELL) are created from shell elements according to the property identification number (PID). All elements with the same PID are put into the same BCELL. {NO/YES/REPLACE} NO YES Do not create boundary cells. Create boundary cells. In addition, if the shell elements are attached to 3-D elements, the program will also create element-face sets (see ELFACESET command) and node sets (see NODESET command). All shell elements used for creating these ELFACESETs and NODESETs are not deleted. Create boundary cells. In addition, if the shell elements are attached to 3-D elements, the program will also create element-face sets (see ELFACESET command) and node sets (see NODESET command). All shell elements used for creating these ELFACESETs and NODESETs will be deleted.

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REPLACE

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Chap.3 Input/output

NASTRAN-ADINA

DUPLICATE [YES] This flag indicates whether or not to issue an error message when the Nastran file has a duplicate node or element. {NO/YES} NO YES No error message issued. Later entries will override the earlier entries. Error message issued.

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EXPORT UNIVERSAL

Sec. 3.3 External data

EXPORT UNIVERSAL FILE Exports the mesh in ADINA-AUI to an I-DEAS7 universal file format. FILE Specifies the name of the universal file to be created.

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READ

READ FILE REWIND SCANDATA READ reads AUI input commands from the file specified by parameter FILE until the end of the file is reached or the READ END command is encountered in the file. After the READ command is executed, subsequent input is read from the previous command input source (that is, the input source from which the READ command was entered). READ commands can be nested (that is, a file processed by the READ command can itself include a READ command). FILE The name of the file from which AUI commands are read (up to 80 characters long). Note that the name END is not allowed. REWIND [NO] If the file pointer is at end-of-file or if the file is not currently open, the read file is rewound before beginning to read commands regardless of the value of this parameter. {YES / NO} SCANDATA [' '] If SCANDATA is specified, the file is scanned until the SCANDATA string (1 - 80 characters) is found anywhere within an input record. Reading of input data from the file starts at the beginning of the record that contains the string. Auxiliary commands READ END Terminates reading from file.

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FILEREAD

Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files

FILEREAD OPTION FILE FILEREAD controls the source of input commands to the AUI. OPTION INTERFACE [INTERFACE] Commands are read from the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. Commands are read from the file specified by the FILE parameter.

FILE

FILE The filename of the file from which commands are read. Used only if OPTION = FILE. Auxiliary commands LIST FILEREAD

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FILESESSION

FILESESSION OPTION FILE FILESESSION controls the generation and output of a session file. The session file contains the commands needed to repeat an AUI session. A session file differs from an echo file in that: 1) You can generate a session file from a user-interface AUI session (this is the primary use of the session file). 2) A session file contains all command parameters, regardless of whether you entered them or whether they were default parameters. 3) Changes to data input lines are handled in a different manner. OPTION NO [NO] No session file is created.

OVERWRITE A session file is generated and overwrites any existing contents of the specified file. APPEND A session file is generated and is appended to any existing contents of the specified file.

FILE The filename of the session file. Auxiliary commands LIST FILESESSION

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FILELIST

Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files

FILELIST OPTION FILE LINPAG EJECT FILELIST controls the format and output of listings. OPTION [INTERFACE] INTERFACE Listings are output at the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. Listings are buffered using an interface similar to UNIX "more" that allows you to scroll through listings. FILE Listings are output to the file specified by the FILE parameter.

FILE The filename of the file to which listings are written. Used only if OPTION = FILE. This can be the same file used for command echoing or logging. LINPAG [0] The maximum number of lines output between list headings. You can suppress list headings (except for the first list heading) by specifying LINPAG = 0. EJECT Specifies whether page ejects are placed before headings. {YES / NO} Auxiliary commands LIST FILELIST [NO]

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FILEECHO

FILEECHO OPTION FILE FILEECHO controls the echoing of your input commands. OPTION NO [INTERFACE] No echoing of input commands.

INTERFACE Input commands are echoed back to the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. FILE Input commands are echoed back to the file specified by the FILE parameter.

FILE The filename of the file to which input commands are echoed back. Used only if OPTION = FILE. This can be the same file for logs or listings. Auxiliary commands LIST FILEECHO

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FILELOG

Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files

FILELOG OPTION FILE FILELOG controls the output of log messages. OPTION [INTERFACE] INTERFACE Log messages are written to the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. FILE Log messages are written to the file specified by the FILE parameter.

FILE The filename of the file to which log messages are written. Used only if OPTION = FILE. This can be the same file used for echoed commands or listings. Auxiliary commands LIST FILELOG

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COMMANDFILE

COMMANDFILE FILENAME PROMPT OPTION GRAPHICS Creates a file containing the commands needed to recreate the model stored in the current database. FILENAME The name of the file to be created. This parameter must be entered. PROMPT [CONTROL PROMPT] You will be prompted "Ready to write command file?" if PROMPT = YES. You will be prompted "The command file already exists" if the specified file already exists and PROMPT = UNKNOWN. You will not be prompted if PROMPT = NO. Note that the default is taken from the parameter with the same name of the CONTROL command. OPTION [SESSION] If OPTION = SESSION, the command file produced is a record of all commands issued when this database file is in use. The command file contains model modifications and deletions as well as model additions. Commands in the command file may contain references to other files, for example, when a porthole file is loaded, the command file contains a LOADPORTHOLE command. Currently OPTION must be set to SESSION. This parameter is provided for future developments of the AUI. GRAPHICS [NO] This parameter is used when OPTION = SESSION to control whether graphics commands such as FRAME, MESHPLOT, VIEW, etc. are written to the command file. If GRAPHICS = YES, graphics commands are written to the command file, otherwise they are not written.

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PAUSE

Sec. 3.5 Program termination

PAUSE When the AUI reads the PAUSE command, it stops processing commands until you hit a key.

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END

END

SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT IMMEDIATE

END terminates the program. EXIT, QUIT and STOP are equivalent to END. If the program is reading data from a file specified by the FILEREAD command and the end of the file is reached, the END command is executed automatically. SAVE [UNKNOWN] Used only when a database has been modified. YES The program saves the current internal database to disk using the filename specified by parameter PERMFILE. Then the program creates a new internal database. NO The program does not save the current internal database before creating a new internal database.

UNKNOWN The program asks you if you want to save the database. PERMFILE [the last previously specified permanent database filename] PERMFILE is the filename of the permanent database file when saving the current database file to disk; used only if the database has been modified. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted "Ready to save permanent database file?". UNKNOWN You will be prompted "Permanent database file already exists" if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.

NO

IMMEDIATE [NO] If IMMEDIATE=YES, the program immediately stops execution without saving the database or prompting you. This option is most useful when writing batch scripts to force the program to terminate. {YES / NO} Auxiliary commands EXIT SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT QUIT SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT STOP SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT EXIT, QUIT and STOP are equivalent to END.

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END

Sec. 3.5 Program termination

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PARAMETER

PARAMETER NAME EXPRESSION Defines a parameter that can be substituted in a later command. The AUI evaluates the given expression and stores the resulting number as the value of the parameter. Note: Parameter definitions and values are not stored in the database. NAME The name of the parameter (1 to 30 alphanumeric characters). The name is not case sensitive. If the parameter is not already defined, a new parameter is created, otherwise the existing parameter is modified. EXPRESSION A string (up to 256 characters long) that contains a numeric expression. The expression string can contain the following items: The arithmetic operators +, -, *, /, ** (exponentiation) Numbers (either real numbers or integers) The following functions: ABS(x) AINT(x) ANINT(x) ACOS(x) ASIN(x) ATAN(x) ATAN2(x,y) COS(x) COSH(x) DIM(x,y) EXP(x) LOG(x) LOG10(x) MAX(x,y,...) MIN(x,y,...) MOD(x,y) SIGN(x,y) SIN(x) SINH(x) SQRT(x) absolute value truncation nearest whole number arccosine arcsine arctangent arctangent(x/y) cosine hyperbolic cosine positive difference exponential natural logarithm common logarithm largest value smallest value remaindering transfer of sign sine hyperbolic sine square root

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PARAMETER

Sec. 3.6 Auxiliary commands

STEP(x) TAN(x) TANH(x)

the unit step function: 0.0 if x <= 0.0 1.0 if x > 0.0 tangent hyperbolic tangent

All trigonometric functions operate on or return angles in radians. Examples PARAMETER PARAMETER PARAMETER A B C '3.0' '5 + 7' '6 * \ 5 ' // A = 3 // B = 12 // The string can be entered on several // command lines as in this example; C = 30

Parameter substitution When the command-line parser finds a token value that starts with a $, the parser finds the parameter name with that token value and substitutes the parameter value. For example, in the commands PARAMETER X1 '2.0/3.0' PARAMETER X2 'SQRT(5.0)' PARAMETER X3 'SIN(2.0)' BODY BLOCK DX1=$X1 DX2=$X2

DX3=$X3

the parser looks for the values of X1, X2 and X3 and substitutes the values (e.g., the characters '0.666666666666667') for the names (e.g., the characters 'X1'). Hence the above commands are exactly equivalent to the command BODY BLOCK DX1=0.666666666666667 DX3=0.909297426825682 DX2=2.23606797749979,

The token values need not be in upper-case: BODY BLOCK DX1=$x1 DX2=$x2 DX3=$x3

Parameter substitution occurs before command execution, so the following is allowed: PARAMETER PARAMETER A A '2.0' '$A + 1'

// A = 3

Now you may want to put the symbol $ into a string without parameter substitution occuring. The rule is: if the next character after the $ is a letter [a-z], the command-line parser attempts parameter substitution. So

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PARAMETER

PARAMETER A '3.0' USERTEXT ABC 'The cost is $2000.00' 'The size is $A' DATAEND is equivalent to USERTEXT ABC 'The cost is $2000.00' 'The size is 3' DATAEND A convenient way to output the value of a single parameter is with the ECHO command: PARAMETER X1 '2.0/3.0' ECHO $X1 ECHO 'The value of X1 is $X1' Auxiliary commands LIST PARAMETER Lists the values of all parameters. ECHO STRING Outputs the given string. This command can be used to output the value of a parameter, see the examples given in the PARAMETER command description. STRING is a string (up to 256 characters long).

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REBUILD-MODEL

Sec. 3.6 Auxiliary commands

REBUILD-MODEL Forces the AUI to rebuild the whole model.

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Chapter 4 Interface control and editing

CONTROL

Sec. 4.1 Settings

CONTROL

PLOTUNIT VERBOSE ERRORLIMIT LOGLIMIT UNDO PROMPT AUTOREPAINT DRAWMATTACH DRAWTEXT DRAWLINES DRAWFILLS AUTOMREBUILD ZONECOPY SWEEPCOINCIDE SESSIONSTORAGE DYNAMICTRANSFORM UPDATETHICKNESS AUTOREGENERATE ERRORACTION FILEVERISON

CONTROL defines certain parameters that control program behavior. The parameters defined by the CONTROL command are stored in the database. PLOTUNIT <not currently active> VERBOSE <not currently active> ERRORLIMIT <not currently active> LOGLIMIT <not currently active> [PERCENT] [YES] [0] [0]

UNDO [5] The UNDO parameter controls the number of commands that can be undone using the UNDO command. If UNDO = 0, the UNDO command cannot be used, if UNDO = 1, UNDO can be used to undo the effects of the previous command, if UNDO = 2, UNDO can be used to undo the effects of the previous two commands, etc. Setting UNDO = 0 can significantly speed up the processing of batch files. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Controls the default behavior for prompts which may arise from various commands. NO No command prompts will be issued - this is useful in batch mode - eliminating any interaction. Command prompts are always issued. Command prompts are issued only when necessary.

YES UNKNOWN

AUTOREPAINT [YES] When AUTOREPAINT = YES, the AUI automatically repaints that area of the graphics window that is exposed to the removal or motion of overlapping windows or dialogs. You may want to set AUTOREPAINT to NO to suppress the repainting; in that case, you can use the REFRESH command whenever you want to repaint the graphics window. DRAWMATTACH [YES] When DRAWMATTACH = YES, mesh plot attachments (band plots, load plots, element vector plots, reaction plots, line contour plots) are drawn. Otherwise, they are not drawn.

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CONTROL

One use of this option would be to turn off drawing of mesh plot attachments before moving the mesh plots with the mouse. DRAWTEXT DRAWLINES DRAWFILLS These options control the drawing of text, lines and fills: EXACT SATURATED GRAY INVERSE Use the requested colors while drawing. Convert all colors to saturated colors before drawing. Convert all colors to gray scales before drawing. Convert all colors to the INVERSE color before drawing (the INVERSE color is the opposite of the background color). Do not draw. [EXACT] [EXACT] [EXACT]

NO

AUTOMREBUILD [YES] When you enter a command that alters the geometry or finite element model, the AUI rebuilds all corresponding data structures so that the model can be re-plotted. This feature can be deactivated by setting AUTOMREBUILD = NO (in this case, if you want to plot the model, you must use the ADINA, ADINA-T or ADINA-F commands to rebuild the model beforehand). Setting AUTOMREBUILD = NO can significantly speed up the processing of batch files. Notes : 1) One important use of parameters DRAWTEXT, DRAWLINES, DRAWFILLS is when making plots in black and white for reports. In this case you might use DRAWTEXT = INVERSE, DRAWLINES = INVERSE, DRAWFILLS = GRAY. 2) The drawing parameters apply both to graphics as displayed on the screen and to graphics as produced using SNAPSHOT or MOVIESAVE. 3) One use of DRAWFILLS = SATURATED is to speed up shaded color image drawing, especially using X Window graphics; all shades of each color are converted to the same color, resulting in significantly fewer color changes.

ZONECOPY [NO] Controls whether the commands BANDPLOT, MESHPLOT, ELINEPLOT, EVECTORPLOT, LCPLOT, REACTIONPLOT, BANDSTYLE, MESHSTYLE, ELINESTYLE, EVECTORSTYLE, LCSTYLE, REACTIONSTYLE create copies of the input zones. Zone copies are always created by these commands in AUI 7.0 but not in later versions of the AUI. The preferred

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CONTROL

Sec. 4.1 Settings

setting of ZONECOPY is NO, but YES may be necessary to read input/session files produced for/by AUI 7.0. {YES/NO} SWEEPCOINCIDE [YES] Controls whether the SURFACE/VOLUME REVOLVED/EXTRUDED geometry definition commands check for coincident lines and surfaces, as well as for coincident vertices (points). AUI 7.0 did not attempt to connect adjacent surfaces/volumes, resulting in duplicate lines and surfaces fro such “sweep” geometry definition. The default in AUI 7.1 and higher is to connect adjacent surfaces/volumes whenever possible. However, AUI 7.0 input/session files which contain such “sweep” geometry will likely fail, so it may well be necessary to set SWEEPCOINCIDE=NO to correctly process older input files. {YES/NO} SESSIONSTORAGE [YES] If SESSIONSTORAGE = YES, the subsequent commands are stored in the AUI database. You can output these commands using the command COMMANDFILE. In the event of a system crash, you can retrieve these commands by opening the AUI temporary database, and subsequently issuing the COMMANDFILE command. If SESSIONSTORAGE = NO, subsequent commands are not stored in the AUI database and therefore cannot be retrieved. You may wish to set SESSIONSTORAGE = NO before reading commands from a batch file to eliminate the overhead of storing those commands within the AUI database. Note that the storage of commands in the AUI database is independent of the writing of commands to the session file determined by command FILESESSION. DYNAMICTRANSFORM [YES] Controls how the program indicates the transformation when you move, resize or rotate graphics using the mouse. If DYNAMICTRANSFORM=YES, the program redraws all picked graphics completely and redraws all other graphics that overlap the picked graphics. If DYNAMICTRANSFORM=PARTIAL, the program partially redraws all picked graphics and does not redraw overlapping graphics. If DYNAMICTRANSFORM=NO, the program indicates the transformation using a bounding box. UPDATETHICKNESS [YES] When you change the thickness of geometry surfaces or faces, all elements generated onto the surfaces or faces are automatically updated with the updated thickness. {YES/NO} In AUI 7.2 and lower, elements are not automatically updated. Therefore you may need to set UPDATETHICKNESS=NO so that input files constructed for use with AUI 7.2 and lower work correctly.

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CONTROL

AUTOREGENERATE [NO] If AUTOREGENERATE=YES, the program regenerates the graphics after you run a command that changes the model definition. This parameter only applies to commands that are run from the command-line (or read from a file); it does not apply to dialog box input from the user interface. Note that the user interface always regenerates the graphics after you use a dialog box that changes the model definition. {YES/NO} ERRORACTION [CONTINUE] Defines AUI action when error is detected. Parameter affects only commands read from a batch file. CONTINUE SKIP AUI continues to process commands. AUI skips the remaining commands up to the next READ END command, if any.

Note:

For more details see AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. IV - Display processing. [V74]

FILEVERISON Flag to request algorithms from previous version of AUI. Note:

For more details see AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. IV - Display processing.

Auxiliary commands LIST CONTROL Lists the values of the parameters set by the CONTROL command.

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UNDO

Sec. 4.2 Editing

UNDO

NUMBER

UNDO cancels the effects of previous commands. UNDO is possible only if CONTROL UNDO is greater than zero. See Section 4.1 for a description of the CONTROL command. The UNDO command can itself be undone by REDO (described in this section). NUMBER [1] The number of previous commands to be undone. The maximum possible number of previous commands that can be undone is set by CONTROL UNDO. However, the actual number of previous commands that can be undone may be less than this.

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REDO

REDO

NUMBER

REDO cancels the effects of previous UNDO commands (described in this section). It can be used only if the previous command was either UNDO or REDO. The REDO command can be followed by the UNDO command to cancel the REDO. NUMBER The number of previous UNDO commands to be undone. [1]

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Chapter 5 Control Data

FEPROGRAM

Sec. 5.1 General

FEPROGRAM PROGRAM FEPROGRAM specifies the finite element analysis program to be used to solve the problem described by the model database. PROGRAM The finite element analysis program name. The following choices are available: ADINA For displacement and stress analysis. ADINA-T ADINA-F For heat transfer analysis. For fluid flow and heat transfer analysis. [ADINA]

Auxiliary commands LIST FEPROGRAM Lists the currently selected finite element analysis program.

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Chap. 5 Control Data

HEADING

HEADING STRING HEADING specifies a title for the problem described by the model database. STRING ['*** NO HEADING DEFINED ***'] The problem heading, input as a string of up to 80 characters (including blank spaces) enclosed within apostrophes ('). Auxiliary commands LIST HEADING Lists the current problem heading.

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MASTER

Sec. 5.1 General

MASTER

ANALYSIS MODEX TSTART AUTOMATIC IRINT MAP-OUTPUT MAP-FORMAT SOLVER MAXSOLMEM MTOTM RECL TMC-ITERATION

MASTER defines the data controlling the execution of the analysis program ADINA-T. ANALYSIS Selects the type of analysis to be performed. STEADY-STATE Steady-state analysis. TRANSIENT FREQUENCIES Time dependent analysis. Frequency analysis (thermal eigenvalues). [EXECUTE] [STEADY-STATE]

MODEX Selects the execution mode of the analysis. CHECK ADINA-T checks the data without executing. EXECUTE RESTART ADINA-T checks the data and executes.

ADINA-T performs a restart, reading data from a previous run, checks the data and executes.

TSTART [0.0] Solution start time. For a restart run (MODEX = RESTART), TSTART must equal a solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. AUTOMATIC [OFF] Enables automatic incrementation control during analysis. OFF No automatic incrementation, user-defined timestep sequence is followed. ATS Automatic timestep control is enabled, see AUTOMATIC TIME-STEPPING. [DEFAULT]

IRINT Frequency of saving ADINA-T results to restart file. >0 Restart file overwritten every IRINT timesteps <0 DEFAULT Restart file appended to every IRINT timesteps

For explicit timestepping = number of steps in first timestep block. See TIMESTEP, ANALYSIS TRANSIENT. 1 Otherwise.

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MASTER

MAP-OUTPUT [NO] Indicates whether a mapping-file is written. The mapping file contains the finite element mesh and nodal temperatures which may be interpolated to provide temperature data for a different mesh (e.g., for use by ADINA in thermal stress analysis. {YES / NO} MAP-FORMAT [NO] Indicates whether the mapping file, if written (MAP-OUTPUT = YES), is in formatted (YES) or binary form (NO). {YES / NO} SOLVER [SPARSE] Selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium equation system. DIRECT A direct solution algorithm (active column Gauss elimination) is used. ITERATIVE An iterative solution (incomplete Cholesky preconditioned conjugate gradient method) is used. A sparse-matrix solver is used

SPARSE

Note: See SOLVER ITERATIVE for input of parameters controlling the operation of the iterative solver. MAXSOLMEM [0] Limits the amount of memory that the sparse-matrix solver can allocate. MAXSOLMEM=0 indicates that there is no limit and the system will Aswap@ as necessary. If MAXSOLMEM > 0, then the amount in memory (RAM) allocated is limited to MAXSOLMEM Mwords, and if further memory is required ADINA-T will handle the Aout-of-core@ block disk transactions this is often more efficient than system swapping. {$ 0} MTOTM [2] The size of the blank common memory for ADINA-T, in million single precision words. This parameter should be used for those platforms where the memory cannot be dynamically allocated at runtime. { 1 # MTOTM # 99999 }. RECL [3000] The record length of ADINA-T direct access files in number of single precision words. { 1 # RECL # 99999 }. TMC-ITERATION [DEFAULT] Indicates whether iteration is performed in a thermo-mechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. For piezoelectric analysis, DEFAULT is set to YES. Otherwise, DEFAULT is set to NO. {DEFAULT / YES / NO}.

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MASTER

Sec. 5.1 General

Auxiliary commands LIST MASTER Lists the data controlling the execution of the analysis program ADINA-T.

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ANALYSIS TRANSIENT

ANALYSIS TRANSIENT

METHOD ALPHA CUTIN-TEMPERATURE CUTOFFTEMPERATURE

ANALYSIS TRANSIENT defines the time integration parameters for a transient analysis. METHOD Time integration method used in transient analysis. BACKWARD-EULER Euler backward integration. FORWARD-EULER TRAPEZOIDAL ALPHA Euler forward integration. Trapezoidal rule. Alpha-family method. [1.0] [BACKWARD-EULER]

ALPHA Time integration parameter for METHOD = ALPHA. {0.0 # ALPHA # 1.0}

CUTIN-TEMPERATURE Temperatures below CUTIN-TEMPERATURE will be set to CUTIN-TEMPERATURE when temperatures are written onto file for thermal stress analysis CUTOFF-TEMPERATURE Temperatures above CUTOFF-TEMPERATURE will be set to CUTOFF-TEMPERATURE when temperatures are written onto file for thermal stress analysis

Auxiliary commands LIST ANALYSIS

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FREQUENCIES

Sec. 5.2 Analysis details

FREQUENCIES

METHOD NEIGEN NMODE IPRINT RIGID-BODY RSHIFT CUTOFF NITEMM NVECTOR STURM-CHECK ACCELERATE TOLERANCE STARTTYPE NSTVECTOR INTERVAL FMIN FMAX MODALSTRESSES STATIC

FREQUENCIES specifies control data for a thermal frequency solution to be carried out. The analysis parameter of command MASTER should be set to FREQUENCIES for this command to be active. METHOD <not currently active> [DETERMINANT-SEARCH] Specifies the method of frequency calculation. ADINA-T uses the DETERMINANTSEARCH method of frequency calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. NEIGEN [1] The number of frequencies and corresponding mode shapes to be calculated. The actual number of frequencies calculated may be reduced whenever the maximum, specified either by the cut-off frequency (CUTOFF) or the upper bound on the solution interval (FMAX B for the subspace-iteration method), has been exceeded. NMODE [0] The number of mode shapes to be printed in the results output file. Note NMODE must be less than or equal to NEIGEN. Frequency results are always printed. IPRINT [NO] Specifies whether or not intermediate solution information is printed. Such information may be of interest in tracing the solution behavior. {YES / NO} RIGID-BODY [NO] Specifies whether or not "rigid-body" modes are allowed, i.e., the lowest frequency may be zero. {YES / NO} RSHIFT [0.0] The rigid body mode shift to be applied when RIGID-BODY = YES. Note that RSHIFT must be less than or equal to 0.0, and that RSHIFT = 0.0 will result in a value for RSHIFT being automatically determined by ADINA-T. CUTOFF [1.0E8] The cut-off circular frequency (unit = radians/time). The frequency calculation is stopped if frequency CUTOFF has been exceeded. NITEMM [60] The maximum number of iterations per eigenpair (frequency, mode shape) allowed during solution.

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FREQUENCIES

NVECTOR <not currently active> STURM-CHECK <not currently active> ACCELERATE <not currently active> TOLERANCE <not currently active> STARTTYPE <not currently active> NSTVECTOR <not currently active> INTERVAL <not currently active> FMIN <not currently active> FMAX <not currently active> MODALSTRESSES <not currently active> STATIC <not currently active> Auxiliary commands LIST FREQUENCIES

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TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE

Sec. 5.3 Options

TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE TINIT TLOAD TGINIT TGLOAD TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE defines reference temperatures for both initial conditions and loads. Note: The reference temperature for thermal load is constant in time. TINIT [0.0] The initial temperature of a structure, in whatever temperature units you adopt. Differing initial temperatures may be specified by INITIAL-CONDITION, SET-INITCONDITION, INITIAL TEMPERATURES. TLOAD <not active for ADINA-T> TGINIT <not active for ADINA-T> TGLOAD <not active for ADINA-T> Auxiliary commands LIST TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE

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HEAT MATRIX

HEAT-MATRIX TYPE HEAT-MATRIX selects the type of heat capacity matrix to be used in transient analysis. TYPE Selects the type of heat capacity matrix. LUMPED CONSISTENT Lumped (diagonalized) heat capacity matrix. Consistent heat capacity matrix [CONSISTENT]

Auxiliary commands LIST HEAT-MATRIX

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AUTOMATIC TIME-STEPPING

Sec. 5.4 Automatic control

AUTOMATIC TIME-STEPPING MAXSUBD ACCURACY TEMPTOL AUTOMATIC TIME-STEPPING defines parameters controlling the automatic time-stepping procedure for an ADINA-T analysis, whereby timesteps are subdivided in the event of convergence failure within a prescribed number of equilibrium iterations. The automatic time-stepping procedure is enabled when the command parameter MASTER AUTOMATIC = ATS is specified. When enabled, this procedure will cause ADINA-T to subdivide the timestep when no iteration convergence is reached in the solution (see ITERATION and TOLERANCES), or the accuracy criterion (for transient analysis) is not satisfied. MAXSUBD [10] The maximum permitted subdivision of any given timestep, i.e., for a timestep of magnitude ∆T, then the algorithm will not attempt to subdivide below a timestep of magnitude (∆T/2MAXSUBD). ACCURACY Flag checking of solution accuracy for transient analysis. [NO] {YES / NO} [0.1]

TEMPTOL Maximum allowed temperature difference, used in accuracy checking (i.e., when ACCURACY = YES). Auxiliary commands LIST AUTOMATIC

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TIMESTEP

TIMESTEP NAME nstepi dti TIMESTEP defines a timestep sequence which controls the time/loadstep incrementation during analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of constant time steps is specified. The current active timestep sequence is set to that named by the TIMESTEP command. NAME [DEFAULT] Identifying timestep sequence name. If the name of an existing timestep sequence is given, then the previous sequence definition is overwritten. nstepi Number of steps to be taken in the ith timestep sequence period. dti Constant timestep magnitude, in time units, for the ith timestep sequence period. Note: A database is initialized with a timestep sequence named "DEFAULT" which initially specifies a single timestep of magnitude 1.0 time units. Auxiliary commands LIST TIMESTEP NAME DELETE TIMESTEP NAME SET TIMESTEP NAME Sets the current active timestep sequence, i.e., that which will be passed to the analysis program. SHOW TIMESTEP Lists the current active timestep sequence.

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TIMEFUNCTION

Sec. 5.5 Time dependence

TIMEFUNCTION NAME IFLIB FPAR1 FPAR2 FPAR3 FPAR4 FPAR5 FPAR6 timei valuei TIMEFUNCTION defines a timefunction, which may be referenced, e.g., by an applied load. The timefunction curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (timei, valuei). NAME [(current highest TIMEFUNCTION label number) + 1] Label number of the timefunction to be defined. If the label number of an existing timefunction is given, then the previous curve definition is overwritten. IFLIB <not active for ADINA-T> FPAR1, ... , FPAR6 <not active for ADINA-T> timei Time at data point "i" valuei Value at tie "timei" Auxiliary commands LIST TIMEFUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE TIMEFUNCTION FIRST LAST

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ITERATION

ITERATION

METHOD MAX-ITERATIONS STEP-REFORMING STEP-EQUILIBRIUM

ITERATION selects the equilibrium iteration scheme to be employed for a non-linear analysis. METHOD [MODIFIED-NEWTON] Selects the iteration scheme. {MODIFIED-NEWTON / FULL-NEWTON} See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. MAX-ITERATIONS The maximum number of iterations within a time step. STEP-REFORMING The maximum number of time steps between reforming conductivity, heat capacity, convection and radiation matrices. STEP-EQUILIBRIUM The maximum number of time steps between equilibrium iterations. Note: The FULL-NEWTON iteration scheme can be more effective when temperature dependent material properties are used, or RADIATION elements are present. Auxiliary commands LIST ITERATION [15]

[1]

[1]

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TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC

Sec. 5.7 Tolerances

TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC

COINCIDENCE EPSILON SHELL-ANGLE BOLTANGLE PHI-ANGLE EMF-DMIN

TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC specifies certain geometric tolerances used during the construction of a model. COINCIDENCE [1.0E-5] Relative tolerance used when comparing two locations to see if they are coincident. The default value is usually sufficient for most models, but may be, for example, reduced if distinct locations are extremely close in comparison to the overall dimension of the model. EPSILON [1.0E-9] A small value representing zero in many geometry property tests. This value is not normally required to be changed from the default value. SHELL-ANGLE [5.0] A small angular measure, in degrees, used in comparing normal vectors to determine the number of degrees of freedom to be automatically assigned to a shell midsurface node at which several shell elements meet. BOLT-ANGLE [0.5] A small angular measure, in degrees, used in comparing shell element normal vectors to determine whether any impinging beam bolt elements give rise to additional constraints relating the rotational degree of freedom normal to the shell surface to adjacent translational degrees of freedom. If a shell element normal differs from the average normal at a node by more than BOLT-ANGLE degrees, then no additional bolt constraints will be generated. PHI-ANGLE [30] This parameter, in degrees, is used only in potential-based fluid element models, during the phi model completion phase of constructing the ADINA data file. It is used in constructing the boundary conditions for a node on a free surface that is adjacent to the structure. When the angle between two adjacent faces of the structural boundary is greater than PHI-ANGLE, the AUI treats the intersection of the faces as a sharp corner. When the angle between two adjacent faces of the structural boundary is less than or equal to PHI-ANGLE, the AUI considers the faces to approximate a smooth boundary. EMF-DMIN [0.001] Specifies minmum distance between two electric conductors. If the distance between two conducting nodes in the model is less than EMF-DMIN, EMF-DMIN will be used. Auxiliary commands LIST TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC

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TOLERANCES ITERATION

TOLERANCES ITERATION RTOL TOLERANCES ITERATION specifies tolerance data controlling the equilibrium iteration scheme within the analysis program ADINA-T. It also specifies tolerance data controlling thermal-structure interaction iteration, whereby ADINA and ADINA-T perform a coupled analysis. RTOL [0.001] Relative tolerance used to measure equilibrium convergence. For a thermal-structure interaction analysis (e.g., piezoelectric analysis) RTOL specifies the relative convergence tolerances for both the temperatures from ADINA-T and the displacements from ADINA. Auxiliary commands LIST TOLERANCES ITERATION

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SOLVER ITERATIVE

Sec. 5.8 Solver details

SOLVER ITERATIVE MAX-ITERATIONS EPSIA EPSIB EPSII SHIFT NVEC SOLVER ITERATIVE defines control data for the iterative solution of the matrix system of equilibrium equations. To enable the use of the iterative solver, MASTER SOLVER = ITERATIVE must be specified. MAX-ITERATIONS The maximum permitted number of iterations for the iterative solver to converge. [1000]

EPSIA [1.0E-6] EPSIB [1.0E-4] EPSII [1.0E-8] Convergence tolerances for the iterative solver, see the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. SHIFT [1.0] Factor used to make preconditioning more effective within the iterative solver. Values of SHIFT > 1.0 make the preconditioning matrix more diagonally dominant. NVEC <not currently used> Auxiliary commands LIST SOLVER Lists the type of SOLVER (direct or iterative) enabled, and gives the corresponding control parameters, if any.

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PPROCESS

PPROCESS NPROC MINEL MAXEL PPROCESS specifies control data for parallel processing solutions. It allows for the splitting up of element groups into smaller sub-groups, i.e., the model is partitioned for distributed solution. NPROC [0] Number of processors used. Equivalently, the number of subgroups generated for each element group. NPROC = 0 indicates single processor solution (equivalent to NPROC = 1), in which case this command has no effect - EGCONTROL may be used to effect group splitting in this case. MINEL [0] Each element group with MINEL or more elements can be split into subgroups. Element groups with fewer than MINEL elements are not split. (MINEL = 0 is equivalent to MINEL = (10 C NPROC)). MAXEL [999999] Each element group (with MINEL or more elements) is split into I C NPROC subgroups, where the multiplier I is chosen so that each subgroup contains no more than MAXEL elements. Auxiliary commands LIST PPROCESS Lists the current parallel processing control data.

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PRINTOUT

Sec. 5.9 Analysis output

PRINTOUT VOLUME ECHO PRINTDEFAULT INPUT-DATA PRINTINTERVAL STORAGE Controls the amount of output printed by ADINA-T. VOLUME This parameter sets the defaults for remaining parameters of this command. MAXIMUM The following defaults are set: ECHO = YES PRINTDEFAULT = YES INPUT-DATA = 0 PRINTINTERVAL = 1 STORAGE = YES MINIMUM The following defaults are set: ECHO = NO PRINTDEFAULT = NO INPUT-DATA = 4 PRINTINTERVAL = 0 STORAGE = NO ECHO [NO] Specifies whether the input data file is given at the beginning of the ADINA-T results file or no echo of input data is printed. {YES / NO} PRINTDEFAULT [NO] Printing of individual element results is controlled by the data entry "print" of the element data commands. This parameter specifies whether element results are printed for those elements with that data entry left undefined. {YES / NO} INPUT-DATA Level of printout of input mesh data. 0 Detailed printing of all generated input data. 1 As for 0, except equation numbers are not printed. 2 As for 0, except nodal data are not printed. 3 As for 0, except equation numbers and nodal data are not printed. 4 No printing of input mesh data. [4] [MINIMUM]

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PRINTOUT

PRINTINTERVAL [0] Output printing interval, i.e., printout is performed every PRINTINTERVAL time steps. A zero value indicates no printout. STORAGE [NO] Flag which specifies whether or not storage information is printed out. {YES / NO} Auxiliary commands LIST PRINTOUT

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PORTHOLE

Sec. 5.9 Analysis output

PORTHOLE

VOLUME SAVEDEFAULT FORMATTED NODEINTERVAL ELEMINTERVAL

PORTHOLE controls the saving, by ADINA-T, of input data and solution results on the porthole file for later post-processing by ADINA-PLOT. VOLUME This parameter sets defaults for remaining parameters of this command. MAXIMUM The following defaults are set: SAVEDEFAULT = YES NODEINTERVAL = 1 ELEMINTERVAL = 1 MINIMUM The following defaults are set: SAVEDEFAULT = NO SAVEDEFAULT [YES] Saving of individual element results is controlled by the data entry "save" of the element data commands. SAVEDEFAULT defines the default action for those elements with that data entry left undefined. {YES / NO} FORMATTED [NO] Determines whether porthole file records are formatted or written in unformatted binary. {YES / NO} NODEINTERVAL [1] Interval for saving nodal point responses on the porthole file, i.e., nodal results are saved every NODEINTERVAL time steps. {$ 1} ELEMINTERVAL [1] Interval for saving element responses on the porthole file, i.e., element results are saved every ELEMINTERVAL time steps. {$ 1} Auxiliary commands LIST PORTHOLE [MAXIMUM]

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PRINTNODES

PRINTNODES BLOCKS

SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE

blocki firsti lasti incrementi PRINTNODES POINTS pointi PRINTNODES LINES linei PRINTNODES SURFACES surfacei PRINTNODES VOLUMES volumei PRINTNODES EDGES edgei PRINTNODES FACES facei PRINTNODES BODIES bodyi PRINTNODES selects nodes for which solution results shall be printed by ADINA-T. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of node blocks (sets of node labels) or by reference to a set of geometry entities to which the nodes are associated, i.e., via mesh generation. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> REUSE <not applicable to ADINA-T> BODY A solid geometry body label number. [(currently active BODY)] SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE BODY SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE BODY SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE

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PRINTNODES

Sec. 5.9 Analysis output

blocki A node block number. firsti The initial node number for the node block blocki. {$ 1; $ last(i-1)} lasti The final node number for the node block blocki. }{$ firsti incrementi The node increment for the node block blocki. {$ 1} pointi A point label number. linei A line label number. surfacei A surface label number. volumei A volume label number. edgei An edge label number; an edge of a solid body "BODY" facei A face label number; a face of a solid body "BODY" bodyi A body label number. Auxilliary Commands LIST PRINTNODES BLOCKS / POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / VOLUMES / EDGES / FACES / BODIES. DELETE PRINTNODES BLOCKS / POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / VOLUMES / EDGES / FACES / BODIES.

