ADINA User Interface Command Reference Manual
Volume I: ADINA Solids & Structures Model Definition
Report ARD 052 ADINA R & D, Inc.
October 2005
ADINA User Interface
Command Reference Manual
Volume I: ADINA Solids & Structures Model Definition
Report ARD 052
October 2005 for the ADINA System version 8.3
ADINA R & D, Inc. 71 Elton Avenue Watertown, MA 02472 USA tel. (617) 9265199 telefax (617) 9260238 www.adina.com
Notices ADINA R & D, Inc. owns both this software program system and its documentation. Both the program system and the documentation are copyrighted with all rights reserved by ADINA R & D, Inc. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Trademarks ADINA is a registered trademark of K. J. Bathe / ADINA R & D, Inc. All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Copyright Notice © ADINA R & D, Inc. 1994  2005 October 2005 Printing Printed in the USA
Table of contents
Table of contents
Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 11 Program execution ................................................................................................ 13 Command syntax ................................................................................................... 13 Input details .......................................................................................................... 16 Messages ............................................................................................................ 110 File input/output .................................................................................................. 111 The AUI database ................................................................................................ 111 Listings ................................................................................................................ 112 Units .................................................................................................................... 113 Tips for writing batch files ................................................................................... 113 Related documentation ........................................................................................ 113
Chapter 2 Quick index .......................................................................................................... 21 2.1 New commands, parameters and options ............................................................. 23 2.2 Quick overview of commands .............................................................................. 26 Chapter 3 Input/output .......................................................................................................... 31 3.1 Database operations ............................................................................................. 33 3.2 Analysis data files ................................................................................................ 39 3.3 External data ........................................................................................................ 312 3.4 Auxiliary files ....................................................................................................... 324 3.5 Program termination ............................................................................................. 332 3.6 Auxiliary commands ............................................................................................ 334 Chapter 4 Interface control and editing ............................................................................... 41 4.1 Settings ................................................................................................................. 43 4.2 Editing ................................................................................................................... 47 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Control data .......................................................................................................... 51 General .................................................................................................................. 53 Analysis details ................................................................................................... 514 Options ................................................................................................................ 526 Solver details ....................................................................................................... 541 Automatic control ................................................................................................ 543 Timedependence ................................................................................................ 547 Iteration ............................................................................................................... 550 Tolerances ........................................................................................................... 556 Analysis output ................................................................................................... 559
Chapter 6 Geometry definition ............................................................................................. 61 6.1 Coordinate systems .............................................................................................. 63
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6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8
Points .................................................................................................................... 66 Lines ..................................................................................................................... 68 Surfaces ............................................................................................................... 633 Volumes ................................................................................................................ 648 Solid models ........................................................................................................ 661 Spatial functions .................................................................................................. 672 Transformations ................................................................................................... 679 Miscellaneous ..................................................................................................... 689 ADINA  M .......................................................................................................... 691 Model definition ................................................................................................... 71 Material models .................................................................................................... 73 CrossSections/Layers ...................................................................................... 7140 Element properties ............................................................................................. 7158 Substructures and cyclic symmetry .................................................................. 7195 Contact conditions ............................................................................................ 7204 Fracture mechanics ............................................................................................ 7242 Boundary conditions ......................................................................................... 7265 Loading .............................................................................................................. 7298 Initial conditions ................................................................................................ 7326 Systems ............................................................................................................. 7338 Finite element representation ............................................................................. 81 Element groups ..................................................................................................... 83 Mesh generation.................................................................................................. 850 Elements ............................................................................................................. 8133 Direct finite element data input ........................................................................... 91 Nodal data ............................................................................................................. 93 Element data ........................................................................................................ 912 Boundary conditions ........................................................................................... 948 Loads ................................................................................................................... 954 Initial conditions .................................................................................................. 967 Contact ................................................................................................................ 979 Fracture ................................................................................................................ 983 Substructures and cyclic symmetry .................................................................... 991
Command index ............................................................................................................... Index1 Appendix 1  Error messages ................................................................................................ A1
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Sec. 1.1 Program execution
1. Introduction
This reference manual provides concise descriptions of the command input requirements for the ADINA User Interface (AUI). This introduction serves to give some background information and indicate the general command syntax including descriptions of the conventions used.
1.1 Program execution
Commands can be entered in the following modes: Interactive (a) AUI is running with the user interface displayed – you can enter commands into the user interface command window – see the AUI Users Guide. (b) AUI is running in command mode (using the "cmd" option) – you can enter commands from standard input. Batch (a) AUI is running with the user interface displayed – you can read commands from a file by choosing File→Batch (UNIX versions) or File→Open (Windows version) – see the AUI Users Guide. (b) Commands can be read from a given file using the aui startup options s (UNIX versions) or b (Windows version). You can also read commands from a file using the READ command (see Section 3).
1.2 Command syntax
Here is the layout of a typical command reference page:
COMMAND[1]
PARAM1 PARAM2[2]...
data1i data2i[3]... General description of command function.[4]
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PARAM1 Description of parameter PARAM1[5]. {<input choices>}[7] PARAM2 Description of parameter PARAM2. ...
[<default>][6]
[<default>] {<input choices>}
[<default>][6] data1i [5] Description of data line entry data1i (ith row, column 1). {<input choices>}[7] data2i [<default>] Description of data line entry data2i (ith row, column 2). {<input choices>} ... Auxiliary commands[8] LIST COMMAND Brief description of this command. DELETE COMMAND Brief description of this command.
Issuing a command allows you to alter the data associated with the command. This data comprises the values associated with the command parameters and possibly a table, input via "data lines", associated with the command. In the above, the command name "COMMAND"[1], given at the top of the reference page, has the first few characters emphasized to show the minimum number of characters required to be input to uniquely identify the command. A list of parameters[2] and data lines[3] for the command then follows. In this list the first few characters in the parameter and data line names are emphasized to show the minimum number of characters required to uniquely identify the parameter and data line names. Following a general outline of the command function[4], a description of the command parameters and data line entries is given below the relevant keynames[5]. The parameters usually have default values[6] which are assumed if the parameter is not explicitly specified. The default values are indicated in brackets [ ] – a bold value indicates a default value (number or string) and an italicized string indicates the source of the default value, which is either (a) a text description of the default, (b) a parameter name from the same
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Sec. 1.2 Command syntax
command, or (c) a combination of command + parameter names, indicating that the default is taken from the setting of another (different) command parameter. A parameter for which no default is provided means that there is no default – i.e., some choice must be entered for that parameter. One important parameter type is that of an entity identifier – for which the parameter keyname "NAME" is normally reserved. If the object identified by NAME has already been defined, then the other parameter defaults are set to the previous settings for that object. If a new NAME is given then the defaults, as indicated by the command reference pages herein, are taken. In the former case, execution of the command redefines the named object. The choice of parameter values is often discussed within the parameter description, but, where appropriate, a simple list of choices follows the parameter description[7]. For example, parameters with simple logical choices will have the list "{YES/NO}" appended to the description. When a table is associated with the command, the command includes data input lines. For some commands, the table is initially empty, but for other commands the table already includes data lines. The columns of a data line can be divided into two types: key columns and data columns. When a data line has key columns, the key value columns always precede the data value columns. In this case the values of the key columns uniquely identify the data line, and, therefore, two data lines cannot have the same key column values – for such input, the second input data line overwrites the data associated with the key column values. You can delete a data line by preceding the key column values with the DELETE prefix. When a data line does not have key columns, two or more data lines can have the same values – but you cannot use the DELETE prefix to delete data lines without key columns. However, you can always delete all of the data lines of a table using the @CLEAR or CLEAR keywords. This is of course especially useful for those tables in which there are no key columns. For data line input, not all the columns need be specified; the ENTRIES keyword, which can be input as the first data line following the command line, can be used to select a subset of the data column entries (see below). Then the values you enter in the subsequent data lines are associated with the columns indicated by the ENTRIES parameters, the other data columns taking default values whenever possible. Note, however, that key columns are required input, and should thus be included in the ENTRIES column list. Many commands have "auxiliary" commands[8] which are entered with one of the following prefixes:
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LIST DELETE UPDATE RESET COPY SET SHOW
List object definitions. Delete objects from the database. Update command defaults. Reset command defaults. Copy objects. Set "currently active" objects. Show "currently active" objects.
A LIST prefixed command has several forms: LIST COMMAND LIST COMMAND LIST COMMAND NAME FIRST LAST List all object identifiers (names). List definition of object with identifier NAME. List definitions of a range of objects with integer label numbers. Parameters FIRST, LAST may also take the string values ‘FIRST’, ‘LAST’, ‘ALL’.
A DELETE prefixed command has the following forms: DELETE COMMAND DELETE COMMAND NAME FIRST LAST Delete the object with identifier NAME. Delete a set of objects with integer label numbers in the specified range.
Note that an object may not be deleted if another model entity depends on its existence as part of its own definition. For example, a geometry line cannot be deleted if it forms a bounding edge of some geometry surface.
1.3 Input details
Command input Please refer to command AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT in the following discussion (Section 5.5): AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT POINT DOF DISPLACEMENT ALPHA DISPMAX CONTINUE RPRINT TYPE NODE
When entering commands, only as many characters as necessary to uniquely specify the command name need be entered. The same rule applies to the parameters and data line entry
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Sec. 1.3 Input details
key names within a command. The minimum number of characters necessary are indicated in bold. Note that command / parameter is case insensitive. All commands, parameters, values are stored in upper case, except for string variables (headings, graph legends, etc.). Parameter values may be input in any order if the keynames are used, e.g., AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT DOF=3 RPRINT=YES DISPMAX=5.0 DISPLACEMENT=4.0 POINT=17 Some or all of the parameters can be excluded if the positional order of the parameters is observed, e.g., AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT 17 3 4.0, ,5.0, ,YES
(the parameters ALPHA and CONTINUE have been omitted by the use of the commas). A mix of keyname parameters and positional input is allowed, e.g., AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT 17 DISPLACEMENT=4.0 DOF=3,,5.0,, YES The above uses of the AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT command are all equivalent. The omitted parameters in each case take the default values. Data lines Many commands require data line (tabular) input, e.g., MODALDAMPING (see Section 5.3): MODALDAMPING modei factori Use the ENTRIES keyword to select only the data columns that you want to enter (the other data columns will be given default values): MODALDAMPING ENTRIES MODE FACTOR 1 1.0 2 0.5 3 2.5 4 1.5 DATAEND Most commands which take this form of input also allow for incremental row generation via the "STEP inc TO" option where "inc" represents an increment in the generation, i.e., in the above
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example modei+k, modei+2k, ..., modejk, are all generated, with the corresponding values for "factor" linearly interpolated between factori and factorj. When generating integer values, the difference between the first and last values must be an integer multiple of the STEP increment (i.e., modulo((modejmodei),k) = 0). There is a default step increment, which for integer values is normally 1; in this case "STEP 1 TO" may be input simply as "TO". Here are some examples: MODALDAMPING 1 5.5 TO 3 7.5 @ or MODALDAMPING 1 5.5 STEP 1 TO 3 7.5 DATAEND Both of these are equivalent to MODALDAMPING 1 5.5 2 6.5 3 7.5 @ Note that data line input may be terminated either by entering the symbol "@" or the string "DATAEND" – data line input will be terminated automatically by input of the next command. Data line rows can be deleted by preceding the key value by the prefix DELETE. This method of deletion also supports row "generation" – i.e., "DELETE i STEP k TO j" may be used to delete a range of values. All the data lines associated with a command may be deleted simultaneously using the CLEAR or @CLEAR keywords. This is useful when you want to define a table if you do not know if the table is already defined or not: TIMEFUNCTION 1 CLEAR which removes all the currently defined data lines of timefunction 1. The columns for data line input can be selected by use of the keyword ENTRIES in the first input data line following the command line, e.g.,
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Sec. 1.3 Input details
COORDINATES POINT ENTRIES NAME Y Z which indicates that only global Y and Z coordinates are to be input for geometry points in the subsequent data lines. The X coordinate assumes the default value 0.0, and thus subsequent data lines entered describe points in the global YZ plane. Names AUI names are usually of two types – alphanumeric strings of up to 30 characters or integer label numbers. Integer label numbers are normally greater than or equal to 1. Integer values Integers can be input with a maximum of 9 significant digits. For positive values, a preceding + sign may, if desired, be input. Real values Specification of real values can include a decimal point and/or an exponent. The exponent must be preceded by the letters E, e, D, or d, e.g., 2E5 2.0d+05 200000. all refer to the same real number. Alphanumeric values Alphanumeric values must start with a letter (AZ, az) or number (09). The only permissible characters allowed are the letters AZ, az, the digits 0 to 9, the hyphen (), and the underscore (_). Lowercase characters in an alphanumeric value are always converted to uppercase by the AUI. String values A string should be enclosed by apostrophes ('). Any apostrophe within the string must be entered twice. Any character can be included in a string. Lowercase characters in a string value are not converted to uppercase. Filenames A filename should be enclosed by apostrophes ('). Filenames can be up to 256 characters long. Length of input lines Input lines to the AUI can each contain up to 256 characters. Line continuation, line separator, blanks, and commas If the last nonblank character of a command or data line is a comma (,), then the command or
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data is continued on the next input line. The total length of an input line and all of its continuations can be up to 2000 characters. A slash (/) in an input line can be used to end a command or data input line; more commands or data can then be entered on the same input line. A blank, several blanks, <Tab> characters, a comma, or a comma surrounded by blanks act as delimiters. Commands, parameter keynames and values must be separated by delimiters. Comments Comment lines can appear anywhere in the input and are identified by an asterisk (*) in column 1, e.g., * This is a comment line Parameter substitution You can define parameters as numeric expressions, and use the parameter values in later commands. This feature is useful when creating batch files used in structural optimization. For example: PARAMETER A `5 + 7` PARAMETER B `2*A` PARAMETER C `3 + A + 4*B` BODY BLOCK DX1=$A DX2=$B DX3=$C
1.4 Messages
Commands will often echo messages confirming their successful completion, or provide other information. Otherwise you may get error/warning messages with varying levels of severity: *** INPUT ERROR You have entered an unacceptable parameter value or data. The command will not execute with invalid input. *** WARNING The command has completed, but has detected a possible inconsistency which may have to be resolved. *** ALERT The command has completed, but has detected a definite modeling inconsistency which has to be resolved in order to create a valid model. *** ERROR The command has not completed.
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Sec. 1.5 File input/output
*** INTERNAL ERROR The program has determined some conflict in the database, normally indicating a software bug. You should contact ADINA R & D Inc. if you encounter such a message. In order to track down the source of the problem it would be most useful if the input responsible for this condition is made available to the support engineers. *** MEMORY OVERFLOW The command has not completed, due to the program running out of memory. Increse the memory allocation to the program
1.5 File input/output
The AUI uses several files for handling I/O. Here is a brief description of some of them, together with a suggested filename extension convention (for the UNIX operating system – other filename conventions may be appropriate for other operating systems) : <file>.in <file>.idb <file>.plot <file>.pdb <file>.ses <file>.ps <file>.dat <file>.port <file>.out ADINAIN batch command input. ADINAIN permanent database. ADINAPLOT batch command input. ADINAPLOT permanent database. AUI session file (echo of command input). PostScript snapshot. Analysis data. Analysis porthole. Analysis printout.
See the AUI Users Guide, Chapter 6 for more information.
1.6 The AUI database
The AUI uses an internal database to store and retrieve data used during program execution. The internal database is stored in main memory and, if main memory is not sufficient, a temporary database file is created to hold the excess data. The internal database can be saved in a disk file, called a permanent database file, so that it can be retrieved in a future run. Five commands are used to create, open and save databases. DATABASE NEW creates a new empty internal database. DATABASE OPEN initializes the internal database using a specified permanent database file. DATABASE SAVE saves the internal database to disk, allowing you to specify the name of the database file. DATABASE ATTACH causes the AUI to use the specified permanent database file as the internal database. DATABASE DETACH renames the internal database file as a permanent database file. All of these commands are described in Section 3.1.
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The permanent database file is similar to a text file used in a word processing program. Like the text file, the permanent database file resides on disk and can be retrieved by the program in a future run. The permanent database file can be saved on disk periodically during program execution to protect against loss of data due to computer failure. During each save operation, a different permanent database file can be selected so that several versions of the database are available for retrieval. (This is similar to saving several versions of a text file on disk when working with a word processing program.) For the differences between DATABASE OPEN and DATABASE ATTACH, see the command description for DATABASE ATTACH. For the differences between DATABASE SAVE and DATABASE DETACH, see the command description for DATABASE DETACH.
1.7 Listings
Many AUI commands generate lists. For example, the ZONELIST command (see The AUI Command Reference Manual, Volume IV) lists the values of variables. You can also specify whether listings are to be sent to your terminal or to a disk file (see the FILELIST command). When the listings are sent to your terminal, you are prompted by More( %) after each screen of the listing. The number printed before the percent sign represents the percentage of the file that has been displayed so far. Responses to this prompt are as follows: <return> <space bar> <i><space bar> D or d <i>D or <i>d <i>Z or <i>z <i>S or <i>s <i>F or <i>f <i>B or <i>b Q or q = . Display another line of the listing. Display another screenful of the listing. Display i more lines. Display the next halfscreen (a scroll) of the listing. Set the number of lines in the scroll to i and display the next scroll. Set the number of lines in each screen to i and display the next screen. Skip i lines and print a screenful of lines. Skip i screenfuls and print a screenful of lines. Skip back i screenfuls and print a screenful of lines. Stop the listing. Print the current line number in the listing. Repeat the last prompt response.
In these responses, <i> represents an optional integer argument, defaulting to 1. If you are familiar with the UNIX operating system, you will recognize that the above options correspond closely to the options of the 'more' command.
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Sec. 1.8 Units
1.8 Units
In model definition no particular unit system is assumed. Any consistent unit system may be adopted. Certain thermodynamic constants do, however, have a choice of temperature unit system (Celsius/Centigrade/Kelvin, Fahrenheit/Rankine).
1.9 Tips for writing batch files
Increasing execution speed: The AUI contains features that are useful when you enter commands using the dialog boxes, but are not useful when you read commands from a batch file. These features are activated by default. You can deactivate the features to increase the speed at which batch files are processed, and to reduce the memory requirements of the AUI. The features are Undo/redo storage: Command CONTROL UNDO=1 turns off storage for undo/redo information. Automatic model rebuilding: Command CONTROL AUTOMREBUILD=NO turns off automatic model rebuilding. Session file creation: Command FILESESSION NO turns off creation of the session file. Storage of session file information in the database: To turn off this feature, use the command CONTROL SESSIONSTORAGE=NO. Stopping after an error or memory overflow is detected: Command CONTROL ERRORACTION=SKIP activate a feature that AUI skips the remaining commands in a batch file after an error or memory overflow is detected. Summary: Use the following commands to perform all of the above actions: FILESESSION NO CONTROL UNDO=1 AUTOMREBUILD=NO SESSIONSTORAGE=NO, ERRORACTION=SKIP
1.10 Related documentation
At the time of printing of this manual, the following documents are available with the ADINA System:
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Installation Notes Describes the installation of the ADINA System on your computer. ADINA User Interface Command Reference Manual Volume I: ADINA Solids & Structures Model Definition, Report ARD 052, October 2005 Volume II: ADINA Heat Transfer Model Definition, Report ARD 053, October 2005 Volume III: ADINA CFD Model Definition, Report ARD 054, October 2005 Volume IV: Display Processing, Report ARD 035, October 2005 These documents describe the AUI command language. You use the AUI command language to write batch files for the AUI. ADINA User Interface Primer, Report ARD 056, October 2005 Tutorial for the ADINA User Interface, presenting a sequence of worked examples which progressively instruct you how to effectively use the AUI. Theory and Modeling Guide Volume I: ADINA Solids & Structures, Report ARD 057, October 2005 Volume II: ADINA Heat Transfer, Report ARD 058, October 2005 Volume III: ADINA CFD & FSI, Report ARD 059, October 2005 Provides a concise summary and guide for the theoretical basis of the analysis programs ADINA, ADINAT, ADINAF, ADINAFSI and ADINATMC. The manuals also provide references to other publications which contain further information, but the detail contained in the manuals is usually sufficient for effective understanding and use of the programs. ADINA Verification Manual, Report ARD 0510, October 2005 Presents solutions to problems which verify and demonstrate the usage of the ADINA System. Input files for these problems are distributed along with the ADINA System programs. TRANSOR for PATRAN Users Guide, Report ARD 0514, October 2005 Describes the interface between the ADINA System and MSC.Patran®. The ADINA Preference, which allows you to perform pre/postprocessing and analysis within the Patran® environment, is described. A tutorial example is given. TRANSOR for IDEAS Users Guide, Report ARD 0515, October 2005 Describes the interface between the ADINA System and UGS Ideas®. The fully integrated TRANSOR graphical interface is described, including the input of additional data not fully described in the IDEAS® database. A tutorial example is given. ADINA System 8.3 Release Notes, October 2005 Provides update pages for all ADINA System documentation published before October 2005.
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Sec. 1.10 Related documentation
You will also find the following book useful: K. J. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. Provides theoretical background to many of the solution techniques used in the ADINA System.