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PRINTNODES

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Chapter 6 Geometry definition

SYSTEM

Chap. 6 Geometry definition

SYSTEM

NAME TYPE MODE XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN PHI THETA XSI AX AY AZ BX BY BZ P1 P2 P3 MOVE

SYSTEM defines a local coordinate system. Coordinates of geometry points and nodes, input via COORDINATES, refer to the current local coordinate system, as defined by the last preceding use of command SYSTEM. The current system may also be changed via SET SYSTEM. NAME [(highest system label number) + 1] Label number of the local coordinate system. Label number 0 is reserved to identify the global Cartesian coordinate system, and therefore can be used only with the SET SYSTEM command – you cannot redefine the global system.

z (r, Q, z)

ZL

r

ZL Q YL

f (r, Q, f) r

YL XL Q

XL

Cylindrical coordinates

Relation to the base local coordinate system: XL = z YL = r cosQ ZL = r sinQ

Spherical coordinates

Relation to the base local coordinate system: XL = r cosQ sinf YL = r sinQ sinf ZL = r cosf

TYPE [CARTESIAN] The type of local coordinate system. Each type has an underlying base Cartesian system (XL, YL, ZL). See Figure. CARTESIAN A local Cartesian system, with axes aligned with the base system (XL, YL, ZL). A cylindrical local coordinate system with coordinates (r, Θ, z). A spherical local coordinate system with coordinates (r, Θ, φ).

CYLINDRICAL SPHERICAL

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SYSTEM

MODE [1] Selects the method of local coordinate system definition. This controls which parameters actually define the system – other parameters are ignored. 1 System defined by origin and direction vectors (XORIGIN, YORIGIN, ZORIGIN, AX, AY, AZ, BX, BY, BZ). System defined by origin and Euler angles (XORIGIN, YORIGIN, ZORIGIN, PHI, THETA, XSI). System defined by three geometry points (P1, P2, P3) [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

2

3

XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN The global system coordinates of the origin of the local coordinate system.

PHI [0.0] THETA [0.0] XSI [0.0] Euler angles (in degrees) used to define the orientation of the basic system (XL, YL, ZL) with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system axes. See Figure. Parameters are used only when MODE=2. AX A Y AZ Global system components of a vector along the XL-direction. BX BY BZ Global system components of a vector in the XL-YL plane. [1.0] [0.0] [0.0]

[0.0] [1.0] [0.0]

P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of geometry points which define the local coordinate system. P1 is the origin of the system, the XL axis is taken from P1 to P2. P3, together with P1, P2, then defines the XL-YL plane. The YL axis is taken orthogonal to the XL axis and points to the same side as P3 of the line between P1 and P2. The ZL axis is then defined by the right hand rule, i.e., using a cross product of unit vectors along the XL,YL axes.

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SYSTEM

Sec. 6.1 Coordinate systems

MOVE [NO] If a local coordinate system is redefined, the geometry points and nodes which refer to this local system would ordinarily be moved to new global positions, since their coordinates refer to the previous definition of the local coordinate system. However, when MOVE = NO the geometry points and nodes can be made to retain their global position, with their local coordinates modified accordingly. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands SET SYSTEM NAME [0] Once a local coordinate system has been defined, it may be selected as being the currently active system by issuing the command SET SYSTEM. The currently active system is initially the global Cartesian system. SHOW SYSTEM Lists the currently active system. LIST SYSTEM DELETE SYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

Z' PHI

Euler Angles

Z Y' PHI Y X, X'

Z' THETA Z''

Y'

PHI = rotation about X-axis

X' THETA X''

YL

XSI

Y'

THETA = rotation about Y'-axis

Z'' XSI ZL

**XSI = rotation about X''-axis
**

X''=XL

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COORDINATES POINT

COORDINATES POINT (ENTRIES (ENTRIES (ENTRIES (ENTRIES NAME NAME NAME NAME

SYSTEM (SYSTEM = global Cartesian (0)) (SYSTEM = local Cartesian) (SYSTEM = local cylindrical) (SYSTEM = local spherical)

X Y Z SYSTEM) XL YL ZL SYSTEM) R THETA XL SYSTEM) R THETA PHI SYSTEM)

ni xi yi zi sysi COORDINATES POINT defines coordinates for geometry points. The coordinates given refer to the local system specified by parameter SYSTEM. SYSTEM [currently active system] Label number of the required local coordinate system. This specifies the coordinate system to which any appended data line coordinates refer (and determines which column heading names are allowed by any ENTRIES data line). ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. The heading names depend on the type of local coordinate system specified by parameter SYSTEM. Note: Less than five entry column headings may be given (e.g., to specify points in a coordinate plane), with previous values retained for omitted entries, but the column heading NAME must always be specified.

ni Label number for the desired geometry point, input under the column heading NAME. xi yi zi Coordinate values in local coordinate system “sysi”. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

sysi [SYSTEM] Local coordinate system label number. Note “sysi” defaults to the system specified by parameter SYSTEM, which in turn defaults to the currently active coordinate system. Auxiliary commands LIST COORDINATES POINT FIRST LAST SYSTEM GLOBAL Lists the coordinates of geometry points with label numbers in a given range, and which are defined in terms of a specified local coordinate system. The coordinates may be listed in terms of the global Cartesian system (GLOBAL = YES). If no range is specified, only label numbers will be listed.

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COORDINATES POINT

Sec. 6.2 Points

DELETE COORDINATES POINT FIRST LAST SYSTEM Deletes all geometry points, and their coordinate data, with label numbers in a given range. Note that a geometry point will not be deleted if it is referenced by a higher order geometry entity (e.g. it is the end point of a line), or a node or other model entity is associated with that point.

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LINE STRAIGHT

LINE STRAIGHT

NAME P1 P2

**LINE STRAIGHT defines a straight geometry line between two geometry points.
**

P2 (u = 1)

u

P1

(u = 0)

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the straight geometry line to be defined. P1 P2 Label numbers of the geometry points which are the ends of the straight geometry line. The label numbers P1, P2 must be distinct, but the points may be coincident. A “null” geometry line is defined by this command when the end points P1, P2 are coincident, i.e., they have identical global coordinates. The line has zero length, but may be used in mesh generation, yielding coincident nodes and zero length element edges. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE STRAIGHT DELETE LINE STRAIGHT COPY LINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The endpoints of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE ARC

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINE ARC

NAME MODE P1 P2 P3 CENTER RADIUS ANGLE CHORD PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE

LINE ARC defines a geometry line as a circular arc, or as an arc with varying radius.

P2 (u = 1) P3 (Mode = 4, 5, 6) Chord P3 (Mode = 2)

Angle

Radius

u P1 (u = 0)

Center

NAME [(current highest line label number) + 1] Label number of the arc geometry line. MODE [1] Selects the method of arc geometry line definition. This controls which parameters actually define the arc, other parameters are ignored. See Figure. 1 2 3 Arc defined by start point, end point, and center (P1, P2, CENTER). Arc defined by start point, end point, and intermediate point (P1, P2, P3). Arc defined by start point, center, included angle, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, CENTER, ANGLE, P3). Arc defined by start point, center, chord length, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, CENTER, CHORD, P3). Arc defined by start point, end point, radius, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, P2, RADIUS, P3). Arc defined by start point, end point, included angle, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, P2, ANGLE, P3).

4

5

6

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LINE ARC

P1 Label number of the geometry point at the start of the arc geometry line. P2 Label number of the geometry point at the end of the arc geometry line. P3 Label number of a geometry point either through which the arc geometry line passes (MODE = 2), or, together with the start point and end point or center, defines the plane of the arc (MODE = 3,4,5,6). Note: P3 = 0 corresponds to the origin of the currently active local coordinate system. CENTER Label number of the geometry point at the center of the arc geometry line. RADIUS Radius of the arc geometry line. ANGLE Included angle of the arc geometry line. CHORD Chord length of the arc geometry line. PCOINCIDE [YES] If MODE > 1 then a geometry point will be located at the center or end of the arc. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES), rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. Notes: All MODES All geometry points referenced by this command – P1, P2, P3, CENTER – must be distinct. Thus the arc is open – to define a complete (closed) circle, command LINE CIRCLE should be used.

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LINE ARC

Sec. 6.3 Lines

MODE = 1 The arc defined is circular only if P1 and P2 are equidistant from CENTER – otherwise an arc is defined in which the radius is linearly interpolated across the included angle. The points P1, P2, and CENTER must not be collinear. The included angle is always chosen to be less than 180 degrees – thus a different mode should be used if a semi-circle or an arc subtending an angle greater than 180 degrees is required. No other geometry points are required; the chord length, included angle, and radius (for a circular arc) are calculated. MODE = 2 The arc is defined to pass through the intermediate point P3. A point at the center of the arc is generated. Parameter CENTER may be used to specify the label number of a newly generated point – it defaults to the next highest label number. If so specified, however, CENTER must not be the label number of an existing geometry point. Furthermore, if PCOINCIDE = YES and a geometry point already exists at the arc center – the coincidence check is governed by the tolerance value PTOLERANCE – then that geometry point will be taken to be the center of the arc, ignoring any label specified via parameter CENTER. The points P1, P2, and P3 must not be collinear. MODE = 3 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, CENTER, and P3, which must not be collinear. Furthermore, ANGLE is measured positive in the direction from P1 to P3. A point at the end of the arc is generated. Parameter P2 may be used to specify the label number of a newly generated point – it defaults to the next highest label number. If so specified, however, P2 must not be the label number of an existing geometry point. Furthermore, if PCOINCIDE = YES and a geometry point already exists at the end of the arc – the coincidence check is governed by the tolerance value PTOLERANCE – then that geometry point will be taken to be the end of the arc, ignoring any label specified via parameter P2. MODE = 4 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, CENTER, and P3, which must not be collinear. Furthermore, the end point of the arc is taken to be the same side of the line between the points P1 and CENTER as the point P3. A point at the end of the arc is generated – see MODE = 3.

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LINE ARC

MODE = 5 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, P2 and P3, which must not be collinear. The center of the arc is taken to be the same side of the line between the points P1 and P2 as the point P3. A point at the center of the arc is generated – see MODE = 2. MODE = 6 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, P2, and P3, which must not be collinear. Furthermore, ANGLE is measured positive in the direction from P1 to P3. A point at the center of the arc is generated – see MODE = 2. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE ARC DELETE LINE ARC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The endpoints of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the move line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE CIRCLE

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINECIRCLE

NAME MODE P1 P2 P3 CENTER RADIUS PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE

LINE CIRCLE defines a circle geometry line.

P3 (Mode = 1,3) P3 (Mode = 2)

Radius

P1 P2 (Mode = 3)

Center

P2 (Mode = 2)

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the circle to be defined. MODE [1] Selects the method of circle definition. This controls which parameters actually define the circle, other parameters are ignored. See Figure. 1 2 3 Circle defined by center, starting point, and a point defining the plane of the circle (CENTER, P1, P3). Circle defined through three points (P1, P2, P3). Circle defined by center, radius, and by two points – one defining the ‘pole’ direction (which intersects the circle at its starting point), and the other defining the plane of the circle (CENTER, RADIUS, P2, P3).

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Chap. 6 Geometry definition

LINE CIRCLE

P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of the geometry points which define the circle. CENTER Label number of a geometry point at the center of the circle. RADIUS The radius of the circle. PCOINCIDE [YES] A geometry point will be located at the center (MODE = 2), or the starting point (MODE = 3) of the circle. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. Note: A circle is a closed geometry line, a circular arc may be defined by command LINE ARC.

Auxiliary commands LIST LINE CIRCLE DELETE LINE CIRCLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEW NAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Move line name via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE CURVILINEAR

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINE CURVILINEAR

NAME P1 P2 SYSTEM ANGLE

LINE CURVILINEAR defines a geometry line as an interpolated curve in a given local coordinate system; coordinates of points on the curve are linearly interpolated between two geometry points.

ZL u

j

, h2, h2 ) P2 ( h2 1 2 3 h i = curvilinear coordinates

YL XL

1 1 P1 ( h1 1, h 2, h 3 )

ZL

ZL

P1, P2 R

P1, P2 Q XL R YL R,Q constant

YL XL

f

R,f constant

P1 = P2, ANGLE = THETA

P1 = P2, ANGLE = PHI

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the curvilinear geometry line to be defined. P1 P2 Label numbers of the geometry points which are the ends of the curvilinear geometry line.

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LINE CURVILINEAR

SYSTEM [current coordinate system] The label number of a coordinate system in which the curve is to be interpolated. ANGLE [THETA] In the case of a spherical coordinate system, if P1 = P2, a circle will be generated by interpolating through 360° in one of the coordinate angles. This parameter selects which angle to use. See Figure. {THETA/PHI} Note: The geometry line will be a circle in the case where P1 = P2 with a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. In the case of a Cartesian local system (including the global system) P1 = P2 is not allowed, and the geometry line will be straight.

Auxiliary commands LIST LINE CURVILINEAR DELETE LINE CURVILINEAR FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The endpoints of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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KNOTS

Sec. 6.3 Lines

KNOTS i ui

NAME NKNOTS

Defines a vector of knot values to be used for non-uniform rational B-spline definition, see LINE POLYLINE (TYPE=NURBS). NAME [(current highest knot vector label )+ 1] Label number of the knot vector. NKNOTS The number of input knot values. { ≥ 4 } i Index of the input knot value. { 1 ≤ i ≤ NKNOTS } ui Knot value for index “i”. Auxiliary commands LIST KNOTS DELETE KNOTS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]

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Chap. 6 Geometry definition

LINE POLYLINE

LINE POLYLINE pointi tangxi tangyi tangzi pointi weighti

NAME TYPE DEGREE KNOTS (TYPE = SEGMENTED, QBSPLINE, CBSPLINE, BIARC, BEZIER) (TYPE = NURBS)

LINE POLYLINE defines a geometry line as a polyline, i.e., a curve controlled by a series of geometry points.

SEGMENTED

QBSPLINE

CBSPLINE

BIARC

BEZIER

SPLINE

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LINE POLYLINE

Sec. 6.3 Lines

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the polyline geometry line to be defined. TYPE Selects the type of curve to be defined. SEGMENTED [SEGMENTED]

The points are connected in sequence by a series of straight line segments. At least two points must be specified. A quadratic B-spline is derived from the control points. Note that the curve passes through the first and last points but not necessarily through the intervening control points. At least three points must be specified. A cubic B-spline is derived from the control points. Note that the curve passes through the first and last points but not necessarily through the intervening control points. At least four points must be specified. Each consecutive pair of points is connected by two circular arcs. The tangent direction of the curve may be specified at any given point. The tangent directions are otherwise calculated by the program. At least three non-collinear points must be specified. Furthermore, all the control points must lie in the same plane, and any specified tangent vector must also lie in that plane – an error message is given if either of these conditions is violated. A Bezier curve is derived from the control points. Note that the curve passes through the first and last points but not necessarily through the intervening control points. At least three points must be specified. A non-uniform rational B-spline curve is derived from the control points, weights, and knots. A spline is derivied from the control points. Note that the curvarture of curve is continous at these points. At least two points must be specified.

QBSPLINE

CBSPLINE

BIARC

BEZIER

NURBS

SPLINE

DEGREE The degree of the B-spline basis functions, must be input for TYPE = NURBS.

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Chap. 6 Geometry definition

LINE POLYLINE

KNOTS The label number of the knot vector (see command KNOTS). The total number of knots used in the spline definition must equal (DEGREE+(number of control points)+1). pointi Label number of geometry point used to interpolate/control the desired curve. The data lines are input in the order of the sequence of points. [0.0] tangxi tangyi [0.0] tangzi [0.0] Vector specifying, with reference to the global Cartesian coordinate system, the tangent direction to the curve at point “pointi “. This vector only influences the shape of the polyline of type BIARC. Input of tangxi = tangyi = tangzi = 0.0 will result in the program automatically calculating the tangent direction from the slope of the quadratic curve interpolated through the point and its immediate neighbors in the sequence. Note: Note: A polyline may be closed be selecting the first and last points in the sequence to refer to the same geometry point. For BIARC interpolation a straight line segment may be defined by making the tangent line at a point pass through its neighbor point.

weighti The weight at each control point. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE POLYLINE DELETE LINE POLYLINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE SECTION

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINE SECTION

NAME PARENT USTART UEND PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE COUPLED

LINE SECTION defines a geometry line to be part of another geometry line.

up = 1

USTART P1

(u = 0) up = 0

up =

up =

UEND u

(u = 1)

P2

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the section geometry line to be defined. PARENT The line upon which the section line is defined. USTART [0.0] The line parameter (0.0 ≤ USTART ≤ 1.0) indicating the starting position on the line PARENT. UEND [1.0] The line parameter (0.0 ≤ UEND ≤ 1.0) indicating the end position on the line PARENT. PCOINCIDE [YES] This parameter indicates whether or not to check the location of the section line end points against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. COUPLED If COUPLED=YES, then the parent line cannot be modified. {YES/NO} [YES]

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Chap. 6 Geometry definition

LINE SECTION

Auxiliary commands LIST LINE SECTION DELETE LINE SECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE COMBINED

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINE COMBINED linei

NAME COUPLED

LINE COMBINED defines a geometry line as a combination of other geometry lines. The defining or “parent” lines must form a connected sequence. The combined line may be closed, by virtue of having connected first and last line subsegments.

(u = 1)

L2

P2

(u = 0)

L1 P1

u P3 LINE COMBINED L1 // L2

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the combined geometry line to be defined. COUPLED If COUPLED=YES, then the parent line cannot be modified. {YES/NO} linei Label number of a parent geometry line. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE COMBINED FIRST LAST DELETE LINE COMBINED FIRST LAST COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end point of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. [YES]

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LINE REVOLVED

LINE REVOLVED NAME MODE POINT ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE

**LINE REVOLVED defines a geometry line (a circular arc) by rotating a geometry point about an axis.
**

AXIS P2 (u = 1) u ANGLE POINT (u = 0)

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the revolved geometry line. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to define the geometry line. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved line, other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given axis of a coordinate system. (POINT, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open – i.e., have non-coincident end points). (POINT, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (non-coincident) geometry points. (POINT, ANGLE, AP1, AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by a position vector and a direction vector. (POINT, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).

LINE

POINTS

VECTORS

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LINE REVOLVED

Sec. 6.3 Lines

POINT Label number of the initial geometry point to be rotated about the desired axis. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range -360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360 (with ANGLE = 360 or -360 defining a closed line, i.e., a circle). The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule – i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining a point on the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. PCOINCIDE [YES] A geometry point is to be located at the other end of the line from the initial point given by POINT. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO}

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LINE REVOLVED

PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE REVOLVED FIRST LAST DELETE LINE REVOLVED FIRST LAST COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE EXTRUDED

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINE EXTRUDED

NAME POINT DX DY DZ SYSTEM PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE

LINE EXTRUDED defines a geometry line by displacing a geometry point in a given direction.

ZL u YL XL

P2 (u = 1) P2 = POINT+ (DX, DY)

POINT: (u = 0)

NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the extruded geometry line. POINT Label number of the initial geometry point to be displaced. DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with reference to the base coordinates (XL, YL, ZL) of system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e., it specifies both magnitude and direction. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system which is referenced by the displacement vector (DX, DY, DZ). PCOINCIDE [YES] A geometry point is to be located at the other end of the line from the initial point given by POINT. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points.

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Chap. 6 Geometry definition

LINE EXTRUDED

Auxiliary commands LIST LINE EXTRUDED FIRST LAST DELETE LINE EXTRUDED FIRST LAST COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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LINE TRANSFORMED

Sec. 6.3 Lines

LINE TRANSFORMED

NAME PARENT TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NCOPY

linei LINE TRANSFORMED defines a geometry line to be a geometrical transformation of another (existing) geometry line. The transformed geometry line is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed geometry lines are identified by the current highest geometry line label number + 1. NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the transformed geometry line. PARENT The line which, after transformation, gives the line to be defined. TRANSFORMATION Label number of a geometrical transformation, see TRANSFORMATION. PCOINCIDE [NO] This parameter indicates whether or not to check the location of the transformed line end points against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of lines to be generated by the transformation - transformation is repeated NCOPY times. linei Line label number to be transformed. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE TRANSFORMED DELETE LINE TRANSFORMED FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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LINE TRANSFORMED

COPY LINE

NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end point of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.

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SPLIT-LINE

Sec. 6.3 Lines

SPLIT-LINE

NAME USPLIT LINE1 LINE2 COUPLED

SPLIT-LINE creates two geometry lines of type SECTION by “splitting” a given line into two parts connected at some point on the given line, specified via a parameter value along the line.

P2 (u = 1)

LINE 1

u

u = USPLIT

LINE 2

P1 (u = 0)

NAME Label number of the geometry line to be split. Note that this line is not altered by this command. Two new lines are created coincident with the line NAME. USPLIT [0.5] A parameter value indicating the point along line NAME at which splitting takes place. The parameter value can range between 0.0 (the starting point of line NAME) to 1.0 (the end point of line NAME), but cannot be 0.0 or 1.0, i.e., the splitting point on the line must create two new lines of non-zero length. LINE1 [(highest line label number) + 1] The label number of the new line created ranging from the starting point of line NAME (u = 0.0) to the splitting point (u = USPLIT). Note that LINE1 must not have been previously defined. LINE2 [(highest line label number) + 2] The label number of the new line created ranging from the splitting point (u = USPLIT) to the end point (u = 1.0) of line NAME. Note that LINE2 must not have been previously defined. COUPLED If COUPLED=YES, then the parent line cannot be modified. {YES/NO} [YES]

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LNTHICKNESS

LNTHICKNESS linei thicki dthick1i dthick2i LNTHICKNESS defines line thicknesses (useful for defining axisymmetric shell thicknesses, for example).

u

P1

linei The line label number. thicki The line thickness. dthick1i The deviation of the thickness at the start point of “linei”. dthick2i The deviation of the thickness at the end point of “linei”. Note: [0.0]

thic k+

[0.0] [0.0] FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. II — ADINA Thermal Model Definition

For a constant thickness only the data line entry “thicki” need be specified. The thickness may be varied linearly along the line by specifying non-zero deviations and the ends of the line.

Auxiliary commands LIST LNTHICKNESS DELETE LNTHICKNESS

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dth

P2

ick2

thic k+ dthi ck 1

SURFACE PATCH

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

SURFACE PATCH

NAME EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4

SURFACE PATCH defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified geometry lines.

P2

EDGE1

P1

EDGE2 v P3 EDGE4 u

EDGE3

P4

NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface. EDGE1 [existing surface edge, if any] EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 Label numbers of geometry lines comprising edges of the geometry surface. To indicate a missing edge, either the corresponding parameter is not specified or, equivalently, a zero label number may be given. See Figure. Note: The edge geometry lines must form a connected sequence, i.e., their end points must match. Otherwise an error condition results. At least two edges must be specified. If two adjacent edges are specified, then a unique connecting edge is searched for to form a triangular surface patch. If two opposite edges (EDGE1 and EDGE3, or EDGE2 and EDGE4) are specified then the missing two edges are searched for to form a quadrilateral surface patch, unless the given edges are connected, in which case a single connecting edge is searched for to yield a triangular surface patch. If three edges are specified, then a unique connecting edge is searched for, unless the three edges by virtue of their connection already form a triangular surface patch. In each case of a “missing” edge, if no line is found to represent the surface edge, then a straight line will be created with label number incremented from the current highest line label number.

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SURFACE PATCH

If more than one line could represent the missing surface edge, then a warning message is given with no surface created. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting surfaces, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.

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SURFACE VERTEX

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

SURFACE VERTEX

NAME P1 P2 P3 P4 EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4

SURFACE VERTEX defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified by their end geometry points – the vertices of the surface. This command is similar to SURFACE PATCH – the underlying surface representation is identical – only the method of definition differs. If no geometry line exists between adjacent geometry points, then the command will automatically generate straight geometry lines between the appropriate geometry point pairs.

P2 EDGE2 v

EDGE1

P1

EDGE4 P3 u

EDGE3

P4 P2 EDGE2 v P3 u EDGE1 P1 (P4)

EDGE3

NAME [(highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface. P1, P2, P3, P4 Label numbers of geometry points which are the vertices of the geometry surface. See Figure. P1, P2, P3 must be specified, and correspond to existing geometry points. A triangular surface patch is defined by repeating one pair of consecutive points (i.e., P2 = P1, P3 = P2, P4 = P3, or P1 = P4). Note that P4 defaults to P1, automatically giving a triangular surface patch if only P1, P2, P3 are specified.

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SURFACE VERTEX

EDGEi [existing surface edges, if any] Label numbers of the surface edges (i = 1, 2, 3, 4), i.e., geometry lines, input if required – see below. The parameters are related to the surface vertices as follows: EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 Line from P1 to P2. Line from P2 to P3. Line from P3 to P4. Line from P4 to P1.

If a pair of adjacent vertices is not connected by a geometry line, then a new straight line is generated between them. The label number of the new edge is given by the appropriate EDGEi parameter. Note that in this case the parameter must not refer to an existing line. If no label is given then the highest line label number successively incremented by 1 is used. If more than one line connects a pair of adjacent vertices, then the choice of line may be made via the appropriate EDGEi parameter. In this case the parameter must refer to one of the lines connecting the relevant pair of vertices. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting surfaces, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.

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SURFACE GRID

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

SURFACE GRID NAME MPOINT NPOINT TYPE EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 1 1 point1 ... irowi jcoli pointi ... MPOINT NPOINT pointMN SURFACE GRID defines a geometry surface as a grid (array) of geometry points, which control the shape of the surface. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface to be defined. MPOINT Number of rows in the array of surface grid control points. NPOINT Number of columns in the array of surface grid control points. TYPE Selects the type of surface to be defined. POLYFACE [4]

[4]

[POLYFACE]

The grid of control points is connected by a quadrilateral polygo nal mesh. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 2 for this surface type. A quadratic B-spline surface is derived from the grid of control points. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 3 for this surface type. A cubic B-spline surface is derived from the grid of control points. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 4 for this surface type. A Bezier surface is derived from the grid of control points. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 3 for this surface type.

QBSPLINE

CBSPLINE

BEZIER

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SURFACE GRID

EDGEi [existing edge surfaces, if any] Label numbers of the surface edges (i = 1, 2, 3, 4), i.e., geometry lines, input if required – see below. The parameters are related to the surface control points as follows (see Figure): EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 Polyline defined by points (i, j): polyline defined by points (i, j): polyline defined by points (i, j): polyline defined by points (i, j): i = MPOINT, j = 1, 2, ..., NPOINT i = 1, 2, ..., MPOINT, jcol = 1 i = 1, j = 1, 2, ..., NPOINT i = 1,2,...,MPOINT, jcol = NPOINT

If a set of edge control points does not already define a polyline of the corresponding type (see note and table below) then a new polyline is generated. The label number of the new edge is given by the appropriate EDGEi parameter. Note that in this case the parameter must not refer to an existing line. If no label is given then the highest line label number successively incremented by 1 is used. If more than one polyline of the corresponding type is defined by a set of edge control points, then the choice of polyline is made via the appropriate EDGEi parameter. In this case the parameter must refer to one of the polylines defined by the relevant set of edge control points.

(MPOINT,1)

EDGE1 (MPOINT,NPOINT)

EDGE2

EDGE4

(1,1)

EDGE3

(1,NPOINT)

TYPE=POLYFACE, MPOINT=3, NPOINT=4

Surface-grid definition

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SURFACE GRID

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

irowi, jcoli Row and column number, respectively, of the point “pointi” entry in the array of control points. The following range of values are allowed: 1 1 ≤ ≤ irowi jcoli ≤ ≤ MPOINT NPOINT

pointi Label number of geometry point used to interpolate/control the desired surface. Note: Note: A point label is required input for each entry (irow, jcol) in the array of points; irow = 1, 2, ..., MPOINT; jcol = 1, 2, ..., NPOINT. A line of type POLYLINE may be created at each edge of the surface, according to the following rule: Edge Polyline Type SEGMENTED QBSPLINE CBSPLINE BEZIER

Surface Grid Type POLYFACE QBSPLINE CBSPLINE BEZIER Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE

FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting surfaces, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.

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SURFACE EXTRUDED

SURFACE EXTRUDED

NAME LINE DX DY DZ SYSTEM PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV OPTION ELINE

linei SURFACE EXTRUDED defines a geometry surface by displacing a geometry line in a given direction.

ZL

YL XL

v (DX, DY, DZ)

LINE u

NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the extruded geometry surface. LINE Label number of the initial geometry line to be displaced, thereby defining the extruded surface. DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with respect to the base coordinates (XL, YL, ZL) of coordinate system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e., it specifies both magnitude and direction. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system which is referenced by the displacement vector (DX, DY, DZ).

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SURFACE EXTRUDED

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry points are to be located at the other end of the surface from the initial line given by LINE. This parameter indicates whether to check point’s location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the extruded direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. OPTION This parameter offers options to the surface extrusion: VECTOR LINE [VECTOR]

surfaces are defined by displacing geometry lines in a given direction. surfaces are defined by displacing geometry lines along a line.

ELINE The geometry line label. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE linei Label numbers of geometry lines. The data line input allows for more than one line to be extruded. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting surface, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.

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SURFACE REVOLVED

SURFACE REVOLVED

NAME MODE LINE ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV

linei

AXIS

ANGLE LINE u v

SURFACE REVOLVED defines a geometry surface by rotating a geometry line about some axis. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the revolved geometry surface. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to define the geometry surface. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved surface. Other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given coordinate axis of a coordinate system. (LINE, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open, i.e., have non-coincident end points). (LINE, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (non-coincident) geometry points. (LINE, ANGLE, AP1, AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by a position vector and a direction vector. (LINE, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).

LINE

POINTS

VECTORS

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SURFACE REVOLVED

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

LINE Label number of the initial geometry line to be rotated about the axis thereby defining the revolved surface. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range -360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360. The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule – i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the basic axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining a point on the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry points/lines are to be located at the edges of the surface beside the initial line given by LINE. This parameter indicates whether to check the edge point location against existing geometry, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO}

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SURFACE REVOLVED

PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the revolved direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. linei Label numbers of geometry lines. The data line input allows for more than one line to be revolved. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting surface, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.

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SURFACE TRANSFORMED

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

SURFACE TRANSFORMED

NAME PARENT TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NCOPY

surfacei SURFACE TRANSFORMED defines a geometry surface to be a geometrical transformation of another existing geometry surface. The transformed geometry surface is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed geometry surfaces are identified by the current highest geometry surface label number + 1. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface to be defined. PARENT The surface which, after transformation, gives the surface being defined. TRANSFORMATION Label number of a geometrical transformation, see commands TRANSFORMATION. PCOINCIDE [NO] This parameter indicates whether to check the location of the transformed surface vertices against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of surfaces to be generated by the transformation - transformation is repeated NCOPY times. surfacei Label numbers of surface to be transformed. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

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SFTHICKNESS

SFTHICKNESS namei thicki dthick1i dthick2i dthick3i dthick4i SFTHICKNESS defines surface thicknesses. <Not applicable to ADINA-F.> namei The surface label number. thicki The surface thickness. dthick1i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 1. dthick2i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 2. dthick3i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 3. dthick4i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 4. Note: [0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

Input of surface thickness is given as a constant thickness together with deviations from that value at each of the vertices. Thus the thickness at vertex1 = thick + dthick1. To input constant surface thicknesses, only the first two entries on the data line input need be entered (since the default deviations are zero). To input varying surface thickness you could enter a constant thickness of 0.0 and set the deviations to the vertex thicknesses, or use some median thickness with non-zero deviations.

Note:

Thickness is measured in the direction of the normal vector at the vertex, determined by the right-hand rule in relation to the ordering of the surface vertices.

Auxiliary commands LIST SFTHICKNESS FIRST LAST

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CHECK-SURFACES

Sec. 6.4 Surfaces

CHECK-SURFACES CHECK-SURFACES checks geometry surface connections looking for two adjoining surfaces which are oppositely oriented such that the surface normals would be opposite. Such conditions would likely be the source of a modeling error when elements of type SHELL are generated on such surfaces. The command has no parameters and reports geometry surface pairs which should be more closely examined and re-oriented if necessary.

P4 n1 v1 P1

v u

P3

v u

P6

S1

u1 P2

S2

n2 u2

v2 P5

Surface S1 S2

Vertices P1-P2-P3-P4 P2-P3-P6-P5

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VOLUME PATCH

VOLUME PATCH

NAME SHAPE FACE1 FACE2 FACE3 FACE4 FACE5 FACE6

VOLUME PATCH defines a geometry volume to be bounded by faces which are specified geometry surfaces.

SHAPE = HEX

P2 FACE 3 P3 P6 FACE 4 P7

FACE 2 P1

SHAPE = PRISM

FACE 2 FACE 3 P2 P1

FACE 1

P4

E5 C FA

P8

P3 P5

FACE 1

P4 FACE 4

FAC

E5

P5

FACE 6

P6

SHAPE = TETRA

FACE 3 P3 P2

SHAPE = PYRAMID

FACE 3 P1 FACE 2 P3 P2

FACE 2 P1 P4

FACE 1

FACE 4

FACE 1

FACE 4

FACE 5

P4

P5

NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry volume.

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VOLUME PATCH

Sec. 6.5 Volumes

SHAPE [HEX] Selects the shape of the volume to be defined. This controls which of the parameters (geometry surface label numbers) are actually used to define the volume, other parameters are ignored. The faces of the volume must connect as shown in the Figures. HEX Hexahedral “brick” volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, FACE5, FACE6). Note that each face must be a quadrilateral geometry surface. Prismatic volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, FACE5). Note that faces FACE2 and FACE4 must be triangular geometry surfaces, whilst faces FACE1, FACE3, and FACE5 must be quadrilateral geometry surfaces. Tetrahedral volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4). Note that each face must be a triangular geometry surface. 5-faced volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, FACE5). Note that face FACE1 must be a quadrilateral geometry surface, whilst faces FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, and FACE5 must be triangular geometry surfaces.

PRISM

TETRA

PYRAMID

FACE1 FACE2 FACE3 FACE4 FACE5 FACE6 Label numbers of geometry surfaces comprising the faces of the geometry volume. See Figure. Note: The faces must be connected, i.e., the edges of adjacent faces (geometry surfaces) must coincide (i.e., refer to a common geometry line), otherwise an error condition results.

Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting volume, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be deleted.

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VOLUME VERTEX

VOLUME VERTEX

NAME SHAPE VERTEX1 VERTEX2 VERTEX3 VERTEX4 VERTEX5 VERTEX6 VERTEX7 VERTEX8

VOLUME VERTEX defines a geometry volume in terms of its vertices. This command is similar to VOLUME PATCH – the underlying volume geometry point representation is identical, only the method of definition differs. If no geometry line exists between adjacent geometry points, then the command will automatically generate straight geometry lines between the appropriate geometry point pairs. If the volume edges do not comprise the edges of existing geometry surfaces at the faces of the volume, then the command will automatically generate geometry surfaces at the volume faces with the required edges (existing or generated).

SHAPE = HEX

P2 P1

SHAPE = PRISM

P2 P1

P3 P6

P4 P5

P3

P4 P5

P7

P8

P6

SHAPE = TETRA

P2

SHAPE = PYRAMID

P2 P1 P4 P1

P3

P3

P4

P5

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VOLUME VERTEX

Sec. 6.5 Volumes

NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry volume. SHAPE [HEX] Selects the shape of the volume to be defined. This controls which of the parameters (geometry point label numbers) are actually used to define the volume – other parameters are ignored. The vertices of the volume must connect as shown in the Figure. HEX PRISM TETRA PYRAMID Hexahedral “brick” volume. Prismatic volume. Tetrahedral volume. 5-faced volume.

VERTEXi (i = 1…8) Label numbers of geometry points which are the vertices of the geometry volume. See Figure for vertex numbering. Auxiliary commands LISTVOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting volumes, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be deleted.

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VOLUME REVOLVED

VOLUME REVOLVED

NAME MODE SURFACE ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV

surfacei VOLUME REVOLVED defines one or more geometry volumes by rotating one or more geometry surfaces about an axis. The first newly defined geometry volume is identified by its label number NAME. The other newly defined geometry volumes are identified by the current highest geometry volume label number + 1.

AXIS

ANGLE

P2 SURFACE P3

P1

P4

NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the revolved geometry volume. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to define the geometry volume. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved volume. Other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given coordinate axis of a coordinate system. (SURFACE, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). LINE The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open – i.e., have non-coincident end points). (SURFACE, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (non-coincident) geometry points. (SURFACE, ANGLE, AP1, AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by a position vector and a direction vector. (SURFACE, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).

POINTS

VECTORS

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VOLUME REVOLVED

Sec. 6.5 Volumes

SURFACE Label number of the initial geometry surface to be rotated about the axis, thereby defining the revolved volume. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range -360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360 (with ANGLE = 360 or -360 defining a closed line, i.e., a circle). The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule – i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining a point on the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry point are to be located at the other end of the volume from the initial surface given by SURFACE. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO}

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VOLUME REVOLVED

PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the revolved direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces. The data line input allows for more than one surface to be revolved. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting volume, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be defined.

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VOLUME EXTRUDED

Sec. 6.5 Volumes

VOLUME EXTRUDED

NAME SURFACE OPTION DX DY DZ SYSTEM PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV LINE RATIO PROGRESSION CBIAS

surfacei VOLUME EXTRUDED defines one or more geometry volumes by displacing geometry surfaces in a given direction or along a line. Please refer to LINE description below for limitations. ZL

YL XL P2 SURFACE P3 P4 P1 ( DX, DY, DZ )

NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the extruded geometry volume. SURFACE Label number of the initial geometry surface to be displaced, thereby defining the extruded volume. OPTION This parameter defines the type of extrusion. {VECTOR/LINE} VECTOR LINE [VECTOR]

volumes are defined by displacing geometry surfaces in a given direction. volumes are defined by displacing geometry surfaces along a line.

DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with respect to the base coordinates (XL, YL, ZL) of coordinate system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e., it specifies

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VOLUME EXTRUDED

both magnitude and direction. These parameters are only used when OPTION=VECTOR. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry point are to be located at the other end of the volume from the initial surface given by SURFACE. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the extruded direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. LINE The geometry line label. Only straight lines, extruded lines or combined lines are allowed. If a combined line is used, the combined line should be either straight or extruded. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE. For lines that do not meet these conditions, the command VOLUME SWEEP should be used. RATIO [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to first element edges along the extruded vector. The grading of element lengths is governed by parameter PROGRESSION. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element lengths are to be graded, the distribution of element lengths can be selected from the following options. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. {ARITHMETIC/GEOMETRIC} ARITHMETIC GEOMETRIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

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VOLUME EXTRUDED

Sec. 6.5 Volumes

CBIAS [NO] Indicates if central bias is used along the extruded vector. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. {NO/YES} surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces. The data line input allows for more than one surface to be extruded. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION

When deleting volumes, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be defined.

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VOLUME SWEEP

VOLUME SWEEP

NAME SURFACE LINE DELETE-LINE ALIGNMENT PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NPTS

surfacei Defines one or more geometry volumes by sweeping one or more geometry surfaces along a line. The first newly defined geometry volume is identified by its label number NAME. The other newly defined geometry volumes are identified by the current highest geometry volume label number + 1.

P2 SURFACE P3

P1

LINE P4

NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the swept geometry volume. SURFACE Label number of the initial geometry surface to be displaced, thereby defining the swept volume. LINE The geometry line label. Unlike the command VOLUME EXTRUDED, there is no limitation to straight lines, extruded lines or combined lines. DELETE-LINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after applying the command VOLUME SWEEP. ALIGNMENT This parameter specifies the direction of the surface during sweeping. NORMAL Surface normal is at fixed angle to line tangent. [NORMAL]

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VOLUME SWEEP

Sec. 6.5 Volumes

PARALLEL

Surface normal always points to the same direction.

PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry points are to be located at the other end of the volume from the initial surface given by SURFACE. This parameter indicates whether to check locations against existing geometry point coordinates, and use existing points rather than generate new geometry points (with new labels). PTOLERANCE [Default given by TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE=YES, then this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NPTS The number of intermediate points of non-straight and non-arc lines. [3]

surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces. The data line input allows for more than one surface to be swept. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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Chap. 6 Geometry definition

VOLUME TRANSFORMED

VOLUME TRANSFORMED

NAME PARENT TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NCOPY

volumei The command VOLUME TRANSFORMED defines a geometry volume to be a geometrical transformation of another existing geometry volume. The transformed geometry volume is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed geometry volumes are identified by the current highest geometry volume label number + 1. NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the transformed geometry volume to be defined. PARENT The volume which, after transformation, gives the volume being defined. TRANSFORMATION [(current transformation label number)] Label number of a geometrical transformation defined by command TRANSFORMATION. PCOINCIDE [NO] This parameter indicates whether to check the location of the transformed volume vertex points against existing geometry points, and use existing points (YES) rather than generate new geometry points (NO) (with a new label) . {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of volumes to be generated by the transformation - transformation is repeated NCOPY times. volumei Label numbers of volume to be transformed. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

Note that no geometry volume is deleted which is referenced by any other model entity, e.g., as part of the definition of another volume or by virtue of a mesh generation command (i.e. there are nodes and/or elements associated with the volume).

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BODY SURFACES

Sec. 6.6 Solid models

BODY SURFACES surfacei sensei

NAME

This command is OBSOLETE and is available only for compatibility with old input files. Defines a solid geometry body, as an oriented collection of geometry surfaces. The set of surfaces must form a complete boundary of a solid with the proper orientation such that the oriented surface normal points out of the body. In this way the surfaces yield a boundary representation of a solid — note that a manifold representation is assumed, thus each surface edge (line) must be connected to exactly two (2) surfaces. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the body to be defined. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. sensei Sense indicator for surfacei: +1 -1 the surface normal points out of the body. the surface normal points into the body. [+1]

Auxiliary commands LIST BODY DELETE BODY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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BODY VOLUMES

BODY VOLUMES volumei

NAME

This commnad is OBSOLETE and is available only for compatibility with old input files. Defines a solid geometry body, as a collection of geometry volumes. The internal faces of the body resulting from connected volumes are “cancelled out” yielding a boundary representation of a solid in terms of an oriented set of surface patches. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the body to be defined. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. Auxiliary commands LIST BODY DELETE BODY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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FACE-THICKNESS

Sec. 6.6 Solid models

FACE-THICKNESS facei thicki

BODY

FACE-THICKNESS defines solid geometry face thicknesses. BODY Solid geometry body label number. facei The face label number (for body BODY). thicki The face thickness (constant). Auxiliary commands LIST FACE-THICKNESS FIRST LAST [0.0] [currently active solid body]

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FACELINK

FACELINK

NAME OPTION BODY1 FACE1 BODY2 FACE2 PCTOLERANCE

FACELINK establishes a link, for meshing purposes, between two faces of distinct solid bodies, or between a face of a solid body and a surface. Once the link is established, the program stores the mesh triangulation of whichever of the two faces/surfaces is meshed first. The meshing of the corresponding linked face/surface utilizes the same triangulation, thereby resulting in congruent triangulations and compatible meshes “across” the linked faces/surfaces. NAME The label number of the face link. [(highest face link label number) + 1]

OPTION This parameter offers basic options for creating the facelinks: ONE

[TWO]

Facelinks are created between the faces of a given body and the remaining adjacent faces and surfaces. Facelinks are created between two bodies. Facelinks are created for all the faces and surfaces in the model.

TWO ALL

BODY1 The label number of the solid body of which FACE1 is a bounding face. Note: BODY1 = 0 implies that FACE1 is a surface. FACE1 The label number of the first face/surface of the linked pair. BODY2 The label number of the solid body of which FACE2 is a bounding face. Note: BODY2 = 0 implies that FACE2 is a surface. FACE2 The label number of the second face/surface of the linked pair. PCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine whether two faces match. DEFAULT value set by parameter COINCIDENCE of command TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC [DEFAULT]

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FACELINK

Sec. 6.6 Solid models

Note: Note: Note:

BODY1, FACE1, BODY2, FACE2 are used only when OPTION=ONE or TWO. BODY1 cannot equal BODY2, i.e., either two distinct bodies are given or one solid body face and a surface are given. When a body is modified, the associated face links will be updated. When a body is deleted, the associated face links will be deleted. When a surface is deleted, the associated face link will be deleted

Auxiliary commands LIST FACELINK DELETE FACELINK FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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BODY-DISCREP

Sec. 6.6 Solid models

BODY-DISCREP

NAME

Creates a “discrete boundary representation” for a given body. The “discrete boundary representation” (“discrete brep” in short) of a body is simply a triangular surface mesh (of the body) that has the advantage of being modifiable by command BODY-DEFEATURE. NAME Body label.

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BODY-DEFEATURE

BODY-DEFEATURE

NAME SIZE DOMKEEP DOMREMV PREVIEW OPTION ANGLE SPREAD

After having obtained a “discrete boundary representation” (“discrete brep” in short) of a body with the command BODY-DISCREP, this command enables the modification of the “discrete brep”. The actual (geometric) body is never modified. The meshing is limited to 4/ 10/11-node tetrahedral elements. The main purpose of this command is the removal of “small” features which can be of the “boss” type (protrusion) or the “cut” type (may extend to being a hole). The secondary purpose is the removal of surface triangles (on the “discrete brep”) that have either a “small” length or height. NAME Body label. SIZE Any surface triangle on the “discrete brep” whose shortest length or height is below SIZE should be eliminated from the “discrete brep”. DOMKEEP [0] Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body faces that should not be modified. More exactly, the surface triangles on the “discrete brep” that are classified on a body face in the domain should not be modified. DOMREMV [0] Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body faces that should be removed. More exactly, the surface triangles on the “discrete brep” that are classified on a body face in the domain should be removed. It is recommended to use one domain per feature to remove. PREVIEW Preview flag. {YES/NO} YES [NO]

the command flags the surface triangles on the “discrete brep” that are targeted for removal to enable their display. It does not actually remove them. the command will remove the surface triangles that are targeted for removal.

NO

OPTION [COARSEN] Method by which the body faces defined by DOMREMV are removed. {REMESH1/ REMESH2/COARSEN} REMESH1, REMESH2 the body faces in domain defined by DOMREMV are removed using a remeshing algorithm. This option should be used only

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BODY-DEFEATURE

Sec. 6.6 Solid models

when the frontier of the domain is convex. It has to be used when the feature is a hole (whose frontiers should be convex). With REMESH1, the normals used to remesh the domain come from the (boundary discrete brepresentation) faces inside the domain. With REMESH2, the normals used come from the faces immediately adjacent to the domain. COARSEN the body faces in the domain defined by DOMREMV are removed using a coarsening algorithm that is incremental. It cannot be used when the feature is a hole.

ANGLE [30.0] This is the angle in degrees used when using the incremental coarsening algorithm. The larger the angle, the more surface triangles can be removed but the more deformed the “discrete brep” will be. When attempting to remove a feature using the COARSEN option, it is recommended to set the ANGLE to 180.0 so that the feature can be completely removed. {0.0 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 180.0} SPREAD [YES] Determines whether the removal of surface triangles in the “discrete brep” extends to other surfaces triangles outside the feature indicated by DOMREMV. {YES/NO} NO the command only attempts to remove surface triangles that are below SIZE or that make up a feature (as indicated by DOMREMV). Other surface triangles will not be modified. the command may also modify other surface triangles if necessary.

YES Notes:

If a DOMREMV domain is given, the command will only attempt to remove the surface triangles associated with the domain. The SIZE parameter is then only used to spread (see SPREAD parameter). If no DOMREMV domain is given, the command will attempt to remove all surface triangles whose dimensions (shortest length or height) are below SIZE.

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BODY-CLEANUP

BODY-CLEANUP

NAME SIZE DOMKEEP DOMREMV PREVIEW

The main purpose of this command is the removal of “short” body edges and/or “thin” body faces. The actual (geometric) body is never modified but its AUI representation is. NAME Body label. SIZE Any body edge whose length is below SIZE should be eliminated. Any body face whose boundary is reduced to 2 edges (after the elimination of body edges) and whose width is below SIZE should be eliminated. DOMKEEP [0] Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body edges and/or faces that should not be removed. DOMREMV Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body edges and/or faces that should be removed. PREVIEW Preview flag. {YES/NO} YES [0]

[NO]

the command flags the body edges and/or faces that are targeted for removal to enable their display. It does not actually remove them. the command will remove them.

NO Notes:

If a DOMREMV domain is given, the command will only attempt to remove the body edges and/or faces that are given. The SIZE parameter is not used. If no DOMREMV domain is given, the command will attempt to remove body edges and/or faces whose dimensions are below SIZE.

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BODY-RESTORE

Sec. 6.6 Solid models

BODY-RESTORE

BODY

Restores the AUI topological representation of the body corresponding to the state of the body before commands such as BODY-CLEANUP, REM-EDGE or REM-FACE are executed (on that body). BODY Body label.

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LINE-FUNCTION

LINE-FUNCTION i fvali

NAME TYPE DL1 DL2 DL3 NPOINT (i = 1…NPOINT)

LINE-FUNCTION describes the variation of a quantity along a line. It may be used, for instance, to indicate how a load is distributed along some geometry line of the model. Note that the variation is spatial; variation of a quantity in time is described by TIMEFUNCTION.

DL2 DL1 0 1 TYPE = LINEAR u

DL3 DL2 DL1 0 0.5 1 u

TYPE = QUADRATIC

**TYPE = TABULAR fval
**

3

Du = 1/NPOINT i=3 1 u Du

NAME Label number of the line-function. TYPE [LINEAR] Selects the type of data variation, see Figure. This controls the actual parameters used – other parameters are ignored. LINEAR A linear variation from value DL1 to DL2.

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Sec. 6.7 Spatial functions

QUADRATIC

A quadratic variation from value DL1, through value DL3, to value DL2. The function values are given at a set of equally spaced points along the line. The function is linearly interpolated input values.

TABULAR

between the DL1 Value at the starting point of the line (u = 0 – see Figure). DL2 Value at the end point of the line (u = 1 – see Figure).

[DL1]

DL3 [DL1] Value at the middle point of the line (u = 0.5 – see Figure). This value should not be input for TYPE = LINEAR. NPOINT [3] The number of input function values, used when TYPE = TABULAR. The values are assigned at equally spaced points along the line, with linear interpolation used to determine values along the line. The first point corresponds to the starting point of the line (u = 0), and the last point to the end point of the line (u = 1). Note that NPOINT must be at least 3 (NPOINT = 2 would be equivalent to selecting TYPE = LINEAR). i Index of the input function point, which can take a value from 1 to NPOINT. fvali Value of the function at index point “i”. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE-FUNCTION DELETE LINE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]

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SURFACE-FUNCTION

SURFACE-FUNCTION

NAME TYPE DS1 DS2 DS3 DS4 DS5 DS6 DS7 DS8 DS9 MPOINT NPOINT

row col fvalij SURFACE-FUNCTION describes the variation of a quantity across a surface. It may be used, for instance, to indicate how a load is distributed over some geometry surface of the model. Note that the variation is spatial; variation of a quantity in time is described by TIMEFUNCTION.

**DS2 DS1 DS3
**

v

DS2

DS5

(0,1) DS4 (1,0)

**DS6 DS8 DS9 (0,1) (1,1) DS7 DS4 DS3
**

v

DS1 (1,1)

(0,0) u

(0,0)

u

(1,0)

TYPE = LINEAR

(0,1) [NPOINT, 1]

TYPE = QUADRATIC

(1,1) [NPOINT, MPOINT]

(0,0) [1,1]

v u

(1,0) [1,MPOINT]

TYPE = TABULAR

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SURFACE-FUNCTION

Sec. 6.7 Spatial functions

NAME Label number of the surface-function. TYPE [LINEAR] Selects the type of data variation – see Figure. This controls the actual parameters used. LINEAR A bilinear variation from surface vertex values DS1, DS2, DS3, DS4. A biquadratic variation from surface vertex values DS1 to DS4, and mid-side/internal surface point values DS5 to DS9. The function values are given at a grid of regularly spaced points on the surface. The function is bilinearly interpolated between the input values.

QUADRATIC

TABULAR

DS1 Value at the (u = 1, v = 1) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS2 Value at the (u = 0, v = 1) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS3 Value at the (u = 0, v = 0) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS4 Value at the (u = 1, v = 0) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS5 Value at the (u = 0.5, v = 1) mid-side point of the surface, see Figure. DS6 Value at the (u = 0, v = 0.5) mid-side point of the surface, see Figure. DS7 Value at the (u = 0.5, v = 0) mid-side point of the surface, see Figure. DS8 Value at the (u = 1, v = 0.5) mid-side point of the surface, see Figure. DS9 Value at the (u = 0.5, v = 0.5) internal point of the surface, see Figure. [DS1]

[DS1]

[DS1]

[DS1]

[DS1]

[DS1]

[DS1]

[DS1]

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SURFACE-FUNCTION

MPOINT [3] The number of input points in the u-parametric direction of the surface, used when TYPE = TABULAR. The function values are assigned for a grid of points on the surface, with bilinear interpolation used to determine values on the surface. MPOINT defines the number of “columns” for the input grid. NPOINT [3] The number of input points in the v-parametric direction of the surface, used when TYPE = TABULAR. The function values are assigned for a grid of points on the surface, with bilinear interpolation used to determine values on the surface. NPOINT defines the number of “rows” for the input grid. row Row index of the input function point, which can take a value from 1 to NPOINT. {1 ≤ row ≤ NPOINT} col Column index of the input function point, which can take a value from 1 to MPOINT. {1 ≤ col ≤ MPOINT} fvalij Value of the function at index point (i = row, j = col). Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE-FUNCTION DELETE SURFACE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]

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VOLUME-FUNCTION

Sec. 6.7 Spatial functions

VOLUME-FUNCTION

NAME TYPE DV1 DV2 DV3 DV4 DV5 DV6 DV7 DV8 ... DV27

VOLUME-FUNCTION describes the variation of a quantity within a volume. It may be used, for instance, to indicate how a load is distributed within some geometry volume of the model. Note that the variation is spatial; variation of a quantity in time is described by TIMEFUNCTION. NAME Label number of the volume-function. TYPE Selects the type of data variation. This controls the actual parameters used. LINEAR QUADRATIC [LINEAR]

A trilinear variation from volume vertex values DV1 to DV8. A triquadratic variation from volume vertex values DV1 to DV8, and mid-side/internal volume point values DV9 to DV27.

DV1...DV27 [DVi = DV1 (i = 2...27)] Values at the vertex, mid-side, and internal points of the volume, see table below. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME-FUNCTION DELETE VOLUME-FUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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VOLUME FUNCTION

Volume-function parametric locations: Value DV1 DV2 DV3 DV4 DV5 DV6 DV7 DV8 DV9 DV10 DV11 DV12 DV13 DV14 DV15 DV16 DV17 DV18 DV19 DV20 DV21 DV22 DV23 DV24 DV25 DV26 DV27 u 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1 0 0 1 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 v 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1 0 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 w 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 0

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TRANSFORMATION COMBINED

Sec. 6.8 Transformations

TRANSFORMATION COMBINED positioni transformi

NAME

TRANSFORMATION COMBINED defines a general transformation as an ordered sequence of existing transformations defined by command TRANSFORMATION. The associated transformation matrix is calculated by concatenating the matrices of the sequence of transformations. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of transformation being defined. positioni Index for the transformation, indicating its position in the order of transformation application. In the concatenation the transformation associated with “positioni” = 1 is applied first, then that for “positioni” = 2, and so on. If a transformation is not defined for a given index then the identity transformation is assumed. The index may also be used to delete a transformation from the concatenating sequence. transformi [0] Label number of an existing transformation defined by command TRANSFORMATION (provided that no recursion is implied). A zero value indicates the identity transformation. Example TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION TRANSFORMATION ROTATION TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION NAME=1 MODE=SYSTEM SYSTEM=1, DX=1.0 NAME=2 MODE=AXIS SYSTEM=1, AXIS=XL ANGLE=35.0 NAME=3 MODE=SYSTEM SYSTEM=1, DX=-1.0

... TRANSFORMATION COMBINED NAME=4 1 1 2 2 3 3 @ ... TRANSFORMATION COMBINED NAME=5 1 4 2 1 @

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TRANSFORMATION COMBINED

The last command is equivalent to TRANSFORMATION COMBINED NAME=5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 @ Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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TRANSFORMATION DIRECT

Sec. 6.8 Transformations

TRANSFORMATION DIRECT

NAME T11 T12 T13 T14 T21 T22 T23 T24 T31 T32 T33 T34

TRANSFORMATION DIRECT defines a general 3-D transformation by directly specifying the transformation matrix. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. Tij Components of the 3-D transformation matrix:

⎡ T11 T12 ⎢T T 22 ⎢ 21 ⎢ T31 T32 ⎢ 0 ⎣0

T13 T23 T33 0

T14 ⎤ T24 ⎥ ⎥ T34 ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎦

Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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TRANSFORMATION POINTS

TRANSFORMATION POINTS

NAME P1 P2 P3 Q1 Q2 Q3

TRANSFORMATION POINTS defines a rigid-body 3-D transformation by the specification of 6 geometry points – 3 “initial” points P1, P2, P3, and 3 “target” points Q1, Q2, Q3. The transformation is such that point P1 is transformed into point Q1, the direction from P1 to P2 is transformed into the direction from Q1 to Q2, and the plane defined by the 3 initial points is transformed into the plane defined by the 3 target points. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of three non-coincident, non-collinear, initial geometry points. Q1, Q2, Q3 Label numbers of three target points, which must also be non-coincident and non-collinear. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION

Sec. 6.8 Transformations

TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION

NAME MODE SYSTEM PLANE P1 P2 P3

TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION defines a 3-D reflection (mirror) transformation about a plane. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE [SYSTEM] Selects the method of defining the plane of the transformation. This controls which parameters actually define the transformation, other parameters are ignored. SYSTEM The reflection is defined to be relative to one of the base coordinate planes of a given local coordinate system. (SYSTEM, PLANE) The reflection plane is defined via three (non-collinear) points. (P1, P2, P3)

POINTS

SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Local coordinate system label number. The reflection is made relative to one of the base coordinate planes of this system. PLANE [XZ] Selects a coordinate plane with respect to the base coordinate directions (XL, YL, ZL) of the coordinate system “SYSTEM”. XY XZ YZ XL-YL plane of coordinate system SYSTEM. XL-ZL plane of coordinate system SYSTEM. YL-ZL plane of coordinate system SYSTEM.

P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of geometry points which define the plane of reflection for the trans-formation. The points must be distinct, non-coincident, and non-collinear (in order to define a plane). Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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TRANSFORMATION ROTATION

TRANSFORMATION ROTATION

NAME MODE SYSTEM AXIS LINE P1 P2 ANGLE X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA

TRANSFORMATION ROTATION defines a 3-D rotation transformation, about an axis.

AXIS

T ANGLE

NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of rotation. This controls which parameters actually define the rotation – other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of rotation is taken as one of the basic axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system given by SYSTEM. (SYSTEM, AXIS, ANGLE) The axis of rotation is aligned with the straight line between the end points of a geometry line. Note that the geometry line is not necessarily straight. (LINE, ANGLE) The axis of rotation is taken to be the straight line between two geometry points. (P1, P2, ANGLE) The axis of rotation is defined by a position vector (lying on the axis), and a direction vector. (X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA, ANGLE)

LINE

POINTS

VECTORS

SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Local coordinate system label number. The rotation is relative to one of the base axes of this coordinate system.

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TRANSFORMATION ROTATION

Sec. 6.8 Transformations

AXIS [XL] Selects which of the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system given by SYSTEM, is used as the axis of rotation. {XL/YL/ZL} LINE Label number of a geometry line. The axis of rotation is given by the straight line between the starting point and ending point of the geometry line LINE. P1 P2 Label numbers of two geometry points. The axis of rotation is the straight line between geometry points P1 and P2. ANGLE The angle of rotation, measured in degrees. [0.0]

X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global components of a position vector indicating a point lying on the axis of rotation. XA Y A ZA Global components of a vector indicating the direction of the axis of rotation. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

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TRANSFORMATION SCALE

TRANSFORMATION SCALE

NAME MODE SYSTEM POINT SX SY SZ

TRANSFORMATION SCALE defines a 3-D scaling transformation. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE Selects the method of defining the transformation. This controls which parameters actually define the transformation, other parameters are ignored. SYSTEM The scaling transformation is defined by scale factors which are relative to the origin of a given local coordinate system and which scale parallel to its base axes (XL, YL, ZL). (SYSTEM, SX, SY, SZ) The scaling transformation is defined with the origin at a given geometry point, and by scale factors which scale parallel to the global Cartesian axes. (POINT, SX, SY, SZ)

POINT

SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Coordinate system label number. The scaling is relative to this coordinate system. POINT Geometry point label number. The origin of the scaling transformation is taken as this point. SX SY SZ Scaling factors. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0] [1.0] [1.0]

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TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION

Sec. 6.8 Transformations

TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION

NAME MODE SYSTEM DX DY DZ LINE P1 P2

TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION defines a 3-D translation transformation. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE [SYSTEM] Selects the method of defining the translation. This controls which parameters actually define the translation, other parameters are ignored. SYSTEM The translation is defined by increments parallel to the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of local coordinate system SYSTEM. (SYSTEM, DX, DY, DZ) The translation is defined as that which would translate the starting point of a geometry line to the ending point of the same geometry line. (LINE) The translation is defined as that which would translate one geometry point to another. (P1, P2)

LINE

POINTS

SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Local coordinate system label number. For MODE = SYSTEM the translation is relative to this coordinate system. DX [0.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Translations parallel to the base Cartesian system (XL,YL,ZL) associated with local coordinate system SYSTEM. LINE Label number of a geometry line. The translation is that which would translate the starting point of geometry line LINE to its ending point. P1 P2 Label numbers of two geometry points. The translation is that which would translate geometry point P1 to geometry point P2. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION

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**FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
**

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TRANSFORMATION INVERSE

TRANSFORMATION INVERSE

NAME TINVERT

Defines a 3-D geometry transformation as the inverse of another transformation. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation to be defined. TINVERT Label number of the transformation to be inverted to give the transformation being defined. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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DOMAIN

Sec. 6.9 Miscellaneous

DOMAIN typei namei bodyi

NAME

Defines a geometry “domain”, which is a collection of geometry entities. A domain may be referenced, for example, by parameter NCDOMAIN of the mesh generation commands (e.g. GSURFACE) to restrict nodal coincidence checking to within a set of geometry entities thereby facilitating partitioning of the finite element model into topologically distinct but geometrically adjacent regions. NAME [(current highest domain label number) + 1] Label number of the domain to be defined. typei Geometry entity type for entry ‘i’ in the list of geometry entities which comprise the domain. {‘POINT’/‘LINE’/‘SURFACE’/‘VOLUME’/‘EDGE’/‘FACE’/‘BODY’} namei Label number of the geometry entity of type typei bodyi Label number of a solid body, used to identify the entity when typei = EDGE or FACE. Auxiliary commands LIST DOMAIN DELETE DOMAIN FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0]

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MEASURE

MEASURE

GTYPE P1 P2 P3 BODY EDGE LINE N1 N2 N3 SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE RESPONSE PROGRAM

Measures the distance between 2 points or 2 nodes, the length of an edge or a line, or the angle formed by 3 points or 3 nodes. GTYPE Options for measurement: POINTS EDGE LINE POINT-ANGLE NODES NODE-ANGLE Distance between two points. Length of an edge of a body. Length of a line. Angle between three points. Distance between two nodes. Angle between three nodes. [POINTS]

P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of existing geometry points. P3 is only used when GTYPE=POINT-ANGLE. BODY Body label number. EDGE Edge label number. LINE Line label number. N1, N2, N3 Label numbers of existing nodes. N1 and N2 are only used when GTYPE=NODES or NODEANGLE. N3 is only used when GTYPE=NODE-ANGLE. SUBSTRUCTURE The substructure (ADINA) or model (ADINA-T/-F) number of the node in the model. REUSE The reuse number of the node in the model. Not applicable to ADINA-T/-F. RESPONSE Specifies the response for which the node is evaluated. [0]

[1]

[DEFAULT]

PROGRAM [current finite element program] The current finite element program, used only if GTYPE=NODES or NODE-ANGLE.

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GET-EDGE-FACES

Sec. 6.9 Miscellaneous

GET-EDGE-FACES GET-EDGE-POINTS

NAME BODY NAME BODY

GET-EDGE-FACES lists the body faces connected to a body edge. GET-EDGE-POINTS lists theAUI points bounding a body edge. NAME Edge label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the edge belongs to. {1, 2, ...}

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GET-FACE-EDGES

GET-FACE-EDGES

NAME BODY

Lists the body edges bounding a body face. NAME Face label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the face belongs to. {1, 2, ...}

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REM-EDGE

Sec. 6.9 Miscellaneous

REM-EDGE

NAME BODY POINT

Removes a body edge by collapsing one end point onto the other. The remaining point is given as POINT. If POINT is set to 0, the remaining point is chosen by the command. NAME Body edge label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the edge belongs to. {1, 2, ...} POINT Label of point that will remain. {0, 1, 2, ...}

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REM-FACE

REM-FACE

NAME BODY EDGE

Removes a body face (bounded by exactly 2 edges) by collapsing one bounding edge onto the other. The remaining edge is given as EDGE. If EDGE is set to 0, the remaining edge is chosen by the command. NAME Body face label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the face belongs to. {1, 2, ...} EDGE Label of edge that will remain. {0, 1, 2, ...}

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BODY BLEND

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY BLEND edgei or facei (OPTION=FACE)

NAME OPTION R1 R2 EDGE POINT

(OPTION=CONSTANT, LINEAR)

The command BODY BLEND takes an existing solid geometry body and modifies specified edges to have a ‘radius’ blend. Two options allow for a constant or variable ‘radius’ blend. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

Specified edge

R1

Specified edge

Specified point

R2

R1

Before blend

After blend

Before blend

After blend

Constant blend

OPTION=CONSTANT

Linear blend

OPTION=LINEAR

NAME Label number of the body to be blended. An existing body label number must be specified. OPTION This parameter offers basic options for blending the edges. CONSTANT LINEAR Multiple edges are blended by a constant radius. A single edge of the body is blended by two radii - one at each end (vertex) of the edge. Multiple faces are blended by a constant radius. [CONSTANT]

FACE

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BODY BLEND

R1 The first radius of the blend. R1 must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). R2 The second radius of the blend. R2 is only used when OPTION=LINEAR,and must be input with a non-negative value (no default is assumed). EDGE Label number of the edge to be blended. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINEAR, in whch case an existing edge label number ust be specified (no default is assumed). POINT Label number of a point at which the blend radius is R1. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINEAR, in which case an existing point label number must be specified (no default is assumed). edgei Label numbers of body edges to be blended with (constant) radius R1. This data is only used when OPTION=CONSTANT. facei Label numbers of body faces to be blended with (constatnt) radius R1. This data is only used when OPTION=FACE.

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BODY BLOCK

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY BLOCK

NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AX AY AZ BX BY BZ DX1 DX2 DX3 P1 P2

The command BODY BLOCK defines a solid geometry block or “brick” shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the block shape. The block body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

**Local coordinate system
**

P2

z y x Center P1 DX2 DX1

DX3

NAME Label number of the body to be defined.

[(highest body label number) + 1]

OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the block: CENTERED DIAGONAL

[CENTERED]

The block is defined by its center, orientation and dimensions. The block is defined by two diagonally opposite geometry points and its orientation.

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BODY BLOCK

POSITION Specifies how the block center is located. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED). VECTOR

[VECTOR]

The center of the block is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3) with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the block is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTERED), possibly a vertex of another body. [SYSTEM]

POINT

ORIENTATION Specifies how the edges of the block are aligned: SYSTEM

The block is aligned with the base Cartesian axes of a local coordinate system (possibly the global coordinate system). The X,Y,Z directions of the block edges are input in terms of two non-parallel direction vectors (AX,AY,AZ), (BX,BY,BZ). These vectors are used to form a right-handed system as described below.

VECTORS

CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the block, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The center of the block - the label number of an existing geometry point. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, in which case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the block and/or provide the orientation of the block. The center of the block may be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. The local directions of the block are aligned with the base Cartesian system (XL,YL,ZL) of this system, see command SYSTEM, when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when POSITION=VECTOR (and OPTION=CENTERED), or when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system.

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AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the local x-direction of the block. If OPTION= CENTERED, then the component DX1 will be associated with this direction. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used if ORIENTATION=VECTOR. BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector, which specifies, in conjunction with vector (AX,AY,AZ), the local x-y plane of the block orientation. The vector product, or “cross” product, of (AX,AY,AZ) with (BX,BY,BZ) gives the local z-direction, and the y-direction is then given by the right hand rule. If OPTION=CENTERED the components DX2, DX3 will be associated with the local y-direction and z-directions respectively. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used if ORIENTATION=VECTOR. DX1 DX2 DX3 The dimensions of the block, aligned with the local x, y and z-directions of the block, respectively. These lengths are only used if OPTION=CENTERED, in which case they must be input with positive values (no defaults are assumed). P1 P2 Label numbers of two existing geometry points which define the opposite corners of a diagonal of the block. These parameters are only used when OPTION= DIAGONAL, and in that case two distinct and non-coincident points must be specified (no defaults are assumed).

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BODY CHAMFER

BODY CHAMFER edgei facei or facei (OPTION=FACE) (OPTION=EDGE)

NAME R1 R2 OPTION

The command BODY CHAMFER applies chamfers to edges or faces of a solid geometry body. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

Specified edge Range 1 Specified face

Range 2

Before chamfer applied

After chamfer applied

NAME Label number of the body to be chamfered. (No default - an existing body name must be given.) R1 The first range (depth) of the chamfer. R1 must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). R2 [R1] The second range (depth) of the chamfer. If R2 is input, it cannot be negative. If R2 = 0.0, then it is assumed that R2 = R1.