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Chapter 2 Quick index
Quick index
Chap. 2 Quick index
2.1 New commands, parameters and options In version 8.3, the following new commands, parameters and options were added to Volume I of the AUI Command Reference Manual. The commands are listed in the order in which they appear. Command LOADSOLID NASTRANADINA MASTER ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECT INTEGRATION ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECT INTEGRATION ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECT INTEGRATION FREQUENCIES KINEMATICS DISKSTORAGE LNTHICKNESS SFTHICKNESS VOLUME EXTRUDED FACETHICKNESS BODYDISCREP BODYDEFEATURE BODYCLEANUP BODYRESTORE
GETEDGEFACES/POINTS
Parameter REPAIR DEFAULT, DUPLICATE FEFCORR CRSTEP METHOD MASSSCALE, DTMIN1, DTMIN2, GAMMA NSHIFT, NSHIFTBLOCK ULFORMULATION MEMOPT THICK THICK RATIO, PROGRESSION, CBIAS THICK
Option/[Default]
Page 317 320 55
[0] COMPOSITE
514 514 514 518
DEFAULT/[DEFAULT] [0] [0]
526 576 632 646 655
[0]
663 667 668 670 671 691 692 693 694 6118
GETFACEEDGES REMEDGE REMFACE BODY PROJECT BODY SECTION BODY SEW MATERIAL SMA OPTION, body
6122 6123 769
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Quick index
Command CROSSSECTION PIPE
Parameter SOLID
Option/[Default]
Page 7146 7148
CROSSSECTION SQUARE RECTANGULAR LINEELEMDATA TRUSS AREA EDGEELEMDATA TRUSS LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM EDGEELEMDATA ISOBEAM LINEELEMDATA PIPE CONTACTCONTROL CONTACTCONTROL CONTACTCONTROL CGROUP CONTACT2 AREA SECTION SECTION SECTION CONTACTALGORITHM, XCONTALGORITHM RTSUBD CSTYPE XALGORITHM, XKNCRIT, XKNORMAL, XKTCRIT, XKTANGENT RTPCHECK, RTPMAX XDAMP, XNDAMP XALGORITHM, XKNCRIT, XKNORMAL, XKTCRIT, XKTANGENT RTPCHECK, RTPMAX XDAMP, XNDAMP SOLID OPTION OPTION AREA SECTION, SPOINT RESULTS SECTION, THICKNESS
[0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0]
7158 7158 7166 7166 7174 7174 7205 7205 7205 7208
EDGEELEMDATA PIPE SECTION
CGROUP CONTACT2 CGROUP CONTACT2 CGROUP CONTACT3
7208 7208 7216
CGROUP CONTACT3 CGROUP CONTACT3 CONTACTSURFACE CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINTMS CONSTRAINTG EGROUP TRUSS EGROUP BEAM EGROUP BEAM EGROUP ISOBEAM
7216 7216 MULTI 2/3/4 2/3/4 7229 7270 7273 7276 83 817 SFORCES 817 821
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Quick index
Chap. 2 Quick index
Command EGROUP SHELL EGROUP SHELL EGROUP PIPE EGROUP SPRING EGROUP SPRING GBODY GBODY
Parameter THICKNESS INCOMPATIBLEMODES SECTION NONLINEAR OPTION SIMULATE DANGMAXB, DANGMAXC, DANGMAXD MINSIZE, PROJECT, SMOOTH, DANGMAXA, OPTIONA BCELL NODES
Option/[Default]
Page 827 827 834
MNO TRANSVERSE
839 839 8114 8114
GHEXA
8121
GBCELL CSURFACE GLUEMESH ELTHICKNESS MESHCONVERT EDATA
8124 2D:{2/3}; 3D:{3/4/6/8/9} [0] [0] 8129 8132
THICK1 NCOINCIDE SECTION
8141 930 932
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Chap. 2 Quick index
2.2 Quick overview of commands The following is a quick overview of all AUI commands in Volume I of the AUI Reference Manual and their functions. The commands are presented in the order in which they appear in each chapter. Chapter 3: Input/output Section 3.1: Database operations DATABASE NEW, creates a new database. DATABASE OPEN, creates a new database using the specified permanent database file. DATABASE WRITE, saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. DATABASE SAVE, saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. DATABASE ATTACH, allows access to the specified file as an AUI database file. DATABASE DETACH, creates a permanent database file by detaching a working copy of the database file. Section 3.2: Analysis data files ADINA, initiates model validation and/or creates an ADINA data file. REBUILDMODEL, forces the AUI to rebuild the model. Section 3.3: External data LOADDXF, loads an AutoCAD® DXF file into the database. LOADIGES, loads an IGES file into the database. LOADPROE, loads a Pro/ENGINEER® model into the database. LOADSOLID, loads Parasolid® part into the database. NASTRANADINA, maps a NASTRAN® data file into the database. EXPORT UNIVERSAL, exports the mesh in ADINAAUI to an IDEAS® universal file format. Section 3.4: Auxiliary files READ, reads AUI input commands from the specified file. FILEREAD, controls the source of input commands to the AUI. FILESESSION, controls the generation and output of a session file. FILELIST, controls the format and output of listings. FILEECHO, controls the echoing of input commands. FILELOG, controls the output of log messages. COMMANDFILE , creates a file of commands to recreate the current model. Section 3.5: Program termination PAUSE, stops processing commands until a key is hit. END, terminates the program. Section 3.6: Auxiliary commands PARAMETER, defines a parameter that can be substituted in a later command. Chapter 4: Interface control and editing Section 4.1: Settings
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CONTROL, defines certain parameters that control program behavior. Section 4.2: Editing UNDO, cancels the effects of previous commands. REDO, cancels the effects of previous UNDO commands. Chapter 5: Control data Section 5.1: General FEPROGRAM, specifies the finite element analysis program to be used to solve the problem. HEADING, specifies a title for the problem described by the model database. MASTER, defines the data controlling the execution of the analysis program ADINA. Section 5.2: Analysis details ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION, specifies time integration parameters for dynamic analysis. FREQUENCIES, specifies control data for a frequency solution. BUCKLINGLOADS, specifies control data for evaluating static buckling loads and corresponding mode shapes. ANALYSIS MODALTRANSIENT, provides control data for a mode superposi tion analysis. ANALYSIS MODALPARTICIPATIONFACTORS, provides control data for a modal participation factor analysis. ANALYSIS MODALSTRESSES, provides control data for modal stress calculations.
Section 5.3: Options KINEMATICS, defines the kinematic formulation. MASSMATRIX, selects the type of mass matrix to be used in dynamic analysis. RAYLEIGHDAMPING, specifies Rayleigh Damping coefficients. MODALDAMPING, defines modal damping factors to be used in mode superposition analysis. FAILURE MAXSTRESS, defines a failure criterion of type MAXSTRESS. FAILURE MAXSTRAIN, defines a failure criterion of type MAXSTRAIN. FAILURE TSAIHILL, defines a failure criterion of type TSAIHILL. FAILURE TSAIWU, defines a failure criterion of type TSAIWU. FAILURE HASHIN, defines a failure criterion of type HASHIN. FAILURE USERSUPPLIED, defines a failure criterion of type USERSUPPLIED. TEMPERATUREREFERENCE, defines reference temperatures and temperature gradients for both initial conditions and thermal loads. Section 5.4: Solver details SOLVER ITERATIVE, defines control data for the iterative solution of the matrix system of equilibrium equations. PPROCESS, specifies the number of the processors used to split element groups into subgroups. Section 5.5: Automatic control AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT, defines parameters for an automatic loaddisplacement control (LDC) procedure.
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AUTOMATIC TIMESTEPPING, defines parameters controlling the automatic timestepping procedure. Section 5.6: Time dependence TIMESTEP, defines a timestep sequence which controls the time/loadstep incrementation during analysis. TIMEFUNCTION, defines a timefunction, which may be referenced, e.g., by an applied load. Section 5.7: Iteration ITERATION, selects the equilibrium iteration scheme to be employed for a nonlinear analysis. STIFFNESSSTEPS, controls the output timesteps at which the effective stiffness matrix is reformed by the analysis program. EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS, controls the output timesteps at which equilibrium iterations are performed. Section 5.8: Tolerances TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC, specifies certain geometric tolerances. TOLERANCES ITERATION, specifies the convergence criteria and corresponding tolerances controlling the equilibrium iteration scheme. Section 5.9: Analysis output PRINTOUT, controls the amount of output printed. PRINTSTEPS, controls the output timesteps at which results are printed. PORTHOLE, controls the saving of input data and solution results on the port
hole file. NODESAVESTEPS, controls the output timesteps at which nodal results are saved in the porthole file. ELEMSAVESTEPS, controls the output timesteps at which element results are saved on the porthole file. PRINTNODES, selects nodes (defined by “blocks” or geometry entities) for which solution results shall be printed. SAVENODES, selects nodes (defined by “blocks” or geometry entities) for which the solution results shall be saved in the porthole file. DISKSTORAGE, indicates file storage and input/output control. Chapter 6: Geometry definition Section 6.1: Coordinate systems SYSTEM, defines a local coordinate system. Section 6.2: Points COORDINATES POINT, defines geometry point coordinates. Section 6.3: Lines LINE STRAIGHT, defines a straight geometry line between two geometry points. LINE ARC, defines a geometry line as a circular arc, or as an arc with varying radius. LINE CIRCLE, defines a circle geometry line. LINE CURVILINEAR, defines a geometry line as a linearly interpolated curve in a given local coordinate system. KNOTS, defines a vector of “knot” values for NURBS definition.
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LINE POLYLINE, defines a geometry line as a polyline, i.e., a curve controlled by a series of geometry points. LINE SECTION, defines a geometry line to be part of another geometry line. LINE COMBINED, defines a geometry line as a combina tion of other geometry lines. LINE REVOLVED, defines a geometry line (a circular arc) by rotating a geometry point about an axis. LINE EXTRUDED, defines a geometry line by displacing a geometry point in a given direction. LINE TRANSFORMED, defines a geometry line to be a geometrical transformation of another geometry line. SPLITLINE, creates two geometry lines of type SECTION by “splitting” a given line into two parts connected at some point on the given line. LNTHICKNESS, defines line thicknesses (e.g., for defining axisymmetric shell thicknesses). Section 6.4: Surfaces SURFACE PATCH, defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified geometry lines. SURFACE VERTEX, defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified by their end geometry points  the vertices of the surface. SURFACE GRID, defines a geometry surface as a grid (array) of geometry points, which control the shape of the surface. SURFACE EXTRUDED, defines a geometry surface by displacing a geometry line in a given direction. SURFACE REVOLVED, defines a geometry surface by rotating a geometry line about some axis.
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SURFACE TRANSFORMED, defines a geometry surface via a transformation of another surface. SFTHICKNESS, defines surface thicknesses. CHECKSURFACES, checks geometry surface connections looking for two adjoining surfaces which are oppositely oriented, i.e., with opposite surface normals. Section 6.5: Volumes VOLUME PATCH, defines a geometry volume to be bounded by faces which are specified geometry surfaces. VOLUME VERTEX, defines a geometry volume in terms of the vertices. VOLUME REVOLVED, defines a geometry volume by rotating a geometry surface about some axis. VOLUME EXTRUDED, defines a geometry volume by displacing a geometry surface in a given direction. VOLUME SWEEP, defines one or more geometry volumes by sweeping one or more geometry surfaces along a line. VOLUME TRANSFORMED, defines a geometry volume to be a geometrical transformation of another volume. Section 6.6: Solid models BODY SURFACES, defines a solid body via a collection of oriented surfaces. BODY VOLUMES, defines a solid body via a collection of volumes. FACETHICKNESS, defines solid geometry face thicknesses. FACELINK, establishes a link, for meshing purpose, between two faces of distinct solid models, or between a face of a solid model and a surface.
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BODYDISCREP, creates a “discrete boundary represenation” for a given body. BODYDEFEATURE, removes “small” features from the “discrete boundary represenation” of a given body. BODYCLEANUP, removes “short”body edges and/or “thin” body faces from the AUI represenation” of a given body. BODYRESTORE, restores the AUI topological representation of the body corresponding to its state before commands such as BODYCLEANUP, REMEDGE or REMFACE are executed. Section 6.7: Spatial functions LINEFUNCTION, describes the variation of a quantity along a line. SURFACEFUNCTION, describes the variation of a quantity over a surface. VOLUMEFUNCTION, describes the variation of a quantity within a volume. Section 6.8: Transformations TRANSFORMATION COMBINED, defines a general transformation as an ordered sequence of existing transfor mations. TRANSFORMATION DIRECT, defines a general 3D transformation by directly specifying the transformation matrix. TRANSFORMATION POINTS, defines a rigidbody 3D transformation by the specification of 6 geometry points, 3 “initial” points and 3 “target”points. TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION, defines a 3D reflection (mirror) transfor mation. TRANSFORMATION ROTATION, defines a 3D rotation transformation. TRANSFORMATION SCALE, defines a 3210
D scaling transformation. TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION, defines a 3D translation transformation. TRANSFORMATION INVERSE, defines a 3D geometry transformation as the inverse of another transformation. Section 6.9: Miscellaneous DOMAIN, defines a geometry “domain”, which is a collection of geometry entities. MEASURE, determines the distance between two points or the length of an edge or a line. GETEDGEFACES, lists the body faces connected to a body edge. GETEDGEPOINTS, lists the AUI points bounding a body edge. GETFACEEDGES, lists the body edges bounding a body face. REMEDGE, removes a body edge by collapsing one end point onto the other. REMFACE, removes a body face by collapsing one bounding edge onto the other. Section 6.10: ADINA  M BODY BLEND, modifies specified edges of a body to have “a radius” blend. BODY BLOCK, defines a solid geometry or “brick”shape. BODY CHAMFER, applies chamfers to edges of a solid body. BODY CONE, defines a cone shape solid geometry. BODY CYLINDER, defines a cylinder shape solid geometry. BODY HOLLOW, hollows a solid geometry with thickness THICKNESS. BODY INTERSECT, modifies an existing solid body by taking the intersection of it with other, overlapping body.
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BODY MERGE, modifies an existing solid body by joining it with a set of other solid bodies. BODY PARTITION, partition body with a set of faces of the body. BODY PIPE, defines a pipe shape solid geometry. BODY PRISM, defines a prismatic shape solid geometry. BODY PROJECT, projects lines into a face of the body. BODY REVOLVED, creates a body by revolving face of existing body around an axis. BODY SECTION, partition solid body using sheets. BODY SEW, sews a set of sheet bodies into sewn bodies. BODY SHEET, defines a sheet body by a set of geometry lines. BODY SPHERE, defines a sphere shape solid body. BODY SUBTRACT, modifies an existing solid body by removing from it a set of other solid, overlapping bodies. BODY SWEEP, creates a body by sweeping existing face of a body in a given direction or along a line. BODY TORUS, defines a torus shape solid geometry. BODY TRANSFORMED, defines a solid geometry by copying or moving an existing ParasolidÒ body. SHEET PLANE, defines a planar sheet used for partition of bodies. VOLUME BODY, converts a body into a geometrical volume. SURFACE FACE, converts a face of a body into a geometric surface. Chapter 7: Model definition Section 7.1: Material models
MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE, defines an ArrudaBoyce material model. MATERIAL CAMCLAY, defines a nonlinear CamClay material model. MATERIAL CONCRETE, defines a nonlinear concrete material model. MATERIAL CREEP, defines a nonlinear creep material. MATERIALCREEPIRRADIATION, defines an irradiation creep material. MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE, defines a nonlinear creep material with variable creep coefficients. MATERIAL CURVEDESCRIPTION, defines a nonlinear geological material, with the option of tension cutoff or cracking. MATERIAL DRUCKERPRAGER, defines a nonlinear DruckerPrager material model with a hardening cap and tension cutoff. MATERIAL ELASTIC, defines an isotropic linear elastic material. MATERIAL FLUID, defines a linear fluid material. MATERIAL GASKET, defines a gasket material model. MATERIAL GURSONPLASTIC, defines a nonlinear Gurson plastic material. MATERIAL HYPERELASTIC, defines a hyperelastic material, which is incompressible nonlinear elastic, for rubberlike materials. MATERIAL HYPERFOAM, defines a hyperfoam material model. MATERIAL ILYUSHIN, defines a nonlinear elasticplastic material with the Ilyushin yield condition and isotropic hardening. MATERIAL MOHRCOULOMB, defines a nonlinear MohrCoulomb material. MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN, defines a MooneyRivlin material, which is incompressible nonlinear elastic, for rubber materials.
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MATERIAL MROZBILINEAR, defines an elasticplastic material with Mroz yield criteria and bilinear hardening. MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP, defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplasticmultilinear and creep material, with von Mises yield condition and isotropic, kinematic or mixed strain hardening. MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplasticmultilinear creep material model with variable creep coefficients. MATERIAL NONLINEARELASTIC, defines a nonlinear elastic material. MATERIAL OGDEN, defines an Ogden material, which is incompressible nonlinear elastic, for rubber materials. MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC, defines an orthotropic linear elastic material. MATERIAL PLASTICBILINEAR, defines a bilinear elasticplastic material model with von Mises yield condition. MATERIAL PLASTICCREEP, defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplastic and creep material, with von Mises yield condition and isotropic or kinematic strain hardening. MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplastic creep material model with variable creep coefficients. MATERIAL PLASTICMULTILINEAR, defines a multilinear elasticplastic material model with von Mises yield condition. MATERIAL PLASTICORTHOTROPIC, defines a nonlinear orthotropic plastic material. MATERIAL SMA, defines a shapememory alloy material. MATERIAL THERMOISOTROPIC, defines a nonlinear isotropic
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thermoelastic material. MATERIAL THERMOORTHOTROPIC, defines a nonlinear orthotropic thermoelastic material. MATERIAL THERMOPLASTIC, defines a nonlinear thermoplastic material. MATERIAL USERSUPPLIED, defines a usersupplied material for use with ADINA, with options for piezoelectric or consolidation analyses. MATERIAL VISCOELASTIC, defines a time and teperature dependent viscoelastic material model. CURVEFITTING, defines a fitting curve for hyperelastic material models. VISCOELASTIC CONSTANTS, defines viscoelastic contants for a viscoelastic material model. COEFFICIENTSTABLE, defines a stress vs. creepcoefficients table. RUBBERTABLE MOONEYRIVLIN, defines a rubbertable data set of type MooneyRivlin. RUBBERTABLE OGDEN, defines a rubbertable data set of type Ogden. RUBBERTABLE ARRUDABOYCE, defines a rubbertable data set of type ArrudaBoyce. RUBBERTABLE HYPERFOAM, defines a rubbertable data set of type hyperfoam. RUBBERTABLE TRS, defines a rubbertable data set of type TRS (thermorheologically simple). RUBBERMULLINS OGDENROXBURGH, defines a data set of type rubberMullins, subtype OgdenRoxburgh. RUBBERVISCOELASTIC HOLZAPFEL, defines a data set of type rubberviscoelastic, subtype Holzapfel. RUBBERORTHOTROPIC HOLZAPFEL, defines a data set of type rubberorthotropic, subtype Holzapfel.
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COEFFICIENTSTABLE, defines an effective stress vs. creep coeffients table. CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2, defines the dependency of creep law coefficients on temperature. CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR, defines the temperature and dependence of stress creep coefficients. CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY, defines the dependency of creep law coefficients on temperature. CREEPCOEFFICIENTS USERSUPPLIED, Defines a user supplied creep coefficient dependence function. CURVATUREMOMENT, defines a curvature vs. moment curve. FTABLE , defines a modulus vs. decay coefficient table for MATERIAL VISCOELASTIC. FORCESTRAIN, defines a force vs. strain curve. IRRADIATIONCREEPTABLE, defines an irradiation creep table. MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE, defines a momentcurvatureforce property for BEAM elements. MOMENTTWISTFORCE, defines a momenttwistforce property for BEAM elements. NEUTRONDOSE, defines a neutron fluence. NEUTRONTABLE, defines a neutron fluence table. POREFLUIDPROPERTY, defines properties of a pore fluid. PROPERTY NONLINEARC, defines a nonlinear relationship between damping and velocity. PROPERTY NONLINEARK, defines a nonlinear relationship between force and relative displacement.
PROPERTY NONLINEARM, defines a timedependent mass property. PROPERTYSET, defines stiffness, mass, damping, and stress transformation properties for SPRING elements. RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE NONLINEARELASTIC, defines a nonlinearelastic rigidity property. RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE PLASTICMULTILINEAR, defines a plasticmultilinear rigidity property. RUPTURE MULTILINEAR, defines a rupture criterion in terms of multilinear temperaturedependent curves. RUPTURE THREEPARAMETER, defines a threeparameter law rupture criterion. RUPTURECURVE, defines a rupturestrain vs. stress curve. SCURVE, defines a stressstrain curve which can be referenced by a material model. SSCURVE, defines a stressstrain12 curve which can be referenced by a material model. LCURVE, defines a loadingunloading curve which can be referenced by the gasket material model. STRAINRATEFUNCTION, defines a strainrate function which can be referenced by a material model. TWISTMOMENT, defines a twist vs. moment curve. Section 7.2: Crosssections/layers CROSSSECTION BOX, defines a box crosssection. CROSSSECTION I, defines an Ibeam crosssection. CROSSSECTION L, defines an Lbeam crosssection. CROSSSECTION PIPE, defines a pipe crosssection. CROSSSECTION RECTANGULAR, defines a rectangular crosssection.
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CROSSSECTION U, defines a Ubeam crosssection. CROSSSECTION PROPERTIES, defines a general crosssection in terms of principal moments of inertia and areas. LAYER, defines the control parameters of each surface layer (for multilayer shell elements). PLYDATA, defines the layer thickness for a fibermatrix composite. Section 7.3: Element properties LINEELEMDATA TRUSS, assigns data for TRUSS elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA TRUSS, assigns data for TRUSS elements on edges. SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID, assigns data for TWODSOLID elements to geometry surfaces. FACEELEMDATA TWODSOLID, assigns data for TWODSOLID elements on faces. VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID, assigns data for THREEDSOLIDelements in geometry volumes. BODYELEMDATA THREEDSOLID, assigns data for THREEDSOLID elements in bodies. LINEELEMDATA BEAM , assigns data for BEAM elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA BEAM, assigns data for BEAM elements on edges. LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM, assigns data for ISOBEAM elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA ISOBEAM, assigns data for ISOBEAM elements on edges. SURFELEMDATA PLATE, assigns data for PLATE elements to geometry surfaces. FACEELEMDATA PLATE, assigns data for PLATE elements on faces. SURFELEMDATA SHELL, assigns data for SHELL elements to geometry surfaces.
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FACEELEMDATA SHELL, assigns data for SHELL elements on faces. ELAYER, assigns material to individual element on diffferent layers for shell element. LINEELEMDATA PIPE, assigns data for PIPE elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA PIPE, assigns data for PIPE elements on edges. LINEELEMDATA GENERAL, assigns data for GENERAL elements on lines. EDGEELEMDATA GENERAL, assigns data for GENERAL elements on edges. SURFELEMDATA GENERAL, assigns data for GENERAL elements on surfaces. FACEELEMDATA GENERAL, assigns data for GENERAL elements on faces. VOLELEMDATA GENERAL, assigns data for GENERAL elements in volumes. BODYELEMDATA GENERAL, assigns data for GENERAL elements in bodies. SURFELEMDATA FLUID2, assigns data for FLUID2 elements on surfaces. FACEELEMDATA FLUID2, assigns data for FLUID2 elements on faces. VOLELEMDATA FLUID3, assigns data for FLUID3 elements in volumes. BODYELEMDATA FLUID3, assigns data for FLUID3 elements in bodies. MATRIX STIFFNESS, defines a stiffness matrix for general elements. MATRIX MASS, defines a mass matrix for general elements. MATRIX DAMPING, defines a damping matrix for general elements. MATRIX STRESS, defines a stress matrix for general elements. MATRIXSET, defines the matrixset for the current GENERAL element group. MATRIX USERSUPPLIED, defines the element stiffness matrix in a general element group to be provided by subroutine CUSERG.
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MASSES, assigns concentrated masses to the nodes on a set of geometry entities. DAMPERS, assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes on a set of geometry entities. Section 7.4: Substructure and cyclic symmetry SUBSTRUCTURE, defines substructures. REUSE, connects a substructure to the main structure. CYCLICLOADS, cyclic symmetric part of loading. CYCLICBOUNDARY, defines cyclic symmetric boundarie based on points, lines, surfaces or nodes. CYCLICBOUNDARY TWOD, defines cyclic symmetric boundaries based on lines or edges. CYCLICBOUNDARY THREED, defines cyclic symmetric boundaries based on surfaces or faces. AXISROTATION, defines a rotational axis which can be referenced other commands. EGSUBSTRUCTURE, creates substructures in terms of existing element groups. Section 7.5: Contact conditions ANALYTICALRIGIDTARGET, defines parameters for analytical rigid target analysis. CONTACTCONTROL, specifies parameters controlling the behavior of the algorithms used in modeling contact. CGROUP CONTACT2, defines a contact group consisting of 2D or axisymmetric contact surfaces. CGROUP CONTACT3, defines a contact group consisting of 3D contact surfaces. CONTACTBODY, defines a contact body i.e.
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a geometry surface in 2D or a geometry volume in 3D. CONTACTSURFACE, defines a contact surface, i.e., a set of geometry boundaries which are expected to be in contact either initially or during analysis with another similarly defined contact surface. CONTACTPOINT, defines a contact point, i.e., a set of geometry points (in 2D or 3D analysis) which are expected to be in contact. DRAWBEAD, defines a drawbead for metal forming analysis. COULOMBFRICTION, specifies variable Coulomb friction coefficient. USERFRICTION, specifies the parameters used in the calculation of usersupplied friction for the current contact group. CSOFFSET, specifies offset distances for individual contactsurfaces. CONTACTPAIR, defines a contact pair, i.e., two contact surfaces which are either initially in contact or are anticipated to come into contact during analysis. Section 7.6: Fracture mechanics FRACTURE, defines controlling data for analysis of fracture mechanics problems. CRACKGROWTH, specifies the parameters that govern control of the growth of a propagating crack. CRACKPROPAGATION, defines the initial crack front position or the virtual/actual crack propagation path. JLINE POINT, defines a line contour via a circle centered at a point. JLINE RING, defines a line contour via a ring of elements. JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT, defines a virtual material shift via a circle centered at a point.