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OPTION This parameter offers basic options for chamfering the edges or faces: EDGE FACE Multiple edges are chamfered. Multiple faces are chamfered.

[EDGE]

edgei Label numbers of edges to be chamfered. This parameters is used only when OPTION=EDGE. facei Label numbers of faces to be chamfered with range R1. This data is only used when R2 is not equal to R1. (OPTION=EDGE) facei Label numbers of faces to be chamfered. (OPTION=FACE)

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BODY CONE

BODY CONE

NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION X1 X2 X3 APEX BASE SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ SANGLE RADIUS LENGTH

The command BODY CONE defines a solid geometry cone shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the cone shape. The cone body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

Axis Apex

Semi-angle Length

Base center

Radius

NAME Label number of the body to be defined.

[(highest body label number) + 1]

OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the cone: APEX BASE ENDPOINTS

[APEX]

The cone is defined by its apex, semi-angle, orientation, and length. The cone is defined by its base center, orientation, radius and length. The cone is defined by two end points (APEX, BASE) and its base radius.

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POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the apex or base of the cone is located. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=APEX or BASE.) VECTOR The apex or base of the cone is specified by a position vector (X1,X2,X3) - with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The apex or base of the cone is specified by an existing geometry point (APEX or BASE), possibly a vertex of another body.

POINT

ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how the direction of the cone axis is defined. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=APEX or BASE.) SYSTEM The cone axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM) (possibly the global coordinate system). The cone axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.

VECTOR

X1 [0.0] X2 [0.0] X3 [0.0] The position vector of the apex or base of the cone, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR, and OPTION=APEX or BASE. APEX The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the apex of the cone. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=APEX, or when OPTION=ENDPOINTS; in either case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). BASE The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the base center of the cone. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=BASE, or when OPTION=ENDPOINTS; in either case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the apex or base of the cone and/or define the cone axis direction. The apex or base of the cone may be given in

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BODY CONE

terms of the curvilinear coordinates (X1,X2,X3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION=SYSTEM the cone axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM . This parameter is only used when OPTION=APEX or BASE, and when POSITION= VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the cone axis. Note that both positive and negative coordinate system axial directions may be requested. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=APEX or BASE. {XL/YL/ZL/XL-/YL-/ZL-}

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BODY CYLINDER

NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ RADIUS LENGTH P1 P2 SHEET

The command BODY CYLINDER defines a solid geometry cylinder shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the cylinder shape. The cylinder body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

Radius

P1

Center

P2

Axis

Length

NAME Label number of the body to be defined.

[(highest body label number) + 1]

OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the cylinder: CENTERED ENDPOINTS

[CENTERED]

The cylinder is defined by its center, orientation and dimensions. The cylinder is defined by two end points and its radius.

POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the center of the cylinder is located. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED.

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BODY CYLINDER

VECTOR

The center of the cylinder is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3) - with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the cylinder is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body.

POINT

ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how the direction of the cylinder axis is defined. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. SYSTEM The cylinder axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM) (possibly the global coordinate system). The cylinder axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.

VECTOR

CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the cylinder, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the cylinder . This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] The number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the cylinder and/or define the cylinder axis direction. The center of the cylinder may be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION= SYSTEM the cylinder axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED and POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION= SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the cylinder axis. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL}

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AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the cylinder axis direction. This vector is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. RADIUS The radius of the cylinder, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). LENGTH The axial length of the cylinder. This parameter is used only when OPTION=CENTERED, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). P1 P2 Label numbers of two existing geometry points which implicitly define the location, orientation, and length of the cylinder - the only other required data to complete the cylinder definition is the radius (RADIUS). These parameters are only used when OPTION=ENDPOINTS, in which case they must be distinct and non-coincident (also, no defaults are assumed). SHEET Create cylindrical sheet body instead of solid body. {NO, YES} [NO]

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BODY HOLLOW

BODY HOLLOW facei thicknessi

NAME THICKNESS

The command BODY HOLLOW hollows a solid geometry body with thickness THICKNESS. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be hollowed. An existing body name must be given. THICKNESS The thickness of all the faces except the faces listed in the table input. facei Label numbers of faces. thicknessi Thickness for the given face label number. Note: if thicknessi = 0.0, then facei is removed.

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BODY INTERSECT

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BODY INTERSECT bodyi

NAME KEEP-TOOL

The command BODY INTERSECT takes an existing solid body (the “target”) and modifies it by taking the intersection of it with a set of other (overlapping) solid bodies (tools). This definition corresponds to a Boolean “intersection” of several bodies. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the (target) body to be modified. (No default - an existing body name must be given.) KEEP-TOOL [NO] Indicates whether or not the tools are to be kept after applying the command BODY INTERSECT. {NO/YES} bodyi Label numbers of other bodies which are to be intersected with the target body. Note that bodyi cannot be the same as that specified for parameter NAME, and repeated body names are only counted once. Also, each body must overlap some part of each of the other bodies, including the target body - i.e. a solid body must result from the intersection operations - an “empty” body cannot be defined.

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BODY MERGE

BODY MERGE bodyi

NAME KEEP-TOOL

The command BODY MERGE takes an existing solid body (the “target”) and modifies it by joining it together with a set of other solid bodies (tools). This definition corresponds to a Boolean “union” of several bodies. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the (target) body to be modified. (No default - an existing body name must be given.) KEEP-TOOL [NO] Indicates whether or not the tools are to be kept after applying the command BODY MERGE. {NO/YES} bodyi Label numbers of other bodies which are to be merged with the target body. Note that bodyi cannot be the same as that specified for parameter NAME, and repeated body names are only counted once.

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BODY PARTITION

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY PARTITION facei

NAME EXTEND

The command BODY PARTITION takes an existing solid body and partition it with a set of faces of the body, resulting in two or more bodies. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

Body 2

Face 1 Body 1 Body 1

Body 1 before partition

Body 1 and 2 after partition by face 1

NAME Label number of the body to be partitioned. (No default - an existing body name must be given.) EXTEND Indicates whether or not the faces are extended. {NO/YES} [NO]

facei Label numbers of faces used to partition the body. Note that repeated face names will only be counted once. Also, when EXTEND=YES and more than one face is used to partition the body, these extended faces should not intersect.

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BODY PIPE

BODY PIPE

NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ RADIUS LENGTH P1 P2 THICKNESS

The command BODY PIPE defines a solid geometry pipe shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the pipe shape. The pipe body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body can be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME [(highest body label number)+1]

Radius

P1

Center

P2

Axis

Length

Thickness

Label number of the body to be defined. OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the pipe: CENTERED ENDPOINTS [CENTERED]

The pipe is defined by its center, orientation and dimensions. The pipe is defined by two end points and dimensions.

POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the center of the pipe is located. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. VECTOR The center of the pipe is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3) - with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the pipe is specified by an existing geometry point

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(CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body. ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how the direction of the pipe axis is defined. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. SYSTEM The pipe axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM), possibly the global coordinate system. The pipe axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.

VECTORS

CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the pipe, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the pipe . This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the pipe and/or define the pipe axis direction. The center of the pipe can be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION= SYSTEM the pipe axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED and POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the pipe axis. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL} AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the pipe axis direction. This vector is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED.

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RADIUS The outer radius of the pipe, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). LENGTH The axial length of the pipe. This parameter is used only when OPTION=CENTERED, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). P1 P2 Label numbers of two existing geometry points which implicitly define the location, orientation, and length of the pipe - the only other required data to complete the pipe definition is the radius and thickness (RADIUS, THICKNESS). P1 and P2 are only used when OPTION=ENDPOINTS, in which case they must be distinct and non-coincident (also, no defaults are assumed). THICKNESS The thickness of the pipe, which must be input with a positive value less than RADIUS (no default is assumed).

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BODY PRISM

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY PRISM

NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS POLE AX AY AZ BX BY BZ RADIUS LENGTH P1 P2 P3 NSIDES SHEET

The command BODY PRISM defines a prismatic solid geometry shape, which is a cylinder with a regular polygonal cross-section. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the prism shape. The prism body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

P3 (the pole)

P1

Center

P2 Axis Radius

Length

NAME Label number of the body to be defined.

[(highest body label number) + 1]

OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the prism: CENTERED

[CENTERED]

The prism is defined by its center, orientation, dimensions and number of sides. The prism is defined by two end points, a point giving the pole direction, its radius and number of sides.

POINTS

POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the center of the prism is located. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED.

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VECTOR

The center of the prism is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3) - with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the prism is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body.

POINT

ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how both the axial and pole directions of the prism are defined (the pole direction passes through a vertex of the polygonal cross-section). (This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. SYSTEM The prism axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS), and the pole with another axis (POLE), of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM), possibly the global coordinate system. The prism axis and pole directions are defined via direction vectors (AX,AY,AZ), (BX, BY, BZ) in the global coordinate system.

VECTORS

CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the prism, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the prism . This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the prism and/or define both the axis and pole directions of the prism. The center of the prism can be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION=SYSTEM the prism axis and pole directions are aligned with two of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS, POLE), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED and POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the prism axis. This parameter is used only when

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ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL} POLE [YL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the pole direction of the prism. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL} AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the prism axis direction. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector, which specifies, in conjunction with vector (AX,AY,AZ), the local axis-pole plane of the block orientation. The vector product, or “cross” product, of (AX,AY,AZ) with (BX,BY,BZ) gives the local z-direction, and the pole direction is then given by the right hand rule. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. RADIUS The radius of the prism, i.e. the distance of the points of the polygonal cross-section from the prism axis. This value must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). LENGTH The axial length of the prism. This parameter is used only when OPTION=CENTERED, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of three non-collinear existing geometry points which implicitly define the location, orientation, and length of the prism - the only other required data to complete the prism definition is the radius (RADIUS). The points P1, P2 are taken to lie at the end points on the axis of the prism, whilst point P3 determines the pole direction of the prism. These parameters are only used when OPTION=POINTS, in which case they must be distinct, non-coincident and non-collinear (also, no defaults are assumed). NSIDES [3] The number of sides of the polygonal cross-section of the prism. NSIDES must be at least 3. SHEET Create cylindrical sheet body instead of solid body. {NO, YES}

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BODY PROJECT

BODY PROJECT linei

N AME F ACE DIRECTION V ECTOR P1 P2 DX DY DZ DELETE-LINE

Projects lines onto a face of the body. NAME Label number of the body to be projected onto. An existing body name must be given. FACE Label number of the face to be projected onto. DIRECTION Specifies the direction of projection. {NORMAL/VECTOR} NORMAL VECTOR Lines project to the face in the direction of the face normal. Lines project to the face along the given vector direction. [NORMAL]

VECTOR [VALUES] Specifies how the vector is defined. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR.) {COMPONENTS/POINTS} COMPONENTS The vector is defined by DX, DY, and DZ. POINTS The vector is defined by two points (P1 and P2). P1 P2 Label numbers of geometry points to define the projection vector. (These two parameters are only used when VECTOR=POINTS.) DX DY DZ Components of vector to define the projection vector. (These three parameters are only used when VECTOR=COMPONENTS.) DELETE-LINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after projection is done. {YES/NO} linei Label numbers of geometry lines used to project to the face.

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BODY REVOLVED

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY REVOLVED

NAME MODE BODY FACE ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA MESH NODES SUBSTRUCTURE 2D-EGROUP 3D-EGROUP NDIV NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE DELETE-FACE-ELEMENT

Face 1

Body 1 before revolution

Body 1 after revolution Face 1 is revolved

Creates a revolved body on an existing body by rotating a face of the body about an axis. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]

MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to create the body. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved body - other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given coordinate axis of a coordinate system (FACE, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open , i.e. , have non-coincident end points) (FACE, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (noncoincident) geometry points (FACE,ANGLE,AP1,AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by an position vector and a direction vector (FACE, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).

LINE

POINTS

VECTORS

**BODY Label number of the body to be revolved. FACE Label number of the face to be revolved.
**

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ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). The sign of the angle is given by the right hand rule — i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. {-360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360} SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this cartesian coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE=AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the basic axes (XL,YL,ZL) of the local cartesian coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution {XL/YL/ZL}. ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 topoint AP2. X0, Y0, Z0 Global coordinates of the position vector defining the axis of rotation when MODE=VECTORS. [0.0]

XA [1.0] YA, ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE=VECTORS. MESH [NO] Indicates whether or not the mesh is generated while a swept body is created. If MESH = YES, 3-D elements can be created if 2-D elements exist on the face. NODES [0] The number of nodes per element of the mesh. {0/8/20/27} For the default 0, the program assigns the number of nodes per element in the resulting 3-D mesh based on the corresponding number of nodes of the 2-D mesh on the face, as follows: 2-D 4 8 9 3-D 8 20 27

SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] The label number of the substructure (ADINA) in which the elements and nodes are created.

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2D-EGROUP [largest element group of the revolved face] The element group label of the elements on the revolved face. 3D-EGROUP [current group label number] The element group label of the elements on the revolved body. NDIV Number of elements created along the sweeping direction. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL [1]

[BOUNDARIES]

The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure (ADINA) or model (ADINA-T/-F). If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE * (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes of the substructure or model), then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed.

BOUNDARIES Coincidence checking is carried out for the nodes generated at vertices, edges, and faces of the geometry bodies. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. DELETE-FACE-ELEMENT Indicates whether elements on the 2-D mesh are deleted. ALL

[ALL]

Delete elements on 2-D mesh and also the element group if it does not contain any elements. Delete elements on 2-D mesh but do not delete the element group. Do not delete any elements.

ELEMENT NO

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BODY SECTION

BODY SECTION namei bodyi

NAME KEEP-SHEET KEEP-IMPRINT OPTION

The command BODY SECTION partitions an existing solid body using a set of sheets (defined using SHEET PLANE) or faces of other bodies, resulting in two or more bodies. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be partitioned. An existing body name must be given. KEEP-SHEET [NO] Indicates whether sheets are to be kept after partitioning. This parameter is used only when OPTION = SHEET. {NO/YES} KEEP-IMPRINT [NO] Indicates whether imprinted edges created by the section operation are to be kept. {NO/ YES} OPTION [SHEET] Specifies whether sheets or faces are used to partition the body. {SHEET/FACE} SHEET FACE Use sheets to section the body. Use faces of bodies to section the body.

namei Label number of a sheet (OPTION=SHEET) or face (OPTION=FACE). Note: The following remarks apply to faces also. - orientation of two adjacent sheets should be the same. - each sheet (or set of connected sheets) must divide the body into completely separate bodies; - each sheet (or set of connected sheets) cannot have its boundary within the body to be sectioned; - the sheets cannot intersect; - three or more sheets cannot meet at a common edge.

bodyi Label number of a solid body. Used when OPTION=FACE.

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BODY SEW

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY SEW bodyi

NAME SOLID DELETE-BODY HEAL SEWGAP

The command BODY SEW sews a set of sheet bodies into a sewn body. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]

SOLID [YES] Indicates whether a solid body is to be created. If SOLID=NO, the created sewn body is a sheet body.{YES/NO} DELETE-BODY [YES] Indicates whether the sheet bodies are deleted after the sewn body is created.{YES/NO} HEAL [NO] If the resulting sewn body does not have a complete boundary, then any holes are treated as wounds which are healed as specified by HEAL. Only used when SOLID=YES. {NO/CAP/EXTEND} NO Do not heal wounds. Any holes (gaps) will only be closed if they are smaller than the sewing gap. Create a face formed by all edges of the hole to cover up (cap) the hole. Faces around the hole are extended until they cover the hole.

CAP EXTEND

SEWGAP [0.01] Factor used to determine the sewing gap value. The gap value used to sew the body is SEWGAP * (the largest of the maximum coordinate differences in each global coordinate direction considering all the bodies that are being sewn together). bodyi Label numbers of sheet bodies which are used to create the sewn body.

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BODY SHEET

BODY SHEET linei

NAME LINE DELETE-LINE

The command BODY SHEET defines a sheet body by a set of geometry lines. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]

LINE Label number of geometry line comprising the external loop of the sheet body. DELETE-LINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after applying the command BODY SHEET. {YES/NO} linei Label numbers of geometry lines comprising the internal loops of the sheet body.

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BODY SPHERE

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY SPHERE

NAME POSITION DIMENSION CX1 CX2 CX3 SYSTEM CENTER RADIUS POINT

The command BODY SPHERE defines a solid geometry sphere shape. The sphere body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed.

Radius

Center

Point

NAME Label number of the body to be defined. POSITION Specifies how the sphere center is located: VECTOR

[(highest body label number) + 1]

[VECTOR]

The center of the sphere is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3) - with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the sphere is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body. [RADIUS]

POINT

DIMENSION Specifies the size of the sphere: RADIUS POINT

The radius of the sphere is input via parameter RADIUS. An existing geometry point lying on the surface of the sphere is used to determine its radius.

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BODY SPHERE

CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the sphere, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR. SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the sphere, in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. This parameter is only used when POSITION=VECTOR. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. CENTER The center of the sphere - the label number of an existing geometry point. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). RADIUS The radius of the sphere, used only when DIMENSION=RADIUS, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). POINT Label number of an existing geometry point which implicitly defines the radius of the sphere (the point is assumed to be on the surface of the sphere). This parameter is only used when DIMENSION=POINT, in which case it must be non-coincident with the sphere center (also, no default is assumed).

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BODY SUBTRACT

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY SUBTRACT bodyi

NAME KEEP-TOOL KEEP-IMPRINT

The command BODY SUBTRACT takes an existing solid body (the “target”) and modifies it by removing from it a set of other solid bodies (tools). This definition corresponds to a Boolean subtraction of one or more bodies from a given solid body. E.g. to “drill” a hole through a body you could subtract a cylindrical body from it. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the (target) body to be modified. (No default - an existing body name must be given.) KEEP-TOOL [NO] Indicates whether or not the tools are to be kept after applying the command BODY SUBTRACT. {NO/YES} KEEP-IMPRINT [NO] Indicates whether or not the imprinted edges created by the Boolean operation are to be merged with the target body. {NO/YES} bodyi Label numbers of other bodies which are to be subtracted from the target body. Note that bodyi cannot be the same as that specified for parameter NAME, and repeated body names are only counted once.

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BODY SWEEP

BODY SWEEP NAME BODY FACE OPTION DX DY DZ SYSTEM LINE DELETE-LINE ALIGNMENT MESH NODES SUBSTRUCTURE 2D-EGROUP 3D-EGROUP NDIV NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE DELETE-FACE-ELEMENT

Line 1 Face 1

Body before sweep

Body after sweep Face 1 is swept along line 1

Creates a swept body on an existing body by sweeping a face of the body in a given direction or along a line. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]

BODY Label number of the body containing face to be swept. FACE Label number of the face to be swept. OPTION This parameter offers the options of body sweep. VECTOR LINE [VECTOR]

swept body is created by sweeping a geometry face in a given direction. swept body is created by sweeping a geometry face along a line.

DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with reference to coordinate system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e. it specifies both magnitude as well as direction.

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BODY SWEEP

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

(This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR) SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system which is referenced by the displacement vector (DX, DY, DZ). (This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR) LINE The geometry line label. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE) DELETE-LINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after applying the command BODY SWEEP. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE). {YES/NO} ALIGNMENT This parameter specifies the direction of the face during sweeping. NORMAL PARALLEL Face normal is at fixed angle to line tangent. Face normal always points to the same direction. [NORMAL]

MESH [NO] Indicates whether or not the mesh is generated while a swept body is created. If MESH = YES, 3-D elements can be created if 2-D elements exist on the face. NODES [0] The number of nodes per element of the mesh. {0/8/20/27} For the default 0, the program assigns the number of nodes per element in the resulting 3-D mesh based on the corresponding number of nodes of the 2-D mesh on the face, as follows: 2-D 4 8 9 3-D 8 20 27

SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] The label number of the substructure (ADINA) in which the elements and nodes are created. 2D-EGROUP [largest element group of the swept face] The element group label of the elements on the swept face. 3D-EGROUP [current group label number] The element group label of the elements on the swept body. NDIV Number of elements created along the sweeping direction.

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NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL

[BOUNDARIES]

The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure (ADINA) or model (ADINA-T/-F). If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE * (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes of the substructure or model), then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed.

BOUNDARIES Coincidence checking is carried out for the nodes generated at vertices, edges, and faces of the geometry bodies. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. DELETE-FACE-ELEMENT Indicates whether elements on the 2-D mesh are deleted. ALL

[ALL]

Delete elements on 2-D mesh and also the element group if it does not contain any elements. Delete elements on 2-D mesh but do not delete the element group. Do not delete any elements.

ELEMENT NO

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BODY TORUS

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

BODY TORUS NAME POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ RMAJOR RMINOR BODY TORUS defines a solid geometry torus shape. The torus body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]

Major radius

Center

Top view

Axis

Minor radius

Side view

POSITION Specifies how the center of the torus is located: VECTOR [VECTOR]

The center of the torus is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2, CX3) with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the torus is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body. [SYSTEM]

POINT

ORIENTATION Specifies how the direction of the major torus axis is defined: SYSTEM

The torus axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM), possibly the global coordinate system.

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BODY TORUS

VECTOR

The torus axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.

CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the torus, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the torus. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the torus and/or define the major torus axis direction. The center of the torus may be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION= SYSTEM the torus axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the major torus axis. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. {XL/YL/ZL} AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the major torus axis direction. This vector is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR. RMAJOR The major radius of the torus, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). RMINOR The minor radius of the torus, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed).

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BODY TORUS

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

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BODY TRANSFORMED

BODY TRANSFORMED

NAME OPTION PARENT TRANSFORMATION NCOPY

bodyi The command BODY TRANSFORMED defines a solid geometry by copying or moving an existing Parasolid body. The transformed body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case free-form meshing is necessarily used - there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). The transformed body is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed bodies are identified by the current highest body label number + 1. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]

OPTION This parameter offers two options for defining the body: COPY MOVE The body is defined by coping an existing body. The body is defined by moving an existing body.

[COPY]

PARENT The label of the body to be copied (used only when OPTION=COPY). This parameter must be entered when copying a body. TRANSFORMATION Label number of a geometrical transformation defined by one of the TRANSFORMATION commands. This parameter must be entered. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of bodies to be generated by the transformation - transformation is repeated NCOPY times. bodyi Label numbers of body to be transformed.

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SHEET PLANE

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

SHEET PLANE

NAME OPTION POSITION OFFSET X Y Z POINT NX NY NZ P1 P2 P3

positioni pointi The command SHEET PLANE defines a planar sheet. A number of options allow for the position, orientation and dimensions of the planar sheet. The planar sheet may be used to partition a body into one or more bodies using the command BODY SECTION. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME The sheet label number. [(current highest sheet label number)+1]

OPTION Selects the method for the planar sheet definition: POLYGON XPLANE YPLANE ZPLANE POINT-NORMAL THREE-POINT Sheet defined by a set of co-planar points.

[POLYGON]

Sheet defined by normal vector in X direction. Sheet defined by normal vector in Y direction. Sheet defined by normal vector in Z direction. Sheet defined by a point and a normal vector. Sheet defined by three points.

POSITION [VECTOR] Selects the method to define origin point (only for OPTION=POINT-NORMAL): VECTOR POINT Origin is defined by a position vector (X,Y,Z). Origin is defined by an existing geometry point (POINT).

OFFSET Defines position of the planar sheet along the normal vector. This parameter is only used when OPTION= XPLANE, YPLANE, or ZPLANE. X [0.0] Y [0.0] Z [0.0] Defines origin of the vector normal to the sheet plane. These parameters are only used when

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SHEET PLANE

POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=POINT-NORMAL. POINT Defines geometry point - origin of the planar sheet. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=POINT-NORMAL. NX NY NZ Defines vector normal to the planar sheet. These parameters are only used when OPTION=POINT-NORMAL. [1.0] [0.0] [0.0]

P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of three existing geometry points which define planar sheet. This parameters are only used when OPTION=THREE-POINT (no defaults are assumed). positioni Position numbers of geometry points. pointi Label numbers of geometry points. Note: positioni and pointi are only used when OPTION=POLYGON.

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VOLUME BODY

Sec. 6.10 ADINA - M

VOLUME BODY

NAME BODY DELETE-BODY DEG-EDGE NPTS

Converts a body into a geometry volume. Only body of the following geometries can be converted into volume: tetrahedron, hexahedron, prism and pyramid. This command is only active when ADINA-M has been licensed. NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry volume. BODY Label number of solid geometry body to be converted into a geometry volume. If BODY=ALL, all the bodies will be converted into volumes. DELETE-BODY [YES] Indicates whether or not the body are to be deleted after applying the command VOLUME BODY. {YES/NO} DEG-EDGE [0] That parameter is used to degenerate edge of the body and body is a prism shape. Parameter can not be used when BODY= ALL. NPTS The number of intermediate points of non-straight and non-arc edges. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME FIRST LAST DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST Note that no geometry volume is deleted which has nodes and/or elements associated with it. [3]

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SURFACE FACE

SURFACE FACE

NAME BODY FACE DELETE-BODY DEG-POINT NPTS REVERSE

Converts a face of a body into a geometry surface. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface to be created. BODY Label number of the body that contains the face to be converted. If BODY=ALL, faces of all sheet bodies will be converted into surfaces. FACE Label number of the face to be converted to a surface. If BODY=ALL or the specified body is a sheet body, then FACE=1 by default. Otherwise, a face label number has to be input. DELETE-BODY [YES] Indicates whether the body will be deleted after executing this command. {YES/NO} DEG-POINT [0] If the face is a triangle, this parameter indicates which point will be the degenerate vertex of the created triangular surface. Otherwise, this parameter is ignored. If BODY=ALL is specified, this parameter is also ignored and the degenerate vertex is set by the program. NPTS [3] The number of intermediate points used for interpolating edges that are not straight or not arcs. REVERSE Reverses the orientation of the surface. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION [NO]

When deleting surfaces, OPTION=ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION=SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.

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Chapter 7 Model definition

MATERIAL ISOTROPIC

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL ISOTROPIC NAME K C JOULE-HEAT ELECTRIC-K Defines a constant, isotropic, conductivity and constant specific heat material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. K Thermal conductivity. {$ 0.0} C Heat capacity per unit volume. {$ 0.0} [0.0]

[0.0]

JOULE-HEAT Indicates whether this material is used for Joule heat analysis. { YES/NO } ELECTRIC-K Constant electrical conductivity (in chosen units, e.g., Siemens/m). { >= 0.0 } Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

[NO]

[0.0]

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MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC

MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC NAME KA KB KC C Defines a constant, orthotropic, thermal conductivity and constant specific heat material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. KA Thermal conductivity in a-direction. {$ 0.0} KB Thermal conductivity in b-direction. {$ 0.0} KC Thermal conductivity in c-direction. {$ 0.0} C Heat capacity per unit volume. {$ 0.0} Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

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MATERIAL TEMPDEP-K

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL TEMPDEP-K NAME C JOULE-HEAT thetai ki electric-ki Defines a material with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and constant specific heat. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. C Heat capacity per unit volume. {$ 0.0} JOULE-HEAT Indicates whether this material is used for Joule heat analysis. { YES/NO } thetai Temperature at data point "i". ki Thermal conductivity at temperature thetai. electric-ki Electrical conductivity at temperature "thetai" Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [0.0]

[NO]

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MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC

MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC NAME K thetai ci Defines a material with temperature dependent specific heat and constant, isotropic, thermal conductivity. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. K Thermal conductivity. {$ 0.0} thetai Temperature at data point "i". ci Heat capacity per unit volume at temperature thetai. Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [0.0]

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MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-ORTHOTROPIC

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-ORTHOTROPIC NAME KA KB KC CONDUCTIVITY thetai ci kai kbi kci Defines a material with temperature dependent specific heat and constant, orthotropic thermal conductivity. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. KA Thermal conductivity in a-direction. {$ 0.0} KB Thermal conductivity in b-direction. {$ 0.0} KC Thermal conductivity in c-direction. {0.0} CONDUCTIVITY [CONSTANT] Flags whether conductivity is constant or input in table. {CONSTANT,TABLE} thetai Temperature at data point "i". ci Heat capacity per unit volume at temperature thetai. kai Thermal conductivity in a-direction {>=0.0} kbi Thermal conductivity in b-direction {>=0.0} kci Thermal conductivity in c-direction {>=0.0} [value of parameter KA] [0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

[value of parameter KB]

[value of parameter KC]

Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

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MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-K

MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-K NAME JOULE-HEAT thetai ki ci electric-ki Defines a material with temperature dependent specific heat and thermal conductivity. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. JOULE-HEAT Indicates whether this material is used for Joule heat analysis. { YES/NO } thetai Temperature at data point "i". ki Thermal conductivity at temperature thetai. ci Heat capacity per unit volume at temperature thetai. electric-ki Electrical conductivity at temperature "thetai" Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [NO]

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MATERIAL TEMPDEP-K

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL TIMEDEP-K NAME C timei ki Defines a material with time dependent thermal conductivity and constant specific heat. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. C Heat capacity per unit volume. {$ 0.0} timei Time at data point "i". ki Conductivity at timei. Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing time. If the same time is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [0.0]

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MATERIAL SEEPAGE

MATERIAL SEEPAGE NAME PERMEABILITY DENSITY Defines a constant permeability and constant weight density for seepage modeling. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. PERMEABILITY Permeability. {$ 0.0} DENSITY Weight density. {$ 0.0} Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [0.0]

[0.0]

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MATERIAL CONSTH

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL CONSTH NAME H Defines a constant convection coefficient. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. H Convection coefficient. {$ 0.0} [0.0]

Note: Convection heat transfer is calculated as qc = h (θe - θs) where h is the convection coefficient and θe, θs are the environment and surface temperatures, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

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MATERIAL TIMEDEP-H

MATERIAL TEMPDEP-H NAME ITHETA thetai hi Defines a temperature-dependent convection coefficient. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. ITHETA [TEMPERATURE] Indicates the dependence of the convection coefficient. TEMPERATURE Convection coefficient is a function of surface temperature. DIFFERENCE Convection coefficient is a function of temperature difference (θs - θe).

thetai Temperature at data point "i" (ITHETA = TEMPERATURE). Temperature difference at data point "i" (ITHETA = DIFFERENCE). hi Convection coefficient at thetai. Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Note: Convection heat transfer is calculated as qc = h(θe - θs) where h is the convection coefficient and θe, θs are the environment and surface temperatures, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

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MATERIAL TIMEDEP-H

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL TIMEDEP-H NAME timei hi Defines a time-dependent convection coefficient. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. timei Time at data point "i". hi Convection coefficient at timei. Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing time. If the same time is given several times, only the last given value is used. Note: Convection heat transfer is calculated as qc = h(θe - θs) where h is the convection coefficient and θe, θs are the environment and surface temperatures, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

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MATERIAL CONSTE

MATERIAL CONSTE NAME E ISIGMA SIGMA Defines a constant radiation coefficient. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E Emissivity coefficient. {$ 0.0} [0.0]

ISIGMA [FAHRENHEIT] Unit of temperature. {FAHRENHEIT / CENTIGRADE / KELVIN / RANKINE} SIGMA Stefan-Boltzmann constant. {$ 0.0} [0.0]

Note: Radiation heat transfer is calculated as qr = σfe [(θr)4 - (θs)4] where σ is the StefanBoltzmann constant, f is the shape factor, e is the emissivity coefficient, θr is the temperature of the radiative source/sink and θs is the surface temperature. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

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MATERIAL TIMEDEP-E

Sec. 7.1 Material models

MATERIAL TEMPDEP-E NAME ISIGMA SIGMA thetai ei Defines a temperature-dependent radiation coefficient. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. ISIGMA [FAHRENHEIT] Unit of temperature. {FAHRENHEIT / CENTIGRADE / KELVIN / RANKINE} SIGMA Stefan-Boltzmann constant. thetai Temperature at data point "i". ei Emissivity at temperature "thetai". Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Note: Radiation heat transfer is calculated as qr = σfe [(θr)4 - (θs)4] where σ is the StefanBoltzmann constant, f is the shape factor, e is the emissivity coefficient, θr is the temperature of the radiative source/sink and θs is the surface temperature. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [0.0] {$ 0.0}

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MATERIAL CONDENSATION

MATERIAL CONDENSATION NAME TCOND P0 A B C D E F G ti pi ai hi Defines a material with time-pressure-condensation-convection dependence. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. TCOND Temperature below which condensation is considered. P0 Pressure below which condensation will not be considered. A B C D E F G Parameters used to define the saturated steam temperatures. Note: The temperature of saturated steam is calculated as: Θ =

sat

[0.0]

[0.0]

[0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

a + b C pc p # d e + f C pg p > d

ti Time at data point "i". pi Pressure at time "ti". ai Condensation coefficient at time "ti". hi Convection coefficient at time "ti". Note: The input data is automatically sorted in order of increasing time. If the same time is given several times, only the last given value is used.

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MATERIAL CONDENSATION

Sec. 7.1 Material models

Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST

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MATERIAL USER-SUPPLIED

MATERIAL USER-SUPPLIED

NAME CTI1 CTI2 CTI3 CTI4 CTI5 CTI6 CTI7 CTI8 CTI9 CTI10 CTI11 CTI12 PIEZOELECTRIC CONSOLIDATION

thetai ctd1i ctd2i ctd3i ctd4i ctd5i ctd6i ... cdt12i Defines a user-supplied material with options for piezoelectric or consolidation analyses. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. CTI1 ... CTI12 User defined material constants. PIEZOELECTRIC Perform piezoelectric analysis. {YES / NO} CONSOLIDATION Perform consolidation analysis. {YES / NO} thetai Temperature at data point "i". ctdji Value of temperature-dependent material property "j" at temperature thetai. Note: The input data is sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST [NO]

[NO]

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LINE/EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION linei materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi viewfi EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION BODY edgei materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi viewfi LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION assigns data for ONEDCONDUCTION elements on lines. EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION assigns data for ONEDCONDUCTION elements on edges of solid geometry bodies. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. linei Line label number. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). [0] materiali Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/edge will take the default material for the host element group. areai Cross-sectional area for each ONEDCONDUCTION element on the line/edge. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for ONEDCONDUCTION elements on the line/edge. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for ONEDCONDUCTION elements on the line/edge. Saving of element results is governed by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0] [currently active body]

[DEFAULT]

NO DEFAULT

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LINE/EDGE ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION

tbirthi The time of element birth for elements on the line/edge. tdeathi The time of element death for elements on the line/edge. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0. viewfi View factor for radiation link type element. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST LIST EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

[0.0]

[0.0]

[1.0]

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SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

SURF-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION surfacei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION BODY facei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci SURF-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION assigns data for TWODCONDUCTION elements on surfaces. FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION assigns data for TWODCONDUCTION elements on faces of solid geometry bodies. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. surfacei Surface label number. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). materiali Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the surface/face will take the default material for the host element group. [0] [currently active body]

betai [0.0] Material angle, in degrees, for each TWODCONDUCTION element on the surface/face. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for TWODCONDUCTION elements on the surface/face. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for TWODCONDUCTION elements on the surface/face.

DEFAULT savei YES NO

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SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION

DEFAULT

Saving of element results is governed by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0] [0.0]

tbirthi The time of element birth for elements on the surface/face. tdeathi The time of element death for elements on the surface/face. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0.

[NO] intloci Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration. {YES / NO} Auxiliary commands LIST SURF-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SURF-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION FIRST LAST LIST FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

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VOL/BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

VOL-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION volumei materiali maxesi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci ngeomi BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION bodyi materiali maxesi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci ngeomi VOL-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION assigns data for THREEDCONDUCTION elements in volumes. BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION assigns data for THREEDCONDUCTION elements in solid geometry bodies. volumei Volume label number. bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. materiali Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated in the volume/body will take the default material for the host element group. maxesi Material axes set, for each THREEDCONDUCTION element in the volume/body. See AXES. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for THREEDCONDUCTION elements in the volume/body. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for THREEDCONDUCTION elements in the volume/body. Saving of element results is governed by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0]

[1]

[DEFAULT]

DEFAULT savei YES

NO

DEFAULT

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VOL/BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION

tbirthi The time of element birth for elements in the volume/body. tdeathi The time of element death for elements in the volume/body. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0.

[0.0]

[0.0]

[NO] intloci Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration. {YES / NO} ngeomi [0] The number of geometry defining nodes for elements in volume/body. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Auxiliary commands LIST VOL-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE VOL-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST LIST BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

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SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

SURF-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION surfacei materiali betai maxesi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION BODY facei materiali betai maxesi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci SURF-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION assigns data for SHELLCONDUCTION elements on surfaces. FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION assigns data for SHELLCONDUCTION elements on faces of solid geometry bodies. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. surfacei Surface label number. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). materiali Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the surface/face will take the default material for the host element group. [0] [currently active body]

betai [0.0] Material angle, in degrees, for each SHELLCONDUCTION element on the surface/face. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for SHELLCONDUCTION elements on the surface/face. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT . [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for SHELLCONDUCTION elements on the surface/face.

DEFAULT savei YES

NO

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SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION

DEFAULT

Saving of element results is governed by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]

tbirthi The time of element birth for elements on the surface/face. tdeathi The time of element death for elements on the surface/face. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0.

[0.0]

[NO] intloci Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration, together with direction cosines of stress reference axes. {YES / NO} Auxiliary commands LIST SURF-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SURF-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION FIRST LAST LIST FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

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LINE/EDGE/SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION linei materiali thicki tbirthi tdeathi shapei EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION BODY edgei materiali thicki tbirthi tdeathi shapei SURF-ELEMDATA RADIATION surfacei materiali tbirthi tdeathi shapei FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION BODY facei materiali tbirthi tdeathi shapei LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION assigns data for RADIATION elements on lines. EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION assigns data for RADIATION elements on edges of solid geometry bodies. SURF-ELEMDATA RADIATION assigns data for RADIATION elements on surfaces. FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION assigns data for RADIATION elements on solid geometry faces. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. linei Line label number. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). surfacei Surface label number. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). [0] materiali Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/ edge/surface/face will take the default material for the host element group. [currently active body]

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LINE/EDGE/SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION

thicki Thickness for each RADIATION element on the line/edge. tbirthi The time of element birth for elements on the line/edge/surface/face. tdeathi The time of element death for elements on the line/edge/surface/face. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0. shapei Shape factor. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST DELETE LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST LIST EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST DELETE EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST LIST SURF-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST DELETE SURF-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST LIST FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST DELETE FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION FIRST LAST

[0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

[1.0]

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LINE/EDGE/SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION linei materiali thicki tbirthi tdeathi EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION edgei materiali thicki tbirthi tdeathi SURF-ELEMDATA CONVECTION surfacei materiali tbirthi tdeathi FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION facei materiali tbirthi tdeathi LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION assigns data for CONVECTION elements on lines. EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION assigns data for CONVECTION elements on edges of solid geometry bodies. SURF-ELEMDATA CONVECTION assigns data for CONVECTION elements on surfaces. FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION assigns data for CONVECTION elements on faces of solid geometry bodies. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. linei Line label number. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). surfacei Surface label number. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). materiali Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/edge/surface/face will take the default material for the host element group. [0] [currently active body]

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LINE/EDGE/SURF/FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION

thicki Thickness for each CONVECTION element on the line/edge. tbirthi The time of element birth for elements on the line/edge/surface/face. tdeathi The time of element death for elements on the line/edge/surface/face. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST DELETE LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST LIST EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST DELETE EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST LIST SURF-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST DELETE SURF-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST LIST FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST DELETE FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION FIRST LAST

[0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

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HEATCAPACITIES

Sec. 7.2 Element properties

HEATCAPACITIES POINTS pointi capaci HEATCAPACITIES LINES linei capaci HEATCAPACITIES SURFACES surfacei capaci HEATCAPACITIES VOLUMES volumei capaci HEATCAPACITIES EDGES BODY edgei capaci HEATCAPACITIES FACES BODY facei capaci HEATCAPACITIES assigns concentrated heat capacities to the nodes on a set of geometry entities. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. pointi Label number of a geometry point. linei Label number of a geometry line. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). [currently active body]

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HEATCAPACITIES

facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). capaci The heat capacity assigned to the geometry entity. Auxiliary commands LIST HEATCAPACITIES POINTS FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES POINTS FIRST LAST LIST HEATCAPACITIES LINES FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES LINES FIRST LAST LIST HEATCAPACITIES SURFACES FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES SURFACES FIRST LAST LIST HEATCAPACITIES VOLUMES FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES VOLUMES FIRST LAST LIST HEATCAPACITIES EDGES FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES EDGES FIRST LAST LIST HEATCAPACITIES FACES FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES FACES FIRST LAST

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RGROUP RADIATION2

Sec. 7.3 Radiosity conditions

RGROUP RADIATION2 NAME SUBTYPE SIGMA ISIGMA INT FLUXES, CINT Defines a radiation-surface group consisting of parallel, planar or axisymmetric radiationsurfaces. The emissivities can vary from surface to surface in the same group. Note that the radiation groups (RGROUP RADIATION2 / RADIATION3) and conduction groups (EGROUP ONECONDUCTION / TWODCONDUCTION / THREEDCONDUCTION / SHELLCONDUCTION) cannot be used together for steady-state analysis. NAME [(current highest RGROUP label number) + 1] Label number of the radiation-surface group to be defined. The label number of an existing radiation-surface group can only be given if it is of type RADIATION2. Hence to re-define the type of a named radiation-surface group, you must first delete that group using DELETE RGROUP RADIATION2. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of RADIATION2 radiation-surface. PARALLEL Parallel disk radiation. AXISYMMETRIC Axisymmetric radiation-surfaces in the global YZ plane. Z is the axis of rotational symmetry and Y is the radial direction (Y $ 0). Radiation surfaces in the global YZ plane. [0.0]

PLANAR

SIGMA Stefan-Boltzmann constant used by this group.

ISIGMA [FAHRENHEIT] Temperature unit. {FAHRENHEIT / CENTIGRADE / KELVIN / RANKINE} INT [2] Numerical integration order to be used in Gauss quadrature formula, {2 # INT # 10}. FLUXES [YES] Indicates whether to calculate radiative heat fluxes at element integration points. {YES / NO} CINT [10] Integration order in the circumferential direction for AXISYMMETRIC elements. {10, 12, 16, 20, 24} Auxiliary commands LIST RGROUP RADIATION2 FIRST LAST

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HEATCAPACITIES

DELETE RGROUP RADIATION2 FIRST LAST NODES NODES = YES (the default) will remove nodes which are only attached to radiosity segments in the deleted radiation-surface group.

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RGROUP RADIATION3

Sec. 7.3 Radiosity conditions

RGROUP RADIATION3 NAME SIGMA ISIGMA INT FLUXES SHELLNODE Defines a radiation-surface group consisting of 3-D radiation-surfaces. The emissivities can vary from surface to surface in the same group. A radiation-surface can be a constructed for the top or bottom face from a shell midsurface definition. The SHELLNODE parameter identifies which of the (top or bottom) surfaces is used in the radiation-surface group. Note that the radiation groups (RGROUP RADIATION2 / RADIATION3) and conduction groups (EGROUP ONECONDUCTION / TWODCONDUCTION / THREEDCONDUCTION / SHELLCONDUCTION) cannot be used together for steady-state analysis. NAME [(current highest RGROUP label number) + 1] Label number of the radiation-surface group to be defined. The label number of an existing radiation-surface group can only be given if it is of type RADIATION3. Hence to re-define the type of a named radiation-surface group, you must first delete that group using DELETE RGROUP RADIATION3. SIGMA Stefan-Boltzmann constant used by this group. [0.0]

ISIGMA [FAHRENHEIT] Temperature unit. {FAHRENHEIT / CENTIGRADE / KELVIN / RANKINE} INT Numerical integration order to be used in Gauss quadrature formula, {2 # INT # 10}. [2]

FLUXES [YES] Indicates whether to calculate radiative heat fluxes at element integration points. {YES / NO} SHELLNODE [TOP] Indicates which node locations of shell midsurface nodes in this radiation group are subject to radiation. TOP The top node locations of any shell midsurface nodes in this radiation group are subject to radiation.

BOTTOM The bottom node locations of any shell midsurface nodes in this group are subject to radiation.

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RGROUP RADIATION3

Auxiliary commands LIST RGROUP RADIATION3 FIRST LAST DELETE RGROUP RADIATION3 FIRST LAST NODES NODES = YES (the default) will remove nodes which are only attached to radiosity segments in the deleted radiation-surface group.

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RADIATIONSURFACE

Sec. 7.3 Radiosity conditions

RADIATIONSURFACE linei sensei surfacei sensei edgei sensei facei sensei

NAME EMISSI PRINT SAVE TBIRTH TDEATH THICK SOLID BODY ORIENTATION SHELLNODE

(RGROUP RADIATION2, SOLID = NO) (RGROUP RADIATION3, SOLID = NO) (RGROUP RADIATION2, SOLID = YES) (RGROUP RADIATION3, SOLID = YES)

Defines a "radiation-surface", i.e., a set of boundary geometry entities which are radiating heat to another similarly defined radiation-surface. The data lines input a sequence of one of the following (a) geometry lines, for two-dimensional radiation analysis (i.e., the radiation-surface is defined within a radiation group of type RADIATION2) (b) geometry surfaces, for three-dimensional radiation analysis (i.e., the radiation-surface is defined within a radiation group of type RADIATION3). (c) geometry edges, for two-dimensional radiation analysis (i.e., the radiation-surface is defined within a radiation group of type RADIATION2), when solid geometry is defined. (d) geometry faces, for two-dimensional radiation analysis (i.e., the radiation-surface is defined within a radiation group of type RADIATION3), when solid geometry is defined. NAME [(current highest radiation-surface label number) + 1] Label number of the radiation-surface to be defined. Note that the radiation-surface names are unique only within a radiation group, i.e., two different radiation groups may each define its own radiation-surface "1". EMISSI Emissivity coefficient used for this radiation-surface, {0.0 # EMISSI < 1.0}. [0.999]

PRINT [NO] Printout results of the radiation analysis as determined by the FLUXES parameters of the RGROUP command. {YES / NO}

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RADIATIONSURFACE

SAVE [NO] Save (to the porthole file) the results of the radiation analysis as determined by the FLUXES parameter of the RGROUP command. {YES / NO} TBIRTH The birth time for the radiation-surface. TDEATH The death time for the radiation-surface. Note: TBIRTH < TDEATH, or TBIRTH = TDEATH = 0.0. THICK Thickness of planar radiation-surface. [1.0] [0.0]

[0.0]

SOLID [NO] Indicates whether solid geometry (edges and faces) are used to define the radiation-surface. {YES / NO} BODY Geometry body label number. ORIENTATION Flag for using orientation: AUTOMATIC INPUT [0]

[AUTOMATIC]

Radiation surface orientation flag set by program automatically. Radiation surface orientation flag input by user.

SHELLNODE [DEFAULT] Indicates which node locations of shell midsurface nodes in this radiation group are subject to radiation within a radiation group of type RADIATION3. DEFAULT TOP Same as the setting in RGROUP RADIATION3. The top node locations of any shell midsurface nodes in this radiastionsurface are subject to radiation. The bottom node locations of any shell midsurface nodes in this radiastionsurface are subject to radiation.

BOTTOM

linei Geometry line label number.

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RADIATIONSURFACE

Sec. 7.3 Radiosity conditions

surfacei Geometry surface label number. edgei Solid geometry edge label number (for BODY). facei Solid geometry face label number (for BODY).

Auxiliary commands LIST RADIATIONSURFACE FIRST LAST DELETE RADIATIONSURFACE FIRST LAST

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RSDELETE

RSDELETE LINE RSDELETE EDGE RSDELETE SURFACE RSDELETE FACE

NAME GROUP RADIATIONSURFACE NODE-DELETE NAME GROUP RADIATIONSURFACE NODE-DELETE BODY NAME GROUP RADIATIONSURFACE NODE-DELETE NAME GROUP RADIATIONSURFACE NODE-DELETE BODY

Deletes radiation segments generated on a geometry line, edge, surface or face for a specified radiation group. NAME Label number of the geometry line, edge, surface or face for which the generated radiation segments are to be deleted. GROUP [currently active radiation group] Radiation group label number. For LINE or EDGE, the radiation group must be a 2D radiation group (i.e., defined using RGROUP RADIATION2). For SURFACE or FACE, the radiation group must be a 3D radiation group (i.e., defined using RGROUP RADIATION3). RADIATIONSURFACE Radiation surface label number. [1]

NODE-DELETE [YES] Indicates whether nodes associated with the radiation segments are to be deleted also. Note that even if YES is specified, nodes will only by deleted if they are not used elsewhere in the model. {YES / NO} BODY Label number of the body to which the edge or face belongs to.

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CONSTRAINT

Sec. 7.4 Boundary conditions

CONSTRAINT NAME SLAVETYPE SLAVENAME SLAVEDOF MASTERTYPE SBODY OPTION masternamei masterdofi betai masterbodyi Specifies a constraint equation which expresses a slave (dependent) degree of freedom as a linear combination of a set of master (independent) degrees of freedom. The slave and master degrees of freedom are input by reference to geometry entities, constraining the degrees of freedom at points, lines, surfaces, edges, or faces. A constraint equation at a slave degree of freedom is unique. Therefore, if several constraint equations are input for the same slave degree of freedom, then only that for the highest constraint label number will be output to the ADINA-T data file. NAME [(highest constraint equation label number) + 1] The label number of the constraint equation. SLAVETYPE Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify slave nodes. SURFACE / EDGE / FACE / NODESET} [POINT] {POINT / LINE /

SLAVENAME The label number of the geometry slave entity (point, line, surface, edge, face or nodeset) as directed by SLAVETYPE. SLAVEDOF The degree of freedom associated with the slave geometry entity. {TEMPERATURE / RADIOSITY} MASTERTYPE [POINT] Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify master nodes. {POINT / LINE / SURFACE / EDGE / FACE / NODESET} Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET, there is no restriction on MASTERTYPE, and viceversa. Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET or MASTERTYPE = NODESET, then OPTION = 1 will be used, overriding any input of OPTION = 0. Only the following SLAVETYPE, MASTERTYPE combinations are allowed:

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CONSTRAINT

SLAVETYPE POINT LINE LINE SURFACE SURFACE EDGE EDGE FACE FACE NODESET any

MASTERTYPE POINT POINT LINE POINT SURFACE POINT EDGE POINT FACE any NODESET

SBODY The label number of the geometry slave body.

[currently active body]

OPTION [0] When multiple nodes exist on both the slave and master geometry entities, OPTION indicates how the constraint between nodes on each entity is defined. {0/1/2/3/4} 0 A constraint is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing u-parameter direction for lines, increasing u- then v-parameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entities must be the same. 1 A constraint is constructed for each node on the slave geometry entity to the closest node on the master geometry entity. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the slave and master geometry entities. 2 Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u parametric order. Applies to line/edge and surface/face. 3 Constrain slave node to master node using reverse v parametric order. Applies to surface/face. 4 Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u and v parametric order. Applies to surface/face. masternamei The label number of the geometry master entity (point, line, surface, edge or face as directed by MASTERTYPE) for the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation.

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CONSTRAINT

Sec. 7.4 Boundary conditions

masterdofi The degree of freedom of the master geometry entity for the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. Possible values are the same as for SLAVEDOF. [1.0] betai The coefficient of the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. Note that this value remains constant throughout the time history of the response. A zero value is not accepted since it implies no contribution to the linear combination of independent master degrees of freedom. masterbodyi [currently active body] The label number of the geometry master body (used when MASTERTYPE = EDGE or FACE). Auxiliary commands LIST CONSTRAINT FIRST LAST DELETE CONSTRAINT FIRST LAST

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Chap. 7 Model definition

CONSTRAINT-MS

CONSTRAINT-MS NAME MASTERTYPE MASTERNAME MASTERDOF SLAVETYPE MBODY OPTION slavenamei slavedofi betai slavebodyi This command is similar to the CONSTRAINT command. The difference between the CONSTRAINT-MS and CONSTRAINT commands is that CONSTRAINT-MS allows the specification of multiple slave entities for a single master entity. Note that constraint equations that are necessary to enforce a rigid link between two geometry entities can be defined using RIGIDLINK. NAME [(highest constraint-ms equation label number) + 1] The label number of the constraint-ms equation. MASTERTYPE Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify master nodes. {POINT/LINE/ SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET} [POINT]

MASTERNAME The label number of the geometry master entity (point, line, surface, edge, face or nodeset) as directed by MASTERTYPE. MASTERDOF The degree of freedom associated with the master geometry entity. {X-TRANSLATION / Y-TRANSLATION / Z-TRANSLATION / X-ROTATION / Y-ROTATION / Z-ROTATION / ALL-TRANSLATION / ALL-ROTATION / FLUID-POTENTIAL} SLAVETYPE Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify slave nodes. {POINT / LINE / SURFACE / EDGE / FACE / NODESET} Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET, there is no restriction on MASTERTYPE, and vice-versa. Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET or MASTERTYPE = NODESET, then OPTION = 1 will be used, overriding any input of OPTION = 0. Note: Only the following SLAVETYPE, MASTERTYPE combinations are allowed: [POINT]

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CONSTRAINT-MS

Sec. 7.4 Boundary conditions

SLAVETYPE POINT LINE LINE SURFACE SURFACE EDGE EDGE FACE FACE NODESET any

MASTERTYPE POINT POINT LINE POINT SURFACE POINT EDGE POINT FACE any NODESET

MBODY The label number of the geometry master body.

[currently active body]

OPTION [0] When multiple nodes exist on both the slave and master geometry entities, OPTION indicates how the constraint between nodes on each entity is defined. {0/1/2/3/4} 0 A constraint is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing u-parameter direction for lines, increasing u- then v-parameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entities must be the same. 1 A constraint is constructed for each node on the slave geometry entity to the closest node on the master geometry entity. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the slave and master geometry entities. 2 Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u parametric order. Applies to line/edge and surface/face. 3 Constrain slave node to master node using reverse v parametric order. Applies to surface/face. 4 Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u and v parametric order. Applies to surface/face. slavenamei The label number of the geometry slave entity (point, line, surface, edge, face or nodeset) as directed by MSLAVEYPE for the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation.

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CONSTRAINT-MS

slavedofi The degree of freedom of the slave geometry entity for the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. Possible values are the same as for SLAVEDOF. [1.0] betai The coefficient of the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. Note that this value remains constant throughout the time history of the response. A zero value is not accepted since it implies no contribution to the linear combination of independent master degrees of freedom. slavebodyi [currently active body] The label number of the geometry slave body (used when SLAVETYPE = EDGE or FACE). Auxiliary commands LIST CONSTRAINT-MS FIRST LAST DELETE CONSTRAINT-MS FIRST LAST

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FIXITY

Sec. 7.4 Boundary conditions

FIXITY NAME dofi FIXITY defines a fixity boundary condition which is referenced by FIXBOUNDARY, which assigns the fixity to a given geometry entity. All degrees of freedom are assumed free unless fixed by this command. NAME The identifying name of the fixity condition (1 to 30 alphanumeric characters). dofi Degree of freedom to be fixed. {TEMPERATURE / RADIOSITY} Auxiliary commands LIST FIXITY NAME DELETE FIXITY NAME

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FIXBOUNDARY

FIXBOUNDARY POINTS FIXITY pointi fixityi FIXBOUNDARY LINES FIXITY linei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY SURFACES FIXITY surfacei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY VOLUMES FIXITY volumei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY EDGES FIXITY BODY edgei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY FACES FIXITY BODY facei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY assigns fixity conditions to a set of geometry entities. FIXITY [ALL] Default fixity condition (see command FIXITY) for geometry entities given in the subsequent data lines. BODY Body label number. pointi Label number of a geometry point. linei Label number of a geometry line. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. volumei Label number of a geometry volume [currently active BODY]

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FIXBOUNDARY

Sec. 7.4 Boundary conditions

edgei Label number of a geometry edge (for BODY). facei Label number of a geometry face (for BODY). fixityi Fixity condition to be applied at the geometry entity. Auxiliary commands LIST FIXBOUNDARY POINTS FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY POINTS FIRST LAST LIST FIXBOUNDARY LINES FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY LINES FIRST LAST LIST FIXBOUNDARY SURFACES FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY SURFACES FIRST LAST LIST FIXBOUNDARY VOLUMES FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY VOLUMES FIRST LAST LIST FIXBOUNDARY EDGES FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY EDGES FIRST LAST LIST FIXBOUNDARY FACES FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY FACES FIRST LAST [FIXITY]

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FIXBOUNDARY

FIXBOUNDARY NODE-SET FIXITY namei fixityi shellnodei Assigns fixity conditions to node sets. NODE-SET Label number of the node set. FIXITY Default fixity condition to be assigned to the node sets. Fixity conditions are defined by the command FIXITY. namei Label number of additional node set. Nodes in this node set will be assigned the fixity condition "fixityi". fixityi Fixity condition to be assigned to node set "namei". If this field is not specified, then the fixity condition specified in parameter FIXITY will be assigned to node set "namei". shellnodei Indicates where the fixity condition will be assigned to for midsurface nodes of shell conduction elements. TOP Assign to top location of shell midsurface node. [ALL]

BOTTOM Assign to bottom location of shell midsurface node. Auxiliary commands LIST FIXBOUNDARY NODE-SET FIRST LAST DELETE FIXBOUNDARY NODE-SET FIRST LAST

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BCELL

BCELL

NAME REVERSE

celli n1i n2i n3i n4i Defines a boundary cell using a 4-node or 3-node cell. NAME [(current highest bcell label number) + 1] Label number of the boundary cell to be defined. REVERSE {NO/YES} Normal direction reverse flag. celli Cell label number. n1i n2i n3i n4i Node labels for celli . Auxiliary commands LIST BCELL DELETE BCELL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [NO]

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BCELL

Sec. 7.4 Boundary conditions

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LOAD TEMPERATURE

LOAD TEMPERATURE NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a prescribed temperature load. Note that the command only defines a temperature load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. NAME [(current highest temperature load label number) + 1] Label number of the temperature load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Temperature (in chosen units). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD TEMPERATURE FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD TEMPERATURE FIRST LAST

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LOAD CONVECTION

Sec. 7.5 Loading

LOAD CONVECTION NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a convection load, i.e., prescribed environmental temperatures for convection element nodes. Note that the command only defines a convection load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. NAME [(current highest convection load label number) + 1] Label number of the convection load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Environmental temperature (in chosen units). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD CONVECTION FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD CONVECTION FIRST LAST

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LOAD RADIATION

LOAD RADIATION NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a radiation load, i.e., prescribed radiative source/sink temperatures, at radiation element nodes. Note that the command only defines a radiation load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. NAME [(current highest radiation load label number) + 1] Label number of the radiation load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Radiative source/sink temperature (in chosen units). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD RADIATION FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD RADIATION FIRST LAST

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LOAD HEATFLUX

Sec. 7.5 Loading

LOAD HEATFLUX NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a distributed heat-flux load. Note that the command only defines a heat-flux load. To apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. NAME [(current highest heatflux load label number) + 1] Label number of the heat-flux load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Heat flux magnitude (in chosen units, e.g, W/m2). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD HEATFLUX FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD HEATFLUX FIRST LAST

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LOAD NODAL-HEATFLOW

LOAD NODAL-HEATFLOW NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a nodal-heatflow, i.e., a concentrated heat-flux load. Note that this command only defines the load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. NAME [(current highest nodal-heatflow load label number) + 1] Label number of the nodal-heatflow load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Heat flux magnitude. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD NODAL-HEATFLOW FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD NODAL-HEATFLOW FIRST LAST

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LOAD LATENT

Sec. 7.5 Loading

LOAD LATENT NAME PRINT thetai deltali latenti phflagi Defines a latent heat load; i.e., the phase transition temperature, the phase transition temperature increment, latent heat, and the phase transition indicator for each (solid-liquid) interface. The load may be applied to an element group via APPLY-LOAD. NAME [(current highest latent load label number) + 1] Label number of the latent heat load to be defined. PRINT Indicates whether ADINA-T is to print out nodal latent heat vectors. {YES / NO} thetai The phase transition temperature at phase "i". deltali The phase transition temperature increment at phase "i". latenti The latent heat per unit volume at phase "i". phflagi The transition indicator at phase "i". SOLID Initially solid. LIQUID Initially liquid. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD LATENT FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD LATENT FIRST LAST [NO]

[0]

[0]

[0]

[SOLID]

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LOAD INTERNALHEAT

LOAD INTERNALHEAT NAME MAGNITUDE TEMPDEP X-TGRAD Y-TGRAD Z-TGRAD TEMPERATURE AX BX CX DX EX AY BY CY DY EY AZ BZ CZ DZ EZ A0 B0 C0 D0 E0 thetai iheati Defines an internal heat generation load. Note that the command only defines an internal heat load; to apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. The internal heat generation may be constant or calculated from a table of temperature vs. heat generation. NAME [(current highest internalheat load label number) + 1] Label number of the internal heat load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Internal heat generation magnitude (in chosen units, e.g., W/m3). [TEMPDEP = NO] TEMPDEP [NO] Indicates whether the internal heat generation load is temperature-dependent in the current element group. {YES/NO/EQUATION} When TEMPDEP = EQUATION, the internal heat generation is calculated thus: QB = (AX*T4 + BX*T3 + CX*T2 + DX*T + EX) * (∂T/∂X) * X-TGRAD + (AY*T4 + BY*T3 + CY*T2 + DY*T + EY) * (∂T/∂Y) * Y-TGRAD + (AZ*T4 + BZ*T3 + CZ*T2 + DZ*T + EZ) * (∂T/∂Z) * Z-TGRAD + (A0*T4 + B0*T3 + C0*T2 + D0*T + E0) * TEMPERATURE X-TGRAD Y-TGRAD Z-TGRAD Flags to indicate application of temperature gradients in the x-, y-, z-directions.{0/1} TEMPERATURE Flag to indicate application of temperature assigned to the current group.{0/1} [0]

[0]

AX BX CX DX EX AY BY CY DY EY AZ BZ CZ DZ EZ A0 B0 C0 D0 E0 [0] Coeffiencients used in the equation for internal heat generation if TEMPDEP = EQUATION. thetai The temperature at data point "i". [TEMPDEP = YES] iheati The internal heat generation per unit volume at temperature "thetai". [TEMPDEP = YES] Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD INTERNALHEAT FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD INTERNALHEAT FIRST LAST

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LOAD CURRENT-DENSITY

Sec. 7.5 Loading

LOAD CURRENT-DENSITY NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a current density load. Note that the command only defines a current density load. To apply it to the model you must use APPLY-LOAD. For 2-D analysis, current density loads may be applied to: - geometry lines and edges - element edge sets defined by the ELEDGESET command For 3-D analysis, current density loads may be applied to: - geometry surfaces and faces - element face sets defined by the ELFACESET command NAME [(current highest current density load label number) + 1] Label number of the current density load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Current density magnitude (in chosen units, e.g., A/m2]. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD CURRENT-DENSITY FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD CURRENT-DENSITY FIRST LAST [0.0]

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APPLY-LOAD

APPLY-LOAD BODY namei ltypei lnamei stypei snamei idvari ncuri artmi shellnodei bodyi ithermostat Specifies the loads applied to a model. This is used to apply named loads (see LOAD TEMPERATURE, LOAD CONVECTION, etc.) to the model geometry. The spatial variation of the load may be specified by reference to a spatial-function (see LINE-FUNCTION, SURFACE-FUNCTION, VOLUME-FUNCTION). The time dependence of the load may be specified by reference to a time function (see TIMEFUNCTION). BODY Solid geometry body label number. namei Label number of a load application. ltypei The type of load to be applied. {TEMPERATURE / CONVECTION / RADIATION / NODAL-HEATFLOW / HEATFLUX / INTERNALHEAT / LATENT /CURRENT-DENSITY / NODAL-CURRENT / ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL /VOFSPECIES } A table of load types and the corresponding allowed application site types is given below. lnamei Label number of the load (defined by LOAD TEMPERATURE, etc.). stypei The type of site where the load is to be applied. {POINT / LINE / SURFACE / VOLUME / EDGE / FACE / MODEL / GROUP} snamei The label number of the application site, e.g., point label number, line label number, etc. [0] idvari The label number of the spatial function (defined by LINE-FUNCTION, SURFACE-FUNCTION, VOLUME-FUNCTION as appropriate). Enter 0 for the load to be considered constant in space (but not necessarily in time). ncuri The label number of a time function, as defined by command TIMEFUNCTION. [1] [currently active body]

[0.0] artmi The "arrival time" associated with time dependent loads. The load is considered zero for t # artm, and is governed by the time function "ncuri" for t > artmi. The time function is thus

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APPLY-LOAD

Sec. 7.5 Loading

effectively shifted along in the time direction. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. shellnodei Specifies whether the load is applied to the top or bottom shell surface. TOP The load is applied to the top surface. BOTTOM The load is applied to the bottom surface. ithermostat Label of thermostat defined by THERMOSTAT command. Table: Allowed load type / application site types Point Temperature1 Convection1 Radiation1 Nodal-heatflow1 Heatflux2 Internalheat1 Latent Current-density2 Nodal-Current Electricpotential1

1

[TOP]

[0]

Line Surface Volume Model Group Edge Face Body T T T x T T x T x T T T T x T T x T x T T x x x x T x x x T x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x T T x x x T T T x T T x T x T T T T x T T x T x T T x x x x T x x x T

T T T T x x x x T T

Notes: 1. Can also be applied to Node Sets. 2. Can also be applied to Element-Edge Sets and Element-Face Sets. Auxiliary commands LIST APPLY-LOAD FIRST LAST DELETE APPLY-LOAD FIRST LAST

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APPLY-LOAD

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LOAD ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL

Sec. 7.5 Loading

LOAD ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL NAME MAGNITUDE Defines an electrical potential load. Note that the command only defines a electrical potential load. To apply it to the model you must use the APPLY-LOAD command. Electrical potential load can be applied on geometry points, lines, surfaces, volumes, edges, faces, and bodies. It can also be applied on node sets defined by the NODE-SET command. NAME [(current highest electrical potential load label number) + 1] Label number of the electrical potential load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Electrical potential value (in chosen units, e.g., Volt). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL FIRST LAST [0.0]

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LOAD NODAL-CURRENT

LOAD NODAL-CURRENT NAME MAGNITUDE Defines a nodal current, i.e., a concentrated current load. Note that this command only defines the load. To apply it to the model you must use the command APPLY-LOAD. Nodal current current load can be applied only on geometry points. NAME [(current highest nodal current load label number) + 1] Label number of the nodal current load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Nodal current value (in chosen units, e.g., Ampere). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD NODAL-CURRENT FIRST LAST DELETE LOAD NODAL-CURRENT FIRST LAST [0.0]

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INITIAL-CONDITION

Sec. 7.6 Initial conditions

INITIAL-CONDITION NAME variablei valuei Defines an initial condition which can be referenced by SET-INITCONDITION which assigns the initial condition to geometry entities. All variables are assumed initially zero unless set by this command in conjunction with SET-INITCONDITION. NAME The identifying name of the initial condition (1 to 30 alphanumeric characters). variablei Degree(s) of freedom to be set initially. {TEMPERATURE / RADIOSITY} valuei The value to be assigned to "variablei". Auxiliary commands LIST INITIAL-CONDITION NAME DELETE INITIAL-CONDITION NAME

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THERMOSTAT

THERMOSTAT NAME TYPE LABEL CUTIN-THETA CUTOFF-THETA THERMOSTAT defines a setting for a thermostat sensor specified by a POINT or NODE, cut-in temperature, and cut-off temperature. Heat loads including CONVECTION, RADIATION, NODAL-HEATFLOW and HEATFLUX can be controlled by THERMOSTAT settings. NAME [(current highest thermostat label number)+1]

Label number of thermostat sensors to be defined. If the label number of an existing thermostat sensor is given, then the previous thermostat definition is overwritten. TYPE The sensor is controlled by a geometry point or by a finite element node. POINT - specified by a geometry point label NODE - specified by a finite element node label LABEL [None] The label number of a geometry point or a finite element node where the sensor is to be applied. CUTIN-THETA [None] The cut-in temperature of this thermostat. If the temperaure of the sensor point or node falls below the CUTIN-THETA, the heat loads associated with this thermostat will be turned on. CUTOFF-THETA [None] The cut-off temperature of this thermostat. If the temperature of the sensor point or node rises above the CUTOFF-THETA, the heat loads associated with this thermostat will be turned off. Auxiliary commands LIST THERMOSTAT FIRST LAST DELETE THERMOSTAT FIRST LAST LIST THERMOSTAT lists the THERMOSTAT sensors with label numbers in a given range. If no range is specified, then a list of all the label numbers of THERMOSTAT is given. DELETE THERMOSTAT deletes all THERMOSTAT sensors with label numbers in a given range. Note that a load will not be deleted if it is referenced by the command APPLY-LOAD (i.e., the load has been applied to the model). FIRST [FIRST] Starting label number of a range of thermostats which are to be listed or deleted. As well as integer label numbers, the parameter accepts the values: [POINT]

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THERMOSTAT

Sec. 7.6 Initial conditions

FIRST - The lowest label number of any thermostat defined LAST - The highest label number of any thermostat defined ALL - All thermostats defined LAST [value given for parameter FIRST] Ending label number of a range of thermostats to be listed or deleted. As well as integer label numbers, the parameter accepts the values: FIRST - The lowest label number of any thermostat defined LAST - The highest label number of any thermostat defined ALL - All thermostats defined Note: 1. For command DELETE THERMOSTAT, one of the parameters FIRST or LAST must be specified. 2. Parameter LAST is ignored if FIRST=ALL or FIRST=LAST

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SET-INITCONDITION

SET-INITCONDITION POINTS pointi conditioni SET-INITCONDITION LINES linei conditioni idvari SET-INITCONDITION SURFACES surfacei conditioni idvari SET-INITCONDITION VOLUMES volumei conditioni idvari SET-INITCONDITION EDGES edgei conditioni idvari SET-INITCONDITION FACES facei conditioni idvari SET-INITCONDITION BODIES bodyi conditioni

CONDITION

CONDITION

CONDITION

CONDITION

CONDITION BODY

CONDITION BODY

CONDITION BODY

SET-INITCONDITION assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry entities. CONDITION [lowest (alphabetically) INITIAL-CONDITION] Default initial condition (see command INITIAL-CONDITION) for subsequent data lines. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. pointi Label number of a geometry point. linei Label number of a geometry line. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. [currently active body]

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SET-INITCONDITION

Sec. 7.6 Initial conditions

volumei Label number of a geometry volume. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. conditioni Initial condition to be applied at the geometry entity. [CONDITION]

idvari Label number of a spatial data variation, defined by LINE-FUNCTION, SURFACEFUNCTION or VOLUME-FUNCTION, as appropriate. A 0 value indicates the initial condition is assumed constant over the geometry entity. Auxiliary commands LIST SET-INITCONDITION POINTS FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION POINTS FIRST LAST LIST SET-INITCONDITION LINES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION LINES FIRST LAST LIST SET-INITCONDITION SURFACES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION SURFACES FIRST LAST LIST SET-INITCONDITION VOLUMES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION VOLUMES FIRST LAST LIST SET-INITCONDITION EDGES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION EDGES FIRST LAST LIST SET-INITCONDITION FACES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION FACES FIRST LAST LIST SET-INITCONDITION BODIES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-INITCONDITION BODIES FIRST LAST

[0]

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INITIAL-MAPPING

INITIAL-MAPPING FILENAME EXTERNAL-NODE DISTANCE variablei Loads an initial mapping file and interpolates variable values at existing nodes using variable values on another set of nodes for a mesh which is stored in the initial mapping file. FILENAME The mapping file to be loaded. {Any filename accepted by the computer system, up to 80 characters long} EXTERNAL-NODE [NONE] The option for the treatment of external nodes (i.e., outside the boundary of the mesh contained in the mapping file). NONE No interpolation (extrapolation). ALL Interpolation for all external nodes.