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JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE, defines a virtual material shift via the nodes lying on any of a given set of lines. JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE, defines a virtual material shift via the nodes lying on any of a given set of surfaces. JVIRTUALSHIFT RING, defines a virtual material shift via a number of rings of elements about the crack front. RCURVE, defines a resistance curve set which can be used in a crack growth analysis. SINGULAR, defines a set of “singular” nodesvertex nodes whose adjacent nonvertex nodes are moved to the “1/4 point”, giving a singularity at the required nodes. USERFORMAT, allows for the specification of usersupplied formatted data to be written directly into the ADINA file. Section 7.7: Boundary conditions RIGIDLINK, specifies rigid links between geometry entities. CONSTRAINT, specifies a constraint equation which expresses a slave (dependent) degree of freedom as a linear combination of a set of master (independent) degrees of freedom. CONSTRAINTMS, similar to the CONSTRAINT command, but also allows the specification of multiple slave entities for a single master entity. CONSTRAINTG, defines generalized constraint equations for ADINA. FIXITY, defines a fixity boundary condition. FIXBOUNDARY, assigns fixity conditions to a set of geometry entities. ZOOMBOUNDARY, specifies the boundary of a zoom model that is inside (internal to) the coarse model. ENDRELEASE, defines an “endrelease” condition for elements of type BEAM.
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FSBOUNDARY, defines a fluidstructureinteraction boundary. FSBOUNDARY TWOD, defines a fluidstructureinteraction boundary for 2D analysis. FSBOUNDARY THREED, defines a fluidstructureinteraction boundary for 3D analysis. POTENTIALINTERFACE, defines a freesurface potentialinterface for ADINA. POTENTIALINTERFACE INFINITE, defines an infinite potentialinterface for ADINA. BOUNDARYSURFACE SURFACETENSION, defines a surface tension boundary for ADINA. OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT POINT, enforces the zeroslopeofskin in the longitudinal direction for pipe element nodes. FREESURFACE, defines a free surface on the boundary lines (2D) or surface(3D) for potentialbased problems. BCELL, defines a boundary cell using a 4node or 3node cell. Section 7.8: Loading LOAD CENTRIFUGAL, defines a centrifugal load. LOAD CONTACTSLIP, defines a contactslip load. LOAD DISPLACEMENT, defines a displacement load. LOAD ELECTROMAGNETIC, defines an electromagnetic load. LOAD FORCE, defines a force load. LOAD LINE, defines a line load, i.e., a distributed load in terms of force/unit length. LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL, defines a mass proportional load. LOAD MOMENT, defines a moment load.
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LOAD NODALPHIFLUX, defines a nodalphiflux load. LOAD PHIFLUX, defines a phiflux load. LOAD PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE, defines a pipeinternalpressure load. LOAD POREFLOW, defines a poreflow load. LOAD POREPRESSURE, defines a porepressure load. LOAD PRESSURE, defines a pressure load. LOAD TEMPERATURE, defines a temperature load. LOAD TGRADIENT, defines a temperature gradient load to specify the temperature gradient in the thickness direction of a surface (when applied to shell elements). LOADCASE, used in a linear static analysis to identify the current load case. LCOMBINATION, defines a new load case as a linear combination of previously defined load cases. APPLYLOAD, specifies loads applied to model geometry. LOADPENETRATION, controls transfer of applied pressure loads to neighboring elements when an element “dies”. Section 7.9: Initial conditions INITIALCONDITION, defines an initial condition. SETINITCONDITION, assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry entities. STRAINFIELD, defines an initial strain field. IMPERFECTION POINTS, specifies imperfections at points based on buckling mode shapes which have been previously calculated. IMPERFECTION SHAPE, used for initial shape calculations based on previously calculated nodal displacements. INITIALMAPPING, loads an initial condition mapping file and interpolates variable values at nodes.
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THERMALMAPPING, interpolates nodal temperatures and gradients from a given temperature field contained in a mapping file. Section 7.10: Systems SKEWSYSTEMS CYLINDRICAL, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of a cylinder origin and axis direction. SKEWSYSTEMS EULERANGLES, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of Euler angles. SKEWSYSTEMS NORMAL, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system to be such that one of its directions is normal to a given line or surface. SKEWSYSTEMS POINTS, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinat system in terms of geometry points. SKEWSYSTEMS SPHERICAL, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of a sphere origin. SKEWSYSTEMS VECTORS, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of direction vectors. DOFSYSTEMS POINTS, assigns skew coordinate systems to geometry points. DOFSYSTEMS LINES, assigns skew coordinate systems to geometry lines. DOFSYSTEMS EDGES, assigns skew coordinate systems to solid geometry edges. DOFSYSTEMS SURFACES, assigns skew coordinate systems to geometry surfaces. DOFSYSTEMS FACES, assigns skew coordinate systems to solid geometry faces. DOFSYSTEMS VOLUMES, assigns skew coordinate systems to geometry volumes.
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DOFSYSTEMS BODIES, assigns skew coordinate systems to solid geometry bodies. SHELLNODESDOF, specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes associated with a set of geometry entities. AXES CONSTANT, defines an “axessystem” in terms of constant direction vectors. AXES LINE1, defines an “axessystem” via a geometry line. AXES LINE2, defines an “axessystem” via two geometry lines. AXES NODES, defines an “axessystem” via three nodes. AXES POINT2, defines an “axessystem” via two geometry points. AXES POINT3, defines an “axessystem” via three geometry points. AXES POINTLINE, defines an “axessystem” via a geometry line and a geometry point. AXES SURFACE, defines an “axessystem” via a geometry surface. AXES EDGE, defines an “axessystem” via a geometry edge. AXES FACE, defines an “axessystem” via a geometry face. SETAXESMATERIAL, assigns material axessystem, defined by command AXES, to a set of geometry entities. SETAXESSTRAIN, assigns initialstrain axessystems, defined by the command AXES, to a set of geometry entities. Chapter 8: Finite element representation Section 8.1: Element groups EGROUP TRUSS, defines an element group consisting of truss elements.
EGROUP TWODSOLID, defines an element group consisting of planar or axisymmetric elements. EGROUP THREEDSOLID, defines an element group consisting of threedimensional solid elements. EGROUP BEAM, defines an element group consisting of Hermitian beam elements. EGROUP ISOBEAM, defines an element group consisting of isoparametric beam elements. EGROUP PLATE, defines an element group consisting of plate elements. EGROUP SHELL, defines an element group consisting of shell elements. EGROUP PIPE, defines an element group consisting of pipe elements. EGROUP SPRING, defines an element group consisting of spring elements. EGROUP GENERAL, defines an element group consisting of linear general elements. EGROUP FLUID2, defines an element group consisting of planar or axisymmetric fluid elements. EGROUP FLUID3, defines an element group consisting of threedimensional fluid elements. EGCONTROL, specifies general control data for an element group. Section 8.2: Mesh generation TRANSITIONELEMENT, converts a set of shell elements along an edge of a face/ surface into shell transition elements. BLAYER, generates boundary layers on specified body faces. SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT, defines default mesh subdivision data. SUBDIVIDE MODEL, assigns mesh subdivision data to the entire current model geometry.
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SUBDIVIDE POINT, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry points. SUBDIVIDE LINE, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry lines. SUBDIVIDE SURFACE, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry surfaces. SUBDIVIDE VOLUME, assigns mesh subdivision data to geometry volumes. SUBDIVIDE EDGE, assigns mesh subdivision data to edges of a solid geometry body. SUBDIVIDE FACE, assigns mesh subdivision data to faces of a solid geometry body. SUBDIVIDE BODY, assigns mesh subdivision data to solid geometry bodies. POINTSIZE, specifies the element size at geometr points. SIZEFUNCTION BOUNDS, defines a mesh size function using the vertices of the model bounding box. SIZEFUNCTION HEX, defines a mesh size function using the vertices of an input box. SIZEFUNCTION POINT, defines a mesh size function via a point source. SIZEFUNCTION AXIS, defines a mesh size function via a line source. SIZEFUNCTION PLANE, defines a mesh size function via a planar source. SIZEFUNCTION COMBINED, defines a mesh size function as a combination of others. SIZELOCATIONS, specifies mesh size at certain locations (other than geometry points). NLTABLE, creates a table with specification of number of layers across thin sections. GPOINT, creates a node at a point with the same coordinates. GLINE, creates elements along a set of geometry lines. GSURFACE, creates elements on a set of
geometry surfaces. GVOLUME, creates elements on a set of geometry volumes. GEDGE, creates elements on a set of solid geometry edges. GFACE, creates elements on a set of solid geometry faces. GBODY, creates elements for a solid geometry body. GBCELL, creates 3D elements from boundary cells. GHEXA, generates brick element dominant freeform meshes for a given body. ELDELETE, deletes elements generated on specific geometry for a given element group. CSURFACE, creates a set of contact elements on a contact surface. CSDELETE, deletes contact elements generated on specific geometry for a given contact group. GLUEMESH, glues two dissimilar meshes together. Section 8.3: Elements TRUSSPOINTS, defines axisymmetric truss elements at geometry points. SPRING POINTS, defines spring elements at points. SPRING LINES, defines spring elements between geometry lines. REBAR LINE, defines a rebar using lines. The rebar defined is then referenced in the EGROUP TRUSS command to model rebar elements. TRUSSLINE, defines TRUSS elements between lines. ELTHICKNESS, defines shell element thickness.
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BEAMSET, generates beam bolt elements between adjacent geometry entities. SPRINGSET, generates spring bolt elements between overlapping geometry entities. ELEXTRUDE, converts 3/4node shell elements into 12node THREEDSOLID elements by extrusion in the top and bottom directions. Chapter 9: Direte finite element data input Section 9.1: Nodal data COORDINATES NODE, defines coordinates for (current substructure) nodes. SKEWSYSTEMS NODES, defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of nodes. DOFSYSTEM NODES, assigns skew coordinate systems to nodes in the current substructure. MASSES NODES, assigns concentrated masses to nodes. DAMPERS NODES, assigns concentrated dampers to nodes. SHELLNODESDOF NODES, specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes. SHELLDIRECTORVECTOR, defines director vectors that can be applied via command SHELLNODESDOF. NODESET, defines a collection of nodes. RIGIDNODES SHELL, specifies special constraints for shell midsurface nodes. Section 9.2: Element data AXESNODES, defines an “axessystem” via three model nodes. AXESINITIALSTRAIN, defines a set of axes to be used with the definition of initial strains in element.
AXESORTHOTROPIC, defines set of principal material axes to be used with orthotropic material model. ELEDGESET, defines an element edge set containing edges of 2D elements. ELEMENTSET, defines an element set containing elements. ELFACESET, defines an element face set containing faces of 3D and shell elements. ENODES, defines element nodal connectivity. MESHCONVERT, changes number of nodes per element. ENODESINTERFACE, defines fluidstructure interface elements. EDATA, specifies property data associated with individual elements in a group. COPYELEMENTNODES, copies all elements and nodes (in groups) between database models for two analysis programs. DELETEFEMODEL, deletes all finiteelement data from the database. REVOLVE, creates 3D elements by revolving 2D elements about an axis. SWEEP, creates 3D elements by extruding 2D elements along a vector. Section 9.3: Boundary conditions BOUNDARIES, assigns boundary conditions to nodes. CONSTRAINTNODE, specifies a constraint equation between nodal degrees of freedom. FIXBOUNDARY NODESET, assigns fixity conditions to node sets. RIGIDLINKNODE, specifies a rigid link between two nodes.
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Chap. 2 Quick index
OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT NODE, used to enforce the zeroslopeofpipeskin condition in the longitudinal direction at pipeelement nodes. FSIFACE, defines FSI boundary using element face nodes. Section 9.4: Loads APPLY CONCENTRATEDLOADS, Defines concentrated loads applied to nodes. APPLY DISPLACEMENTS, defines prescribed displacements applied to nodes. APPLY ELECTROMAGNETICLOADS, defines electromagnetic loads applied to nodes. APPLY PIPEINTERNALPRESSURES, defines internal pressures applied to pipe element nodes. APPLY TEMPERATURES, defines temperatures applied to nodes. APPLY TGRADIENTS, defines temperature gradients applied to shell element surface nodes. APPLY USERSUPPLIEDLOADS, signals the presence of usersupplied loads. LOADSELEMENT, used to apply loads onto element edges or faces. Section 9.5: Initial conditions INITIAL ACCELERATIONS, assigns initial accelerations to nodes. INITIAL DISPLACEMENTS, assigns initial displacements to nodes. INITIAL FLEXURALSTRAINS, assigns initial flexural strains to plate element nodes. INITIAL OVALIZATIONS, assigns initial ovalizations to pipe element nodes.
INITIAL PINTERNALPRESSURES, assigns initial pipe internal pressures to pipe element nodes. INITIAL STRAINS, assigns initial strains to nodes. INITIAL SGRADIENTS, assigns initial strain gradients to shell element midsurface nodes. INITIAL TEMPERATURES, assigns initial temperatures to nodes. INITIAL TGRADIENTS, assigns initial temperature gradients to shell element nodes. INITIAL VELOCITIES, assigns initial velocities to nodes. INITIAL WARPINGS, assigns initial warpings to pipe element nodes. IMPERFECTION NODES, specifies imperfections at nodes based on the buckling mode shapes, which have been previously calculated. Section 9.6: Contact CONTACTELEMSET, defines a contact surface using element edge or face set. CONTACTFACENODES, defines a contact surface within the current group using face nodenumbers. CONTACTNODES, defines a contactsurface in terms of nodes, within the current contact group. Section 9.7: Fracture CRACKPROPAGATION NODES, used to define the initial crack front position and the virtual/actual crack propagation path in terms of nodes. JVIRTUALSHIFT NODE, defines a fixed virtualcrackextension material shift via
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a set of nodes. JVIRTUALSHIFT ELEMENT, defines a fixed virtualcrackextension material shift via a set of elements. JLINE ELEMENT, defines a line contour connected by a series of element faces. SINGULAR NODES, defines a set of vertex nodes whose adjacent nonvertex nodes are to be moved. Section 9.8: Substructures and cyclic symmetry REUSENODES, defines the nodal connectivity between the substructure and the main structure. CYCLICBOUNDARIES NODES, associates cyclicboundaries in terms of nodes.
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DATABASE NEW
Sec. 3.1 Database operations
DATABASE NEW
SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT
DATABASE NEW creates a new database. The new database is initially empty. Before creating the new database, you have the option of saving any current internal database to disk. This option is controlled by parameters SAVE and PERMFILE. SAVE Used only when a database has been modified. YES [UNKNOWN]
The program saves the current internal database to disk using the filename specified by parameter PERMFILE. Then the program creates a new internal database. The program does not save the current internal database before creating a new internal database. The program asks you if you want to save the database.
NO
UNKNOWN PERMFILE
[the last permanent database name previously specified] Used only when the database has been modified. PERMFILE is the filename of the permanent database file when saving the current database file to disk. You will be prompted for this name if you do not enter a value for this parameter and no permanent database name was previously specified. PROMPT Used when saving a permanent database file. YES UNKNOWN [UNKNOWN]
You will be prompted “Ready to save permanent database file?”. You will be prompted “Permanent database file already exists” if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.
NO Auxiliary commands
DATABASE CREATE SAVE PERMFILE DATABASE CREATE has the same effect as DATABASE NEW.
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DATABASE OPEN
DATABASE OPEN
FILE SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT
DATABASE OPEN creates a new database using the permanent database file specified in this command. Before creating the new database, the current internal database is optionally saved to disk. FILE [the last previously specified permanent database filename] The filename of the permanent database file to be opened. If you do not enter a filename and there is no default value, the program will prompt you for the filename. SAVE Used only when a database has been modified. YES [UNKNOWN]
The current internal database is saved to disk using the filename specified by parameter PERMFILE. The current internal database is not saved before clearing the current database and opening the specified database. The program will ask you if you want to save the database.
NO
UNKNOWN PERMFILE
[the last previously specified permanent database filename] Used only if the database has been modified. PERMFILE is the filename of the permanent database file when saving the current database file to disk. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT Used when saving a permanent database file. YES UNKNOWN [UNKNOWN]
You will be prompted “Ready to save permanent database file?”. You will be prompted “Permanent database file already exists,” if the database file already exists. You will not receive a promp It is allowed to open a database created by AUI 7.0, AUI 7.1 or AUI 7.2. However, all graphics and model display definitions are deleted and reinitialized in the AUI working copy of the opened database.
NO Note:
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DATABASE WRITE
Sec. 3.1 Database operations
DATABASE WRITE
PERMFILE PROMPT
DATABASE WRITE saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. It is the same as the DATABASE SAVE command except that DATABASE WRITE is available only when the database has been modified. PERMFILE [the last previously entered permanent database filename specified] Specifies the filename of the permanent database file. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT Used when saving a permanent database file. YES UNKNOWN [UNKNOWN]
You will be prompted “Ready to save permanent database file?”. You will be prompted “Permanent database file already exists” if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.
NO
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DATABASE SAVE
DATABASE SAVE
PERMFILE PROMPT
DATABASE SAVE saves the current internal database as a permanent database file. PERMFILE [the last previously entered permanent database filename specified] Specifies the filename of the permanent database file. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT Used when saving a permanent database file. YES UNKNOWN [UNKNOWN]
You will be prompted “Ready to save permanent database file?”. You will be prompted “Permanent database file already exists” if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.
NO
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DATABASE ATTACH
Sec. 3.1 Database operations
DATABASE ATTACH
FILE
DATABASE ATTACH allows access to the specified file as an AUI database file. Unlike DATABASE OPEN (described in this section), DATABASE ATTACH does not make a working copy of the database file prior to opening it. Instead you work directly with the specified file as you use the AUI, possibly modifying the file’s contents. The advantages of DATABASE ATTACH as compared to DATABASE OPEN are: disk requirements are reduced because the AUI does not create a copy of the database file, and the CPU time to attach a database is much less than the CPU time required to open it. The disadvantages of DATABASE ATTACH are: (1) important information can be inadvertently modified or deleted from an attached database file, (2) the attached database cannot shrink, but can only grow as the AUI is used and (3) an attached database file cannot be saved, but can only be detached using DATABASE DETACH (described in this section). Before you can use DATABASE ATTACH, you must first save any current database, and then use DATABASE NEW (described in this section) to create a new database. You can use DATABASE ATTACH only if the current database is new and unmodified. DATABASE ATTACH clears the permanent database filename. You can attach a database that was created by earlier versions of the AUI. In this case, however, the AUI deletes and reinitializes all graphics and model display definitions in the attached database. Exiting the AUI when a database is attached automatically detaches the database. FILE The filename of the permanent database file to be attached. If no filename is entered, the AUI will prompt you for the filename. Note: It is allowed to open a database created by AUI 7.0, AUI 7.1 or AUI 7.2. However, all graphics and model display definitions are deleted and reinitialized in the AUI working copy of the opened database.
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DATABASE DETACH
DATABASE DETACH
PERMFILE PROMPT
DATABASE DETACH creates a permanent database file by detaching the working copy of the database file. Unlike DATABASE SAVE, DATABASE DETACH does not create a new permanent database file. The advantages of DATABASE DETACH as compared to DATABASE SAVE are: disk requirements are reduced because the AUI does not create a copy of the database file, and the CPU time to detach a database is much less than the CPU time required to save it. The disadvantage of DATABASE DETACH is: the AUI does not compress the database file by removing unused records. After the database is detached, the AUI creates a new empty internal database. A database can be detached at any time whether or not it was attached using DATABASE ATTACH. PERMFILE The working copy of the database file is renamed to PERMFILE. PROMPT Used when saving a permanent database file. YES UNKNOWN [UNKNOWN]
You will be prompted “Ready to save permanent database file?”. You will be prompted “Permanent database file already exists” if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.
NO
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ADINA
Sec. 3.2 Analysis data files
ADINA
OPTIMIZE STARTNODE FILE FIXBOUNDARY MIDNODE OVERWRITE DUPLICATE
ADINA initiates model validation and, if the model is valid, creates an ADINA input data file, if requested. OPTIMIZE [SOLVER] Equation numbering may be optimized so as to minimize the profile and bandwidth of the ADINA solution matrices. The node label numbers are not affected by the equation numbering. {SOLVER/YES/NO} SOLVER If the sparse solver is used (see parameter SOLVER in command MASTER), then equation numbering is not optimized. Otherwise, equation numbering is optimized. Equation numbering is optimized. Equation numbering is not optimized.
YES NO
STARTNODE [automatically selected] Label number of a main structure node, used to initiate the optimized equation numbering algorithm. If such a node is not given, one will be automatically selected. The starting node should be a peripheral node on the boundary of the main structure. FILE The filename of the ADINA input file to be generated. If no file name is given then only model validation is performed. FIXBOUNDARY [YES] Inactive degrees of freedom, i.e., those which are not connected to any elements and are not used in constraint equations, may be automatically deleted. {YES/NO} MIDNODE [NO] Midside nodes on element edges may be moved to the straight line connecting the relevant vertex nodes. {YES/NO} OVERWRITE [CONTROL PROMPT] Determines, if the filename given by FILE already exists, whether the command will overwrite its contents with the currently generated input data. If set to UNKNOWN, a prompt will be given requesting confirmation for overwriting an existing file. {YES/NO/UNKNOWN}
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REBUILDMODEL
REBUILDMODEL Forces the AUI to rebuild the whole model.
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REBUILDMODEL
Sec. 3.2 Analysis data files
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LOADDXF
LOADDXF
FILE GCOINCIDE GCTOLERANCE
LOADDXF loads an AutoCAD® DXF file into the database. The points and lines are converted into AUI geometry entities. This command supports only up to AutoCAD Release 12 DXF files. FILE The DXF file to be loaded in this command. Only a formatted file is accepted. GCOINCIDE [YES] Point coincidence checking. If GCOINCIDE is set to YES then point coordinates are checked, and if within GCTOLERANCE × (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous points) then no new point number is created at that location, i.e., the previous point label number is assumed. {YES/NO} GCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine point coincidence. [1.0E5]
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LOADIGES
Sec. 3.3 External data
LOADIGES
FILE GCOINCIDE GCTOLERANCE TWODXY ADINAM LABEL SEWING SEWGAP TOLER1 TOLER2 OPTION1 REVERSE OPTION3 OPTION4 SCALEFACTOR PRECS PLABEL LLABEL XZERO
Loads an IGES file into the database. FILE The IGES file to be loaded in this command. Only a formatted and uncompressed file is accepted. GCOINCIDE [YES] Point coincidence checking option. If set to YES, then point coordinates are checked, and if within GCTOLERANCE × (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous points) then no new point is created at that location, i.e. the previous point label number is assumed. Only valid when ADINAM = NO.{YES/NO} GCTOLERANCE [1.0E5] Tolerance used to determine point coincidence. Only valid when ADINAM = NO. TWODXY [NO] Indicates whether or not to rotate the IGES geometry model so that the XY plane is transformed into the YZ plane (as used in twodimensional ADINA, ADINAT, and ADINAF models). {YES/NO} ADINAM Indicates whether IGES data is to be loaded into ADINAM. {YES/NO} Parameters GCOINCIDE, GCTOLERANCE and TWODXY are ignored by ADINAM. LABEL [NO]
[(highest current sheet body or solid body label number) + 1] Sheet body or solid body label number. SEWING Indicates wether ADINAM sheet bodies are to be sewn together. {YES/NO} [NO]
SEWGAP [0.01] ADINAM sewing body gap ratio. The gap value used to sew the body is SEWGAP * (max. difference in global coordinate between the maximum and minimum of the IGES body).
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LOADIGES
TOLER1 This parameter is obsolete. TOLER2 This parameter is obsolete. OPTION1 This parameter is obsolete. REVERSE This parameter is obsolete. OPTION3 This parameter is obsolete. OPTION4 This parameter is obsolete. SCALEFACTOR [1.0] ADINAM scale factor  input IGES coordinate values are to be divided by, i.e. (xcoordinate, ycoordinate, zcoordinate)/scalefactor. PRECS This parameter is obsolete. PLABEL Starting point label. LLABEL Starting line label. [(current highest point label number) + 1]
[(current highest line label number) + 1]
XZERO The flag to set the x coordinate to 0. {NO/YES}
[NO]
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LOADPROE
Sec. 3.3 External data
LOADPROE
TYPE PART ASSEMBLY BODYNAME XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN AX AY AZ BX BY BZ PCOINCIDE PCTOLERANCE
LOADPROE loads a Pro/ENGINEER® model (part or assembly) into the database. The model may be displayed or meshed, and loads or boundary conditions may be assigned to its faces, edges, and vertices. A solid geometry BODY is created for each Pro/ENGINEER® part, which is used to reference the part. This command is only active when ADINA/AUI has been initiated from Pro/ENGINEER®. TYPE The type of Pro/ENGINEER® model to be loaded: PART ASSEMBLY [current Pro/ENGINEER model]
A single Pro/ENGINEER® part. A collection of Pro/ENGINEER® parts, with coordinate transformations giving their relative position.