DISTANCE Interpolation for nodes which are within a maximum specified distance from the mapping-file mesh. DISTANCE [0.0] Maximum allowed distance from the mapping-file mesh (used when EXTERNAL-NODE = DISTANCE). variablei Degree(s) of freedom interpolated for as nodal initial conditions. {TEMPERATURE / RADIOSITY}

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AXES CONSTANT

Sec. 7.7 Systems

AXES CONSTANT NAME AX AY AZ BX BY BZ Defines an "axes-system" in terms of constant direction vectors. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orien-tation of orthotropic material properties. NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. AX [1.0] AY [0.0] AZ [0.0] Vector aligned with the local x-axis of the axes-system, defined with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] Vector lying in the local xy-plane of the axes-system, defined with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. Note that vector (BX, BY, BZ) must not be parallel to vector (AX, AY, AZ). Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES LINE1

AXES LINE1 NAME LINE Defines an "axes-system" via a geometry line. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties.

LINE P z element y t

C centroid

x (|| t)

NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. LINE Label number of the geometry line defining the axes-system. Note: The axes-system at an element centroid is determined by calculating the tangent vector at the nearest point on the geometry line. This gives the local x-direction of the axes-system. The local xy-plane of the axes-system is calculated to include both the tangent vector to the line and the vector from the element centroid to the nearest point on the line. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES LINE2

Sec. 7.7 Systems

AXES LINE2 NAME LINE1 LINE2 Defines an "axes-system" via two geometry lines. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties.

z ( || t1 xt2)

P1 y

LINE 1 t1

element C centroid

(t2) x ( || t1)

t2 LINE 2 P2

NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. LINE1 Label number of the first geometry line defining the axes-system. LINE2 Label number of the second geometry line defining the axes-system. Note: The axes-system at an element centroid is determined by calculating the tangent vector at the nearest point on the first geometry line. This gives the local x-direction of the axes-system. The local xy-plane of the axes-system is determined to include this tangent vector and the tangent vector at the nearest point on the second geometry line. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES NODES

AXES NODES

NAME NODE1 NODE2 NODE3

Defines an “axes-system” using three nodes. Axes-systems can be referenced by commands SET-AXES-MATERIAL, SET-AXESSTRAIN, by elements to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively.

z ( a x b)

y ( a x b) x a

(axb) NODE3

b

element C

x (a)

NODE1

a

NODE2

centroid

NAME Label number for the desired axes-system. NODE1 Label number of the first axes-system defining node. NODE2 Label number of the second axes-system defining node. NODE3 Label number of the third axes-system defining node. Note: The local x-direction of the axes-system is determined by the vector from the first node “NODE1” to the second node NODE2. The local z-direction of the axes-system is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the three nodes NODE1, NODE2, and NODE3. The local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. See figure.

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AXES NODES

Sec. 7.7 Systems

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AXES POINT2

AXES POINT2 NAME POINT1 POINT2 Defines an "axes-system" via two geometry points. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties.

POINT2 z (axb) y b

element C

POINT1 x a

centroid

NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. POINT1 Label number of the first geometry point defining the axes-system. POINT2 Label number of the second geometry point defining the axes-system, which must not be coincident with point "POINT1". Note The local x-direction of the axes-system at an element centroid is determined by the vector from the centroid to POINT1. The local z-direction of the axes-system is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the centroid, POINT1 and POINT2. The local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES POINT3

Sec. 7.7 Systems

AXES POINT3 NAME POINT1 POINT2 POINT3 Defines an "axes-system" via three geometry points. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties.

z (a x b )

y (axb) xa (axb) POINT3 b a POINT1 POINT2

element

C

x ( a)

centroid

NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. POINT1 Label number of the first geometry point defining the axes-system. POINT2 Label number of the second geometry point defining the axes-system. POINT3 Label number of the third geometry point defining the axes-system. Note: The local x-direction of the axes-system is determined by the vector from POINT1 to POINT2. The local z-direction of the axes-system is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the three points POINT1, POINT2, and POINT3. The local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES POINT-LINE

AXES POINT-LINE NAME LINE POINT Defines an "axes-system" via a geometry line and a geometry point. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties.

axb b P1 z ( || a x b )

P

POINT u t a

LINE P2

y centroid

element C x ( ||t)

NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. LINE Label number of the geometry line defining the axes-system. Note that the line must not be closed, i.e., it must have non-coincident end-points. POINT Label number of the geometry point defining the axes-system. The point must not be collinear with the end-points of line LINE. Note: The axes-system at an element centroid is determined by calculating the tangent vector at the nearest point on the geometry line. This gives the local x-direction of the axes-system. The local xy-plane of the axes-system is defined by the end-points of the geometry line "LINE", and the given geometry point "POINT". Thus, in order to determine this plane, the line must have distinct end-points, i.e., it cannot be closed or degenerate, and the geometry point must not be collinear with those end-points. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES SURFACE

Sec. 7.7 Systems

AXES SURFACE NAME SURFACE Defines an "axes-system" via a geometry surface. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties.

z ( ||n )

y ( ||n x u )

element C

x ( ||u )

centroid

n

v u

P

NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. SURFACE Label number of the geometry surface defining the axes-system. Note: The axes-system at an element centroid is determined by calculating the surface tangent and normal vectors at the nearest point on the geometry surface. The local x-direction of the axes-system is given by the tangent vector in the local parametric u-direction of the surface. The local z-direction of the axes-system is given by the surface normal direction and the local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

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AXES EDGE

AXES EDGE NAME EDGE BODY Defines an "axes-system" via a geometry edge. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties. NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. EDGE Label number of the geometry edge defining the axes-system. BODY Label number of the geometry body containing the edge. [currently active body]

Note: The axes-system at an element centroid is determined by calculating the edge tangent and normal vectors at the nearest point on the geometry edge. The local x-direction of the axes-system is given by the edge tangent vector (in the local parametric u-direction of the edge). The local z-direction of the axes-system is given by the edge normal direction and the local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. See Figure.

n u P z element C centroid

Auxiliary Commands LIST AXES FIRST LAST DELETE AXES FIRST LAST

t y

EDGE

x ( ||t)

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AXES FACE

Sec. 7.7 Systems

AXES FACE NAME FACE BODY Defines an "axes-system" via a geometry face. Axes-systems can be referenced by SET-AXES-MATERIAL to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties. NAME Label number for the axes-system to be defined. FACE Label number of the geometry face defining the axes-system. BODY Label number of the geometry body containing the face. [currently active body]

Note: The axes-system at an element centroid is determined by calculating the face tangent and normal vectors at the nearest point on the geometry face. The local x-direction of the axes-system is given by the tangent vector in the local parametric u-direction of the face. The local z-direction of the axes-system is given by the face normal direction and the local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. See Figure for AXES SURFACE.

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AXIS-ROTATION

AXIS-ROTATION

NAME MODE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA

Defines a rotational axis which can be referenced by other commands. NAME Label number of the axis. [(current highest axis label number) + 1]

MODE [AXIS] Selects the method used to define the axis. The parameters (parenthesized) used to define the axis depends on the method selected. AXIS LINE The rotational axis is defined by a coordinate axis of a coordinate system. (SYSTEM, AXIS) The rotational axis is defined by a straight line between the end points of a geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open - i.e., have non-coincident end points). (ALINE) The rotational axis is defined by a straight line between two non-coincident geometry points. (AP1, AP2) The rotational axis is defined by the coordinate position and direction of a vector. (X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA)

POINTS VECTOR -

SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the rotational axis, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects the axis of the coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, to be used as the axis of rotation. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of the geometry line used to define the rotational axis. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of the geometry points used to define the rotational axis. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0, Y0, Z0 [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] The coordinates (in global coordinates) of the starting position of the vector that defines the rotational axis.

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AXIS-ROTATION

Sec. 7.7 Systems

XA, YA, ZA [1.0, 0.0, 0.0] The direction (in global coordinates) of the vector that defines the rotational axis. Auxiliary commands LIST AXIS-ROTATION DELETE AXIS-ROTATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST

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SET-AXES-MATERIAL

SET-AXES-MATERIAL SURFACES surfacei axesi adiri bdiri SET-AXES-MATERIAL VOLUMES volumei axesi adiri bdiri SET-AXES-MATERIAL FACES BODY facei axesi adiri bdiri SET-AXES-MATERIAL BODIES bodyi axesi adiri bdiri SET-AXES-MATERIAL ELEMENTSETS elementseti axesi adiri bdiri SET-AXES-MATERIAL SURFACES assigns axes-systems, as defined by AXES, to a set of geometry surfaces. SET-AXES-MATERIAL VOLUMES assigns axes-systems, as defined by AXES, to a set of geometry volumes. SET-AXES-MATERIAL FACES assigns axes-systems, as defined by AXES, to a set of solid geometry faces. SET-AXES-MATERIAL BODIES assigns axes-systems, as defined by AXES, to a set of solid geometry bodies. SET-AXES-MATERIAL ELEMENTSETS assigns axes-systems, defined by command AXES, to a set of element sets. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. [currently active body]

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SET-AXES-MATERIAL

Sec. 7.7 Systems

facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). bodyi Label number for a solid geometry body. Note: Any elements generated for the referenced geometry will adopt orthotropic material directories as calculated by the assigned axes-system. elementseti Label number of a element set. Any elements generated in this element set will calculate orthotropic material directions from the assigned the axes-system “axesi”. axesi Label number of an axes-system defined by AXES. adiri [1] The material a-direction is selected to be determined from one of the calculated local x-, y-, or z-directions of the axes-system. 1 a-direction determined from local x-direction of axis-system. 2 3 -1 -2 -3 a-direction determined from local y-direction of axis-system. a-direction determined from local z-direction of axis-system. a-direction determined from local negative x-direction of axis-system. a-direction determined from local negative y-direction of axis-system. a-direction determined from local negative z-direction of axis-system.

bdiri [2] The material b-direction is selected to be determined from one of the calculated local x-, y-, or z-directions of the axes-system. 1 b-direction determined from local x-direction of axis-system. 2 3 -1 -2 -3 b-direction determined from local y-direction of axis-system. b-direction determined from local z-direction of axis-system. b-direction determined from local negative x-direction of axis-system. b-direction determined from local negative y-direction of axis-system. b-direction determined from local negative z-direction of axis-system.

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SET-AXES-MATERIAL

Note: abs(adiri) must differ from abs(bdiri). Auxiliary commands LIST SET-AXES-MATERIAL SURFACES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-AXES-MATERIAL SURFACES FIRST LAST LIST SET-AXES-MATERIAL VOLUMES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-AXES-MATERIAL VOLUMES FIRST LAST LIST SET-AXES-MATERIAL FACES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-AXES-MATERIAL FACES FIRST LAST LIST SET-AXES-MATERIAL BODIES FIRST LAST DELETE SET-AXES-MATERIAL BODIES FIRST LAST

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Chapter 8 Finite element representation

EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION

Chap. 8 Finite element representation

EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION NAME MATERIAL LINKTYPE AREA EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION defines an element group consisting of one-dimensional heat transfer elements. Note that the conduction groups (EGROUP ONECONDUCTION / TWODCONDUCTION / THREEDCONDUCTION / SHELLCONDUCTION) and radiation groups (RGROUP RADIATION2 / RADIATION3) cannot be used together for steady-state analysis. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type ONEDCONDUCTION. Hence to re-define the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. The following material types are allowed for ONEDCONDUCTION element groups: LINKTYPE HEATCONDUCTION ISOTROPIC TEMPDEP-K TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC TEMPDEP-C-K TIMEDEP-K RADIATION CONSTE TEMPDEP-E CONVECTION CONSTH TEMPDEP-H TIMEDEP-H

LINKTYPE [HEATCONDUCTION] The type of one dimensional elements in the element group. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. {HEATCONDUCTION / RADIATION / CONVECTION} AREA Defines the default element area. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST [1.0]

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EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION

EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION

NAME SUBTYPE MATERIAL INT DEGEN THICKNESS

EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION defines an element group consisting of 2-D planar or axisymmetric heat conduction elements. Note that the conduction groups (EGROUP ONECONDUCTION / TWODCONDUCTION / THREEDCONDUCTION / SHELLCONDUCTION) and radiation groups (RGROUP RADIATION2 / RADIATION3) cannot be used together for steady-state analysis. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type TWODCONDUCTION. Hence, to re-define the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION. SUBTYPE [AXISYMMETRIC] Indicates the type of TWODCONDUCTION elements within the group. AXISYMMETRIC Axisymmetric elements in the global YZ plane. Z is the axis of rotational symmetry and Y is the radial direction (Y $ 0). PLANAR Planar elements in the global YZ plane.

MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. The following material types are allowed for TWODCONDUCTION element groups: ISOTROPIC ORTHOTROPIC TEMPDEP-K TEMPDEP-C-K TIMEDEP-K SEEPAGE TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC TEMPDEP-C-ORTHOTROPIC USER-SUPPLIED

INT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order. {2 # INT # 4}. DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order, the reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements (i.e., the number of nodes per element side). DEGEN [NO] Indicator for spatial isotropy correction of degenerate (triangular) 8-node elements. When true triangle elements are defined using this element group, DEGEN = UNUSED. {NO / YES / UNUSED}

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EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

THICKNESS Defines the default element thickness. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

[1.0]

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EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION

EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION NAME MATERIAL RSINT TINT DEGEN EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION defines an element group consisting of threedimensional heat conduction elements. Note that the conduction groups (EGROUP ONECONDUCTION / TWODCONDUCTION / THREEDCONDUCTION / SHELLCONDUCTION) and radiation groups (RGROUP RADIATION2 / RADIATION3) cannot be used together for steady-state analysis. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type THREEDCONDUCTION. Hence, to re-define the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. The following material types are allowed for THREEDCONDUCTION element groups: ISOTROPIC TEMPDEP-C-K TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC ORTHOTROPIC TIMEDEP-K TEMPDEP-C-ORTHOTROPIC TEMPDEP-K SEEPAGE USER-SUPPLIED RSINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order in the local element r- and s- directions. {2 # RSINT # 4}. DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order. The reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. TINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order in the local element t- direction. {2 # TINT # 4}. DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order. The reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. DEGEN [NO] Indicator for spatial isotropy correction of degenerate 20-node elements. When true tetrahedral elements are defined in this element group, DEGEN = UNUSED. {NO / YES / UNUSED} Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

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EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION

NAME MATERIAL RINT SINT TINT MIDSURFACENODES THICKNESS

EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION defines an element group consisting of shell-conduction elements. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. Note that the conduction groups (EGROUP ONECONDUCTION / TWODCONDUCTION / THREEDCONDUCTION / SHELLCONDUCTION) and radiation groups (RGROUP RADIATION2 / RADIATION3) cannot be used together for steady-state analysis. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type SHELLCONDUCTION. Hence to re-define the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. The following material types are allowed for SHELLCONDUCTION element groups: ISOTROPIC TIMEDEP-K TEMPDEP-C-K ORTHOTROPIC TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC USER-SUPPLIED TEMPDEP-K TEMPDEP-C-ORTHOTROPIC RINT [DEFAULT] Integration order for the local r-direction of the elements. {1 # RINT # 4}. DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order. The reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. SINT Integration order for the local s-direction of the elements. {1 # SINT # 4}. DEFAULT Same value as RINT. TINT Integration order for the local t-direction (through thickness) of the elements. {1 # TINT # 2}. [DEFAULT]

[2]

MIDSURFACENODES [NO] Indicates the presence of mid-surface nodes for at least one element in the group. {YES / NO} THICKNESS Defines the default element thickness. [1.0]

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EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION

Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION FIRST LAST DELETE EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION FIRST LAST

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EGROUP CONVECTION

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

EGROUP CONVECTION NAME SUBTYPE MATERIAL DEGEN SHELLNODES PROPERTY EGROUP CONVECTION defines an element group consisting of node, planar, axisymmetric or surface convection elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type CONVECTION. Hence to re-define the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP CONVECTION. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of CONVECTION elements within the group. NODE Single node elements. PLANAR AXISYMMETRIC SURFACE Planar (line) elements. Axisymmetric (line) elements. Surface elements. [NODE]

MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. The following material types are allowed for CONVECTION element groups: CONSTH CONDENSATION TEMPDEP-H USER-SUPPLIED TIMEDEP-H DEGEN Indicator for spatial isotropy correction of degenerate (triangular) 8-node elements (SUBTYPE = SURFACE). {YES / NO} SHELLNODES Location of any shell surface subjected to convection. {TOP / BOTTOM} [NO]

[TOP]

PROPERTY [1.0] PROPERTY is assigned as default element area SUBTYPE=NODE or as default element thickness for SUBTYPE=PLANAR/SURFACE.

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EGROUP CONVECTION

Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP CONVECTION FIRST LAST DELETE EGROUP CONVECTION FIRST LAST

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EGROUP RADIATION

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

EGROUP RADIATION

NAME SUBTYPE MATERIAL DEGEN SHELLNODES PROPERTY

EGROUP RADIATION defines an element group consisting of node, planar, axisymmetric or surface radiation elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type RADIATION. Hence to re-define the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP RADIATION. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of RADIATION elements within the group. NODE Single node elements. PLANAR AXISYMMETRIC SURFACE Planar (line) elements. Axisymmetric (line) elements. Surface elements. [NODE]

MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. The following material types are allowed for RADIATION element groups: CONSTE TEMPDEP-E DEGEN Indicator for spatial isotropy correction of degenerate (triangular) 8-node elements (SUBTYPE = SURFACE). {YES / NO} SHELLNODES Location of any shell surface subjected to radiation. {TOP / BOTTOM} [NO]

[TOP]

PROPERTY [1.0] PROPERTY is assigned as default element area SUBTYPE=NODE or as default element thickness for SUBTYPE=PLANAR/SURFACE. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP RADIATION FIRST LAST DELETE EGROUP RADIATION FIRST LAST

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EGROUP RADIATION

EGCONTROL MAXELG EGCONTROL specifies general control data for element groups. MAXELG [999999] Maximum number of elements in a single element subgroup. If the number of elements in a group is greater than MAXELG, it will be split into subgroups such that each subgroup has MAXELG or fewer elements. This parameter has no effect if PPROCESS NPROC is greater than 1, for which element group splitting is handled independently of MAXELG. Auxiliary commands LIST EGCONTROL

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SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT

MODE NONE PROGRESSION SIZE NDIV PSIZE MINCUR

Defines default mesh subdivision data for subsequent model geometry definitions. Model geometry created or imported will initially have the subdivision data given by this command. Note that this command does not update any current geometry subdivision data, it only specifies defaults for subsequent geometry definitions. SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT has a similar syntax, but quite distinct action, to SUBDIVIDE MODEL, which assigns a given subdivision data to all currently defined geometry. MODE [NONE] Selects the method of model subdivision data specification. LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. DIVISIONS POINTWISE A geometry line or edge is assigned a number of equal subdivisions. A geometry line or edge is subdivided according to the desired element size at its end_points. No default mode. Subdivision mode will depend on the SUBDIVIDE commands for each individual geometry type.

NONE

NONE no default mode. Subdivision mode will depend on the SUBDIVIDE commands for each individual geometry type. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] Sets the method of element edge length distribution along a line or edge of the geometry model. ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

APPROXIMATE The distribution of edge lengths is made such that a given ratio of end-lengths is only approximately satisfied. Note: PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINA-IN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length.

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SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT

NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to a geometry line/edge. PSIZE Element size at geometry points. MINCUR Minimum number of subdivisions for curved lines and edges used when MODE = POINTWISE. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT Lists the current default subdivision data.

[1]

[0.0]

[1]

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SUBDIVIDE MODEL

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

SUBDIVIDE MODEL MODE SIZE NDIV PROGRESSION MINCUR Assigns mesh subdivision data to the entire current model geometry. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of subdivisions along each line. MODE [POINTWISE] Selects the method of model subdivision data specification. LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. DIVISIONS Each model geometry line or edge is assigned the same number of equal subdivisions. Each model geometry line or edge is subdivided according to the element size at its end-points.

POINTWISE

SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to each geometry line or edge. [1]

PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] Sets the method of element edge length distribution along each line or edge of the geometry model. ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

APPROXIMATE The distribution of edge lengths is made such that a given ratio of end-lengths is only approximately satisfied. Note: PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINA-IN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. MINCUR Minimum number of subdivisions for curved lines and edges, used when MODE = POINTWISE Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE MODEL

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Chap. 8 Finite element representation

SUBDIVIDE POINT

SUBDIVIDE POINT NAME SIZE pointi Assigns mesh subdivision data (element sizes) to a set of geometry points. NAME Label number of a geometry point. Other points may be specified in subsequent accompanying data lines. SIZE Requested element size. The size of an element is defined to be the maximum length of an edge of that element. {$ 0.0} Note: The element size at a geometry point may be used to determine the subdivision data of geometry entities: lines and edges, and thereby that of surfaces, volumes, faces and bodies. pointi Label number of a geometry point. Note: A zero element size at a point indicates that any line or edge for which the point is a vertex (end-point) will have only a single element edge if the mode of that line/edge is POINTWISE. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE POINT FIRST LAST

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SUBDIVIDE LINE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE LINE linei

NAME MODE SIZE NDIV RATIO PROGRESSION CBIAS

Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of geometry lines. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of subdivisions along the line.

P1 MODE = DIVISIONS

Line length = L

u

P2

NDIV = 5 RATIO = 2 PROGRESSION = GEOMETRIC

MODE = LENGTH

SIZE = L/10

MODE = POINTWISE

SIZE @ P1 = 0.4L, @ P2 = 0.1L PROGRESSION = ARITHMETIC

NAME Label number of a geometry line. Other geometry lines to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying data-lines. MODE [DIVISIONS] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions. (NDIV). LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE. (SIZE). Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINT-SIZE. (SIZE, PROGRESSION).

POINTWISE

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SUBDIVIDE LINE

SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to the geometry lines. [1]

RATIO [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the geometry line. The grading of element lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. "Last" refers to the end of the line corresponding to parametric coordinate u = 1.0, whilst "first" refers to the end of the line corresponding to parametric coordinate u = 0.0. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded along a geometry line, i.e., when RATIO … 1.0, the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

APPROXIMATE The distribution of edge lengths is made such that RATIO is only approximately satisfied. Note: PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINA-IN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. CBIAS Indicates whether central biasing is used or not. {YES / NO} linei Label number of a geometry line. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE LINE FIRST LAST

[NO]

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SUBDIVIDE SURFACE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE SURFACE surfacei

NAME MODE SIZE NDIV1 NDIV2 RATIO1 RATIO2 PROGRESSION CBIAS1 CBIAS2

Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of geometry surfaces. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry surface. The subdivision data is actually assigned to the geometry lines which comprise the edges of the geometry surfaces.

P2 P1

v P3 u NDIV1, RATIO1 P4

NDIV2, RATIO2

NAME Label number of a geometry surface. Other geometry surfaces to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying data-lines. MODE [DIVISIONS] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions. (NDIV). LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE. (SIZE). Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the

POINTWISE

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SUBDIVIDE SURFACE

edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINT-SIZE. (SIZE, PROGRESSION). SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV1 [1] Number of subdivisions assigned to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry surfaces. NDIV2 Number of subdivisions assigned to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry surfaces. [1]

RATIO1 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry surfaces. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. RATIO2 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry surfaces. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded, the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

APPROXIMATE The distribution of edge lengths is made such that the ratio of first to last edge lengths (RATIO1 or RATIO2) is only approximately satisfied. Note: PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINA-IN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used.

CBIAS1 CBIAS2 Indicates whether central biasing is used in the u and v directions. {YES / NO}

[NO] [NO]

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SUBDIVIDE SURFACE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE SURFACE FIRST LAST

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SUBDIVIDE VOLUME

SUBDIVIDE VOLUME

NAME MODE SIZE NDIV1 NDIV2 NDIV3 RATIO1 RATIO2 RATIO3 PROGRESSION CBIAS1 CBIAS2 CBIAS3

volumei Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of geometry volumes. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry volume. The subdivision data is actually assigned to the geometry lines which comprise the edges of the geometry volumes.

P2 NDIV2, RATIO2 v P3 u P6 w

NDIV1, RATIO1 P1

P4

NDIV3, RATIO3

P5

P7

P8

NAME Label number of a geometry volume. Other volumes to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying data-lines. MODE [DIVISIONS] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions. (NDIV). LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE. (SIZE).

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SUBDIVIDE VOLUME

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

POINTWISE

Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINT-SIZE. (SIZE, PROGRESSION).

SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV1 [1] Number of subdivisions assigned to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry volumes. NDIV2 Number of subdivisions assigned to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry volumes. NDIV3 Number of subdivisions assigned to the third parametric direction, w, of the geometry volumes.

[1]

[1]

RATIO1 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry volumes. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. RATIO2 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry volumes. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. RATIO3 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the third parametric direction, w, of the geometry volumes. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

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SUBDIVIDE VOLUME

APPROXIMATE

The distribution of edge lengths is made such that the ratio of first to last edge lengths (RATIO1, RATIO2, or RATIO3) is only approximately satisfied.

Note: PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINA-IN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. CBIAS1 CBIAS2 CBIAS3 Indicates whether central biasing is used in the u, v and w directions. {YES / NO} volumei Label number of a geometry volume. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE VOLUME FIRST LAST [NO] [NO] [NO]

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SUBDIVIDE EDGE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE EDGE NAME BODY MODE SIZE NDIV RATIO PROGRESSION edgei Assigns mesh subdivision data to edges of a solid geometry body. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of subdivisions along the edge. NAME Label number of a geometry edge of BODY. Other edges (of BODY) to have the same subdivision data may be given in accompanying data-lines. BODY Label number of the solid geometry body. [currently active body]

MODE [LENGTH] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions. (NDIV). LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE. (SIZE).

Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINT-SIZE. (SIZE, PROGRESSION). SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. POINTWISE NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to a geometry edges. [1]

RATIO [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the geometry edges. The grading of element lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded along the geometry edges (i.e., when RATIO …1.0), then the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from the following.

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SUBDIVIDE EDGE

ARITHMETIC

The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

GEOMETRIC

edgei Label number of a geometry edge (of BODY). Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE EDGE FIRST LAST

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SUBDIVIDE FACE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE FACE NAME BODY MODE SIZE NDIV PROGRESSION facei Assigns mesh subdivision data to faces of a solid geometry body. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry faces. NAME Label number of the geometry face (of BODY). Other faces (of BODY) to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying data lines. BODY Label number of the geometry body. [currently active body]

MODE [LENGTH] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions. (NDIV). LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE. (SIZE). Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINT-SIZE. (SIZE, PROGRESSION).

POINTWISE

SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to the edges of the geometry faces. [1]

PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded, the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from the following: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

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SUBDIVIDE FACE

facei Label number of a geometry face (of BODY). Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE FACE FIRST LAST

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SUBDIVIDE BODY

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE BODY NAME MODE SIZE NDIV PROGRESSION bodyi Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of solid geometry bodies. The data can be in the form of a specified element size or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry bodies. The subdivision data is assigned to the edges of the geometry bodies. NAME Label number of a solid geometry body. Other geometry bodies to have the same subdivision data may be given in accompanying data lines. MODE [LENGTH] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions. (NDIV). LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE. (SIZE). Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINT-SIZE. (SIZE, PROGRESSION).

POINTWISE

SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e., every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to the edges of the geometry bodies. [1]

PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from the following. ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.

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SUBDIVIDE BODY

bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE BODY FIRST LAST

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POINT-SIZE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

POINT-SIZE OPTION INPUT SIZE-FUNCTION MAXSIZE MINSIZE BODY namei sizei

Specifies the mesh-size (element edge length) for a set of geometry points, either directly, or by a size-function, or by evaluation from the lengths of the lines/edges which meet at the points. The set of points can be given by label or by reference to other geometry entities in the model. OPTION Indicates how the mesh-size is to be evaluated: DIRECT The mesh-size is input in the data lines. ATTACHED [DIRECT]

The lengths of the lines/edges which meet at a point, together with input minimum, maximum values are used to determine the mesh-size at that point. A pre-defined size-function is used to calculate the mesh size at a point, dependent on its location. [POINT]

FUNCTION

INPUT Indicates how the set of points is defined: MODEL POINT LINE SURFACE VOLUME EDGE FACE BODY All geometry points. The geometry points will be explicitly identified by label number. The end-points of a set of geometry lines. The vertices of a set of geometry surfaces. The vertices of a set of geometry volumes. The end-points of a set of solid geometry edges. The vertices of a set of solid geometry faces. The vertices of a set of solid geometry bodies.

SIZE-FUNCTION [1] Label number of a size-function, input when OPTION = FUNCTION. See command SIZEFUNCTION. MAXSIZE [0.0]

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POINT-SIZE

The maximum mesh-size for the input points. This is used in two cases: OPTION = DIRECT, INPUT = MODEL: The mesh-size at every geometry point in the model will be set to MAXSIZE. OPTION = ATTACHED: The mesh-size computed from the attached lines/edges will be subject to a maximum value of MAXSIZE.

MINSIZE [0.0] The minimum mesh-size for the input points, used to provide a lower bound on the computed mesh-size when OPTION = ATTACHED. BODY [currently active body] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used when INPUT = EDGE or FACE. namei Entity label number. sizei Mesh-size, (element edge length) for entity namei. (Used when OPTION = DIRECT). Note: If there is any ambiguity in the input, e.g.,. INPUT = LINE, OPTION = DIRECT with two different mesh-sizes assigned to two lines which meet at a point, the mesh size at the point is taken from the entity (line) with the higher label number.

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SIZE-FUNCTION BOUNDS

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SIZE-FUNCTION BOUNDS NAME XMIN YMIN ZMIN XMAX YMAX ZMAX SIZE1 SIZE2 SIZE3 SIZE4 SIZE5 SIZE6 SIZE7 SIZE8 SIZE-FUNCTION BOUNDS defines a mesh-size function in terms of a bounding box with faces parallel to the global coordinate planes and the mesh-sizes at the vertices of the box. The mesh-size at any other point is interpolated from this bounding box. A size-function may be used to set point mesh-sizes, via POINT-SIZE, and may also be used directly by the free-form mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control the generated element sizes. [(current highest size-function label number) + 1] Label number of the size-function to be defined. XMIN, YMIN, ZMIN [current minimum coordinates of model] Minimum coordinates of the bounding box. XMAX, YMAX, ZMAX [current maximum coordinates of model] Maximum coordinates of the bounding box. SIZE1 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMAX,ZMAX). SIZE2 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMAX,ZMAX). SIZE3 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMIN,ZMAX). SIZE4 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMIN,ZMAX). SIZE5 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMAX,ZMIN). SIZE6 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMAX,ZMIN). SIZE7 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMIN,ZMIN). SIZE8 Mesh-size (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMIN,ZMIN). NAME

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SIZE-FUNCTION BOUNDS

Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST

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SIZE-FUNCTION HEX

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SIZE-FUNCTION HEX

NAME X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3 X4 Y4 Z4 X5 Y5 Z5 X6 Y6 Z6 X7 Y7 Z7 X8 Y8 Z8 SIZE1 SIZE2 SIZE3 SIZE4 SIZE5 SIZE6 SIZE7 SIZE8

SIZE-FUNCTION HEX defines a mesh-size function in terms of a bounding hexahedral volume, specified by its vertex coordinates, and the mesh size at those vertices. The meshsize at any other point is interpolated from this bounding box. A size-function may be used to set point mesh-sizes, via POINT-SIZE, and may also be used directly by the free-form mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control the generated element sizes. NAME [(current highest size-function label number) + 1] Label number of the size-function to be defined. X1, Y1, Z1 Global Cartesian coordinates of vertex 1 of the bounding hexahedral volume. X8, Y8, Z8 Global Cartesian coordinates of vertex 8 of the bounding hexahedral volume. SIZE1 Mesh-size (element edge length) at vertex 1. SIZE8 Mesh-size (element edge length) at vertex 8. Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST

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SIZE-FUNCTION POINT

SIZE-FUNCTION POINT NAME MODE POINT X Y Z SIZE DISTANCE SCALE TYPE A1 A2 A3 Defines a mesh-size function of source type where the element size is dependent on the distance from a given location. The size-function may be used to set point mesh-sizes, via command POINT-SIZE, and also may be used directly by the free-form mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [Current highest size-function label + 1] The identifying label number of the size-function. MODE Indicates how the source location is defined: POINT The source location is given by a geometry point. [POINT]

POSITION The source location is given by a position vector (X,Y,Z) POINT Label number of a geometry point. X [0.0] Y [0.0] Z [0.0] Global Cartesian system components of the position vector giving the source location. SIZE Constant (minimum) element size. The size function will yield this value within the distance given by parameter DISTANCE from the specified location. Further away, the element size gradually increases as determined by this function. { > 0.0 } DISTANCE Distance from location for which the size function is constant, giving element size SIZE. { > SIZE }. SCALE Scaling factor for the distance from the source location. [1.0]

TYPE [LINEAR] Indicates the type of growth function for the element size away from the source location. Let

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SIZE-FUNCTION POINT

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

d=distance from source location, R = MAX[ 0.0, ((d-DISTANCE)/SCALE), δ = element size, then the following function types are available: LINEAR QUADRATIC CUBIC POWER EXPONENTIAL δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R + A2.R ] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R + A2.R + A3.R ] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + R δ = SIZE.[e

(A1.R) A1 2 3 2

]

] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

A1 A2 A3 Function coefficients. { >= 0.0 for TYPE = LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC } Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST

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SIZE-FUNCTION AXIS

SIZE-FUNCTION AXIS

NAME MODE SYSTEM AXIS LINE P1 P2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA SIZE DISTANCE SCALE TYPE A1 A2 A3

Defines a mesh-size function of source type where the element size is dependent on the distance from a given axis (an unbounded straight line). The size-function may be used to set point mesh-sizes, via command POINT-SIZE, and also may be used directly by the free-form mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [Current highest size-function label + 1] The identifying label number of the size-function. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis. This controls which parameters actually define the axis - other parameters are ignored. AXIS LINE The axis is taken as a coordinate axis of a given coordinate system. The axis is taken as the straight line passing through the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open i.e., have non-coincident end points). The axis is taken as the straight line between two given (non-coincident) geometry points. The axis is defined by a position and a direction vector.