PART [currently loaded part in Pro/ENGINEER] The name of a Pro/ENGINEER® part (i.e., for part file name “abcdef.prt.123” you input PART = abcdef). Only valid for TYPE = PART. ASSEMBLY [currently loaded assembly in Pro/ENGINEER] The name of a Pro/ENGINEER® assembly (i.e., for assembly file name “abcdef.asm.123”, you input ASSEMBLY = abcdef). Only valid for TYPE = ASSEMBLY. BODYNAME [(current highest body label number) + 1] For TYPE = PART, this is the label number of the body to be created which is used to refer to the part. For TYPE = ASSEMBLY, this is the label number of the first body to be created which is used to refer to the root part of the assembly. Other parts in the assembly will be automatically assigned body label numbers incremented from the parameter, i.e., (BODYNAME + 1), (BODYNAME + 2), ..., etc. XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN The global coordinates of the origin of the model. AX A Y AZ A vector (in global coordinates) giving the direction of the Xaxis of the model. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[1.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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LOADPROE
BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] A vector (in global coordinates) which together with vector (AX, AY, AZ) gives the XY plane of the model. PCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether or not the vertices of the part are to be checked for coincidence with existing geometry point coordinates. {NO/YES} PCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine whether two points are coincident. Auxiliary commands SET BODY DELETE BODY NAME FIRST LAST [1.0E5]
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LOADSOLID
Sec. 3.3 External data
LOADSOLID
PARTFILE BODYNAME XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN AX AY AZ BX BY BZ PCOINCIDE PCTOLERANCE MANIFOLD FORMAT OLDUNIT NEWUNIT SYSTEM REPAIR
The LOADSOLID command loads a Parasolid® part (or "transmit") file into the database. The model may be displayed, meshed, and loads, boundary conditions may be assigned to its faces, edges, and vertices. For each body within the Parasolid® file a solid geometry BODY is created which is used to reference that body. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. PARTFILE The name of a Parasolid® part file (i.e. for part file name "abcdef.x_t" you input PARTFILE=abcdef. BODYNAME [(current highest body label number)+1] This is the label number to be assigned to the first BODY to be created which is used to refer to the first body in the part file  other bodies in the part file will automatically be assigned BODY label numbers incremented from this parameter (i.e. (BODYNAME+1), (BODYNAME+2), ..., etc.) XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN The global coordinates of the origin of the model. AX A Y AZ A vector (in global coordinates) giving the direction of the Xaxis of the model. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[1.0] [0.0] [0.0]
BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] A vector (in global coordinates) which together with vector (AX, AY, AZ) gives the XY plane of the model. PCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether or not the vertices of the part are to be checked for coincidence with existing geometry point coordinates. {NO/YES}
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LOADSOLID
PCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine whether two points are coincident.
[1.0E5]
MANIFOLD [NO] Indicates whether nonmanifold bodies are converted into manifold bodies. {NO/YES} FORMAT Parasolid part file format. TEXT BINARY text format. binary format. [METER] [TEXT]
OLDUNIT The unit of the part in the Parasolid file to be imported. {METER/CMETER/MMETER/INCH/FOOT} NEWUNIT The unit of the part after it is imported into ADINAM. {METER/CMETER/MMETER/INCH/FOOT}
[METER]
SYSTEM [0] If system label is greater than 0 and it is Cartesian coordinate system, replace XORIGIN, YORIGIN, ZORIGIN, AX, AY, AZ, BX, BY, BZ with the values from the given system. REPAIR Repair the bodies if errors are detected. {NO/YES} [NO]
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LOADSOLID
Sec. 3.3 External data
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NASTRANADINA
NASTRANADINA
FILE XYYZ BEAM SUBCASE BCELL CONVERTELEMENTTYPE DEFAULT DUPLICATE
NASTRANADINA maps a NASTRAN® data file into the ADINAIN database. FILE The NASTRAN® data filename. XYYZ This parameter is now obsolete. The program will automatically rotate 2D models in the XY plane to the YZ plane. BEAM [THREE] Indicates whether hermitian beam elements are to be considered as having twodimensional or threedimensional action. {TWO/THREE} SUBCASE [0] The label number of a subcase defined in the NASTRAN® data file. If not specified, the first subcase is used. {≥1} BCELL [NO] Indicates whether boundary cells (see command BCELL) are created from shell elements according to the property identification number (PID). All elements with the same PID are put into the same BCELL. {NO/YES/REPLACE} NO YES Do not create boundary cells. Create boundary cells. In addition, if the shell elements are attached to 3D elements, the program will also create elementface sets (see ELFACESET command) and node sets (see NODESET command). All shell elements used for creating these ELFACESETs and NODESETs are not deleted. Create boundary cells. In addition, if the shell elements are attached to 3D elements, the program will also create elementface sets (see ELFACESET command) and node sets (see NODESET command). All shell elements used for creating these ELFACESETs and NODESETs will be deleted.
REPLACE
CONVERTELEMENTTYPE [NONE] Specifies whether or not to convert 4node shell elements to 8node. {NONE/SHELL} The parameters RBAR, RBE2, NCTOLERANCE, RBARMATERIAL, RBARAREA, RBARDIAMETER, RBARTHICKNESS, RBE2MATERIAL, RBE2AREA, RBE2DIAMETER, and
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NASTRANADINA
Sec. 3.3 External data
RBE2THICKNESS are now obsolete. The conversion of RBAR and RBE2 elements is now specified in the NX Nastran bulk data entry NXSTRAT (see parameters EQRBAR and EQRBE2). DEFAULT [AUI] Specifies which default values should be used when a parameter is not specified. {AUI/ NXN} AUI NXN Use AUI default values. Use NX Nastran advanced nonlinear analysis (SOL 601/701) default values.
Note: The following default values are different between AUI and SOL 601/701 in NX Nastran. Command TOLERANCE TOLERANCE KINEMATIC CONTACTCONTROL Parameter LSLOWER LSUPPER INCOMPATIBLEMODE POSTIMPACT AUI 1.0E6 8.0E0 NO YES NXN 1.0E3 2.0E0 YES NO
DUPLICATE [YES] This flag indicates whether or not to issue an error message when the Nastran file has a duplicate node or element. {NO/YES} NO YES No error message issued. Later entries will override the earlier entries. Error message issued.
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EXPORT UNIVERSAL
Sec. 3.3 External data
EXPORT UNIVERSAL
FILE
Exports the mesh in ADINAAUI to an IDEAS® universal file format. FILE Specifies the name of the universal file to be created.
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READ
READ
FILE REWIND SCANDATA
READ reads AUI input commands from the file specified by parameter FILE until the end of the file is reached or the READ END command is encountered in the file. After the READ command is executed, subsequent input is read from the previous command input source (that is, the input source from which the READ command was entered). READ commands can be nested (that is, a file processed by the READ command can itself include a READ command). FILE The name of the file from which AUI commands are read (up to 80 characters long). Note that the name END is not allowed. REWIND [NO] If the file pointer is at endoffile or if the file is not currently open, the read file is rewound before beginning to read commands regardless of the value of this parameter. {YES/NO} SCANDATA [‘ ‘] If SCANDATA is specified, the file is scanned until the SCANDATA string (1  80 characters) is found anywhere within an input record. Reading of input data from the file starts at the beginning of the record that contains the string. Auxiliary commands READ END Terminates reading from file.
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READ
Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files
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FILEREAD
FILEREAD
OPTION FILE
FILEREAD controls the source of input commands to the AUI. OPTION INTERFACE [INTERFACE] Commands are read from the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. Commands are read from the file specified by the FILE parameter.
FILE
FILE The filename of the file from which commands are read. Used only if OPTION = FILE. Auxiliary commands LIST FILEREAD
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FILESESSION
Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files
FILESESSION
OPTION FILE
FILESESSION controls the generation and output of a session file. The session file contains the commands needed to repeat an AUI session. A session file differs from an echo file in that: 1) You can generate a session file from a userinterface AUI session (this is the primary use of the session file). 2) A session file contains all command parameters, regardless of whether you entered them or whether they were default parameters. 3) Changes to data input lines are handled in a different manner. OPTION NO OVERWRITE No session file is created. A session file is generated and overwrites any existing contents of the specified file. A session file is generated and is appended to any existing contents of the specified file. [NO]
APPEND
FILE The filename of the session file. Auxiliary commands LIST FILESESSION
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FILELIST
FILELIST
OPTION FILE LINPAG EJECT
FILELIST controls the format and output of listings. OPTION INTERFACE [INTERFACE] Listings are output at the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. Listings are buffered using an interface similar to UNIX “more” that allows you to scroll through listings. Listings are output to the file specified by the FILE parameter.
FILE
FILE The filename of the file to which listings are written. Used only if OPTION = FILE. This can be the same file used for command echoing or logging. LINPAG [0] The maximum number of lines output between list headings. You can suppress list headings (except for the first list heading) by specifying LINPAG = 0. EJECT Specifies whether page ejects are placed before headings. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST FILELIST [NO]
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FILEECHO
Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files
FILEECHO
OPTION FILE
FILEECHO controls the echoing of your input commands. OPTION NO INTERFACE No echoing of input commands. Input commands are echoed back to the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. Input commands are echoed back to the file specified by the FILE parameter. [INTERFACE]
FILE
FILE The filename of the file to which input commands are echoed back. Used only if OPTION = FILE. This can be the same file for logs or listings. Auxiliary commands LIST FILEECHO
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FILELOG
FILELOG
OPTION FILE
FILELOG controls the output of log messages. OPTION INTERFACE [INTERFACE] Log messages are written to the terminal or window from which you invoked the AUI. Log messages are written to the file specified by the FILE parameter.
FILE
FILE The filename of the file to which log messages are written. Used only if OPTION = FILE. This can be the same file used for echoed commands or listings. Auxiliary commands LIST FILELOG
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COMMANDFILE
Sec. 3.4 Auxiliary files
COMMANDFILE
FILENAME PROMPT OPTION GRAPHICS
Creates a file containing the commands needed to recreate the model stored in the current database. FILENAME The name of the file to be created. This parameter must be entered. PROMPT [CONTROL PROMPT] You will be prompted “Ready to write command file?” if PROMPT = YES. You will be prompted “The command file already exists” if the specified file already exists and PROMPT = UNKNOWN. You will not be prompted if PROMPT = NO. Note that the default is taken from the parameter with the same name of the CONTROL command. OPTION [SESSION] If OPTION = SESSION, the command file produced is a record of all commands issued when this database file is in use. The command file contains model modifications and deletions as well as model additions. Commands in the command file may contain references to other files, for example, when a porthole file is loaded, the command file contains a LOADPORTHOLE command. Currently OPTION must be set to SESSION. This parameter is provided for future developments of the AUI. GRAPHICS [NO] This parameter is used when OPTION = SESSION to control whether graphics commands such as FRAME, MESHPLOT, VIEW, etc. are written to the command file. If GRAPHICS = YES, graphics commands are written to the command file, otherwise they are not written.
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PAUSE
PAUSE When the AUI reads the PAUSE command, it stops processing commands until you hit a key.
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END
Sec. 3.5 Program termination
END
SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT IMMEDIATE
END terminates the program. EXIT, QUIT and STOP are equivalent to END. If the program is reading data from a file specified by the FILEREAD command and the end of the file is reached, the END command is executed automatically. SAVE [UNKNOWN] Used only when a database has been modified. YES The program saves the current internal database to disk using the filename specified by parameter PERMFILE. Then the program creates a new internal database. NO The program does not save the current internal database before creating a new internal database. The program asks you if you want to save the database.
UNKNOWN PERMFILE
[the last previously specified permanent database filename] PERMFILE is the filename of the permanent database file when saving the current database file to disk; used only if the database has been modified. The program will prompt you if you do not enter a value for PERMFILE and if no permanent database filename has previously been specified. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Used when saving a permanent database file. YES You will be prompted “Ready to save permanent database file?”. UNKNOWN You will be prompted “Permanent database file already exists” if the database file already exists. You will not receive a prompt.
NO
IMMEDIATE [NO] If IMMEDIATE=YES, the program immediately stops execution without saving the database or prompting you. This option is most useful when writing batch scripts to force the program to terminate. {YES / NO} Auxiliary commands EXIT SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT QUIT SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT STOP SAVE PERMFILE PROMPT EXIT, QUIT and STOP are equivalent to END.
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PARAMETER
PARAMETER
NAME EXPRESSION
Defines a parameter that can be substituted in a later command. The AUI evaluates the given expression and stores the resulting number as the value of the parameter. Note: Parameter definitions and values are not stored in the database.
NAME The name of the parameter (1 to 30 alphanumeric characters). The name is not case sensitive. If the parameter is not already defined, a new parameter is created, otherwise the existing parameter is modified. EXPRESSION A string (up to 256 characters long) that contains a numeric expression. The expression string can contain the following items: The arithmetic operators +, , *, /, ** (exponentiation) Numbers (either real numbers or integers) The following functions: ABS(x) AINT(x) ANINT(x) ACOS(x) ASIN(x) ATAN(x) ATAN2(x,y) COS(x) COSH(x) DIM(x,y) EXP(x) LOG(x) LOG10(x) MAX(x,y,...) MIN(x,y,...) MOD(x,y) SIGN(x,y) SIN(x) SINH(x) SQRT(x) absolute value truncation nearest whole number arccosine arcsine arctangent arctangent(x/y) cosine hyperbolic cosine positive difference exponential natural logarithm common logarithm largest value smallest value remaindering transfer of sign sine hyperbolic sine square root
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PARAMETER
Sec. 3.6 Auxiliary commands
STEP(x) TAN(x) TANH(x)
the unit step function: 0.0 if x ≤ 0.0 1.0 if x < 0.0 tangent hyperbolic tangent
All trigonometric functions operate on or return angles in radians. Examples PARAMETER A '3.0' PARAMETER B '5 + 7' PARAMETER C '6 * \ 5 ' Parameter substitution When the commandline parser finds a token value that starts with a $, the parser finds the parameter name with that token value and substitutes the parameter value. For example, in the commands PARAMETER X1 '2.0/3.0' PARAMETER X2 'SQRT(5.0)' PARAMETER X3 'SIN(2.0)' BODY BLOCK DX1=$X1 DX2=$X2 DX3=$X3 the parser looks for the values of X1, X2 and X3 and substitutes the values (e.g. the characters '0.666666666666667') for the names (e.g. the characters 'X1'). Hence the above commands are exactly equivalent to the command BODY BLOCK DX1=0.666666666666667 DX2=2.23606797749979, DX3=0.909297426825682 The token values need not be in uppercase: BODY BLOCK DX1=$x1 DX2=$x2 DX3=$x3 Parameter substitution occurs before command execution, so the following is allowed: PARAMETER A '2.0' PARAMETER A '$A + 1' // A = 3 // A = 3 // B = 12 // The string can be entered on several // command lines as in this example; C = 30
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PARAMETER
Now you may want to put the symbol $ into a string without parameter substitution occuring. The rule is: if the next character after the $ is a letter [az], the commandline parser attempts parameter substitution. So PARAMETER A '3.0' USERTEXT ABC 'The cost is $2000.00' 'The size is $A' DATAEND is equivalent to USERTEXT ABC 'The cost is $2000.00' 'The size is 3' DATAEND A convenient way to output the value of a single parameter is with the ECHO command: PARAMETER X1 '2.0/3.0' ECHO $X1 ECHO 'The value of X1 is $X1' Auxiliary commands LIST PARAMETER Lists the values of all parameters. ECHO STRING Outputs the given string. This command can be used to output the value of a parameter, see the examples given in the PARAMETER command description. STRING is a string (up to 256 characters long).
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Chapter 4 Interface control and editing
CONTROL
Sec. 4.1 Settings
CONTROL
PLOTUNIT VERBOSE ERRORLIMIT LOGLIMIT UNDO PROMPT AUTOREPAINT DRAWMATTACH DRAWTEXT DRAWLINES DRAWFILLS AUTOMREBUILD ZONECOPY SWEEPCOINCIDE SESSIONSTORAGE DYNAMICTRANSFORM UPDATETHICKNESS AUTOREGENERATE ERRORACTION FILEVERISON
CONTROL defines certain parameters that control program behavior. The parameters defined by the CONTROL command are stored in the database. PLOTUNIT <not currently active> VERBOSE <not currently active> ERRORLIMIT <not currently active> LOGLIMIT <not currently active> [PERCENT] [YES] [0] [0]
UNDO [5] The UNDO parameter controls the number of commands that can be undone using the UNDO command. If UNDO = 0, the UNDO command cannot be used, if UNDO = 1, UNDO can be used to undo the effects of the previous command, if UNDO = 2, UNDO can be used to undo the effects of the previous two commands, etc. Setting UNDO = 0 can significantly speed up the processing of batch files. PROMPT [UNKNOWN] Controls the default behavior for prompts which may arise from various commands. NO No command prompts will be issued  this is useful in batch mode  eliminating any interaction. Command prompts are always issued. Command prompts are issued only when necessary.
YES UNKNOWN
AUTOREPAINT [YES] When AUTOREPAINT = YES, the AUI automatically repaints that area of the graphics window that is exposed to the removal or motion of overlapping windows or dialogs. You may want to set AUTOREPAINT to NO to suppress the repainting; in that case, you can use the REFRESH command whenever you want to repaint the graphics window. DRAWMATTACH [YES] When DRAWMATTACH = YES, mesh plot attachments (band plots, load plots, element vector plots, reaction plots, line contour plots) are drawn. Otherwise, they are not drawn.
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CONTROL
One use of this option would be to turn off drawing of mesh plot attachments before moving the mesh plots with the mouse. DRAWTEXT DRAWLINES DRAWFILLS These options control the drawing of text, lines and fills: EXACT SATURATED GRAY INVERSE Use the requested colors while drawing. Convert all colors to saturated colors before drawing. Convert all colors to gray scales before drawing. Convert all colors to the INVERSE color before drawing (the INVERSE color is the opposite of the background color). Do not draw. [EXACT] [EXACT] [EXACT]
NO
AUTOMREBUILD [YES] When you enter a command that alters the geometry or finite element model, the AUI rebuilds all corresponding data structures so that the model can be replotted. This feature can be deactivated by setting AUTOMREBUILD = NO (in this case, if you want to plot the model, you must use the ADINA, ADINAT or ADINAF commands to rebuild the model beforehand). Setting AUTOMREBUILD = NO can significantly speed up the processing of batch files. Notes : 1) One important use of parameters DRAWTEXT, DRAWLINES, DRAWFILLS is when making plots in black and white for reports. In this case you might use DRAWTEXT = INVERSE, DRAWLINES = INVERSE, DRAWFILLS = GRAY. 2) The drawing parameters apply both to graphics as displayed on the screen and to graphics as produced using SNAPSHOT or MOVIESAVE. 3) One use of DRAWFILLS = SATURATED is to speed up shaded color image drawing, especially using X Window graphics; all shades of each color are converted to the same color, resulting in significantly fewer color changes.
ZONECOPY [NO] Controls whether the commands BANDPLOT, MESHPLOT, ELINEPLOT, EVECTORPLOT, LCPLOT, REACTIONPLOT, BANDSTYLE, MESHSTYLE, ELINESTYLE, EVECTORSTYLE, LCSTYLE, REACTIONSTYLE create copies of the input zones. Zone copies are always created by these commands in AUI 7.0 but not in later versions of the AUI. The preferred
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CONTROL
Sec. 4.1 Settings
setting of ZONECOPY is NO, but YES may be necessary to read input/session files produced for/by AUI 7.0. {YES/NO} SWEEPCOINCIDE [YES] Controls whether the SURFACE/VOLUME REVOLVED/EXTRUDED geometry definition commands check for coincident lines and surfaces, as well as for coincident vertices (points). AUI 7.0 did not attempt to connect adjacent surfaces/volumes, resulting in duplicate lines and surfaces fro such “sweep” geometry definition. The default in AUI 7.1 and higher is to connect adjacent surfaces/volumes whenever possible. However, AUI 7.0 input/session files which contain such “sweep” geometry will likely fail, so it may well be necessary to set SWEEPCOINCIDE=NO to correctly process older input files. {YES/NO} SESSIONSTORAGE [YES] If SESSIONSTORAGE = YES, the subsequent commands are stored in the AUI database. You can output these commands using the command COMMANDFILE. In the event of a system crash, you can retrieve these commands by opening the AUI temporary database, and subsequently issuing the COMMANDFILE command. If SESSIONSTORAGE = NO, subsequent commands are not stored in the AUI database and therefore cannot be retrieved. You may wish to set SESSIONSTORAGE = NO before reading commands from a batch file to eliminate the overhead of storing those commands within the AUI database. Note that the storage of commands in the AUI database is independent of the writing of commands to the session file determined by command FILESESSION. DYNAMICTRANSFORM [YES] Controls how the program indicates the transformation when you move, resize or rotate graphics using the mouse. If DYNAMICTRANSFORM=YES, the program redraws all picked graphics completely and redraws all other graphics that overlap the picked graphics. If DYNAMICTRANSFORM=PARTIAL, the program partially redraws all picked graphics and does not redraw overlapping graphics. If DYNAMICTRANSFORM=NO, the program indicates the transformation using a bounding box. UPDATETHICKNESS [YES] When you change the thickness of geometry surfaces or faces, all elements generated onto the surfaces or faces are automatically updated with the updated thickness. {YES/NO} In AUI 7.2 and lower, elements are not automatically updated. Therefore you may need to set UPDATETHICKNESS=NO so that input files constructed for use with AUI 7.2 and lower work correctly.
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CONTROL
AUTOREGENERATE [NO] If AUTOREGENERATE=YES, the program regenerates the graphics after you run a command that changes the model definition. This parameter only applies to commands that are run from the commandline (or read from a file); it does not apply to dialog box input from the user interface. Note that the user interface always regenerates the graphics after you use a dialog box that changes the model definition. {YES/NO} ERRORACTION [CONTINUE] Defines AUI action when error is detected. Parameter affects only commands read from a batch file. CONTINUE SKIP AUI continues to process commands. AUI skips the remaining commands up to the next READ END command, if any.
Note:
For more details see AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. IV  Display processing. [V74]
FILEVERISON Flag to request algorithms from previous version of AUI. Note:
For more details see AUI Command Reference Manual: Vol. IV  Display processing.
Auxiliary commands LIST CONTROL Lists the values of the parameters set by the CONTROL command.
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UNDO
Sec. 4.2 Editing
UNDO
NUMBER
UNDO cancels the effects of previous commands. UNDO is possible only if CONTROL UNDO is greater than zero. See Section 4.1 for a description of the CONTROL command. The UNDO command can itself be undone by REDO (described in this section). NUMBER [1] The number of previous commands to be undone. The maximum possible number of previous commands that can be undone is set by CONTROL UNDO. However, the actual number of previous commands that can be undone may be less than this.