POINTS

VECTORS

SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis, via parameter AXIS, when MODE=AXIS. AXIS Selects which of the basic axes (XL,YL,ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used to define the axis. { XL, YL, or ZL.} LINE Label number of a geometry line defining the axis. P1 P2 Label numbers of geometry points used to define the axis. X0 Y0 [0.0] [0.0] [XL]

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SIZE-FUNCTION AXIS

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining the axis when MODE=VECTORS. XA [1.0] YA [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis direction when MODE=VECTORS. SIZE Constant (minimum) element size. The size function will yield this value within the distance given by parameter DISTANCE from the specified axis. Further away, the element size gradually increases as determined by this function. { > 0.0 } DISTANCE Distance from the axis for which the size function is constant, giving element size SIZE. { > SIZE }. SCALE Scaling factor for the distance from the source axis. [1.0]

TYPE [LINEAR] Indicates the type of growth function for the element size away from the source axis. Let d=distance from axis, R = MAX[ 0.0, ((d-DISTANCE)/SCALE), δ = element size, then the following function types are available: LINEAR QUADRATIC CUBIC POWER EXPONENTIAL δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R + A2.R ] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R + A2.R + A3.R ] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + R δ = SIZE.[e

(A1.R) A1 2 3 2

]

]

A1 [0.0] A2 [0.0] A3 [0.0] Function coefficients. { >= 0.0 for TYPE = LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC }

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SIZE-FUNCTION AXIS

Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST

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SIZE-FUNCTION PLANE

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

SIZE-FUNCTION PLANE

NAME MODE X Y Z NX NY NZ P1 P2 P3 SYSTEM COORDINATE SIZE DISTANCE SCALE TYPE A1 A2 A3

Defines a mesh-size function of source type where the element size is dependent on the distance from a given plane. The size-function may be used to set point mesh-sizes, via command POINT-SIZE, and also may be used directly by the free-form mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [Current highest size-function label + 1] The identifying label number of the size-function. MODE This controls the origin and direction of the size-function source plane as follows: POSITION-NORMAL The origin is given by a position vector (X,Y,Z), and the plane normal by a direction vector (NX,NY,NZ). The origin is given by a geometry point P1, and the plane normal by a direction vector (NX,NY,NZ). The origin is given by a geometry point P1, and the plane normal is determined from two other points, P2, P3, lying in the plane. The points cannot be collinear.

POINT-NORMAL

THREE-POINT

XPLANE YPLANE ZPLANE

The size-function source plane passes through the specified coordinate value (COORDINATE) for a given coordinate system (SYSTEM).

X [0.0] Y [0.0] Z [0.0] The position vector of a point lying in the source plane. Used when MODE=POSITIONNORMAL. NX [1.0] NY [0.0] NZ [0.0] The direction vector of the normal to the source plane. Used when MODE=POSITIONNORMAL or POINT-NORMAL.

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SIZE-FUNCTION PLANE

P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of three non-collinear geometry points lying in the source plane. P1 is used when MODE=POINT-NORMAL or THREE-POINT, and P2, P3 are only used when MODE=THREE-POINT. SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. The source plane passes through the base Cartesian coordinate value as determined by parameters MODE and COORDINATE. Used when MODE=XPLANE, YPLANE, or ZPLANE. COORDINATE [0.0] The position of the size-function sourc plane along the specified coordinate direction of coordinate system SYSTEM. Used when MODE=XPLANE, YPLANE, or ZPLANE. SIZE Constant (minimum) element size. The size function will yield this value within the distance given by parameter DISTANCE from the specified plane. Further away, the element size gradually increases as determined by this function. { > 0.0 } DISTANCE Distance from the plane for which the size function is constant, giving element size SIZE. { > SIZE }. SCALE Scaling factor for the distance from the source plane. [1.0]

TYPE [LINEAR] Indicates the type of growth function for the element size away from the source plane. Let d=distance from plane, R = MAX[ 0.0, ((d-DISTANCE)/SCALE), δ = element size, then the following function types are available: LINEAR QUADRATIC CUBIC POWER EXPONENTIAL δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R + A2.R ] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + A1.R + A2.R + A3.R ] δ = SIZE.[1.0 + R δ = SIZE.[e

(A1.R) A1 2 3 2

]

]

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SIZE-FUNCTION PLANE

Sec. 8.1 Element groups

A1 [0.0] A2 [0.0] A3 [0.0] Function coefficients. { >= 0.0 for TYPE = LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC } Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST

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SIZE-FUNCTION COMBINED

SIZE-FUNCTION COMBINED NAME szfunci Defines a mesh-size function as a combination of other size-functions. The element size at any given location is taken as the minimum of all the size-functions which contribute to this combination. The size-function may be used to set point mesh-sizes, via command POINT-SIZE, and also may be used directly by the free-form mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [Current highest size-function label + 1] The identifying label number of the size-function. szfunci Label number of an existing size-function. This function cannot be the same as NAME, or of type COMBINED - i.e., recursive combinations are not allowed. Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST DELETE SIZE-FUNCTION FIRST LAST

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SIZE-LOCATIONS

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SIZE-LOCATIONS BODY FACE loci xi yi zi sizei Specifies the mesh-size (element edge length) at coordinate locations (i.e., independent of any geometry point positions). These size-locations may be utilized by the free-meshing commands GFACE, GBODY to locally set element sizes within the bounds of a solid geometry face or body. BODY [currently active body] Label number of a solid geometry body to which the size-locations are to be associated. FACE [0] Label number of a the solid geometry face (of BODY) to which the size-locations are to be associated. If FACE = 0, the size-locations are to be associated with the solid geometry body interior and not with any particular one of its faces. Conversely, if FACE > 0, then the sizelocations are only associated with that face alone, and not with the interior of the body or any other of its faces. loci Location identifier. xi, yi, zi Global Cartesian coordinates of the size-location loci. sizei Mesh-size, element edge length at (xi, yi, zi). Auxiliary commands LIST SIZE-LOCATIONS BODY FACE DELETE SIZE-LOCATIONS BODY FACE

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GPOINT

GPOINT NAME NODE NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE Creates a node at a geometry point. NAME The label number of a geometry point at which a node is to be created. NODE The label number of node to be created. [highest node label number + 1]

NCOINCIDE [NO] Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL The global coordinates of the generated node is compared against those of existing nodes. If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE C (max. difference in global coordinates between all current nodes) then no new node is created at that location. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

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GLINE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

GLINE linei

NAME NODES AUXPOINT NCOINCIDE NCENDS NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NCDOMAIN MIDNODES

Generates elements along a set of geometry lines. Elements can be created within element groups of type: ONEDCONDUCTION, CONVECTION (SUBTYPE = PLANAR or AXISYMMETRIC), RADIATION (SUBTYPE = PLANAR or AXISYMMETRIC). The number of elements, and the distribution of their lengths, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry lines, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE LINE. Note that either a single line or multiple lines may be specified for generation of elements, using the same control parameters.

AUXPOINT NODES = 2

NODES = 3

NODES = 4

NAME The label number of a geometry line along which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. 2 ONEDCONDUCTION elements 2, 3 CONVECTION/RADIATION elements [2]

AUXPOINT < not applicable to ADINA-T> NCOINCIDE [ENDS] Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes. If there is coincidence to within NTOLERANCE * (max.

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difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes) then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed. ENDS Coincidence checking is carried out only for the nodes generated at the end points of the geometry lines. The end point(s) participating in this checking process may be selected via NCENDS. Coincidence checking is carried out for all generated nodes, but comparison is made only against those nodes already generated on the line under consideration.

LINE

SELECTED Coincidence checking is carried out at the end points of the geometry lines, but comparison is made only against the nodes generated for the input set of lines for the current command execution and those already generated for the geometry domain indicated by NCDOMAIN. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out.

NCENDS [12] Selects which end points of the geometry lines participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCENDS is an integer of up to two distinct digits, either 1 or 2, indicating which end points of the geometry line are subject to nodal coincidence checking. NCENDS is only used when NCOINCIDE = ENDS. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. The group type must be one of those listed above. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED / STRAIGHT}. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

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GLINE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

linei Label number of a geometry line. Note: Elements are generated in order, in the direction from the starting point P1 to the ending point P2 of the geometry line.

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GSURFACE

GSURFACE NAME NODES PATTERN NCOINCIDE NCEDGE NCVERTEX NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP METHOD PREFSHAPE MESHING SMOOTHING DEGENERATE CRACK-TYPE TIP-POINT TIP-OPTION RADIUS Q-POINT CPOINT1 CPOINT2 COLLAPSED NCDOMAIN MIDNODES FLIP surfacei Generates elements on a set of geometry surfaces. Elements can be created within element groups of type: TWODCONDUCTION, SHELLCONDUCTION, CONVECTION (SUBTYPE = SURFACE), RADIATION (SUBTYPE = SURFACE). The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of the geometry surfaces, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE SURFACE. Note that either a single surface or multiple surfaces may be specified for generation of elements, with the same control parameters.

Quadrilateral surface

Regular subdivision

Irregular subdivision

Triangular surface

DEGENERATE = YES

DEGENERATE = NO

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Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

NAME The label number of a geometry surface on which elements are to be generated. NODES [8] The number of nodes per element. {3 / 4 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 / 16} For elements adjacent to the edges of the geometry surface, the end nodes of each element edge are generated on the geometry surface edge. See Figures. PATTERN [AUTOMATIC] Selects the type of pattern used to further subdivide quadrilateral surface cell subdivisions. Allowable values for PATTERN are integer numbers 0 through 11, or the string value AUTOMATIC. PATTERN=1 to 9 is allowed for triangular elements (NODES=3, 6, 7) and PATTERN=10, 11 is allowed only for NODES=4. See Figure. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [BOUNDARIES]

Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if |XB - XA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN |YB - YA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN |ZB - ZA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table:

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NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES

Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on the selected vertices and edges of the surface or surfaces meshed by the current command. Vertices and edges are selected by parameters NCVERTEX and NCEDGE. all those on all vertices and edges of the surface or surfaces meshed by the current command. those on all vertices and edges of the surface or surfaces meshed by the current command none

Which nodes to check against all all

SURFACE SELECTED

those already on the surface those within the geometry domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none

GROUP

NO

NCEDGE [1234] Selects which edges of the geometry surfaces participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCEDGE is an integer of up to four distinct digits in the range 1 through 4. NCEDGE is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. NCVERTEX [1234] Selects which vertices of the geometry surfaces participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCVERTEX is an integer of up to four distinct digits in the range 1 through 4. NCVERTEX is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES.

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Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE < not applicable to ADINA-T>

[TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the generated elements are generated. METHOD [ADVFRONT] Indicates the type of free-form meshing algorithm to be used for triangular meshing. There are two available methods: ADVFRONT - Based upon advancing front methodology. DELAUNAY - Based upon Delaunay insertion methodology. PREFSHAPE [AUTOMATIC] This specifies the preferred shape of the cells created when the surface subdivision is irregular.

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If MESHING=MAPPED, AUTOMATIC - the command selects the appropriate cell shape depending on the surface geometry and element (group) type. QUADRILATERAL - a quadrilateral cell shape is preferred. TRIANGULAR - a triangular cell shape is preferred. If MESHING=FREE-FORM, AUTOMATIC - QUADRILATERAL if METHOD=ADVFRONT, TRIANGULAR if METHOD=DELAUNAY. QUADRILATERAL - a quadrilateral cell shape is preferred. TRIANGULAR - a triangular cell shape is preferred. QUAD-DIRECT - quadrilateral only meshing. MESHING Selects the type of mesh generation to be employed. MAPPED Rule-based mapping of surface edge subdivisions. FREE-FORM [MAPPED]

Free-form mesh generation based on advancing front or Delaunay scheme. [NO]

SMOOTHING Indicates whether or not Laplacian smoothing is employed to improve mesh quality. {YES / NO}

DEGENERATE [NO] Indicates whether triangular surfaces (with coincident vertices) are to be treated as degenerate quadrilaterals or triangles (with a special consideration for the degenerate edge, see Figure) for irregular rule-based mapped meshing. {YES / NO} CRACK-TYPE < not applicable to ADINA-T> TIP-POINT < not applicable to ADINA-T> TIP-OPTION < not applicable to ADINA-T> RADIUS < not applicable to ADINA-T> Q-POINT < not applicable to ADINA-T> CPOINT1 < not applicable to ADINA-T> CPOINT2 < not applicable to ADINA-T> COLLAPSED [NO]

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Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

Selects whether triangular TWODCONDUCTION elements are to be treated as collapsed quadrilateral elements by ADINA-T. {YES / NO} NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED / STRAIGHT}. FLIP [NO] Reverses the orientation of shell elements on the surface. This parameter is only used when the element type is SHELL for ADINA and SHELL CONDUCTION for ADINA-T. {NO/YES} surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces.

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GVOLUME

GVOLUME NAME NODES PATTERN NCOINCIDE NCFACE NCEDGE NCVERTEX NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP MESHING PREFSHAPE DEGENERATE NCDOMAIN MIDNODES METHOD BOUNDARY-METHOD volumei Generates elements on a set of geometry volumes. Elements can be created within element groups of type THREEDSOLID, THREEDFLUID or THREEDCONDUCTION. There are two free-form meshing methods available: 1) advancing front, and 2) Delaunay. The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of the geometry volumes, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE VOLUME.

PYRAMID

TETRA

PRISM

HEX

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Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

V2

V1

V2

V1

V3 V6

V4

V3 V5 V6

V4

V5

V7

V8

V7

V8

PATTERN = 1

V2 V1

PATTERN = 2

V2 V1

V3 V6

V4

V3 V5 V6

V4

V5

V7

V8

V7

V8

PATTERN = 3

V2 V1

PATTERN = 4

V3 V6

V4

PATTERN = 5

V5

V7

V8

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NAME The label number of a geometry volume on which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. {8 / 20 / 27} [20]

PATTERN [1] Selects the pattern used to subdivide hexahedral volume cells into tetrahedral elements (used when NODES = 4). See Figure. Note that pattern 5 is used when NODES=10 or 11. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [BOUNDARIES]

Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if |XB - XA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN |YB - YA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN |ZB - ZA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table:

NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES

Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all

Which nodes to check against all

those on the selected all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command. Vertices, edges and faces are selected by parameters NCVERTEX, NCEDGE and NCFACE all those already in

VOLUME

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GVOLUME

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

the volume SELECTED those on all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command those on all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command those on all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command none those within the geometry domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN all, except for nodes on geometry surfaces in the domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none

BOUNDEXSEL

GROUP

NO

NCFACE [123456] Selects which faces of the geometry volumes participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCFACE is an integer of up to six distinct digits in the range 1 through 6. NCFACE is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. NCEDGE [123456789ABC] Selects which edges of the geometry volumes participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCEDGE is an alphanumeric string which can include the digits 1-9 and the characters A, B, C. NCEDGE is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. NCVERTEX [12345678] Selects which vertices of the geometry volumes participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCVERTEX is an integer of up to eight distinct digits in the range 1 through 8. NCVERTEX is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE < not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group in which the generated elements are created. MESHING Selects the type of mesh generation to be employed.

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[MAPPED]

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MAPPED FREE-FORM

Rule-based mapping based on volume edge subdivisions Free-form mesh generation.

PREFSHAPE [AUTOMATIC] Specifies the preferred shape of the cells created when the volume subdivision is irregular, whereby the command employs a rule-based scheme for mapped meshing. AUTOMATIC The appropriate cell shape is determined by the program, depending on the volume geometry and element group type. HEXAHEDRAL PRISMATIC A brick cell shape is preferred. A prism cell shape is preferred.

DEGENERATE [YES] Indicates whether or not volumes of shape PRISM, TETRA or PYRAMID are to be treated as degenerate hexahedra with special consideration of the degenerate edges. {YES / NO} NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED or NCOINCIDE = BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED / STRAIGHT}. METHOD [DELAUNAY] Indicates the type of free-form meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. This parameter is used only when MESHING=FREE-FORM. {ADVFRONT/DELAUNAY} BOUNDARY-METHOD [ADVFRONT] Indicates the type of free-form meshing algorithm to be used for triangular elements on volume's boundary. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. This parameter is only used when MESHING=FREE-FORM. {ADVFRONT / DELAUNAY} volumei Label number of a geometry volume.

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GEDGE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

GEDGE NAME NODES AUXPOINT NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP BODY NCDOMAIN MIDNODES edgei Generates elements along a set of solid geometry edges. Elements can be created within element groups of types ONEDCONDUCTION, CONVECTION (SUBTYPE = PLANAR or AXISYMMETRIC), RADIATION (SUBTYPE = PLANAR or AXISYMMETRIC). The number of elements, and the distribution of their lengths, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry edges, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE EDGE. Note that either a single edge or multiple edges may be specified for generation of elements.

ONEDCONDUCTION ELEMENTS

NAME The label number of a geometry edge along which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. 2 ONEDCONDUCTION elements 2, 3 CONVECTION, RADIATION elements AUXPOINT < not applicable to ADINA-T> NCOINCIDE [ENDS] Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes. If there is coincidence to within

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NCTOLERANCE C (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes) then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed. ENDS Coincidence checking is carried out only for the nodes generated at the end points of the geometry edges.

SELECTED Coincidence checking is carried out at the end points of the geometry edges, but comparison is made only against those nodes generated for the input set of edges for the current command execution and those already generated for the geometry domain indicated by NCDOMAIN. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE < not applicable to ADINA-T>

GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. The group type must be one of those listed above. BODY The solid geometry part (body) label number. [currently active body]

NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED / STRAIGHT}. edgei Label number of a geometry edge.

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GFACE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

GFACE NAME NODES NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP PREFSHAPE BODY COLLAPSED SIZE-FUNCTION NCDOMAIN MIDNODES METHOD NLAYER NLTABLE facei Generates elements on a set of solid geometry faces. Elements can be created within element groups of type TWODCONDUCTION, SHELLCONDUCTION, CONVECTION (SUBTYPE = SURFACE), RADIATION (SUBTYPE = SURFACE). The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of geometry faces, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE FACE.

NAME The label number of a solid geometry face on which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. {3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16} NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [8]

[BOUNDARIES]

Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if

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|XB - XA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN |YB - YA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN |ZB - ZA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise, parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used insted, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command none Which nodes to check against all all

SELECTED

those within the geometry domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none

GROUP

NO

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE < not applicable to ADINA-T>

[TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated.

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GFACE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

PREFSHAPE Specifies the shape or preferred shape of the elements generated. TRIANGULAR Triangular elements are generated. QUADRILATERAL Quadrilateral elements are preferred. QUAD-REFINE

[TRIANGULAR]

Quadrilateral elements are generated. This algorithm combines triangles to form quads. Quadrilateral elements are generated. This algorithm creates quads directly and generally produces better results than QUAD-REFINE. [currently active solid body]

QUAD-DIRECT

BODY The solid geometry body label number.

COLLAPSED [NO] Selects whether triangular TWODCONDUCTION elements are to be treated as collapsed quadrilateral elements by ADINA-T. {YES / NO} SIZE-FUNCTION [0] Label number of a mesh-size function (see command SIZE-FUNCTION) which may be used to control the element sizes away from the boundary edges of the face. SIZE-FUNCTION = 0 implies a size function is not to be used. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED / STRAIGHT}. METHOD [ADVFRONT] Indicates the type of free-form meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. {ADVFRONT/DELAUNAY} NLAYER [1] Specifies a minimum number of elements across thin sections. By default, this option is off. To be turned on, NLAYER must be greater than 1.

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GFACE

If NLAYER >1 the distribution of elements, including their size, is also governed by the presence of thin sections on the face. NLAYER>1 and NLTABLE=0 NLAYER is taken as the minimum number of elements across anywhere in the body. the minimum number of elements across is taken from the table NLTABLE (see command NLTABLE).

NLAYER>1 and NLTABLE>0

Note: Only the first face (if more than one) will be affected by NLTABLE. Note: This option works best if a given bounding edge is NOT close to more than one other bounding edges within a small area, e.g., case of a small sphere close to the corner of a square. Note: The number of requested thin layers will be present in the thin sections but there is no guarantee near side boundaries. NLTABLE Table which indicates the thin section of face. facei Label number of a geometry face (of BODY). [0]

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GBODY

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

GBODY NAME NODES NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP PREFSHAPE COLLAPSED SIZE-FUNCTION DELETE-SLIVER ANGLEMIN MIDNODES METHOD PATTERN MESHING DEGENERATE BOUNDARY-METHOD DEG-EDGE GEO-ERROR SAMPLING MINSIZE NLAYER NLTABLE AUTO-GRADING SIMULATE NCDOMAIN PYRAMIDS DANGLB DANGLC DANGLD HEXALAYER bodyi deg-edgei

Generates elements for a solid geometry body. Elements can be created within element groups of type THREEDCONDUCTION. The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of the geometry body, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE BODY.

NAME The label number of a solid geometry body for which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. {4, 10, 11} NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [4]

[BOUNDARIES]

Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric

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GBODY

location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if |XB - XA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN |YB - YA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN |ZB - ZA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise, parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on all vertices, edges and faces of the geometry body or bodies meshed by the current those on all vertices, edges and faces of the geometry body or bodies meshed by the current command those on all vertices, edges and faces of the geometry body or bodies meshed by the current command none Which nodes to check against all all

ALL BOUNDARIES

BOUNDEXSEL

all, except for nodes on geometry faces in the domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group

GROUP

NO

none

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence.

[TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

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GBODY

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. PREFSHAPE [AUTOMATIC] Specifies the preferred shape of the cells created when the volume subdivision is irregular, whereby the command employs a rule-based scheme for mapped meshing. AUTOMATIC The appropriate cell shape is determined by the program, depending on the volume geometry and element group type. A brick cell shape is preferred. A prism cell shape is preferred.

HEXAHEDRAL PRISMATIC

COLLAPSED [NO] Selects whether tetrahedral THREEDCONDUCTION elements are to be treated as collapsed hexahedral elements by ADINA-T. {YES / NO} SIZE-FUNCTION [0] Selects an auxiliary mesh-size function which controls the element sizes within the body. See command SIZE-FUNCTION. SIZE-FUNCTION = 0 indicates that a size-function is not to be used. DELETE-SLIVER [NO] Controls whether triangular "sliver" element faces are to be removed from the body boundary before generating volume elements. Such slivers can arise from small geometry features such as fillets or rounds with small curvature, or by inappropriate edge subdivision data. The presence of such slivers can result in poor quality elements and a degradation of the meshing process. Enabling the prior removal of such slivers may result in a mesh which smoothes over small geometric features - if these features are important then the local subdivision data should be refined about them. {YES / NO} ANGLE-MIN [5.0] Provides an angle-tolerance for detecting boundary slivers. A triangular element face is considered a sliver if one of its internal angles is less than ANGLE-MIN (in degrees). {0.0 # ANGLE-MIN # 10.0} (The upper bound precludes unrealistic sliver definitions). MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED / STRAIGHT}.

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GBODY

METHOD [DELAUNAY] Indicates the type of free-form meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. This parameter is only used when MESHING=FREE-FORM. {ADVFRONT / DELAUNAY} PATTERN [0] Selects the pattern used to subdivide the hexahedral body cells into tetrahedral elements(used when NODES=4) - see figures - GVOLUME command. PATTERN=0 indicates that one of the patterns 1 through 5 is to be automatically selected so as to match the patterns already used for adjacent volumes. If no pattern is suitable, for PATTERN=0, then a warning message is given and no elements are generated - in this case existing pattern usage must be examined carefully to avoid pattern mismatches which would result in incompatible meshes. This parameter is only used when MESHING=MAPPED. MESHING Selects the type of mesh generation to be used. MAPPED [FREE-FORM]

A rule based mapping of body edge subdivisions. Mapped meshing is available only when the body is a Parasolid7 body and the topology of the body is similar to a hexahedron, prism, pyramid, or tetrahedron. When NODES=4,10,11, free-form mesh generation based on advancing front or Delaunay scheme creates tetrahedral elements. When NODES=8,27, free-form mesh generation based on advancing front creates a mix of hexahedral and tetrahedral elements, with hexahedral elements occupying most of [NO]

FREE-FORM

DEGENERATE Indicates how bodies with triangular faces are to be handled: NO The triangular face is not given any special consideration for its degenerate edge. YES The volume is treated as a degenerate hexahedral shape.

Note: This parameter is only used when MESHING=MAPPED. BOUNDARY-METHOD [ADVFRONT]

Indicates the type of free-form meshing algorithm to be used for triangular elements on body=s boundary. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. {ADVFRONT / DELAUNAY} ADVFRONT distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry bodies, e.g., via command

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GBODY

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

SUBDIVIDE BODY, and by any auxiliary size-function. DELAUNAY the distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry bodies, e.g,. via command SUBDIVIDE BODY and by the rules of smooth gradation. This means subdivisions on body edges may be overwritten to allow for smooth gradation of element sizes.

Note:

This parameter is only used when MESHING=FREE-FORM.

DEG-EDGE [0] The degenerate edge of the body. This parameter is only used if the body is a prism body. MESHING=MAPPED, and DEGENERATE=YES. GEO-ERROR [0.0] Relative geometric discretization error. By default, this option is off. If GEO-ERROR>0.0 the distribution of elements, including their size, is also governed by the curvature of the geometry body=s bounding edges and face.s. SAMPLING Number of sampling points on edge Meaningful only if GEO-ERROR option turned on. For edges: number of sampling points = SAMPLING For faces: number of sampling points = SAMPLINGxSAMPLING MIN-SIZE Minimum size allowed. Meaningful only if GEO-ERROR option turned on. NLAYER [1] When NODES = 4,10,11 and MESHING = FREE-FORM, specifies a minimum number of elements across. By default, this option is off. To be turned on, NLAYER must be greater than 1. If BOUNDARY-METHOD = DELAUNAY, this option also applies to any bounding face (of the body). If no NLTABLE is specified, NLAYER is used as the minimum number of elements across anywhere in body. NLTABLE Table which indicates the thin sections of body and/or body faces. AUTO-GRADING Mesh densities required to satisfy smooth gradation. {NO / YES} If AUTO-GRADING = YES the distribution of elements, including their size, is also governed by the requirement for smoothly graded mesh densities. [0]

[NO]

SIMULATE

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This parameter is relevant only when GEO-ERROR > 0.0 or AUTO-GRADING=yes or NODES=8, 27 and MESHING=FREE-FORM. Mesh densities are updated without creating the mesh. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE=SELECTED or NCOINCIDE=BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN=0 indicates that no domain is to be used. PYRAMIDS [NO] When NODES = 8,20,27 and MESHING = FREE-FORM, indicates whether pyramid elements should be used to transition from hexahedra to tetrahedra. If PYRAMIDS = ONLY, no hexahedra are created and pyramids are created for each boundary quadrilateral cell. {NO/YES/ONLY} DANGLB Max angular deviation (from 90 degrees) for the angle at corners of hex side faces. [80]

DANGLC [60/20] Max angular deviation (from 180 degrees) for the dihedral angle at diagonals of hex side faces Default = 60 degrees (20 degrees if PYRAMIDS = YES). DANGLD Max angular deviation (from 90 degrees) for the dihedral angle at hex edges. [80]

HEXALAYER [NO] When NODES = 8,20,27 and MESHING = FREE-FORM, specifies the number of hexahedral element layers to be grown from body's boundary faces (0 or 1).By default, this number is set to 0. To be turned on, HEXALAYER must be equal to YES. bodyi Label numbers of geometry bodies. The data line input allows for more than one body to be meshed via a single GBODY command call. deg-edgei The degenerate edge of bodyi . This data is only used if the body is a prism body, MESHING=MAPPED, and DEGENERATE=YES. bodyi Label numbers of geometry bodies. The data line input allows for more than one body to be meshed via a single GBODY command call. deg-edgei

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GBODY

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

The degenerate edge of bodyi . This data is only used if the body is a prism body, MESHING=MAPPED, and DEGENERATE=YES.

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GHEXA

GHEXA

NAME NODES NCOINCIDE NCDOMAIN NCTOLERANCE GROUP MIDNODES SIZE

Generates brick element (hexahedron) dominant free-form meshes for a given body. Note that this command - meshes the boundary as well as the inside of the given body - does not take into account edge subdivisions (see SIZE parameter) - does not update edge subdivisions - should only be used on near-primitive bodies

cover (cutaway)

pulley gear (cutaway)

NAME Label number of geometry body. NODES The number of nodes per element. {8/20/27} [8]

NCOINCIDE [BOUNDARIES] Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking.{ALL/BOUNDARIES/BOUNDEXSEL/ GROUP/NO} Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if

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GHEXA

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

|XB - XA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN |YB - YA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN |ZB - ZA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table:

NCOINCIDE

Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence

Which nodes to check against

ALL BOUNDARIES

all those on all boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets none

all all

BOUNDEXSEL

all, except for nodes on boundary cell sets in domain defined by NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none

GROUP

NO

NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED or NCOINCIDE = BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

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GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group in which the generated elements are created. MIDNODES [STRAIGHT] Indicates whether the mid-side nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes (STRAIGHT), or on the underlying curved geometry using either mapping from parameter space to real space (CURVED), or projection (PROJECT). {CURVED/STRAIGHT/PROJECT} SIZE Desired (uniform) mesh density for elements to be created.

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GBCELL

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

GBCELL

SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NODES NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE NCDOMAIN COLLAPSED PYRAMIDS BCELL

bcelli Creates 3D elements from boundary cells. Boundary cells are grouped into sets using the BCELL command. The boundary cells must form a water-tight domain and must be oriented towards the domain. This command creates node sets and element face sets corresponding to each boundary cell set. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T>

[current substructure label number]

GROUP [current element group number] The label number of the element group in which the generated elements are created. The default value is determined by the last preceding SET EGROUP command. The group type must be one of those listed above. NODES The number of nodes per element. Allowable values for each analysis program are ADINA ADINA-T ADINA-F - 4, 8, 10, 11, 20, 27 - 4, 8, 10, 11, 20, 27 - 4, 8, 27 [BOUNDARIES] [4]

NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking.

Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if |XB - XA| |YB - YA| |ZB - ZA| ≤ NCTOLERANCE * XLEN ≤ NCTOLERANCE * YLEN ≤ NCTOLERANCE * ZLEN

where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that

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GBCELL

geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table:

NCOINCIDE

Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence

Which nodes to check against

ALL BOUNDARIES

all those on all boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets none

all all

BOUNDEXSEL

all, except for nodes on boundary cell sets in domain defined by NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none

GROUP

NO

[value set by parameter COINCIDENCE of command TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED or NCOINCIDE = BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. COLLAPSED [NO] Selects whether tetrahedral THREEDSOLID, or FLUID3 elements are to be treated as collapsed hexahedral elements by ADINA. NO YES PYRAMIDS - Tetrahedral elements are not collapsed - Tetrahedral elements are treated as collapsed hexahedra [NO]

NCTOLERANCE

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GBCELL

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

{NO/ONLY} When NODES = 8,20,27, indicates whether pyramid elements should be used to transition from hexahedra to tetrahedra. If PYRAMIDS = ONLY, no hexahedra are created and pyramids are created for each boundary quadrilateral cell. BCELL {ALL/SELECT} Indicates whether all boundary cells are used to create the 3-D mesh. ALL SELECT - All boundary cells are used. - Selected boundary cells as specified by bcelli are used. [ALL]

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NLTABLE

NLTABLE gtypei

NAME BODY

ent1i ent2i nlayeri

Creates a table which specifies the minimum number of layers across thin sections in a body or on a face. Each thin section is specified by 2 opposing faces or edges. This table can be used in the commands GBODY and GFACE. BODY Geometry body label gtypei Specifies the entity type for the entries ent1i and ent2i. {FACE / EDGE}. ent1i First face or edge label ent2i Second face or edge label nlayeri minimum number of elements across the 2 faces or edges. This command allows the user to control where the thin sections should be considered at the face/face level and also at the edge/edge level for a given face.

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BLAYER

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

BLAYER SUBSTRUC GROUP bodyi facei edgei ptypei thick0i nlayeri thickti Command BLAYER generates boundary layers on specified body faces/edges for the specified group. In 3D, boundary layers are grown normal to body faces. In 2D, boundary layers are grown normal to body edges along body faces. In 3D, edgei is a dummy argument (default=0). Notes for 3D models: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BLAYER is active only if number of bodies > 0, number of volumes = 0, and all bodies have meshed. BLAYER executes only if number of nodes per element is 4. In case of multiple bodies, "interface" body faces must be linked. Linked body faces cannot have boundary layers on both sides. Once boundary layers have been generated and in case of multiple bodies, do not delete body meshes unless you intend to delete all of them. There can only be one element group. As a rule of thumb, the total thickness should be less than the element size on the body face.

Notes for 2D models: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BLAYER is active only if number of body faces > 0, number of surfaces = 0, and all body faces have been meshed. BLAYER executes only if number of nodes per element is 3. In case of multiple bodies, "interface" body edges must have same nodes. Interface body edges cannot have boundary layers on both sides. Once boundary layers have been generated and in case of multiple bodies, do not delete body meshes unless you intend to delete all of them. There can only be one element group. As a rule of thumb, the total thickness should be less than the element size on the body edge.

SUBSTRUC <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP Element group bodyi Label number of the body facei [current group label number]

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BLAYER

Label number of the face edgei Label number of body edge ptypei Progression type for boundary layers. Allowable values are: {GEOMETRIC / ARITHMETIC} thick0i Thickness of first layer (off face) nlayeri Number of layers thickti Total thickness

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RSURFACE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

RSURFACE NAME NODES PATTERN NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP RSURFACE creates a set of radiation elements on a radiation-surface, see RGROUP RADIATION2/RADIATION3, RADIATIONSURFACE. Radiation elements are normally created by default from associated finite elements defined on the geometry of the radiation-surface. However, a radiation-surface may be defined to consist of radiation elements with no associated finite elements. The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry components of the radiation-surface via SUBDIVIDE LINE, SUBDIVIDE SURFACE. NAME The label number of an existing radiation-surface on which radiation elements are to be created. NODES The number of nodes per radiation element. 2, 3 2-D radiation-surface 4, 8, 9, 16 3-D radiation-surface PATTERN Selects the type of triangulation pattern. See GSURFACE. [1] [2 (for RGROUP RADIATION2)] [4 (for RGROUP RADIATION3)]

NCOINCIDE [SURFACE] Flags nodal coincidence checking. YES The global coordinates of all generated radiation nodes are compared against those of existing nodes. If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE C (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes) then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed. NO SURFACE No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. Nodal coincidence is carried out, but comparison is made only against those nodes already generated on the radiation-surface indicated by parameter NAME.

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RSURFACE

NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T>

[TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]

GROUP [current radiation-surface group] The label number of the radiation-surface group in which the radiation elements are generated.