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REDO
REDO
NUMBER
REDO cancels the effects of previous UNDO commands (described in this section). It can be used only if the previous command was either UNDO or REDO. The REDO command can be followed by the UNDO command to cancel the REDO. NUMBER The number of previous UNDO commands to be undone. [1]
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Chapter 5 Control data
FEPROGRAM
Sec. 5.1 General
FEPROGRAM
PROGRAM
FEPROGRAM specifies the finite element analysis program to be used to solve the problem described by the model database. PROGRAM The finite element analysis program name. The following choices are available: ADINA ADINAT ADINAF Auxiliary commands LIST FEPROGRAM Lists the currently selected finite element analysis program. For displacement and stress analysis. For heat transfer analysis. For fluid flow and heat transfer analysis. [ADINA]
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HEADING
HEADING
STRING
HEADING specifies a title for the problem described by the model database. STRING [‘*** NO HEADING DEFINED ***’] The problem heading, input as a string of up to 80 characters (including blank spaces) enclosed within apostrophes (‘). Auxiliary commands LIST HEADING Lists the current problem heading.
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MASTER
Sec. 5.1 General
MASTER
ANALYSIS MODEX TSTART IDOF OVALIZATION FLUIDPOTENTIAL CYCLICPARTS IPOSIT REACTIONS INITIALSTRESS FSINTERACTION IRINT CMASS SHELLNDOF AUTOMATIC SOLVER CONTACTALGORITHM TRELEASE RESTARTLDC FRACTURE LOADCASE LOADPENETRATION MAXSOLMEM MTOTM RECL SINGULARITYSTIFFNESS STIFFNESSFACTOR MAPOUTPUT MAPFORMAT NODALDEFORMATIONFILE POROUSCOUPLING ZOOMLABEL AXISCYCLIC PERIODIC VECTORSHELL EPSIFIRST STABILIZE STABFACTOR RESULTS FEFCORR
MASTER defines the data controlling the execution of the analysis program ADINA. ANALYSIS Selects the category of analysis to be performed. STATIC DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION FREQUENCIES BUCKLINGLOADS MODALTRANSIENT Static analysis. Dynamic analysis. Frequency / modeshape calculation. Linearized buckling load calculation. Mode superposition for time integration of modal response. [STATIC]
MODALPARTICIPATIONFACTORS Calculation of modal participation factors for subsequent response spectrum, harmonic, or random analyses. MODALSTRESSES MODEX Selects the execution mode of the analysis. CHECK EXECUTE RESTART Calculation of modal stresses. [EXECUTE]
ADINA checks the data without executing. ADINA checks the data and executes. ADINA performs a restart, reading data from a previous run, checks the data and executes.
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MASTER
TSTART [0.0] Solution start time. For a restart run (MODEX = RESTART) TSTART must equal a solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. IDOF [000000] Master degree of freedom code. A six digit integer, where each digit indicates either an allowed (0) or a deleted (1) degree of freedom. A degree of freedom deleted by this parameter is deleted from the entire model. The digits correspond to the following degrees of freedom: Digit 1: Xtranslation (atranslation for a skew system). Digit 2: Ytranslation (btranslation for a skew system). Digit 3: Ztranslation (ctranslation for a skew system). Digit 4: Xrotation (arotation for a skew system). Digit 5: Yrotation (brotation for a skew system). Digit 6: Zrotation (crotation for a skew system). The default is for all degrees of freedom to be active. Note: The directions of rotational degrees of freedom at a shell element midsurface node with a local reference system depend on the orientation of the director vector or element normal vector, as applicable. Note: Preceding zeroes may be omitted, i.e., IDOF = 111 is equivalent to IDOF = 000111. OVALIZATION [NONE] Pipe element nodes can have additional ovalization and warping degrees of freedom, as selected by the following options: NONE INPLANE All ovalization and warping degrees of freedom are deleted. Only the 3 ovalization and 3 warping degrees of freedom corresponding to inplane loading are admissible. Only the 3 ovalization and 3 warping degrees of freedom corresponding to outofplane loading are admissible. All 6 ovalization and 6 warping degrees of freedom are admissible.
OUTOFPLANE
ALL
FLUIDPOTENTIAL [NO] Selects the fluid potential degree of freedom. If there are elements in groups of type FLUID2 or FLUID3 with a potentialbased formulation, this degree of freedom is automatically selected. {YES/NO} CYCLICPARTS [1] The number of cyclic symmetric parts of the main structure. If the value is greater than or
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MASTER
Sec. 5.1 General
equal to 2 then a cyclic symmetric analysis is performed. The maximum number of cyclic symmetric parts allowed is 999. CYCLICPARTS = 1 indicates no cyclic symmetry. IPOSIT [STOP] Specifies the preferred behavior of ADINA when a zero or negative diagonal element is encountered, i.e. when the system matrix is not positive definite. STOP CONTINUE ADINA may terminate, see note below. ADINA continues execution.
Note: The selection IPOSIT = STOP may be overridden by ADINA, as follows: IPOSIT = STOP Linear analysis: ADINA stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite, except when potentialbased fluid elements are in use. Nonlinear analysis: ADINA stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite, unless:  the automatic loaddisplacement (LDC) option is being used, or  the automatic timestepping (ATS) option is being used, or  the element birth/death option is used, or  potentialbased fluid elements are being used, or  a contact analysis is being performed. IPOSIT = CONTINUE ADINA will always continue execution. If an exact zero pivot is encountered, ADINA assigns a very large number to the diagonal term, effectively attaching a very stiff spring to the degree of freedom. If the stiffness matrix is not positive definite in linear analysis, this usually means that the problem is not well defined (e.g. insufficient restraint). Use of IPOSIT = CONTINUE in such cases can give misleading results. REACTIONS [NO] Indicates whether reaction forces and moments corresponding to fixed or prescribed degrees of freedom are evaluated. {NO/YES} INITIALSTRESS [NO] Indicates whether the initial strains input at nodes are to be interpreted by ADINA as the corresponding initial stresses. {NO/YES/DEFORMATION} NO
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MASTER
YES
Initial strains at nodes are interpreted as initial stresses, but stresses do not result in deformation. Nodal initial strains are to be interpreted as initial stress which result in deformation. [NO]
DEFORMATION
FSINTERACTION Determines whether the analysis involves fluidstructure interaction. {YES/NO} Note: FSINTERACTION = YES is automatically set if FSBOUNDARY is used. IRINT Frequency of saving ADINA results to restart file. >0 <0 DEFAULT Restart file overwritten every IRINT timesteps. Restart file appended every IRINT timesteps. Number of steps in first time step block (see TIMESTEP ) for explicit timestepping (see ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION ). 1 otherwise.
[DEFAULT]
CMASS [NO] Controls whether the total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass are calculated by ADINA for each element group. {YES/NO} SHELLNDOF [AUTOMATIC] Specifies the default number of degrees of freedom to be associated with shell midsurface nodes. This default may be overridden by SHELLNODESDOF, which specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes. 5 or FIVE Shell midsurface nodes will have 3 translation degrees of freedom (global or skew) together with two rotation degrees of freedom corresponding to a local midsurface coordinate system – see SHELLNODESDOF. Shell midsurface nodes will have 3 translation and 3 rotation degrees of freedom corresponding to the global or assigned skewsystem. Shell midsurface nodes will have five degrees of freedom, unless modeling considerations, determined automatically, such as branch shell structures or direct specification of rotation degrees of freedom (see SHELLNODESDOF ), require that six degrees of freedom be employed.
6 or SIX 0 or AUTOMATIC
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MASTER
Sec. 5.1 General
AUTOMATIC
[OFF, (FSINTERACTION=NO)] [ATS, (FSINTERACTION=YES)] Selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis. OFF No automatic incrementation; userdefined time step sequence is followed. Automatic time step control is enabled – see command AUTOMATIC TIMESTEPPING. Automatic loaddisplacement control is enabled – see command AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT.
ATS
LDC
SOLVER [SPARSE] Selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium equation system. DIRECT ITERATIVE A direct solution algorithm (active column Gauss elimination) is used. An iterative solution (incomplete Cholesky preconditioned conjugate gradient method) is used. A sparsematrix solver is used. A multigrid solver is used.
SPARSE MULTIGRID
Note: See SOLVER ITERATIVE for input of parameters controlling the operation of the iterative solver. CONTACTALGORITHM [CONSTRAINTFUNCTION] Selects the default algorithm used for contact groups. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. {CONSTRAINTFUNCTION/SEGMENTMETHOD/RIGIDTARGET} TRELEASE [0.0] When the element death option is utilized, an element will “die” (i.e., have zero stiffness contribution) at a given time TDEATH associated with the element. By default (TRELEASE = 0.0) an element “dies” immediately when the solution time reaches TDEATH. However, when TRELEASE > 0.0, an element will “die” over the solution time interval from TDEATH to (TDEATH + TRELEASE). {≥ 0.0} RESTARTLDC Determines whether or not the load vector is transferred to a restart run. NO [NO]
The load vector is not written at the end of an analysis, nor is it read as an external load vector in a restart analysis.
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MASTER
The load vector is written at the end of an analysis, and it is read as an external load vector in a restart analysis. FRACTURE [NO] Controls whether or not the analysis involves fracture mechanics. {YES/NO} YES LOADCASE Controls whether or not multiple load cases are used in a linear analysis. {YES/NO} [NO]
LOADPENETRATION [NO] Controls whether or not load penetration is employed in the analysis, whereby distributed (pressure) load is transferred upon element death. {YES/NO} MAXSOLMEM [0] Limits the amount of memory that the sparsematrix solver can allocate. MAXSOLMEM = 0 indicates that there is no limit and the system will “swap” as necessary. If MAXSOLMEM > 0, then the amount of memory (RAM) allocated is limited to MAXSOLMEM Mwords, and if further memory is required ADINA will handle the “outofcore” block disk transactions  this is often more efficient than system swapping. {≥ 0} MTOTM [2] The size of the blank common memory for ADINA, in million single precision words. This parameter should be used for those platforms where the memory cannot be dynamically allocated at runtime. {1 ≤ MTOTM ≤ 99999} RECL [3000] The record length of ADINA direct access files in number of single precision words. {1 ≤ RECL ≤ 99999} SINGULARITYSTIFFNESS [YES] Assign stiffness to those rotational degrees of freedom with zero stiffness that are associated with shell nodes connected to rigid links. {NO/YES} STIFFNESSFACTOR [1E9] Assign stiffness to those rotational degrees of freedom with zero stiffness that are associated with shell nodes connected to rigid links, beams, or pipes. If SINGULARITYSTIFFNESS = YES, this factor will be used to calculate the rotational stiffness. MAPOUTPUT [NO] Indicates whether the mapping file is written. If the file is written, the frequency follows the frequency of the porthole file. {NO/YES/REMESH/NODAL/ZOOMINITIAL/ZOOMANALYSIS}
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Sec. 5.2 Analysis details
NO YES REMESH NODAL
No mapping file output. ADINA will output mapping file. AUI read nodal deformation file to recreate geometry for remeshing. ADINA will output mapping file only for nodal results. This type of mapping file can be used as initial conditions for a subsequent analysis using a different mesh.
ZOOMINITIAL ADINA will output mapping file for use by a zoom model. ZOOMANALYSIS ADINA will perform analysis for a zoom model. A mapping file created in a previous analysis (with MAPOUTPUT = ZOOMINITIAL) is required. If the boundary of the zoom model coincides with the boundary of the original model, the ZOOMBOUNDARY command must also be specified (see figure at ZOOMBOUNDARY command). MAPFORMAT Indicates whether the mapping file is written in text or binary format. {YES/NO} NO YES binary file. text file.
NODALDEFORMATIONFILE Specifies the name of the nodal deformation file. If MAPOUTPUT=REMESH AUI will read this file. When the program reads the nodal deformation file to recreate geometry for remeshing, the following actions are taken:  all elements and their nodes are deleted.  all volumes and surfaces are deleted.  all lines which contain nodes are modified such that the line now passes through the new nodal positions. Note: MAPOUTPUT=REMESH is currently restricted only for 2D problem where the model uses only AUI native geometry (i.e. lines and surfaces). POROUSCOUPLING Porouscoupling. {NO/YES} ZOOMLABEL Current zoom model label number .
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[NO]
[1]
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MASTER
AXISCYCLIC [0] Label number of cyclic symmetry axis defined by axisrotation command. Default AXISCYCLIC = 0 means use global X axis. PERIODIC Specifies whether periodic loads are to be applied to cyclic parts. {NO/YES} NO YES different loads are used for different cyclic parts. the load applied on the first cyclic part is rotated about the cyclic axis and applied to the other cyclic parts. Unlike basic cyclic symmetry analysis, a periodic symmetry analysis can be nonlinear. It can also be used with explicit dynamic time integration. [GEOMETRY] [NO]
VECTORSHELL Flag for calculation of shellvector direction GEOMETRY ELEMENT shellvector direction from surface/face normal direction shellvector direction from element
EPSIFIRST [NO] Indicates whether the analysis is first solved with the applied initial strain before loads are applied. If EPSIFIRST=YES, then the automatic time stepping (ATS) method can also be used to scale the initial strains in case the solution fails to converge when the full initial strains are applied in one step.{NO/YES} STABILIZE The flag to set the option to stabilize stiffness matrix. {NO/YES} STABFACTOR The stabilization factor used in STABILIZE when it is set to YES. RESULTS Output format for Nastran file. {PORTHOLE/OP2/BOTH} PORTHOLE OP2 BOTH ADINA porthole file format Nastran .OP2 file format Both the above formats [NO] [NO]
[1.0E12] [PORTHOLE]
FEFCORR Perform fixedendforce correction for beams. {YES/NO}
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Sec. 5.2 Analysis details
Auxiliary commands LIST MASTER
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ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION
ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION
METHOD DELTA ALPHA THETA TIMESTEP NCRSTEP CRSTEP MASSSCALE DTMIN1 DTMIN2 GAMMA
ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION specifies time integration parameters for a dynamic, direct timeintegration, analysis. METHOD [NEWMARK] Selects the method to be used for direct time integration, see Theory and Modeling Guide. {NEWMARK/CENTRALDIFFERENCE/WILSON/COMPOSITE} NEWMARK CENTRALDIFFERENCE WILSON COMPOSITE Newmark method. Central difference method (explicit analysis). Wilsonθ method. ADINA composite method.
Note: For the centraldifference method:  substructures and cyclic symmetry cannot be used;  a lumped mass matrix is used automatically;  only the following element group types can be used: TRUSS, TWODSOLID, THREEDSOLID, BEAM, ISOBEAM (2node), PLATE, SHELL (4node). DELTA ALPHA Coefficients for the Newmark method. {DELTA ≥ 0.5}{ALPHA > 0.0} The following choices are often employed: DELTA = 0.5, ALPHA = 0.25 DELTA = 0.5, ALPHA = 0.5 [0.5] [0.25]
The constantaverageacceleration scheme (also termed the trapezoidal rule). Good for contactimpact problems.
Note: The Newmark method is unconditionally stable in linear analysis, if: DELTA ≥ 0.5, ALPHA ≥ 0.25 × (DELTA + 0.5)2 THETA Coefficient for the Wilsonθ method. {1.39 ≤ THETA ≤ 2.01} [1.4]
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ANALYSIS DYNAMICDIRECTINTEGRATION
Sec. 5.2 Analysis details
TIMESTEP [See following note.] Flag that defines the method of time step selection. When METHOD = CENTRALDIFFERENCE, the default value is TOTALTIME; otherwise, the default value is USER. {USER/AUTOMATIC/TOTALTIME} USER AUTOMATIC User defined timesteps. (See TIMESTEP ) ADINA automatically calculates the time step magnitude in explicit analysis based on stability considerations. The total number of time steps specified in the TIMESTEP command will be used. The magnitude of the timesteps is calculated automatically by the program. The analysis runs until the total time specified in the TIMESTEP command is reached. The number of steps specified in the TIMESTEP command determines how often results are saved to the porthole file.
TOTALTIME
NCRSTEP [1] Defines how often the time step magnitude is updated in explicit analysis (the time step magnitude is updated every NCRSTEP step(s)). This parameter is not used if TIMESTEP=USER. {NCRSTEP = 1, 2, 3, ...} CRSTEP [0.0] Factor used to scale the calculated time step in transient explicit analysis. This parameter is not used if TIMESTEP=USER. {0.0 ≤ CRSTEP ≤ 4.0} For the default value CRSTEP = 0.0, CRSTEP will be set to 1.0 always. MASSSCALE [1.0] Specifies the factor to scale the mass (densities) of the entire model (at the beginning of the analysis) to increase the critical time step size required for stability when the explicit time integration scheme is used. See caution below. {≥ 1.0} DTMIN1 [0.0] The minimum time step size used to determine if mass scaling will be applied to elements (at the beginning of the analysis) whose critical time step size is smaller than DTMIN1. The amount of mass scaling is calculated for each element so that the critical time step size is equal to DTMIN1. See caution below. {≥ 0.0} DTMIN2 [0.0] The minimum time step size used to determine if an element will be removed in an explicit time integration analysis. In explicit time integration, the smaller an element size is, the smaller will
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the critical time step size be. If the critical time step size for an element is smaller than DTMIN2, the element will be removed in the analysis. See caution below. {≥ 0.0} Notes: — MASSSCALE, DTMIN1 and DTMIN2 may be used together. — DTMIN1 and DTMIN2 are applied after MASSSCALE is applied. — If DTMIN1 and DTMIN2 are both used, DTMIN1 should be greater than DTMIN2. If DTMIN2 ≥ DTMIN1 is specified, DTMIN1 will be ignored. CAUTION: Specifying MASSSCALE > 1.0, DTMIN1 > 0.0 or DTMIN2 > 0.0 may change the model significantly. Hence, extra care should be exercised in examining the results when any of these parameters are used. GAMMA Coefficient for the ADINA composite method. {0.0 < GAMMA < 1.0} Note: [0.5]
The ADINA composite method uses Newmark coefficients with the additional constant GAMMA. It is recommended to use the default value of GAMMA (i.e., 0.5).
Auxiliary commands LIST ANALYSIS Lists the data for the current analysis option.
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FREQUENCIES
FREQUENCIES
METHOD NEIGEN NMODE IPRINT RIGIDBODY RSHIFT CUTOFF NITEMM NVECTOR STURMCHECK ACCELERATE TOLERANCE STARTTYPE NSTVECT INTERVAL FMIN FMAX MODALSTRESSES STATIC NSHIFT NSHIFTBLOCK
FREQUENCIES specifies control data for a frequency solution to be carried out for the structure linearized at time TSTART. In order to input data via this command the MASTER command ANALYSIS parameter should have been previously set to FREQUENCIES, MODALTRANSIENT, MODALPARTICIPATIONFACTORS or MODALSTRESSES. METHOD [SUBSPACEITERATION] Specifies the method of frequency calculation. {DETERMINANTSEARCH/ SUBSPACEITERATION/INPUT/LANCZOSITERATION} Please consult the Theory and Modeling Guide for a further description of these methods. The selection METHOD = INPUT will cause ADINA to read frequencies and modeshapes from file, e.g., for use in a subsequent mode superposition analysis; all other parameters of this command are ignored. NEIGEN [1] The number of frequencies and corresponding mode shapes to be calculated. The actual number of frequencies calculated may be reduced whenever the maximum, specified either by the cutoff frequency (CUTOFF) or the upper bound on the solution interval (FMAX – for the subspaceiteration method), has been exceeded. NMODE [0] The number of mode shapes to be printed in the results output file. Frequency results are always printed. {≤ NEIGEN} IPRINT [NO] Specifies whether or not intermediate solution information is printed. Such information may be of interest in tracing the solution behavior. {YES/NO} RIGIDBODY [NO] Specifies whether or not rigidbody modes are allowed, i.e., the lowest frequency may be zero. {YES/NO} RSHIFT [0.0] The rigid body mode shift to be applied when RIGIDBODY = YES. RSHIFT = 0.0 will result in a value being automatically determined by the analysis program. {≤ 0.0}
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FREQUENCIES
Sec. 5.2 Analysis details
CUTOFF [1.0E8] The cutoff circular frequency (unit = radians/time). The frequency calculation is stopped if frequency CUTOFF has been exceeded. NITEMM [24 or 60] The maximum number of iterations per eigenpair (frequency, mode shape) allowed during solution. Default = 60 if METHOD = DETERMINANT; otherwise, default = 24. NVECTOR [DEFAULT] The number of iteration vectors to be used simultaneously by the subspaceiteration method. DEFAULT = min(2×NEIGEN, NEIGEN+8) = 16 if INTERVAL = NO if INTERVAL = YES
STURMCHECK [NO] Specifies whether or not a Sturmsequence check is to be performed to verify that all the lowest frequencies have been found by the subspaceiteration method. {YES/NO} ACCELERATE [NO] Specifies whether or not acceleration schemes (shifting and overrelaxation) are to be employed during subspaceiteration. Note that if acceleration is applied, then the Sturmsequence check is automatically applied. Furthermore, if NVECTOR < min(2×NEIGEN, NEIGEN+8) then acceleration is always used. {YES/NO} TOLERANCE [DEFAULT] The convergence tolerance used by the subspaceiteration and the Lanczositeration methods in the iteration for frequency values. DEFAULT = 1.0E6 if INTERVAL = NO and METHOD = SUBSPACEITERATION = 1.0E10 if INTERVAL = YES and METHOD = SUBSPACEITERATION = 1.0E9 if METHOD = LANCZOSITERATION STARTTYPE [LANCZOS] Specifies the method of generating starting vectors for the subspaceiteration method. STANDARD LANCZOS Standard starting vectors are used. The Lanczos method is used to generate starting vectors.
NSTVECT [0] The number of userprovided starting iteration vectors for the subspaceiteration method. The NSTVECT vectors, read from file, replace the first NSTVECT starting vectors generated by the analysis program.
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FREQUENCIES
INTERV AL [NO] Specifies whether or not the lowest frequency calculation by the subspaceiteration method and the Lanczos iteration method is confined to a specified interval (FMIN, FMAX). {YES/ NO} FMIN [0.0] If INTERVAL = YES, FMIN gives the lower bound frequency (unit = radians/time) of the interval in which the subspaceiteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculates the lowest frequencies. FMAX [DEFAULT] If INTERVAL = YES, FMAX gives the upper bound frequency (unit = radians/time) of the interval in which the subspaceiteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculates the lowest frequencies. DEFAULT = CUTOFF. MODALSTRESSES [NO] Indicates whether or not to calculate modal stresses for postprocessing. {YES/NO} STATIC [NO] Indicates whether or not to perform static analysis loadsteps following the frequency/ modeshape calculation. {YES/NO} NSHIFT [AUTO] Specifies whether to use automatic shifting procedure for the Lanczositeration method. When the number of frequencies (NEIGEN) to be calculated is large, using the automatic shifting procedure can reduce the computation time significantly. If NSHIFT=AUTO, then the procedure is used if (NSHIFTBLOCK * 2) ≤ NEIGEN. Currently, this procedure is applicable for frequency calculations for potentialbased fluid only. {AUTO/YES/NO} NSHIFTBLOCK [50] Specifies the number of frequencies to be calculated for each shift in the Lanczositeration method. {>0} Note: The parameters NVECTOR, ACCELERATE, STARTTYPE, and NSTVECT are applicable only to the subspaceiteration method. They are ignored by both the determinantsearch and Lanczos methods. The parameters TOLERANCE, INTERVAL, FMIN, FMAX and STURMCHECK are also ignored by the determinantsearch method. Auxiliary commands LIST FREQUENCIES Lists the current setting of parameters for a frequency solution if previously enabled via the command MASTER ANALYSIS = FREQUENCIES.
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BUCKLINGLOADS
Sec. 5.2 Analysis details
BUCKLINGLOADS
NEIGEN NMODE IPRINT ITEMM NVECTOR TOLERANCE S TARTTYPE NSTVECT MODALSTRESSES METHOD EIGENSOLVER
BUCKLINGLOADS specifies control data for evaluating static buckling loads and corresponding mode shapes based on the linearized state of stress and deformation of the model at time TSTART+∆t, following an evaluation of the static response at the same time, i.e., after the first step of the analysis. In order to input data via this command, the MASTER command ANALYSIS parameter should have been previously set to BUCKLINGLOADS. The restart option may be used to perform a buckling analysis for the linearized system at step “n”, where n > 1. The first run solves for the static response after (n1) steps. The restart run then enables the buckling analysis to solve for the buckling response linearized at step “n”. The solution of the eigenvalue problem required for the determination of critical load factors employs the subspaceiteration or Lanczositeration method (see FREQUENCIES). The Sturmsequence check is applied to verify that the lowest required buckling loads have been evaluated. The acceleration (shifting and overrelaxation) schemes are used if the subspaceiteration method is chosen. NEIGEN [1] The number of lowest positive critical buckling loads (i.e., acting in the direction of the applied loads for the first solution step), and corresponding mode shapes to be calculated. NMODE [0] The number of mode shapes to be printed in the results output file. The critical buckling load factors are always printed. {≤ NEIGEN} IPRINT [NO] Specifies whether or not intermediate solution information is printed. Such information may be of interest in tracing the solution behavior. {YES/NO} NITEMM [40] The maximum number of iterations per eigenpair (frequency, mode shape) allowed during solution for the subspaceiteration method. NVECTOR [DEFAULT] The number of iteration vectors to be used simultaneously for the subspaceiteration method. {≥ (NEIGEN + 8)} DEFAULT = NEIGEN + 8.
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BUCKLINGLOADS
TOLERANCE [1.0E6] The convergence tolerance used by the subspaceiteration method in the iteration for frequency values. STARTTYPE [LANCZOS] Specifies the method of generating starting vectors for the subspaceiteration method. STANDARD LANCZOS Standard starting vectors are used. The Lanczos method is used to generate starting vectors.
NSTVECT [0] The number of userprovided starting iteration vectors for the subspaceiteration method. The NSTVECT vectors, read from file, replace the first NSTVECT starting vectors generated by the analysis program. MODALSTRESSES [NO] Indicates whether or not to calculate modal stresses for postprocessing. {YES/NO} METHOD Buckling analysis method. {CLASSICAL/SECANT} EIGENSOLVER Eigenvalue solver method. {SUBSPACE/LANCZOS} Auxiliary commands LIST BUCKLINGLOADS Lists the current setting of parameters for a buckling analysis if enabled via the command MASTER ANALYSIS = BUCKLINGLOADS. [CLASSICAL]
[SUBSPACE]
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ANALYSIS MODALTRANSIENT
Sec. 5.2 Analysis details
ANALYSIS MODALTRANSIENT
NMODES ERRORINTERVAL FREQUENCIES
ANALYSIS MODALTRANSIENT provides control data for a mode superposition analysis. NMODES Number of modes for a mode superposition analysis. [0]
Note that when NMODES = 0 by default, the number of modal participation factors calculated by ADINA is the number of requested modes in the FREQUENCIES command. ERRORINTERVAL [0] Interval of calculating error in external load representation in mode superposition analysis. 0 > 0 No external load error calculation. Calculate relative error at this interval of timesteps.
FREQUENCIES [YES] Indicates whether ADINA is to first perform a frequency analysis (in the same run). Otherwise the frequencies and mode shapes are assumed available, on file, from a previous analysis. See command FREQUENCIES for control of the frequency/modeshape calculations. {YES/NO}
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ANALYSIS MODALPARTICIPATIONFACTORS
ANALYSIS MODALPARTICIPATIONFACTORS
EXCITATION NMODES STATIC CORRECTION FREQUENCIES DUSIZE
Provides control data for a modal participation factor analysis. EXCITATION [GROUNDMOTION] Defines the type of excitation load. {GROUNDMOTION/APPLIEDLOAD} NMODES [0] Number of modes for a modal participation factor analysis. Note that when NMODES = 0 by default, the number of modal participation factors calculated by ADINA is the number of requested modes in the FREQUENCIES command. STATIC Indicates whether static loadstep calculations are to be performed. {YES/NO} [NO]
CORRECTION [NO] Indicates whether staticcorrection calculations are to be performed. Calculations of residual displacements, accelerations, forces, and stresses will be made to evaluate the contribution to the response from the remaining modes above NMODES included in a response spectrum analysis assuming this contribution is static, thus not dynamically amplified. {YES/NO} FREQUENCIES [YES] Indicates whether ADINA is to first perform a frequency analysis (in the same run). Otherwise the frequencies and mode shapes are assumed available, on file, from a previous analysis. See command FREQUENCIES for control of the frequency/modeshape calculations. {YES/NO} DUSIZE [0.0] This parameter is used in nonlinear analysis to specify the size of the displacement perturbation used in calculating nonlinear modal stresses. The unit of DUSIZE is length. If DUSIZE=0.0, then ADINA computes the displacement perturbation factor automatically. If you specify DUSIZE, you should choose DUSIZE so that if the mode shapes are scaled to be of size DUSIZE, the deformations corresponding to the scaled mode shapes are small. When the analysis is not a restart analysis, or if the displacements at restart time TSTART are zero, it is recommended that you enter DUSIZE. This is because ADINA's automatic calculation can lead to very small or very large displacement perturbations. When the analysis is a restart analysis and the displacements at restart time TSTART are nonzero, ADINA's automatic calculation of DUSIZE is usually quite good, however you can also enter DUSIZE if desired. See the ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide, Section 6.2.4 for more information.
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ANALYSIS MODALSTRESSES
Sec. 5.3 Options
ANALYSIS MODALSTRESSES
FREQUENCIES DUSIZE
ANALYSIS MODALSTRESSES provides control data for modal stress calculations. FREQUENCIES [YES] Indicates whether ADINA is to first perform a frequency analysis (in the same run). Otherwise the frequencies and mode shapes are assumed available, on file, from a previous analysis. See command FREQUENCIES for control of the frequency/modeshape calculations. {YES/ NO} DUSIZE [0.0] This parameter is used in nonlinear analysis to specify the size of the displacement perturbation used in calculating nonlinear modal stresses. The unit of DUSIZE is length. If DUSIZE=0.0, then ADINA computes the displacement perturbation factor automatically. If you specify DUSIZE, you should choose DUSIZE so that if the mode shapes are scaled to be of size DUSIZE, the deformations corresponding to the scaled mode shapes are small. When the analysis is not a restart analysis, or if the displacements at restart time TSTART are zero, it is recommended that you enter DUSIZE. This is because ADINA's automatic calculation can lead to very small or very large displacement perturbations. When the analysis is a restart analysis and the displacements at restart time TSTART are nonzero, ADINA's automatic calculation of DUSIZE is usually quite good, however you can also enter DUSIZE if desired. See the ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide, Section 6.2.4 for more information.
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KINEMATICS
KINEMATICS
DISPLACEMENTS STRAINS PRESSUREUPDATE INCOMPATIBLEMODES ULFORMULATION
KINEMATICS defines the kinematic formulation. An individual element group may select a different formulation via the appropriate EGROUP command. DISPLACEMENTS SMALL LARGE STRAINS SMALL LARGE Small strains are assumed. Large strains are assumed. Small displacements and rotations are assumed. Large displacements and rotations are assumed. [SMALL] [SMALL]
Note: Large strains are only admissible for element groups of type TWODSOLID, THREEDSOLID and SHELL with certain material models — please refer to the descriptions of the MATERIAL parameter in the commands EGROUP TWODSOLID, EGROUP THREEDSOLID AND EGROUP SHELL. PRESSUREUPDATE [NO] Specifies whether pressure correction terms are added to the shell stiffness matrix in frequency analysis. Note that this setting cannot be overridden at the element group level. {NO/YES} INCOMPATIBLEMODES [NO] Specifies whether incompatible modes are included in formulation of 4node 2D and shell elements and 8node 3D elements. {NO/YES} ULFORMULATION [DEFAULT] Specifies the large strain formulation to be used for shell elements. {DEFAULT/ULH/ULJ} DEFAULT ULJ is used if explicit transient analysis or rigidtarget contact algorithm is used. Otherwise, ULH is used. Updated Lagrangian Hencky formulation is used. Updated Lagrangian Jaumann formulation is used.
ULH ULJ
Auxiliary commands LIST KINEMATICS Lists the current values of the kinematic formulation parameters.
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MASSMATRIX
Sec. 5.3 Options
MASSMATRIX
TYPE ETA
MASSMATRIX selects the type of mass matrix to be used in dynamic analysis. For static analyses, the mass matrix type is used only in evaluating centrifugal and massproportional loads. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. TYPE Selects the type of mass matrix. LUMPED CONSISTENT Lumped (diagonalized) mass matrix. Consistent mass matrix. [CONSISTENT]
Note: A lumped mass matrix should be employed when:  the centraldifference time integration method is used, or  substructures are used. Note: The element integration orders specified for element groups do not affect the calculation of the mass matrix. ETA [DEFAULT] Multiplier (≥ 0.0) for the lumped rotational masses of all BEAM, ISOBEAM, PLATE, SHELL, and PIPE elements. ETA is applicable only if a dynamic analysis is to be performed with a lumped mass matrix, see Theory and Modeling Guide. DEFAULT = 0.0 for the NEWMARK or WILSONθ integration method and for frequency analysis for the central difference (explicit) integration method.
1.0 Auxiliary commands
LIST MASSMATRIX Lists the current mass matrix type.
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RAYLEIGHDAMPING
RAYLEIGHDAMPING egroupi α i βi
ALPHA BETA
RAYLEIGHDAMPING specifies coefficients which define a consistent damping matrix C as a linear combination of the system mass matrix M and the system stiffness matrix K, i.e.,
C = α ⋅ M + β ⋅ K + C conc + C gen
where M K α, β Cconc Cgen = Total system mass matrix (lumped or consistent), including any specified concentrated masses. = Stiffness matrix based on the elements in all element groups. = Rayleigh damping factors. = Damping matrix contribution from concentrated dampers (see DAMPERS ). = Damping matrix contribution from GENERAL or SPRING elements.
See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details on the use of the damping matrix. Different Rayleigh damping coeffients may be specified for individual element groups. The default coefficients are given by parameters ALPHA, BETA. ALPHA The Rayleigh damping factor α. BETA The Rayleigh damping factor β. [0.0]
[0.0]
Note: The specification of Rayleigh damping is ignored for both a frequency analysis and a mode superposition analysis. egroupi Label number of an element group. αi Raleigh damping factor α for element group egroupi. [ALPHA]
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RAYLEIGHDAMPING
Sec. 5.3 Options
βi Raleigh damping factor β for element group egroupi. Auxiliary commands LIST RAYLEIGHDAMPING Lists the Rayleigh damping factors α, β. DELETE RAYLEIGHDAMPING Sets the Rayleigh damping factors α, β to 0.0.
[BETA]
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MODALDAMPING
MODALDAMPING modei factori MODALDAMPING defines modal damping factors to be used in mode superposition analysis. modei The mode number. factori Damping factor for mode “modei”, representing the fraction of critical damping. For example, factori = 0.1 gives 10% damping for the mode. Note: Note: The mode superposition analysis option must be enabled for the data from this command to be considered. See MASTER. At least NMODES damping factors should be given, where NMODES is the number of modes participating in the mode superposition analysis. See ANALYSIS MODALTRANSIENT.
Auxiliary commands LIST MODALDAMPING Lists the assigned modal damping factors. DELETE MODALDAMPING Deletes all modal damping factors.
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FAILURE MAXSTRESS
Sec. 5.3 Options
FAILURE MAXSTRESS
NAME SUBTYPE SIGAMT SIGAMC SIGBMT SIGBMC SIGCMT SIGCMC SIGABM SIGACM SIGBCM
FAILURE MAXSTRESS defines a failure criterion of maximum stress type for SHELL elements (EGROUP SHELL) in conjunction with material models: ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, THERMOISOTROPIC and THERMOORTHOTROPIC. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest failure label number) + 1] Label number of the failure criterion to be defined. If the label number of an existing failure criterion is given, then the previous failure criterion definition is overwritten. SUBTYPE Indicates the stress/strain conditions. STRESS2 STRESS3 Plane stress. General 3D stress. [0.0] [STRESS2]
SIGAMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material adirection. SIGAMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material adirection. SIGBMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material bdirection. SIGBMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material bdirection. SIGCMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material cdirection. SIGCMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material cdirection. SIGABM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material abplane. SIGACM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material acplane.
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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FAILURE MAXSTRESS
SIGBCM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material bcplane. Auxiliary Commands LIST FAILURE DELETEFAILURE FIRRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0]
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FAILURE MAXSTRAIN
Sec. 5.3 Options
FAILURE MAXSTRAIN
NAME SUBTYPE EPSAMT EPSAMC EPSBMT EPSBMC EPSCMT EPSCMC EPSABM EPSACM EPSBCM
FAILURE MAXSTRAIN defines a failure criterion of maximum strain type for SHELL elements ( EGROUP SHELL ) in conjunction with material models: ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, THERMOISOTROPIC and THERMOORTHOTROPIC. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [current highest failure label number) + 1] Label number of the failure criterion to be defined. If the label number of an existing failure criterion is given, then the previous failure criterion definition is overwritten. SUBTYPE Indicates the stress/strain conditions STRESS2 STRESS3 Plane stress. General 3D stress. [0.0] [STRESS2]
EPSAMT Maximum allowable tension strain in material adirection. EPSAMC Maximum allowable compression strain in material adirection. EPSBMT Maximum allowable tension strain in material bdirection. EPSBMC Maximum allowable compression strain in material bdirection. EPSCMT Maximum allowable tension strain in material cdirection. EPSCMC Maximum allowable compression strain in material cdirection. EPSABM Maximum allowable shear strain in the material abplane. EPSACM Maximum allowable shear strain in the material acplane.
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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FAILURE MAXSTRAIN
EPSBCM Maximum allowable shear strain in the material bcplane. Auxiliary Commands LIST FAILURE DELETEFAILURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0]
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FAILURE TSAIHILL
Sec. 5.3 Options
FAILURE TSAIHILL
NAME SUBTYPE SIGAM SIGBM SIGCM SIGABM SIGACM SIGBCM
FAILURE TSAIHILL defines a failure criterion of type TsaiHilltype for SHELL elements ( EGROUP SHELL ) in conjunction with material models: ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, THERMOISOTROPIC and THERMOORTHOTROPIC. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest failure label number) + 1] Label number of the failure criterion to be defined. If the label number of an existing failure criterion is given, then the previous failure criterion definition is overwritten. SUBTYPE Indicates the stress/strain conditions. STRESS2 STRESS3 Plane stress. General 3D stress. [0.0] [STRESS2]
SIGAM Maximum allowable stress in material adirection. SIGBM Maximum allowable stress in material bdirection. SIGCM Maximum allowable stress in material cdirection. SIGABM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material abplane. SIGACM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material acplane. SIGBCM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material bcplane. Auxiliary Commands LIST FAILURE DELETEFAILURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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FAILURE TSAIWU
FAILURE TSAIWU
NAME SUBTYPE SIGAMT SIGAMC SIGBMT SIGBMC SIGCMT SIGCMC SIGABM SIGACM SIGBCM FAB FAC FBC HOFFMAN
FAILURE TSAIWU defines a failure criterion of type TsaiWu type for SHELL elements ( EGROUP SHELL ) in conjunction with material models: ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, THERMOISOTROPIC and THERMOORTHOTROPIC. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest failure label number) + 1] Label number of the failure criterion to be defined. If the label number of an existing failure criterion is given, then the previous failure criterion definition is overwritten. SUBTYPE Indicates the stress/strain conditions. STRESS2 STRESS3 Plane stress. General 3D stress. [0.0] [STRESS2]
SIGAMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material adirection. SIGAMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material adirection. SIGBMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material bdirection. SIGBMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material bdirection. SIGCMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material cdirection. SIGCMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material cdirection. SIGABM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material abplane. SIGACM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material acplane.
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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FAILURE TSAIWU
Sec. 5.3 Options
SIGBCM Maximum allowable shear stress in the material bcplane. FAB Interaction strength between a and b material directions. FAC Interaction strength between a and c material directions. FBC Interaction strength between b and c material directions. HOFFMAN Specifies whether or not the Hoffman convention should be used. {YES/NO} Auxiliary Commands LIST FAILURE DELETEFAILURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[YES]
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FAILURE HASHIN
FAILURE HASHIN
NAME SIGAMT SIGAMC SIGBMT SIGBMC SIGABM SIGTRM
FAILURE HASHIN defines a failure criterion of type Hashin for SHELL elements ( EGROUP SHELL ) in conjunction with material models: ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, THERMOISOTROPIC and THERMOORTHOTROPIC. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest failure label number) + 1] Label number of the failure criterion to be defined. If the label number of an existing failure criterion is given, then the previous failure criterion definition is overwritten. SIGAMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material adirection. SIGAMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material adirection. SIGBMT Maximum allowable tension stress in material bdirection. SIGBMC Maximum allowable compression stress in material bdirection. SIGABM Maximum allowable shear stress in abplane. SIGTRM Maximum allowable transverse stress. Auxiliary Commands LIST FAILURE DELETEFAILURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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FAILURE USERSUPPLIED
Sec. 5.3 Options
FAILURE USERSUPPLIED
NAME NSURFACE (k = 8×NSURFACE)
coef1k coef2k coef3k coef4k coef5k coef6k
FAILURE USERSUPPLIED defines a user supplied failure criterion for SHELL elements ( EGROUP SHELL ) in conjunction with material models: ISOTROPIC, ORTHOTROPIC, THERMOISOTROPIC and THERMOORTHOTROPIC. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest failure label number) + 1] Label number of the failure criterion to be defined. If the label number of an existing failure criterion is given, then the previous failure criterion definition is overwritten. NSURFACE The number of failure surfaces. {≤ 4} coef1k coef2k coef3k coef4k coef5k coef6k For each failure surface 8 data input lines are entered in the following order: 1: 2: 3: 4: ... 8: F61...F66 Quadratic terms coefficients F6j of the failure surface. α1...α6 F1...F6 F11...F16 F21...F26 Coefficients αi of the stress condition. Linear terms coefficients Fi of the failure surface Quadratic terms coefficients F1j of the failure surface. Quadratic terms coefficients F2j of the failure surface. [1]
Auxiliary Commands LIST FAILURE DELETEFAILURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TEMPERATUREREFERENCE
TEMPERATUREREFERENCE TINIT TLOAD TGINIT TGLOAD NCURTL NCURTGL TEMPERATUREREFERENCE defines reference temperatures and temperature gradients, for both initial thermal conditions and thermal loads. TINIT [0.0] The initial temperature of a structure, in whatever temperature units you employ. Differing initial temperatures may be specified by commands INITIALCONDITION, SETINITCONDITION. TLOAD [0.0] The prescribed reference temperature for a thermal load on a structure, in whatever temperature units you employ. Differing prescribed temperatures may be specified by commands LOAD TEMPERATURE, APPLYLOAD. TGINIT [0.0] The initial temperature gradient through the thickness of a shell type structure, in whatever temperature/length units you employ. Differing initial temperature gradients may be specified by commands INITIALCONDITION, SETINITCONDITION. TGLOAD [0.0] The prescribed reference temperature gradient for a thermal load on a shell type structure, in whatever temperature/length units you employ. Differing prescribed temperature gradients may be specified by commands LOAD TGRADIENT, APPLYLOAD. NCURTL Timefunction label number for the reference load temperature. NCURTGL Timefunction label number for the reference load temperature gradient. Auxiliary commands LISTTEMPERATUREREFERENCE Lists the reference temperatures and temperature gradients. [0]
[0]
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SOLVER ITERATIVE
Sec. 5.4 Solver details
SOLVER ITERATIVE
MAXITERATIONS EPSIA EPSIB EPSII SHIFT NVEC
SOLVER ITERATIVE defines control data for the iterative solution of the matrix system of equilibrium equations. To enable the use of the iterative solver, MASTER SOLVER = ITERATIVE must be specified. MAXITERATIONS The maximum permitted number of iterations for the iterative solver to converge. [1000]
EPSIA [1.0E6] EPSIB [1.0E4] EPSII [1.0E8] Convergence tolerances for the iterative solver, see the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. Smaller tolerances than the defaults may be required for contact analysis. SHIFT [1.0] Factor used to make preconditioning more effective within the iterative solver. Values of SHIFT > 1.0 make the preconditioning matrix more diagonally dominant. NVEC <not currently used> Note: The shift factor SHIFT can be effective with an illconditioned stiffness matrix, such as may be encountered with a shell structure, which is much stiffer in membrane action than in bending action. A typical value of SHIFT = 1.02 has proved beneficial in this situation. Auxiliary commands LIST SOLVER Lists the type of SOLVER (direct or iterative) enabled, and gives the corresponding control parameters, if any.
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PPROCESS
PPROCESS
NPROC MINEL MAXEL
PPROCESS specifies control data for parallel processing solutions. It allows for the splitting up of element groups into smaller subgroups, i.e., the model is partitioned for distributed solution. NPROC [0] Number of processors used. Equivalently, the number of subgroups generated for each element group. NPROC = 0 indicates single processor solution (equivalent to NPROC = 1), in which case this command has no effect  EGCONTROL may be used to effect group splitting in this case. MINEL [0] Each element group with MINEL or more elements can be split into subgroups. Element groups with fewer than MINEL elements are not split. (MINEL = 0 is equivalent to MINEL = 10 × NPROC). MAXEL [999999] Each element group (with MINEL or more elements) is split into I × NPROC subgroups, where the multiplier I is chosen so that each subgroup contains no more than MAXEL elements. Auxiliary commands LIST PPROCESS Lists the current parallel processing control data.
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AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT
Sec. 5.5 Automatic control
AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT
POINT DOF DISPLACEMENT ALPHA DISPMAX CONTINUE RPRINT TYPE NODE SUBDIVISIONS
AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT defines parameters for the automatic loaddisplacement control (LDC) procedure, whereby the level of externally applied load is continually adjusted to solve for the nonlinear equilibrium path of a model until, or beyond, collapse. The LDC method can be used only for static analysis in which there are no thermal effects or timedependent material models (i.e., creep or strain rate dependent materials.) The automatic loaddisplacement control procedure is enabled when MASTER AUTOMATIC = LDC is specified. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for further details on the operation of the LDC method.) POINT The label number of a geometry point at which a displacement for the first solution step is prescribed. Note that a node will have to be defined at the point location, otherwise an error message will result whenever the model is validated. DOF Indicates which degree of freedom at the requested point or node has the prescribed value given by parameter DISPLACEMENT. DOF refers to the degree of freedom system (global or skew) at the point or node. 1 2 3 4 5 6 or or or or or or Xtranslation Ytranslation Ztranslation Xrotation Yrotation Zrotation
DISPLACEMENT The prescribed displacement for the degree of freedom DOF at the point or node for the first solution step. The value input influences the establishment of successive equilibrium positions using the LDC method. In particular, the sign (positive/negative) of the value often plays a critical role. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for further details). ALPHA Used to limit the maximum incremental displacement during a solution step. [3.0]
DISPMAX The maximum (absolute magnitude) of the displacement for degree of freedom DOF at the
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AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT
point or node which is allowed during analysis. ADINA stops if DISPMAX is exceeded when the LDC method is employed. {> 0.0} CONTINUE [NO] Determines whether or not the solution is terminated when the first critical point on the equilibrium path is reached. {YES/NO} RPRINT [NO] Determines whether or not the reference load vector corresponding to all mechanical loads is printed during analysis. {YES/NO} TYPE [POINT] Selects the type of entity (point or node) indicating the location of the controlling displacement. {POINT/NODE} NODE The label number of a node at which a displacement for the first solution step is prescribed. SUBDIVISIONS Number of subdivisions [10]
Note: The LDC method terminates normally when one of the following conditions is met: The maximum allowed displacement DISPMAX has been attained. The first critical point on the equilibrium path has been reached and (CONTINUE = NO). The requested time step sequence has been completed. The number of subdivisions has been reached without convergence. Note: The LDC method cannot be used in conjunction with the following analysis types or features: Dynamic analysis Linearized buckling analysis Timedependent material models (creep, strain rate dependent) Analysis including temperature effects Usersupplied or pipe internal pressure loading Auxiliary commands LISTAUTOMATIC Lists the settings for automatic incrementation.