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ELDELETE

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

ELDELETE LINE ELDELETE SURFACE ELDELETE VOLUME ELDELETE EDGE ELDELETE FACE ELDELETE BODY

NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODE-DELETE NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODE-DELETE NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODE-DELETE NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODE-DELETE BODY NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODE-DELETE BODY NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODE-DELETE

ELDELETE deletes elements generated on a given geometry entity for a specific element group. The nodes connected to the deleted elements may also be optionally deleted (provided they are not connected to other elements or define other model features). NAME Label number of the geometry entity for which generated elements are to be deleted. GROUP Element group label number. [currently active element group]

SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> NODE-DELETE Node deletion option. {YES / NO} [YES]

BODY [currently active body] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used for edge/face references in ELDELETE EDGE/FACE

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MECONSTRAIN

Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation

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RADIATION-POINTS

RADIATION-POINTS namei pointi materiali areai tbirthi tdeathi shapei Defines radiation elements at geometry points. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. namei Label number of a radiation element. pointi Label number of the geometry point associated with the radiation element. [0] materiali Label number for the material to be used with element "namei". A 0 value indicates that the element group default material is to be used. areai The cross-sectional area of the element. tbirthi Birth time for the element. tdeathi Death time for the element. shapei Shape factor (or "view" factor). Auxiliary commands LIST RADIATION-POINTS FIRST LAST DELETE RADIATION-POINTS FIRST LAST [1.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

[1.0]

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CONVECTION-POINTS

Sec. 8.3 Elements

CONVECTION-POINTS namei pointi materiali areai tbirthi tdeathi Defines convection elements at geometry points. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. namei Label number of a convection element. pointi Label number of the geometry point associated with the convection element. [0] materiali Label number for the material to be used with element "namei". A 0 value indicates that the element group default material is to be used. areai The cross-sectional area of the element. tbirthi Birth time for the element. tdeathi Death time for the element. Auxiliary commands LIST CONVECTION-POINTS FIRST LAST DELETE CONVECTION-POINTS FIRST LAST [1.0]

[0.0]

[0.0]

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ELTHICKNESS

Section 8.3 Elements

ELTHICKNESS eli thick1i thick2i thick3i ... thick16i ELTHICKNESS defines shell-conduction element thicknesses. eli The element label number (in the current element group). thick1i Thickness of shell element "eli" at local node number 1. thick2i Thickness of shell element "eli" at local node number 2. thick16i Thickness of shell element "eli" at local node number 16. [0.0]

[thick1i]

[thick1i]

Note: Thickness is measured in the direction of the director/normal vector at the node. Note: The thicknesses "thickni" are defined for midsurface nodes, ignoring top/bottom nodes of transition elements. Auxiliary commands LIST ELTHICKNESS FIRST LAST DELETE ELTHICKNESS FIRST LAST

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COORDINATES NODE

Sec. 9.1 Nodal data

COORDINATES NODE SYSTEM ENTRIES NAME X Y Z SYSTEM (SYSTEM type = global Cartesian (0)) ENTRIES NAME XL YL ZL SYSTEM (SYSTEM type = Cartesian) ENTRIES NAME R THETA XL SYSTEM (SYSTEM type = cylindrical) ENTRIES NAME R THETA PHI SYSTEM (SYSTEM type = spherical) ni xi yi zi sysi Defines coordinates for nodes. The coordinates given refer to the local system specified by parameter SYSTEM. SYSTEM [currently active system] Label number of the required local coordinate system. This specifies the coordinate system to which any appended data line coordinates refer and determines which column heading names are allowed by any ENTRIES data line. ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. The heading names depend on the type of local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note: Less than five entry column headings may be given e.g., to specify nodes in a coordinate plane, but the column heading NAME must always be specified. ni Label number for the desired node, input under the column heading NAME. xi yi zi Coordinate values in local coordinate system "sysi". [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]

[SYSTEM] sysi Local coordinate system label number. Note "sysi" defaults to the system specified by SYSTEM, which in turn defaults to the currently active coordinate system. Auxiliary commands LIST COORDINATES NODE FIRST LAST SYSTEM GLOBAL DELETE COORDINATES NODE FIRST LAST If GLOBAL = YES the coordinates are listed in terms of the global Cartesian system.

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HEATCAPACITIES NODES

HEATCAPACITIES NODES nodei capaci Assigns concentrated heat capacities to nodes. nodei Node label number. capaci The heat capacity assigned to nodei. Auxiliary commands LIST HEATCAPACITIES NODES FIRST LAST DELETE HEATCAPACITIES NODES FIRST LAST [0.0]

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AXES-NODES

Sec. 9.1 Nodal data

AXES-NODES NAME NODE1 NODE2 NODE3 Defines an "axes-system" via three model nodes. Axes-systems can be referenced by element data commands (e.g., EDATA) to indicate the local orientation of orthotropic material properties. NAME Label number for the desired axes-system. This is numbered independently for each element group. NODE1 Label number of the first node defining the axes-system. NODE2 Label number of the second node defining the axes-system. NODE3 Label number of the third node defining the axes-system. Note: The local x-direction of the axes-system is determined by the vector from NODE1 to NODE2. The local z-direction of the axes-system is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the three nodes NODE1, NODE2, and NODE3. The local y-direction of the axes-system is then given by the right-hand rule. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES-NODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP DELETE AXES-NODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP

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NODESET

NODESET NAME ALL-EXT nodei substructurei reusei

Defines a collection of nodes by label number. The NODESET may be referenced by other commands such as CONSTRAINT. NAME Label number of NODESET. nodei Node label number. substructurei <not applicable to ADINA-T> reusei <not applicable to ADINA-T> ALL-EXT [NO] Indicates whether this node set includes all nodes on the external boundary of the model. If ALL-EXT=YES, then "nodei" is a list of nodes which will be excluded in this node set. { YES / NO } Auxiliary commands LIST NODESET FIRST LAST DELETE NODESET FIRST LAST [current highest nodeset label number +1]

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ENODES

Sec. 9.2 Element data

ENODES SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP (ENTRIES EL N1 N2 ... NK) eli n1i n2i n3i n4i ... nki Defines element nodal connectivity for the model and element group specified. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for element node ordering. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP Element group label number. [currently active element group]

ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. Specifies the element nodes for which the global node numbers shall be input. The column heading EL must always be specified first, and the essential and optional nodal headings for each type of element are: eli n1i n2i ONEDCONDUCTION elements eli n1i ... n9i TWODCONDUCTION elements eli n1i ... n27i THREEDCONDUCTION elements eli n1i ... n48i SHELLCONDUCTION elements eli n1i ... n16i RADIATION elements eli n1i ... n16i CONVECTION elements eli Element number within the current element group. n1i n2i n3i nki The global node numbers defining the element in the order given by ENTRIES. Auxiliary commands LIST ENODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP DELETE ENODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NODE-DELETE NODE-DELETE {YES / NO} allows for the deletion of unattached nodes along with the element deletion.

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INITIAL TEMPERATURES

INITIAL TEMPERATURES nodei tempi Assigns initial temperatures to nodes. Only temperatures that differ from the initial reference temperature, defined by TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE, need be assigned. nodei Node label number, at which initial temperature is given. tempi The initial temperature at nodei. Auxiliary commands LIST INITIAL TEMPERATURES DELETE INITIAL TEMPERATURES [0.0]

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EDATA

Sec. 9.2 Element data

EDATA SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP UNDEFINED eli materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi viewfi (for ONEDCONDUCTION elements) eli materiali thicki beti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci itrii (for TWODCONDUCTION elements) eli materiali ielxi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci maxesi itrii (for THREEDCONDUCTION elements) eli materiali tbirthi tdeathi areai thicki (for CONVECTION elements) eli materiali tbirthi tdeathi shapfi areai thicki (for RADIATION elements) eli materiali printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci maxesi (for SHELLCONDUCTION elements) Specifies property data associated with individual elements in a group. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP Element group label number. [currently active group]

UNDEFINED Indicates what action is taken if element specified in data line is not defined. {IGNORE/ERROR} IGNORE ERROR Program ignores any undefined element specified. Program issues input error for undefined element and continues.

[IGNORE]

eli Element label number. [0] materiali Material number. The material type must be the same as the default material type specified for the element group. A zero value indicates that materiali equals the material label specified for the element group. printi [DEFAULT] Controls printout of element results. The value DEFAULT corresponds to that given for PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES / NO / DEFAULT}

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EDATA

savei [DEFAULT] Controls saving of element results to porthole file. The value DEFAULT corresponds to that given for PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. {YES / NO / DEFAULT} tbirthi tdeathi Element birth and death times, respectively. intloci Integration point coordinates printout flag. 0 No printing of integration point coordinates. 1 Print integration point global coordinates. [0.0] areai Cross-sectional area (required for nodal type convection or radiation elements). A 0.0 value indicates the element has the same cross-sectional area as the element with the lowest label number in the group. [0.0] thicki Element thickness (required for 2-D planar element and for line type convection or radiation elements). A 0.0 value indicates the element has the same thickness as the element with the lowest label number in the group. ielxi [0] Number of nodes used to describe the element geometry. A 0 value indicates that all nodes are used in the element geometry. maxesi Material axes label number. See AXES-NODES beti Material angle. itrii Collapsed element indicator. 0 Collapsed quadrilateral or hexahedral element. -1 True triangular or tetrahedral element. [1.0] [0] [0.0] [0.0]

[0]

[0.0]

[0]

viewfi View factor for radiation link element (ONEDCONDUCTION elements).

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EDATA

Sec. 9.2 Element data

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COPY-ELEMENT-NODES

COPY-ELEMENT-NODES FROM TO OFFSET Copies over all elements and nodes from one finite element analysis program to another finite element analysis program, creating new element groups for the destination program. If, for a particular element group type, there is no equivalent group type available in the destination program the source group will not be copied. FROM [ADINA] The source finite element analysis program. {ADINA / ADINA-T / ADINA-F}. TO The destination finite element analysis program. {ADINA / ADINA-T / ADINA-F} OFFSET Offset of element group label. The following table indicates the source-destination element type mapping used by this command: SOURCE ADINA TRUSS TWODSOLID THREEDSOLID BEAM ISOBEAM PLATE SHELL PIPE SPRING GENERAL FLUID2 FLUID3 ADINA-T ONEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION SHELLCONDUCTION DESTINATION ADINA-T ONEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION ONEDCONDUCTION ONEDCONDUCTION SHELLDCONDUCTION SHELLCONDUCTION ONEDCONDUCTION <not copied> <not copied> TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION ADINA TRUSS TWODSOLID THREEDSOLID <not copied> <not copied> SHELL ADINA-F <not copied> TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID ADINA-F <not copied> TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID CONVECTION RADIATION <not copied> [0]

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COPY-ELEMENT-NODES

Sec. 9.2 Element data

ADINA-F TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID CONVECTION RADIATION

ADINA TWODSOLID THREEDSOLID <not copied> <not copied>

ADINA-T TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION

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DELETE-FE-MODEL

DELETE-FE-MODEL PROGRAM Deletes all finite element data associated with a particular analysis program from the model database -- including element groups, elements, nodes, contact groups, contact-surfaces, and contact segments. PROGRAM [ADINA] The finite element analysis program for which all data is to be deleted. {ADINA / ADINAT / ADINA-F}.

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ELEMENTSET

Sec. 9.2 Element data

ELEMENTSET NAME GROUP eli groupi Defines an element set containing elements specified in the parameter GROUP and in the table entries. Element sets containing 3-D conduction, 2-D conduction, and shell conduction elements can be referenced in the SET-AXES-MATERIAL command to specify the orientation of orthotropic material properties for the elements. NAME Label number of ELEMENTSET. GROUP [0] Specifies an element group to be included in this element set. If GROUP > 0 is specified, all elements in the group will be included in this element set. eli Label number of the element. groupi Label number of the element group for element eli. Auxiliary commands LIST ELEMENTSET FIRST LAST DELETE ELEMENTSET FIRST LAST Example ELEMENTSET NAME=2 GROUP=5 3 2 TO 10 2 @ The above command will create an element set 2 which contains all elements in element group 5 and elements 3 to 10 in element group 2.

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Chap. 9 Element data

ELEDGESET

ELEDGESET NAME ALL-EXT edgei eli groupi

Defines an element edge set containing edges of 2-D elements. An element edge set can be used for load application (APPLY-LOAD command) such as pressure, normal traction and heat flux. It can also be used in the definition of a 2-D contact surface (see CONTACTELEMSET command). NAME [(current highest eledgeset label number + 1)] Label number of the element edge set. ALL-EXT [NO] Indicates whether this element edge set includes all external boundary element edges. If ALLEXT=YES, then edgei is a list of element edges which will be excluded in this element edge set. { YES / NO } edgei Edge number of the element. eli Label number of the element. groupi Label number of the element group. Auxiliary commands LIST ELEDGESET FIRST LAST DELETE ELEDGESET FIRST LAST

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ELFACESET

Sec. 9.2 Element data

ELFACESET NAME ALL-EXT facei eli groupi

Defines an element face set containing faces of 3-D and shell elements. An element face set can be used for load application (APPLY-LOAD command) such as pressure, normal traction and heat flux. It can also be used in the definition of a 3-D contact surface (see CONTACTELEMSET command). NAME [(current highest elfaceset label number + 1)] Label number of the element face set. ALL-EXT [NO] Indicates whether this element face set includes all external boundary element faces. If ALLEXT=YES, then facei is a list of element faces which will be excluded in this element face set. { YES / NO } facei Face number of the element. eli Label number of the element. groupi Label number of the element group. Auxiliary commands LIST ELFACESET FIRST LAST DELETE ELFACESET FIRST LAST

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SWEEP

SWEEP

NAME EGROUP DX DY DZ NESWP NODES NFIRST EFIRST NCOINCIDE NTOLERANCE DELETE-EGROUP LOADS-ELEMENT AXES-ORTHOTROPIC AXES-INITIAL BC-FIXITY RBARNODESET RBAR-ELEMSET RBAR-EGROUP RBAR-TYPE RBAR-SECTION RBAR-MATERIAL CGROUP CNAME DELETE-CGROUP RBAR-AREA LINE ALIGNMENT

Generates a volume of 3D elements by extruding 2D elements along a given vector. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Element group label number of the volume elements. If NAME already exists, it must be a THREEDCONDUCTION element group. EGROUP Previously defined 2D element group label. DX, DY, DZ Vector components defining the direction of extrusion. NESWP The number of elements in the direction of extrusion. [1]

NODES [0] Number of nodes for the extruded 3D elements {0, 8, 20 or 27}. If NODES=0, then the following rule applies: Max. Nodes in 2D element grp 4 8 9 Number of Nodes 3D element grp 8 20 27 [1]

NFIRST The starting node label for the generated nodes. EFIRST The starting element label for the generated elements.

[1]

NCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether the locations of new nodes generated are compared with existing nodes. If NCOINCIDE=YES, then the location of generated nodes will be checked against existing nodes. For each generated node, if it lies within the tolerance (specified by NTOLERANCE) of an existing node, no new node will be created. {YES / NO} NTOLERANCE [1.0E-5]

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SWEEP

Sec. 9.3 Element generation

If NCOINCIDE=YES, then this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing nodes. DELETE-EGROUP [YES] Indicates whether the 2D element group will be deleted after the 3D elements are generated. {YES / NO} LOADS-ELEMENT [NO] Indicates whether element loadings acting on the edges of the 2D elements will be converted to element loadings on the faces of the 3D elements. {YES / NO} AXES-ORTHOTROPIC <not applicable to ADINA-T> AXES-INITIALSTRAIN <not applicable to ADINA-T> BC-FIXITY Indicates whether fixity boundary conditions will be assigned to the generated nodes corresponding to the fixity conditions on the original nodes. { YES / NO } (following only applies to ADINA) RBAR-NODESET <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-ELEMSET <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-EGROUP <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-TYPE <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-SECTION <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-MATERIAL <not applicable to ADINA-T> CGROUP <not applicable to ADINA-T> CNAME <not applicable to ADINA-T> DELETE-CGROUP <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-AREA <not applicable to ADINA-T> LINE The geometry line label. ALIGNMENT Specifies the direction of 2D meshed face during sweeping. [NORMAL] [NO]

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SWEEP

NORMAL PARALLEL

: 2D face normal is at fixed angle to line tangent. : 2D face normal always points to the same direction.

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REVOLVE

Sec. 9.3 Element generation

REVOLVE

NAME EGROUP XA YA ZA X0 Y0 Z0 ANGLE NEREV NODES NFIRST EFIRST NCOINCIDE NTOLERANCE DELETEEGROUP LOADS-ELEMENT AXES-ORTHOTROPIC AXESINITIAL BC-FIXITY RBAR-NODESET RBAR-ELEMSET RBAR-EGROUP RBAR-TYPE RBAR-SECTION RBARMATERIAL CGROUP CNAME DELETE-CGROUP RBARAREA

Generates a volume of THREEDCONDUCTION elements by revolving TWODCONDUCTION elements about an axis. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Element group label number of the volume elements. If NAME already exists, it must be a THREEDCONDUCTION element group. EGROUP Previously defined 2D element group label. XA, YA, ZA Components of the rotation axis direction. X0, Y0, Z0 Global coordinates of the origin of the axis of rotation. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range -360 <= ANGLE <= 360. The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule. NEREV The number of elements in the direction of rotation. [1]

NODES [0] Number of nodes for the extruded 3D elements {0, 8, 20 or 27}. If NODES=0, then the following rule applies: Max. Nodes in 2D element grp 4 8 9 Number of Nodes 3D element grp 8 20 27

NFIRST The starting node label for the generated nodes.

[NO]

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REVOLVE

EFIRST The starting element label for the generated elements.

[NO]

NCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether the locations of new nodes generated are compared with existing nodes. If NCOINCIDE=YES, then the location of generated generated nodes will be checked against existing nodes. For each generated node, if it lies within the tolerance (specified by NTOLERANCE) of an existing node, no new node will be created. {YES / NO} NTOLERANCE [1.0E-5] If NCOINCIDE=YES, then this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing nodes. DELETE-EGROUP [YES] Indicates whether the 2D element group will be deleted after the 3D elements are generated. {YES / NO} LOADS-ELEMENT [NO] Indicates whether element loadings acting on the edges of the 2D elements will be converted to element loadings on the faces of the 3D elements. {YES / NO} AXES-ORTHOTROPIC <not applicable to ADINA-T> AXES-INITIALSTRAIN <not applicable to ADINA-T> BC-FIXITY Indicates whether fixity boundary conditions will be assigned to the generated nodes corresponding to the fixity conditions on the original nodes. { YES / NO } RBAR-NODESET <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-ELEMSET <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-EGROUP <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-TYPE <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-SECTION <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-MATERIAL <not applicable to ADINA-T> CGROUP <not applicable to ADINA-T> CNAME <not applicable to ADINA-T> [NO]

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REVOLVE

Sec. 9.3 Element generation

DELETE-CGROUP <not applicable to ADINA-T> RBAR-AREA <not applicable to ADINA-T>

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BOUNDARIES

BOUNDARIES nodei temperaturei Assigns fixed temperature boundary conditions to nodes. Equivalently sets the temperature to 0.0 for "fixed" nodes. nodei Node number. temperaturei [FREE] Boundary condition applied to temperature degree of freedom. {FIXED / FREE} Auxiliary commands LIST BOUNDARIES FIRST LAST OPTION Lists the temperature boundary conditions for nodes FIRST TO LAST. To list for all nodes, USE OPTION=MODEL DELETE BOUNDARIES FIRST LAST

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CONSTRAINT-NODE

Sec. 9.4 Boundary conditions

CONSTRAINT-NODE NAME SLAVENODE SLAVEDOF masternodei masterdofi betai slavenodei slavedofi Specifies a constraint equation which expresses a slave (dependent) degree of freedom as a linear combination of a set of master (independent) degrees of freedom. NAME [(highest constraint equation label number) + 1] The label number of the constraint equation. SLAVENODE The label number of the slave node. SLAVEDOF The degree of freedom associated with the slave node.

{TEMPERATURE}

masternodei The label number of the master node for the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. masterdofi The degree of freedom of the master node for the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. Allowable values are the same as for SLAVEDOF. betai The coefficient of the "i"th independent term of the constraint equation. [1.0]

slavenodei The label number of the slave node corresponding to the masternode “i”. If not specified, then slavenodei = SLAVENODE. slavedofi The degree of freedom associated with slavenodei. If slavedofi is not specified, then slavedofi = SLAVEDOF. Auxiliary commands LIST CONSTRAINT-NODE FIRST LAST DELETE CONSTRAINT-NODE FIRST LAST

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APPLY CONCENTRATED-LOADS

APPLY CONCENTRATED-LOADS SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE THERMOSTAT nodei factori ncuri artmi Applies concentrated heat flows to nodes. The magnitude of the heat flow is given by entry "factori", which may be modified via a timefunction given by entry "ncuri". Several concentrated loads can be defined for the same node; in this case the loads are averaged. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> REUSE <not applicable to ADINA-T> THERMOSTAT Label number defined in the command THERMOSTAT. nodei The label number of a node to which the load is to be applied. factori Multiplying factor, giving heat flow magnitude. ncuri The label number of a time function. artmi The arrival time associated with time dependent loads. [1.0] [0]

[1]

[0.0]

Auxiliary commands LIST APPLY CONCENTRATED-LOADS DELETE APPLY CONCENTRATED-LOADS

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APPLY CONVECTIONS

Sec. 9.5 Loads

APPLY CONVECTIONS

THERMOSTAT

nodei factori ncuri artmi ishelni Applies convection environmental temperatures to nodes. The magnitude of the environmental temperature is given by entry "factori", which may be modified by a timefunction given by entry "ncuri". Several convection temperatures can be defined for the same node; in this case the convection temperatures are averaged. THERMOSTAT Label number defined in the command THERMOSTAT. nodei The label number of the node at which the convection temperature is to be applied. factori Multiplying factor, giving environmental temperature. ncuri The label number of a time function. artmi The arrival time, associated with time-dependent loads. ishelni Indicates where the radiation temperature is applied for a shell midsurface node. 0 Not shell midsurface node. 1 Top location 2 Bottom location 3 Both top and bottom location Auxiliary commands LIST APPLY CONVECTIONS DELETE APPLY CONVECTIONS [1.0] [0]

[1]

[0.0]

[0]

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Chap. 9 Direct finite element data input

APPLY RADIATIONS

APPLY RADIATIONS

THERMOSTAT

nodei factori ncuri artmi ishelni Applies radiation source/sink temperatures to nodes. The magnitude of the source/sink temperature is given by entry "factori", which may be modified by a timefunction given by entry "ncuri". Several radiation temperatures can be defined for the same node; in this case the radiation temperatures are averaged. THERMOSTAT Label number defined in the command THERMOSTAT. nodei The label number of the node at which the radiation temperature is to be applied. factori Multiplying factor, giving the radiative source/sink temperature. ncuri The label number of a time function. artmi The arrival time, associated with time dependent loads. ishelni Indicates where the radiation temperature is applied for a shell midsurface nodes. 0 Not shell midsurface node. 1 Top location 2 Bottom location 3 Both top and bottom location Auxiliary commands LIST APPLY RADIATIONS DELETE APPLY RADIATIONS [1.0] [0]

[1]

[0.0]

[0]

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APPLY TEMPERATURES

Sec. 9.5 Loads

APPLY TEMPERATURES nodei factori ncuri artmi ishelni Prescribes temperatures at nodes. The magnitude of the temperature is given by entry "factori", and may be modified by a time function given by entry "ncuri". Several temperatures can be defined for the same node; in this case the temperatures are averaged. nodei The label number of the node at which the temperature is to be prescribed. factori Multiplying factor, giving the temperature at the node. ncuri The label number of a time function. artmi The arrival time associated with time dependent temperatures. ishelni Indicates where the prescribed temperature is applied for a shell midsurface nodes. 0 Not shell midsurface node. 1 Top location 2 Bottom location 3 Both top and bottom location Auxiliary commands LIST APPLY TEMPERATURES DELETE APPLY TEMPERATURES [1.0]

[1]

[0.0]

[0]

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Chap. 9 Direct finite element data input

APPLY INTERNALHEAT

APPLY INTERNALHEAT SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE GROUP eli factori ncuri artmi Prescribes time-dependent internal heat generation for elements in a specified element group. The magnitude of the internal heat generation is given by entry "factori", which may be modified by a time function given by entry "ncuri". SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> REUSE <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP [current element group] The element group number for all elements referenced in this command. eli The label number of an element to which the internal heat generation is applied. factori Multiplying factor, giving the heat generation magnitude. ncuri The label number of a time function. artmi The arrival time, associated with time dependent loads. Auxiliary commands LIST APPLY INTERNALHEAT DELETE APPLY INTERNALHEAT [1.0]

[1]

[0.0]

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LOADS-ELEMENTS

Sec. 9.2 Element data

LOADS-ELEMENT

SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE GROUP THERMOSTAT (TWODCONDUCTION elements)

eli facei p1i p2i ncuri artmi

eli facei p1i p2i p3i p4i ncuri artmi (THREEDCONDUCTION elements) eli facei p1i p2i p3i p4i ncuri artmi (SHELLCONDUCTION elements) Applies heat flux loads onto element edges and faces. SUBSTRUCTURE <not applicable to ADINA-T> REUSE <not applicable to ADINA-T> GROUP [currently active group] Element group number for all elements referenced in this command. THERMOSTAT Label number defined in the command THERMOSTAT. eli The label number of an element to which the load is to be applied. facei A number giving the location onto which to apply the load. See Table below. [0.0] p1i p2i [0.0] [0.0] p3i [0.0] p4i Heat flux load at element vertex nodes. The sign convention used is such that the heat flux is positive if directed into the element. ncuri The label number of a time function. artmi The arrival time associated with time dependent loads. [1] [0]

[0.0]

Face parameter convention

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LOADS-ELEMENTS

Table 1:

Face 1 -1 2 -2 3 -3

Elements including degenerated elements, but excluding true triangular and true hexahedron elements (r, s, t refer to local element coordinates) Applicable element types Location TWODCONDUCTION r = 1 side/face THREEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION r = -1 side/face THREEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION s = 1 side/face THREEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION s = -1 side/face THREEDCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION t = 1 side/face SHELLCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION t = -1 side/face SHELLCONDUCTION True triangular and tetrahedral elements Applicable element types Location TWODCONDUCTION, opposite node 1 THREEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION, opposite node 2 THREEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION, opposite node 3 THREEDCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION opposite node 4

Table 2: Face 1 2 3 4 Auxiliary commands

LIST LOADS-ELEMENT SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE GROUP DELETE LOADS-ELEMENT SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE GROUP

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LOADS-ELEMENT

Sec. 9.5 Loads

RADIATION-NODES NAME EMISSI PRINT SAVE TBIRTH TDEATH THICK segi n1i ... n3i segi n1i ... n16i (for 2-D radiation-surface groups) (for 3-D radiation-surface groups)

Defines a radiation-surface via node connectivities within the current radiation-surface group. NAME [(current highest radiation surface label number) + 1] Label number of the radiation-surface to be defined. EMISSI Emissivity coefficient used for this radiation-surface. PRINT Controls printout of the results for the radiation-surface. [0.999] {0.0 # EMISSI < 1.0}. [YES] {YES / NO}

SAVE [YES] Controls saving (to the porthole file) of the results for the radiation-surface. {YES / NO} TBIRTH The birth time for the radiation-surface. TDEATH The death time for the radiation-surface. THICK Thickness of a planar element. segi Identifying number for the line or area segment on the radiation-surface. n1i, n2i... Node numbers for the line or area segment. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for the convention used. Auxiliary commands LIST RADIATION-NODES FIRST LAST GROUP DELETE RADIATION-NODES FIRST LAST GROUP [0.0]

[0.0]

[1.0]

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RADIATION-NODES

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Command index

Command index

A

ADINA-T, 3-7 ANALYSIS TRANSIENT, 5-6 APPLY CONCENTRATED-LOADS, 9-24 APPLY CONVECTIONS, 9-25 APPLY INTERNALHEAT, 9-28 APPLY RADIATIONS, 9-26 APPLY TEMPERATURES, 9-27 APPLY-LOAD, 7-60 AUTOMATIC TIME-STEPPING, 5-11 AXES CONSTANT, 7-71 AXES EDGE, 7-80 AXES FACE, 7-81 AXES LINE1, 7-72 AXES LINE2, 7-73 AXES NODES, 7-74 AXES POINT-LINE, 7-78 AXES POINT2, 7-76 AXES POINT3, 7-77 AXES SURFACE, 7-79 AXES-NODES, 9-3 AXIS-ROTATION, 7-82

BODY BLOCK, 6-97 BODY CHAMFER, 6-100 BODY CONE, 6-102 BODY CYLINDER, 6-105 BODY HOLLOW, 6-108 BODY INTERSECT, 6-109 BODY MERGE, 6-110 BODY PARTITION, 6-111 BODY PIPE, 6-112 BODY PRISM, 6-115 BODY PROJECT, 6-618 BODY REVOLVED, 6-119 BODY SECTION, 6-122 BODY SEW, 6-123 BODY SHEET, 6-124 BODY SPHERE 6-125 BODY SUBTRACT, 6-127 BODY SURFACES, 6-61 BODY SWEEP, 6-128 BODY TORUS, 6-131 BODY TRANSFORMED, 6-134 BODY VOLUMES, 6-62 BODY-CLEANUP, 6-70 BODY-DEFEATURE, 6-68 BODY-DISCREP, 6-67 BODY-ELEMDATA THREEDCONDUCTION, 7-21 BODY-RESTORE, 6-71 BOUNDARIES, 9-22

B

BCELL, 7-50 BLAYER, 8-79 BODY BLEND, 6-95

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Index-1

Command index

C

CHECK-SURFACES, 6-47 COMMANDFILE, 3-24 CONSTRAINT, 7-39 CONSTRAINT-MS, 7-42 CONSTRAINT-NODE, 9-23 CONTROL, 4-3 CONVECTION-POINTS, 8-87 COORDINATES NODE, 9-1 COORDINATES POINT, 6-6 COPY-ELEMENT-NODES, 9-10

EGROUP CONVECTION, 8-7 EGROUP ONEDCONDUCTION, 8-1 EGROUP RADIATION, 8-9 EGROUP SHELLCONDUCTION, 8-5 EGROUP THREEDCONDUCTION, 8-4 EGROUP TWODCONDUCTION, 8-2 ELDELETE, 8-83 ELEDGESET, 9-14 ELEMENTSET, 9-13 ELFACESET, 9-15 ELTHICKNESS, 8-88 END, 3-26 ENODES, 9-5 EXPORT UNIVERSAL, 3-17

D

DATABASE ATTACH, 3-5 DATABASE DETACH, 3-6 DATABASE NEW, 3-1 DATABASE OPEN, 3-2 DATABASE SAVE, 3-4 DATABASE WRITE, 3-3 DELETE-FE-MODEL, 9-12 DOMAIN, 6-89

F

FACE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, 7-27 FACE-ELEMDATA RADIATION, 7-25 FACE-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION, 7-23 FACE-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION, 7-19 FACE-THICKNESS, 6-63 FACELINK, 6-64 FEPROGRAM, 5-1 FILEECHO, 3-22 FILELIST, 3-21 FILELOG, 3-23 FILEREAD, 3-19

E

EDATA, 9-7 EDGE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, 7-27 EDGE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION, 7-17 EDGE-ELEMDATA RADIATION, 7-25 EGCONTROL, 8-10

Index-2

AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. II − ADINA Thermal Model Definition

Command index

FILESESSION, 3-20 FIXBOUNDARY, 7-46 FIXITY, 7-45 FREQUENCIES, 5-7

K

KNOTS, 6-17

L

LINE ARC, 6-9 LINE CIRCLE, 6-13 LINE COMBINED, 6-23 LINE CURVILINEAR, 6-15 LINE EXTRUDED, 6-27 LINE POLYLINE, 6-18 LINE REVOLVED, 6-24 LINE SECTION, 6-21 LINE STRAIGHT, 6-8 LINE TRANSFORMED, 6-29 LINE-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, 7-27 LINE-ELEMDATA ONEDCONDUCTION, 7-17 LINE-ELEMDATA RADIATION, 7-25 LINE-FUNCTION, 6-66 LNTHICKNESS, 6-32 LOAD CONVECTION, 7-53 LOAD CURRENT-DENSITY, 7-59 LOAD HEATFLUX, 7-55 LOAD NODAL-CURRENT, 7-64 LOAD ELECTRIC-POTENTIAL, 7-63 LOAD INTERNALHEAT, 7-58 LOAD LATENT, 7-57 LOAD NODAL-HEATFLOW, 7-56 LOAD RADIATION, 7-54

G

GBCELL, 8-75 GBODY, 8-65 GEDGE, 8-59 GET-EDGE-FACES, 6-91 GET-EDGE-POINTS, 6-91 GET-FACE-EDGES, 6-92 GFACE, 8-61 GHEXA, 8-72 GLINE, 8-45 GPOINT, 8-44 GSURFACE, 8-48 GVOLUME, 8-54

H

HEADING, 5-2 HEAT-MATRIX, 5-10 HEATCAPACITIES, 7-29 HEATCAPACITIES NODES, 9-2

I

INITIAL TEMPERATURES, 9-6 INITIAL-CONDITION, 7-65 INITIAL-MAPPING, 7-70 ITERATION, 5-14

ADINA R & D, Inc.

Index-3

Command index

LOAD TEMPERATURE, 7-52 LOADDXF, 3-8 LOADIGES, 3-9 LOADPROE, 3-11 LOADSOLID, 3-13 LOADS-ELEMENT, 9-29

N

NASTRAN-ADINA, 3-15 NLTABLE, 8-78 NODESET, 9-4

P

PARAMETER, 3-28 PAUSE, 3-25 POINT-SIZE, 8-29 PORTHOLE, 5-21 PPROCESS, 5-18 PRINTNODES, 5-22 PRINTOUT, 5-19

M

MASTER, 5-3 MATERIAL CONDENSATION, 7-14 MATERIAL CONSTE, 7-12 MATERIAL CONSTH, 7-9 MATERIAL ISOTROPIC, 7-1 MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC, 7-2 MATERIAL SEEPAGE, 7-8 MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-ISOTROPIC, 7-4 MATERIAL TEMPDEP-C-K, 7-6 MATERIAL TEMPDEP-CORTHOTROPIC, 7-5 MATERIAL TEMPDEP-E, 7-13 MATERIAL TEMPDEP-H, 7-10 MATERIAL TEMPDEP-K, 7-3 MATERIAL TIMEDEP-H, 7-11 MATERIAL TIMEDEP-K, 7-7 MATERIAL USER-SUPPLIED, 7-16 MEASURE, 6-90

R

RADIATION-NODES, 9-31 RADIATION-POINTS, 8-86 RADIATIONSURFACE, 7-35 READ, 3-18 REBUILD-MODEL, 3-31 REDO, 4-8 REM-EDGE, 6-93 REM-FACE, 6-94 REVOLVE, 9-19 RGROUP RADIATION2, 7-31 RGROUP RADIATION3, 7-33 RSURFACE, 8-81 RSDELETE, 7-38

Index-4

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Command index

S

SET-INITCONDITION, 7-68 SET-AXES-MATERIAL, 7-84 SFTHICKNESS, 6-46 SHEET PLANE, 6-135 SIZE-FUNCTION AXIS, 8-36 SIZE-FUNCTION BOUNDS, 8-31 SIZE-FUNCTION COMBINED, 8-42 SIZE-FUNCTION HEX, 8-33 SIZE-FUNCTION PLANE, 8-39 SIZE-FUNCTION POINT, 8-34 SIZE-LOCATIONS, 8-43 SOLVER ITERATIVE, 5-17 SPLIT-LINE, 6-31 SUBDIVIDE BODY, 8-27 SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT, 8-11 SUBDIVIDE EDGE, 8-23 SUBDIVIDE FACE, 8-25 SUBDIVIDE LINE, 8-15 SUBDIVIDE MODEL, 8-13 SUBDIVIDE POINT, 8-14 SUBDIVIDE SURFACE, 8-17 SUBDIVIDE VOLUME, 8-20 SURF-ELEMDATA CONVECTION, 7-27 SURF-ELEMDATA RADIATION, 7-25 SURF-ELEMDATA SHELLCONDUCTION, 7-23 SURF-ELEMDATA TWODCONDUCTION, 7-19

SURFACE EXTRUDED, 6-40 SURFACE FACE, 6-138 SURFACE GRID, 6-37 SURFACE PATCH, 6-33 SURFACE REVOLVED, 6-42 SURFACE TRANSFORMED, 6-45 SURFACE VERTEX, 6-35 SURFACE-FUNCTION, 6-74 SWEEP, 9-16 SYSTEM, 6-3

T

TEMPERATURE-REFERENCE, 5-9 THERMOSTAT, 7-66 TIMEFUNCTION, 5-13 TIMESTEP, 5-12 TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC, 5-15 TOLERANCES ITERATION, 5-16 TRANSFORMATION COMBINED, 6-79 TRANSFORMATION DIRECT, 6-81 TRANSFORMATION INVERSE, 6-88 TRANSFORMATION POINTS, 6-82 TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION, 6-83 TRANSFORMATION ROTATION, 6-84 TRANSFORMATION SCALE, 6-86 TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION, 6-87

ADINA R & D, Inc.

Index-5

Command index

U

UNDO, 4-7

V

VOL-ELEMDATA THREEDCONUCTION, 7-21 VOLUME BODY, 6-137 VOLUME EXTRUDED, 6-55 VOLUME PATCH, 6-48 VOLUME REVOLVED, 6-52 VOLUME SWEEP, 6-58 VOLUME TRANSFORMED, 6-60 VOLUME VERTEX, 6-50 VOLUME-FUNCTION, 6-77

Index-6

AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. II − ADINA Thermal Model Definition