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AUTOMATIC TIMESTEPPING
Sec. 5.5 Automatic control
AUTOMATIC TIMESTEPPING
MAXSUBD ACCURACY DISTOL DTMAX RESTORE RESPS RESFAC DIVFAC
AUTOMATIC TIMESTEPPING controls the automatic timestepping procedure, whereby timesteps are subdivided in the event of convergence failure within a prescribed number of equilibrium iterations. See Section 7.2.1 of the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. The automatic timestepping procedure is enabled when MASTER AUTOMATIC = ATS is specified. When enabled, this procedure will cause ADINA to subdivide the time step when no iteration convergence is reached in the solution (see commands ITERATION and TOLERANCES ). This procedure is applicable for nonlinear static and implicit transient analysis. MAXSUBD [10] The maximum permitted subdivision of any given time step, i.e., for a time step of magnitude MAXSUBD ∆t, the algorithm will not attempt to subdivide below a time step of magnitude (∆t/2 ). ACCURACY This parameter is obsolete. DISTOL Maximum allowed displacement difference, used in accuracy checking (i.e., when ACCURACY = YES). [0.001]
DTMAX [3.0] A factor indicating the maximum time step that can be attained during analysis. If the time step is ∆t, then the ATS procedure will not use a time step larger than (DTMAX × ∆t). {≥ 1.0} Note: This option is not used if more than one time step block has been specified (see TIMESTEP ). RESTORE [AUTOMATIC] Indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence. NO The ATS method will continue to use the reduced (subdivided) time step which gave convergence. The ATS method will use the time step which was current prior to subdivision. The choice of time step restoration is made by ADINA dependent on
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AUTOMATIC TIMESTEPPING
other problem characteristics. Currently, RESTORE = YES is the automatic choice for contact problems. ORIGINAL The ATS method will use a time step size such that the time step will match the original next time step specified by the user.
RESPS [NO] Indicates whether or not the lowspeed dynamics option is to be used. Applicable only for nonlinear statics analysis.{NO/YES} RESFAC Lowspeed dynamics smoothing factor, used when RESPS = YES. DIVFAC Specifies the division factor used to calculate time step subincrements. Auxiliary commands LISTAUTOMATIC Lists the settings for automatic incrementation. [1.0E4]
[2.0]
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TIMESTEP
Sec. 5.6 Time dependence
TIMESTEP nstepi ∆ti
NAME
TIMESTEP defines a time step sequence which controls the time/loadstep incrementation during analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of constant time steps is specified. The currently active time step sequence is set to that named by the TIMESTEP command. NAME [DEFAULT] Identifying time step sequence name. If the name of an existing time step sequence is given, then the previous sequence definition is appended to. nstepi Number of steps to be taken in the ith time step sequence period. ∆ ti {∆ti > 0} Constant time step magnitude, in time units, for the ith time step sequence period. Note: A database is initialized with a time step sequence named “DEFAULT” which initially specifies a single time step of magnitude 1.0 time units. Auxiliary commands LISTTIMESTEP NAME Lists a given time step sequence. If no name is specified, then a list of all defined time step sequence names is given. DELETETIMESTEP NAME Deletes a given time step sequence. SETTIMESTEP NAME Sets the currently active time step sequence, i.e., that which will be passed to the analysis program. SHOW TIMESTEP Lists the currently active time step sequence.
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TIMEFUNCTION
TIMEFUNCTION timei valuei
NAME IFLIB FPAR1 FPAR2 FPAR3 FPAR4 FPAR5 FPAR6
TIMEFUNCTION defines a timefunction, which may be referenced, e.g., by an applied load. The timefunction curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (timei, valuei), and may be multiplied by one of a set of modifying functions. NAME [(current highest TIMEFUNCTION label number) + 1] Label number of the timefunction to be defined. If the label number of an existing timefunction is given, then the previous curve definition is overwritten. IFLIB [1] Indicator for the library modifying function, which multiplies the input timefunction curve values. 1 A constant multiplier equal to 1.0, i.e., the input timefunction is unmodified;
f (t ) = f * (t )
2
A sinusoidal multiplier; f ( t ) = f * ( t ) ⋅ sin(ωt + φ)
3
A short circuit multiplier, type 1;
f (t ) = f * (t ) ⋅
(a + b ⋅ exp(− t τ))
4
A short circuit multiplier, type 2;
⎛ µ0 ⎞ f (t ) = f * (t ) ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I ⋅ (sin(ωt − φ + α ) + exp( − t τ) ⋅ sin(φ − α ))⎟ ⎝ 4π ⎠
where f (t) is interpolated from the input timefunction curve given by data points (timei, valuei), and the resulting function f(t) is that used by ADINA. IFLIB = 3,4 may be used to model the electromagnetic load due to a short circuit current. FPAR1, ... , FPAR6 Modifying function parameters:
*
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TIMEFUNCTION
Sec. 5.7 Iteration
IFLIB = 2: [FPAR1 = 0.0, FPAR2 = 0.0] FPAR1 = Angular frequency, ω, in degrees/(unit time). FPAR2 = Phase angle, φ, in degrees. IFLIB = 3: [FPAR1 = 0.0, FPAR2 = 0.0, FPAR3 = 1.0] FPAR1 = Constant a. FPAR2 = Constant b. FPAR3 = Constant τ, in time units. IFLIB = 4: [FPAR5 = 1.0, FPAR6 = 4π ×107] FPAR1 = RMS of short circuit current, I. FPAR2 = Angular frequency, ω, in degrees/(unit time). FPAR3 = Phase angle, φ, in degrees. FPAR4 = Impedance angle, α, in degrees. FPAR5 = Time constant, τ, in time units. FPAR6 = Magnetic permeability, µ0. (Volt.second / meter.Ampere). timei Time at data point “i”. valuei Value at time “timei”. Auxiliary commands LISTTIMEFUNCTION DELETETIMEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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ITERATION
ITERATION
METHOD LINESEARCH MAXITERATIONS PRINTOUT
ITERATION selects the equilibrium iteration scheme to be employed for a nonlinear ADINA analysis. METHOD [FULLNEWTON] Selects one of the following iteration schemes (see the Theory and Modeling Guide for a discussion of iteration schemes). MODIFIEDNEWTON BFGS Modified Newton iteration method. BFGS (BroydenFletcherGoldfarbShanno) matrix update method with linesearches. Full Newton iteration method.
FULLNEWTON
LINESEARCH [DEFAULT] Flags the use of line searches within the iteration scheme. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} DEFAULT = NO YES METHOD = MODIFIEDNEWTON/FULLNEWTON METHOD = BFGS
MAXITERATIONS [15] Specifies the maximum number of iterations within a time step. ADINA will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without achieving convergence, unless one of the following conditions is satisfied: (a) The automatic timestepping method has been enabled ( MASTER AUTOMATIC = ATS), whereby the time step is subdivided a given number of times to try to reach convergence. (b) The loaddisplacement control method has been enabled ( MASTER AUTOMATIC = LDC), whereby ADINA will automatically restart from the last step with established equilibrium, using different constraint conditions. (A maximum of 10 such restarts will be attempted per step.) {1 ≤ MAX  ITERATIONS ≤ 999} PRINTOUT [LAST] Controls the printout of incremental energy, norms of unbalanced forces and moments, etc., during equilibrium iteration.
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ITERATION
Sec. 5.7 Iteration
NONE LAST ALL
No printout. Printout for last iteration of step. Printout of intermediate values for each iteration.
Note: For the modified Newton and the BFGS methods of equilibrium iteration, STIFFNESSSTEPS and EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS may be used to restrict the reformation of the stiffness matrix and the equilibrium iteration to only be carried out at specific solution steps. Otherwise, the stiffness matrix reformation and equilibrium iteration are carried out at every step. Note: For the full Newton iteration method, equilibrium iteration and stiffness matrix reformation are always carried out at each solution step, and input to STIFFNESSSTEPS, EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS is effectively ignored. Note: Full Newton iteration, without linesearches, will be used, regardless of the choice made by this command, for the following situation: the automatic loaddisplacement control method (see commands MASTER, AUTOMATIC LOADDISPLACEMENT ) has been selected. Auxiliary commands LIST ITERATION Lists the current values of the ITERATION command parameters.
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STIFFNESSSTEPS
STIFFNESSSTEPS blocki firsti lasti incrementi STIFFNESSSTEPS controls the output timesteps at which the effective stiffness matrix is reformed by ADINA. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of time step blocks, each of which determines a given frequency of stiffness matrix reformation over a given range of timesteps. blocki The time step block number. The block number must be in the range 1 ≤ blocki ≤ 10, i.e., a maximum of 10 time step blocks can be defined. firsti The initial time step number for the time step block blocki. {≥ 1, ≥ lasti1} lasti The final time step number for the time step block blocki. {≥ firsti} incrementi The time step increment for the time step block blocki. {≥ 1} For each time step block, ADINA will reform the effective stiffness matrix for timesteps firsti, firsti + incrementi, firsti + (2 × incrementi), ... and so on until the resulting time step number is greater than or equal to lasti. Note that the stiffness matrix will be reformed at time step lasti only if (lasti  firsti) is an integer multiple of incrementi. The time step block data is checked to see that each block satisfies lasti ≥ firsti incrementi ≥ 1 and that adjacent blocks do not overlap, i.e., firsti ≥ lasti (i = 2, ..., 10) (i = 1, ..., 10)
If these input conditions are not satisfied, then an error message will be given and the input will not be accepted.
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STIFFNESSSTEPS
Sec. 5.7 Iteration
Furthermore, it is required that the highest value for lasti (for the highest block number) be greater than or equal to the total number of solution timesteps (see TIMESTEP ). If not, then it will be set to that value, with no resulting error condition. Note: Command is only applicable when modified Newton or BFGS iterations method are used. Auxiliary commands LIST STIFFNESSSTEPS DELETE STIFFNESSSTEPS
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EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS
EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS blocki firsti lasti incrementi EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS controls the output timesteps at which equilibrium iterations are performed when the modifiedNewton or BFGS iteration method is used. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of time step blocks, each of which determines a given frequency of equilibrium iteration over a given range of timesteps. blocki The time step block number. The block number must be in the range 1 ≤ blocki ≤ 10, i.e., a maximum of 10 time step blocks can be defined. firsti The initial time step number for the time step block blocki. {≥ 1; ≥ lasti1} lasti The final time step number for the time step block blocki. {≥ firsti} incrementi The time step increment for the time step block blocki. {≥ 1} For each time step block, ADINA will carry out equilibrium iteration for time steps firsti, firsti + incrementi, firsti + (2 × incrementi), ... and so on until the resulting time step number is greater than or equal to lasti. Note that equilibrium iteration will be performed at time step lasti only if (lasti  firsti) is an integer multiple of incrementi. The time step block data is checked to see that each block satisfies lasti ≥ firsti incrementi ≥ 1 and that adjacent blocks do not overlap, i.e., firsti ≥ lasti (i = 2, ..., 10) (i = 1, ..., 10)
If these input conditions are not satisfied, then an error message will be given and the input will not be accepted.
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EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS
Sec. 5.8 Tolerances
Furthermore, it is required that the highest value for lasti (for the highest block number) be greater than or equal to the total number of solution timesteps (see TIMESTEP ). If not, then it will be set to that value, with no resulting error condition. Auxiliary commands LIST EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS DELETE EQUILIBRIUMSTEPS
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TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC
TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC
COINCIDENCE EPSILON SHELLANGLE BOLTANGLE PHIANGLE EMFDMIN
TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC specifies certain geometric tolerances used during the construction of a model. COINCIDENCE [1.0E5] Tolerance used when comparing two locations to see if they are coincident. The default value is usually sufficient for most models, but may be reduced, e.g, if distinct locations are extremely close in comparison to the overall dimension of the model. EPSILON [1.0E9] A small value representing zero in many geometry property tests. This value is not normally required to be changed from the default value. SHELLANGLE [5.0] A small angular measure, in degrees, used in comparing normal vectors to determine the number of degrees of freedom to be automatically assigned to a shell midsurface node at which shell elements meet. BOLTANGLE [0.5] A small angular measure, in degrees, used in comparing shell element normal vectors to determine whether any impinging beamshaft elements give rise to additional constraints relating the rotational degree of freedom normal to the shell surface to adjacent translational degrees of freedom. If a shell element normal differs from the average normal at a node by more than BOLTANGLE degrees, no additional bolt constraints will be generated. PHIANGLE [30] This parameter, in degrees, is used only in potentialbased fluid element models, during the phi model completion phase of constructing the ADINA data file. It is used in constructing the boundary conditions for a node on a free surface that is adjacent to the structure. When the angle between two adjacent faces of the structural boundary is greater than PHIANGLE, the AUI treats the intersection of the faces as a sharp corner. When the angle between two adjacent faces of the structural boundary is less than or equal to PHIANGLE, the AUI considers the faces to approximate a smooth boundary. EMFDMIN [0.001] Specifies minmum distance between two electric conductors. If the distance between two conducting nodes in the model is less than EMFDMIN, EMFDMIN will be used. Auxiliary commands LIST TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC Lists the tolerance data for the model geometry.
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TOLERANCES ITERATION
Sec. 5.8 Tolerances
TOLERANCES ITERATION
CONVERGENCE ETOL RTOL RNORM RMNORM RCTOL DTOL DNORM DMNORM STOL RCONSM ENLSTH LSLOWER LSUPPER
TOLERANCES ITERATION specifies the convergence criteria and corresponding tolerances controlling the equilibrium iteration scheme within the analysis program ADINA. CONVERGENCE [ENERGY] Selects the convergence criterion to be used, and thereby which of the other parameters are considered. ENERGY EF Energy convergence (ETOL, STOL). Energy and force (moment) convergence (ETOL, RTOL, RNORM, RMNORM, STOL). Energy and displacement (translation, rotation) convergence (ETOL, DTOL, DNORM, DMNORM, STOL). Force (moment) convergence (RTOL, RNORM, RMNORM, STOL). Displacement (translation, rotation) convergence (DTOL, DNORM, DMNORM, STOL).
ED
FORCE DISPLACEMENT
In addition, when contact is present, the RCTOL and RCONSM parameters are also used. ETOL Relative energy tolerance. RTOL Relative force and moment tolerance. RNORM Reference force. RMNORM Reference moment. RCTOL Relative contact force tolerance. DTOL Relative displacement (translation, rotation) tolerance.
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[0.001]
[0.01]
[0.05]
[0.01]
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TOLERANCES ITERATION
DNORM Reference translation. DMNORM Reference rotation. STOL Line search convergence tolerance. RCONSM Reference contact force. [0.5]
[0.01]
ENLSTH [0.0] Line search energy threshold. This parameter is only used if line search is activated (e.g., when ITERATION LINESEARCH=YES is specified). During each equilibrium iteration, if the unbalanced energy is less than ENLSTH, no line search will be performed. {>= 0.0} Notes: 1. RNORM and RMNORM cannot both be zero. 2. DNORM and DMNORM cannot both be zero. LSLOWER Lower bound for line search. {0.0 ≤ [1.0e6] LSLOWER < 1.0} [8]
LSUPPER Upper bound for line search. {LSUPPER ≥ 1.0} Auxiliary commands LIST TOLERANCES ITERATION Lists the tolerance data for the iteration scheme within the analysis program ADINA.
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PRINTOUT
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
PRINTOUT
VOLUME ECHO PRINTDEFAULT INPUTDATA OUTPUT DISPLACEMENTS VELOCITIES ACCELERATIONS IDISP ITEMP ISTRAIN IPIPE STORAGE LARGESTRAINS
PRINTOUT controls the output printed by ADINA. VOLUME Sets the defaults for the remaining parameters of this command. MAXIMUM The following defaults are set: ECHO PRINTDEFAULT INPUTDATA OUTPUT DISPLACEMENTS VELOCITIES ACCELERATIONS IDISP ITEMP ISTRAIN IPIPE MINIMUM = = = = = = = = = = = YES YES 0 ALL YES YES YES YES YES YES YES [MINIMUM]
The following defaults are set: ECHO PRINTDEFAULT INPUTDATA OUTPUT DISPLACEMENTS VELOCITIES ACCELERATIONS IDISP ITEMP ISTRAIN IPIPE = = = = = = = = = = = NO NO 4 SELECTED YES YES YES NO NO NO NO
ECHO [NO] Determines whether the input data file is echoed at the beginning of the ADINA results file. {YES/NO}
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PRINTOUT
PRINTDEFAULT [NO] Printing of individual element results is controlled by the data entry “print” of the element data commands. This parameter defines the default action for those elements with that data entry left undefined. YES NO STRAINS Print element results. No element results printed. Element strains are printed in addition to element stresses (only applicable to certain material models). [4]
INPUTDATA Level of printout of input mesh data. 0 1 2 3 4 OUTPUT ALL Detailed printing of all generated input data. As for 0, except equation numbers are not printed. As for 0, except nodal data are not printed. As for 0, except equation numbers and nodal data are not printed. No printing of input mesh data.
[SELECTED] All nodal point solution variables and requested element stresses, via element data commands, are printed at all solution steps.
SELECTED Results are printed as requested by the parameters of this command in conjunction with other commands, e.g., PRINTSTEPS, PRINTNODES. DISPLACEMENTS Controls whether or not the program will print displacements (when OUTPUT = SELECTED). {YES/NO} [YES]
VELOCITIES [YES] Controls whether or not the program will print velocities (when OUTPUT = SELECTED). {YES/NO} ACCELERATIONS [YES] Controls whether or not the program will print accelerations (when OUTPUT = SELECTED). {YES/NO}
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PRINTOUT
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
IDISP [NO] Controls whether or not initial displacements, velocities and accelerations (as indicated by parameters DISPLACEMENTS, VELOCITIES, and ACCELERATIONS) are printed out. {YES/NO} ITEMP [NO] Controls whether or not initial temperatures and temperature gradients are printed out. {YES/NO} ISTRAIN [NO] Controls whether or not initial strains, flexural strains and strain gradients are printed out. {YES/NO} IPIPE Controls whether or not initial pipe internal pressures are printed out. {YES/NO} STORAGE Controls whether or not storage requirements are printed out. {YES/NO} [NO]
[NO]
LARGESTRAINS [NONE] Indicates whether or not extended results for element stresses and strains are to be printed for large strain analyses. {NONE/PRINT} Auxiliary commands LIST PRINTOUT
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PRINTSTEPS
PRINTSTEPS blocki firsti lasti incrementi
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
PRINTSTEPS controls the output time steps at which results are printed by the analysis program. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of time step “blocks”, each of which determines a given frequency of time step output over a given range of time steps. Note that the results printout can be controlled independently for the main structure and any substructure reuses. SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] The label number of the substructure to which the time step block data is assigned. REUSE [current substructure reuse label number] The label number of the substructure reuse to which the time step block data is assigned. blocki The time step block number. The block number must be in the range 1 ≤ blocki ≤ 10, i.e., a maximum of 10 time step blocks can be defined for printout control. firsti The initial time step number for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ 1; ≥ lasti1} lasti The final time step number for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ firsti} incrementi The time step increment for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ 1} For each time step block, the analysis program will print results for time steps firsti, firsti + incrementi, firsti + (2 × incrementi), ... etc., until the resulting time step number is greater than or equal to lasti. Note that printout will be given at time step lasti only if (lasti  firsti) is an integer multiple of incrementi. The time step block data is checked to see that each block satisfies lasti ≥ firsti (i = 1,...,10) incrementi ≥ 1
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PRINTSTEPS
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
and that adjacent blocks do not overlap, i.e.: firsti≥ last(i1) (i = 2,...,10) If these conditions are not satisfied, then an error message will be given and the input will not be accepted. Furthermore, it is required that the highest value for lasti (for the highest block number) be greater than or equal to the total number of solution timesteps (see TIMESTEP ). If not, then it will be set to that value, with no resulting error condition. Auxiliary commands LIST PRINTSTEPS DELETE PRINTSTEPS
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PORTHOLE
PORTHOLE
VOLUME SAVEDEFAULT FILEUNIT FORMATTED INPUTDATA DISPLACEMENTS VELOCITIES ACCELERATIONS TEMPERATURES MAXSTEPS SHELLVECTORS ELEMRESULT
PORTHOLE controls the saving, by ADINA, of input data and solution results on the porthole file for later postprocessing by ADINAPLOT. VOLUME Sets defaults for remaining parameters of this command. MAXIMUM The following defaults are set: SAVEDEFAULT = YES INPUTDATA = 1 DISPLACEMENTS = YES VELOCITIES = YES ACCELERATIONS = YES TEMPERATURES = YES The following defaults are set: SAVEDEFAULT = NO INPUTDATA = 0 DISPLACEMENTS = NO VELOCITIES = NO ACCELERATIONS = NO TEMPERATURES = NO [MAXIMUM]
MINIMUM
SAVEDEFAULT [YES] Saving of individual element results is controlled by the data entry “save” of the element data commands. This parameter defines the default action for those elements with that data entry left undefined. {YES/NO} FILEUNIT [60] Unit number for the porthole file on which input data and solution results are to be saved by ADINA. FORMATTED [NO] Controls whether the porthole file records are formatted or written in unformatted binary. {YES/NO} INPUTDATA Level of saving of input mesh data. [1]
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PORTHOLE
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
0
Save only the master control information. Note that when INPUTDATA = 0, the resulting porthole file cannot be read by ADINAPLOT. Save all input data on the porthole.
1
DISPLACEMENTS [YES] Controls whether or not initial and calculated displacements are saved. {YES/NO} VELOCITIES Controls whether or not initial and calculated velocities are saved. {YES/NO} ACCELERATIONS Controls whether or not initial and calculated accelerations are saved. {YES/NO} TEMPERATURES Controls whether or not temperatures are saved on the porthole file. {YES/NO} Note: TEMPERATURES is also used to control the saving of pipe internal pressures. MAXSTEPS [0] Indicates the maximum number of timestep results saved in each porthole file. MAXSTEPS=0 means no limit on the number of steps that can be saved on the porthole file, i.e., only one porthole file is created. Note: For MAXSTEPS > 0, the maximum number of porthole files that can be created is 20. All remaining timestep results are saved in the 20th porthole file. For example, if the number of time steps is 100 and MAXSTEPS=4, then, the 20th porthole file will contain results from time step 73 to 100 (1st porthole file contains only model data and no results). [YES]
[YES]
[YES]
SHELLVECTORS [NO] Indicates whether or not shell element node director vectors are to be saved on the porthole file. Note this only refers to those director vectors calculated in large displacement analysis during the solution response, the initial shell element node director vectors will still be saved on the porthole file. These vectors are required to plot shell elements with a topbottom depiction, but can require considerable storage for large shell models with many output steps. When SHELLVECTORS=NORMALS, only the normals of the shell direction vectors are saved in the porthole file. {YES/NO/NORMALS}
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PORTHOLE
ELEMRESULT [DEFGRAD] Controls whether deformation gradients, stretches or strains are saved in the porthole file for 2D and 3D solid elements with certain material models/kinematic formulations. {DEFGRAD/STRETCH} The following table lists the material models and kinematic formulations affected by this parameter: ————————————————————————————————————— Material model Output when ELEMRESULT=STRETCH ————————————————————————————————————— ARRUDABOYCE GreenLagrange strains CAMCLAY(*) Stretches CREEP (*) Stretches CREEPVARIABLE (*) Stretches DRUCKERPRAGER (*) Stretches GURSON (*) Stretches HYPERFOAM GreenLagrange strains MOONEYRIVLIN GreenLagrange strains MROZBILINEAR (*) Stretches MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP (*) Stretches MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE (*) Stretches PLASTICBILINEAR (*) Stretches PLASTICCREEP (*) Stretches PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE (*) Stretches PLASTICMULTILINEAR (*) Stretches OGDEN GreenLagrange strains USERSUPPLIED (+) GreenLagrange strains USERSUPPLIED (*) Stretches THERMOPLASTIC (*) Stretches VISCOELASTIC (*) Stretches —————————————————————————————————————— * = KINEMATICS DISP=LARGE STRAINS = LARGE + = KINEMATICS DISP=LARGE STRAINS = SMALL When ELEMRESULT = DEFGRAD, then all of the material models/kinematic formulations in the above table output deformation gradients. Auxiliary commands LIST PORTHOLE Lists the current settings for the PORTHOLE parameters.
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Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
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NODESAVESTEPS
NODESAVESTEPS blocki firsti lasti incrementi NODESAVESTEPS controls the output timesteps at which nodal results are saved on the porthole file by the analysis program. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of time step “blocks”, each of which determines a given frequency of time step output over a given range of time steps. blocki The time step block number. The block number must be in the range 1 ≤ blocki ≤ 10, i.e., a maximum of 10 time step blocks can be defined for porthole control. firsti The initial time step number for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ 1; ≥ last(i1)} lasti The final time step number for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ firsti} incrementi The time step increment for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ 1} For each time step block, the analysis program will save nodal results for timesteps firsti, firsti + incrementi, firsti+(2 × incrementi), ... and so on until the resulting time step number is greater than or equal to lasti. Note that nodal results will be saved at time step lasti only if (lasti  firsti) is an integer multiple of incrementi. The time step block data is checked to see that each block satisfies lasti ≥ firsti incrementi ≥ 1 (i = 1,...,10)
and that adjacent blocks do not overlap, i.e.: firsti ≥ last(i1) (i = 2,...,10)
If these conditions are not satisfied, then an error message will be given and the input will not be accepted.
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NODESAVESTEPS
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
Furthermore, it is required that the highest value for lasti (for the highest block number) be greater than or equal to the total number of solution timesteps (see TIMESTEP ). If not, then it will be set to that value, with no resulting error condition. Auxiliary commands LIST NODESAVESTEPS DELETE NODESAVESTEPS
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ELEMSAVESTEPS
ELEMSAVESTEPS blocki firsti lasti incrementi ELEMSAVESTEPS controls the output timesteps at which element results are saved on the porthole file by the analysis program. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of time step “blocks”, each of which determines a given frequency of time step output over a given range of timesteps. blocki The time step block number. The block number must be in the range 1 ≤ blocki ≤ 10, i.e., a maximum of 10 time step blocks can be defined for porthole control. firsti The initial time step number for the time step block “blocki”. Note that firsti must be greater than or equal to 1. lasti The final time step number for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ 1; ≥ last(i1)} incrementi The time step increment for the time step block “blocki”. {≥ 1} For each time step block, the analysis program will save element results for timesteps: firsti, firsti + incrementi, firsti+(2 × incrementi), ... and so on, until the resulting time step number is greater than or equal to lasti. Note that element results will be saved at time step lasti only if (lasti  firsti) is an integer multiple of incrementi. The time step block data is checked to see that each block satisfies: lasti ≥ firsti incrementi ≥ 1 (i = 1,...,10)
and that adjacent blocks do not overlap, i.e.: firsti ≥ last(i1) (i = 2,...,10)
If these conditions are not satisfied, then an error message will be given and the input will not be accepted.
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ELEMSAVESTEPS
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
Furthermore it is required that the highest value for lasti (for the highest block number) be greater than or equal to the total number of solution timesteps (see TIMESTEP ). If not, then it will be set to that value, with no resulting error conditions. Auxiliary commands LIST ELEMSAVESTEPS DELETE ELEMSA VESTEPS
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PRINTNODES
PRINTNODES BLOCKS blocki firsti lasti incrementi PRINTNODES POINTS pointi PRINTNODES LINES linei PRINTNODES SURFACES surfacei PRINTNODES VOLUMES volumei PRINTNODES EDGES edgei PRINTNODES FACES facei PRINTNODES BODIES bodyi
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE BODY
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE BODY
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
PRINTNODES selects nodes for which solution results shall be printed by ADINA. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of node blocks (sets of node labels) or by reference to a set of geometry entities to which the nodes are associated, i.e. via mesh generation. SUBSTRUCTURE [(current substructure label number)] The label number of the substructure to which the nodal data is assigned. REUSE [(current substructure reuse label number)] The label number of the substructure reuse to which the nodal data is assigned.
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PRINTNODES
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
BODY A solid geometry body label number. blocki A node block number.
[(currently active BODY)]
firsti The initial node number for the node block blocki. {≥ 1; ≥ last(i1)} lasti The final node number for the node block blocki. {≥ firsti} incrementi The node increment for the node block blocki. {≥ 1} pointi A point label number. linei A line label number. surfacei A surface label number. volumei A volume label number. edgei An edge label number; an edge of a solid body “BODY”. facei A face label number; a face of a solid body “BODY”. bodyi A body label number. Auxilliary Commands LIST PRINTNODES BLOCKS / POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / VOLUMES / EDGES / FACES / BODIES. DELETE PRINTNODES BLOCKS / POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / VOLUMES / EDGES / FACES / BODIES.
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SAVENODES
SAVENODES BLOCKS blocki firsti lasti incrementi SAVENODES POINTS pointi SAVENODES LINES linei SAVENODES SURFACES surfacei SAVENODES VOLUMES volumei SAVENODES EDGES edgei SAVENODES FACES facei SAVENODES BODIES bodyi
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE BODY
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE BODY
SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE
SAVENODES selects nodes for which solution results shall be saved by the ADINA on the porthole file. This is achieved by specifying a sequence of node blocks (set of node labels), or by reference to a set of geometry entities to which the nodes are associated, i.e. via mesh generation. SUBSTRUCTURE [(current substructure label number)] The label number of the substructure to which the nodal data is assigned. REUSE [(current substructure reuse label number)] The label number of the substructure reuse to which the nodal data is assigned.
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SAVENODES
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
BODY A solid geometry body label number. blocki A node block number. firsti The initial node number for the node block blocki. {≥ 1; ≥ last(i1)} lasti The final node number for the node block blocki. {≥ firsti} incrementi The node increment for the node block blocki. {≥ 1} pointi A point label number. linei A line label number. surfacei A surface label number. volumei A volume label number. edgei An edge label number; an edge of solid body “BODY”. facei A face label number; a face of solid body “BODY”. bodyi A body label number. Auxilliary Commands LIST SAVENODES BLOCKS / POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / VOLUMES / EDGES / FACES / BODIES. DELETE SAVENODES BLOCKS / POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / VOLUMES / EDGES / FACES / BODIES.
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DISKSTORAGE
DISKSTORAGE
FACTORIZEDMATRIX GLOBALMATRIX TEMPERATURES TGRADIENTS FORCES DISPLACEMENTS PIPEINTERNALPRESSURES FDIRECTIONS NSTEPKM LARGESTRAINS MEMOPT
DISKSTORAGE indicates auxiliary file storage and input/output control for program ADINA. FACTORIZEDMATRIX [NONE] Indicates whether or not the factorized linear effective stiffness matrices are to be saved for subsequent use in restart analyses. This option provides for improved solution efficiency for large problems for which the factorization calculations may be skipped for a restart. NONE SAVE No factorized linear stiffness matrices are saved. The factorized linear effective stiffness matrices are saved for future use by a restart of the analysis.
Note that this option of saving the linear factorized stiffness matrices is not allowed in an eigenvalue solution or when the centraldifference method is used. Furthermore, statictodynamic or dynamictostatic restarts are not allowed. GLOBALMATRIX [NONE] Indicates whether or not the global, assembled, stiffness and mass matrices are to be saved to a file. For nonlinear analyses the stiffness matrix can be saved at a selected timestep via parameter NSTEPKM. NONE SAVE The assembled global system matrices are not saved. The global stiffness and mass matrices are written to file, in formatted form.
TEMPERATURES [NONE] Indicates whether or not nodal temperature data is to be input from a file. Material models which are temperature dependent require the temperature field to be specified. Prescribed or initial nodal temperatures may be simply described directly by LOAD TEMPERATURE, APPLYLOAD, INITIALCONDITION, SETINITCONDITION, but a more complex temperature distribution may benefit from being input from file (e.g., created by the heat transfer analysis program ADINAT). Note that any nodal temperature data input from file is added to that already specified directly to the database, if any. NONE READ No temperature data is input from file. Temperatures are read from file. The data records of that file must
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DISKSTORAGE
Sec. 5.9 Analysis output
contain the solution time and the nodal temperatures at that time. The solution times for this input case must correspond to the times of the ADINA analysis given by time TSTART (see MASTER) and increments thereafter determined by the defined time step sequence. INTERPOLATE Temperatures are read from file, but unlike the case TEMPERATURES = READ, the solution times need not correspond to the discrete solution times of the ADINA analysis as given by TSTART and the time step sequence – linear interpolation is performed to give the nodal temperatures at the ADINA solution times. TGRADIENTS [NONE] This parameter acts in the same manner as parameter TEMPERATURES except that throughthickness temperature gradients for shell midsurface nodes are considered. Note that any nodal temperature gradient data input from file is added to that already specified directly to the database, if any. {NONE/READ/INTERPOLATE} FORCES [NONE] This parameter acts in the same manner as parameter TEMPERATURES except that nodal forces are considered. The number and associated (possibly skew) degreeoffreedom directions of the force components (with a maximum of 6 components) are specified by parameter FDIRECTIONS. Note that any nodal force data input from file is added to that already specified directly to the database, if any. {NONE/READ/INTERPOLATE} DISPLACEMENTS [NONE] Indicates whether or not nodal displacements are written to file, e.g., for use by analysis program ADINAF, to control a moving boundary in a fluidstructureinteraction analysis. NONE WRITE No displacement vectors are written to file. Displacement vectors will be written to file.
PIPEINTERNALPRESSURES [NONE] This parameter acts in the same manner as parameter TEMPERATURES except that pipe internal pressures are considered. Note that any nodal pipe internal pressure data input from file is added to that already specified directly to the database, if any. {NONE/READ / INTERPOLATE} FDIRECTIONS [123456] Indicates which degreeoffreedom directions are to be associated with the nodal force components input from file (i.e., when parameter FORCES = READ or INTERPOLATE). The parameter value is an integer number with up to six digits (and no embedded blanks) with the associated directions given as follows:
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DISKSTORAGE
1 2 3 4 5 6
Xtranslation (or atranslation for skew system). Ytranslation (or btranslation for skew system). Ztranslation (or ctranslation for skew system). Xrotation (or arotation for skew system). Yrotation (or brotation for skew system). Zrotation (or crotation for skew system).
NSTEPKM [1] Indicates the timestep at which a nonlinear stiffness matrix is written to file when GLOBALMATRIX = SAVE. The stiffness matrix at the start of the indicated step is stored – any automatic subincrements are not counted, the timestep sequence specified by command TIMESTEP is all that is considered by this parameter. Thus, NSTEPKM = 1 corresponds to saving the initial stiffness matrix, corresponding to time TSTART. LARGESTRAINS [NONE] Indicates whether or not extended results of element stresses and strains are to be saved in a file for large strain analyses, and, if so, whether the file is formatted or binary. {NONE/ FORMATTED/BINARY} MEMOPT [AUTOMATIC] Specifies option to write element group data on disk to reduce memory required by the program. {AUTOMATIC/EGOUT} AUTOMATIC Program automatically decides when element group data is written on disk. Element group data is written on disk to reduce memory usage.
EGOUT
Auxiliary commands LIST DISKSTORAGE
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Chapter 6 Geometry definition
SYSTEM
Chap. 6 Geometry definition
SYSTEM
NAME TYPE MODE XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN PHI THETA XSI AX AY AZ BX BY BZ P1 P2 P3 MOVE
SYSTEM defines a local coordinate system. Coordinates of geometry points and nodes, input via COORDINATES, refer to the current local coordinate system, as defined by the last preceding use of command SYSTEM. The current system may also be changed via SET SYSTEM. NAME [(highest system label number) + 1] Label number of the local coordinate system. Label number 0 is reserved to identify the global Cartesian coordinate system, and therefore can be used only with the SET SYSTEM command – you cannot redefine the global system.
z (r, Q, z)
ZL
r
ZL Q YL
f (r, Q, f) r
YL XL Q
XL
Cylindrical coordinates
Relation to the base local coordinate system: XL = z YL = r cosQ ZL = r sinQ
Spherical coordinates
Relation to the base local coordinate system: XL = r cosQ sinf YL = r sinQ sinf ZL = r cosf
TYPE [CARTESIAN] The type of local coordinate system. Each type has an underlying base Cartesian system (XL, YL, ZL). See Figure. CARTESIAN A local Cartesian system, with axes aligned with the base system (XL, YL, ZL). A cylindrical local coordinate system with coordinates (r, Θ, z). A spherical local coordinate system with coordinates (r, Θ, φ).
CYLINDRICAL SPHERICAL
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SYSTEM
MODE [1] Selects the method of local coordinate system definition. This controls which parameters actually define the system – other parameters are ignored. 1 System defined by origin and direction vectors (XORIGIN, YORIGIN, ZORIGIN, AX, AY, AZ, BX, BY, BZ). System defined by origin and Euler angles (XORIGIN, YORIGIN, ZORIGIN, PHI, THETA, XSI). System defined by three geometry points (P1, P2, P3) [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
2
3
XORIGIN YORIGIN ZORIGIN The global system coordinates of the origin of the local coordinate system.
PHI [0.0] THETA [0.0] XSI [0.0] Euler angles (in degrees) used to define the orientation of the basic system (XL, YL, ZL) with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system axes. See Figure. Parameters are used only when MODE=2. AX A Y AZ Global system components of a vector along the XLdirection. BX BY BZ Global system components of a vector in the XLYL plane. [1.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [1.0] [0.0]
P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of geometry points which define the local coordinate system. P1 is the origin of the system, the XL axis is taken from P1 to P2. P3, together with P1, P2, then defines the XLYL plane. The YL axis is taken orthogonal to the XL axis and points to the same side as P3 of the line between P1 and P2. The ZL axis is then defined by the right hand rule, i.e., using a cross product of unit vectors along the XL,YL axes.
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SYSTEM
Sec. 6.1 Coordinate systems
MOVE [NO] If a local coordinate system is redefined, the geometry points and nodes which refer to this local system would ordinarily be moved to new global positions, since their coordinates refer to the previous definition of the local coordinate system. However, when MOVE = NO the geometry points and nodes can be made to retain their global position, with their local coordinates modified accordingly. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands SET SYSTEM NAME [0] Once a local coordinate system has been defined, it may be selected as being the currently active system by issuing the command SET SYSTEM. The currently active system is initially the global Cartesian system. SHOW SYSTEM Lists the currently active system. LIST SYSTEM DELETE SYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
Z' PHI
Euler Angles
Z Y' PHI Y X, X'
Z' THETA Z''
Y'
PHI = rotation about Xaxis
X' THETA X''
YL
XSI
Y'
THETA = rotation about Y'axis
Z'' XSI ZL
XSI = rotation about X''axis
X''=XL
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COORDINATES POINT
COORDINATES POINT (ENTRIES (ENTRIES (ENTRIES (ENTRIES NAME NAME NAME NAME
SYSTEM (SYSTEM = global Cartesian (0)) (SYSTEM = local Cartesian) (SYSTEM = local cylindrical) (SYSTEM = local spherical)
X Y Z SYSTEM) XL YL ZL SYSTEM) R THETA XL SYSTEM) R THETA PHI SYSTEM)
ni xi yi zi sysi COORDINATES POINT defines coordinates for geometry points. The coordinates given refer to the local system specified by parameter SYSTEM. SYSTEM [currently active system] Label number of the required local coordinate system. This specifies the coordinate system to which any appended data line coordinates refer (and determines which column heading names are allowed by any ENTRIES data line). ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. The heading names depend on the type of local coordinate system specified by parameter SYSTEM. Note: Less than five entry column headings may be given (e.g., to specify points in a coordinate plane), with previous values retained for omitted entries, but the column heading NAME must always be specified.
ni Label number for the desired geometry point, input under the column heading NAME. xi yi zi Coordinate values in local coordinate system “sysi”. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
sysi [SYSTEM] Local coordinate system label number. Note “sysi” defaults to the system specified by parameter SYSTEM, which in turn defaults to the currently active coordinate system. Auxiliary commands LIST COORDINATES POINT FIRST LAST SYSTEM GLOBAL Lists the coordinates of geometry points with label numbers in a given range, and which are defined in terms of a specified local coordinate system. The coordinates may be listed in terms of the global Cartesian system (GLOBAL = YES). If no range is specified, only label numbers will be listed.
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COORDINATES POINT
Sec. 6.2 Points
DELETE COORDINATES POINT FIRST LAST SYSTEM Deletes all geometry points, and their coordinate data, with label numbers in a given range. Note that a geometry point will not be deleted if it is referenced by a higher order geometry entity (e.g. it is the end point of a line), or a node or other model entity is associated with that point.
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LINE STRAIGHT
LINE STRAIGHT
NAME P1 P2
LINE STRAIGHT defines a straight geometry line between two geometry points.
P2 (u = 1)
u
P1
(u = 0)
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the straight geometry line to be defined. P1 P2 Label numbers of the geometry points which are the ends of the straight geometry line. The label numbers P1, P2 must be distinct, but the points may be coincident. A “null” geometry line is defined by this command when the end points P1, P2 are coincident, i.e., they have identical global coordinates. The line has zero length, but may be used in mesh generation, yielding coincident nodes and zero length element edges. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE STRAIGHT DELETE LINE STRAIGHT COPY LINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The endpoints of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE ARC
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINE ARC
NAME MODE P1 P2 P3 CENTER RADIUS ANGLE CHORD PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE
LINE ARC defines a geometry line as a circular arc, or as an arc with varying radius.
P2 (u = 1) P3 (Mode = 4, 5, 6) Chord P3 (Mode = 2)
Angle
Radius
u P1 (u = 0)
Center
NAME [(current highest line label number) + 1] Label number of the arc geometry line. MODE [1] Selects the method of arc geometry line definition. This controls which parameters actually define the arc, other parameters are ignored. See Figure. 1 2 3 Arc defined by start point, end point, and center (P1, P2, CENTER). Arc defined by start point, end point, and intermediate point (P1, P2, P3). Arc defined by start point, center, included angle, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, CENTER, ANGLE, P3). Arc defined by start point, center, chord length, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, CENTER, CHORD, P3). Arc defined by start point, end point, radius, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, P2, RADIUS, P3). Arc defined by start point, end point, included angle, and a point defining the plane of the arc (P1, P2, ANGLE, P3).
4
5
6
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LINE ARC
P1 Label number of the geometry point at the start of the arc geometry line. P2 Label number of the geometry point at the end of the arc geometry line. P3 Label number of a geometry point either through which the arc geometry line passes (MODE = 2), or, together with the start point and end point or center, defines the plane of the arc (MODE = 3,4,5,6). Note: P3 = 0 corresponds to the origin of the currently active local coordinate system. CENTER Label number of the geometry point at the center of the arc geometry line. RADIUS Radius of the arc geometry line. ANGLE Included angle of the arc geometry line. CHORD Chord length of the arc geometry line. PCOINCIDE [YES] If MODE > 1 then a geometry point will be located at the center or end of the arc. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES), rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. Notes: All MODES All geometry points referenced by this command – P1, P2, P3, CENTER – must be distinct. Thus the arc is open – to define a complete (closed) circle, command LINE CIRCLE should be used.
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LINE ARC
Sec. 6.3 Lines
MODE = 1 The arc defined is circular only if P1 and P2 are equidistant from CENTER – otherwise an arc is defined in which the radius is linearly interpolated across the included angle. The points P1, P2, and CENTER must not be collinear. The included angle is always chosen to be less than 180 degrees – thus a different mode should be used if a semicircle or an arc subtending an angle greater than 180 degrees is required. No other geometry points are required; the chord length, included angle, and radius (for a circular arc) are calculated. MODE = 2 The arc is defined to pass through the intermediate point P3. A point at the center of the arc is generated. Parameter CENTER may be used to specify the label number of a newly generated point – it defaults to the next highest label number. If so specified, however, CENTER must not be the label number of an existing geometry point. Furthermore, if PCOINCIDE = YES and a geometry point already exists at the arc center – the coincidence check is governed by the tolerance value PTOLERANCE – then that geometry point will be taken to be the center of the arc, ignoring any label specified via parameter CENTER. The points P1, P2, and P3 must not be collinear. MODE = 3 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, CENTER, and P3, which must not be collinear. Furthermore, ANGLE is measured positive in the direction from P1 to P3. A point at the end of the arc is generated. Parameter P2 may be used to specify the label number of a newly generated point – it defaults to the next highest label number. If so specified, however, P2 must not be the label number of an existing geometry point. Furthermore, if PCOINCIDE = YES and a geometry point already exists at the end of the arc – the coincidence check is governed by the tolerance value PTOLERANCE – then that geometry point will be taken to be the end of the arc, ignoring any label specified via parameter P2. MODE = 4 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, CENTER, and P3, which must not be collinear. Furthermore, the end point of the arc is taken to be the same side of the line between the points P1 and CENTER as the point P3. A point at the end of the arc is generated – see MODE = 3.
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LINE ARC
MODE = 5 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, P2 and P3, which must not be collinear. The center of the arc is taken to be the same side of the line between the points P1 and P2 as the point P3. A point at the center of the arc is generated – see MODE = 2. MODE = 6 The plane of the arc is defined by the points P1, P2, and P3, which must not be collinear. Furthermore, ANGLE is measured positive in the direction from P1 to P3. A point at the center of the arc is generated – see MODE = 2. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE ARC DELETE LINE ARC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The endpoints of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the move line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE CIRCLE
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINECIRCLE
NAME MODE P1 P2 P3 CENTER RADIUS PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE
LINE CIRCLE defines a circle geometry line.
P3 (Mode = 1,3) P3 (Mode = 2)
Radius
P1 P2 (Mode = 3)
Center
P2 (Mode = 2)
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the circle to be defined. MODE [1] Selects the method of circle definition. This controls which parameters actually define the circle, other parameters are ignored. See Figure. 1 2 3 Circle defined by center, starting point, and a point defining the plane of the circle (CENTER, P1, P3). Circle defined through three points (P1, P2, P3). Circle defined by center, radius, and by two points – one defining the ‘pole’ direction (which intersects the circle at its starting point), and the other defining the plane of the circle (CENTER, RADIUS, P2, P3).
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LINE CIRCLE
P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of the geometry points which define the circle. CENTER Label number of a geometry point at the center of the circle. RADIUS The radius of the circle. PCOINCIDE [YES] A geometry point will be located at the center (MODE = 2), or the starting point (MODE = 3) of the circle. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. Note: A circle is a closed geometry line, a circular arc may be defined by command LINE ARC.
Auxiliary commands LIST LINE CIRCLE DELETE LINE CIRCLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEW NAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Move line name via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE CURVILINEAR
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINE CURVILINEAR
NAME P1 P2 SYSTEM ANGLE
LINE CURVILINEAR defines a geometry line as an interpolated curve in a given local coordinate system; coordinates of points on the curve are linearly interpolated between two geometry points.
ZL u
j
, h2, h2 ) P2 ( h2 1 2 3 h i = curvilinear coordinates
YL XL
1 1 P1 ( h1 1, h 2, h 3 )
ZL
ZL
P1, P2 R
P1, P2 Q XL R YL R,Q constant
YL XL
f
R,f constant
P1 = P2, ANGLE = THETA
P1 = P2, ANGLE = PHI
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the curvilinear geometry line to be defined. P1 P2 Label numbers of the geometry points which are the ends of the curvilinear geometry line.
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LINE CURVILINEAR
SYSTEM [current coordinate system] The label number of a coordinate system in which the curve is to be interpolated. ANGLE [THETA] In the case of a spherical coordinate system, if P1 = P2, a circle will be generated by interpolating through 360° in one of the coordinate angles. This parameter selects which angle to use. See Figure. {THETA/PHI} Note: The geometry line will be a circle in the case where P1 = P2 with a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. In the case of a Cartesian local system (including the global system) P1 = P2 is not allowed, and the geometry line will be straight.
Auxiliary commands LIST LINE CURVILINEAR DELETE LINE CURVILINEAR FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The endpoints of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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KNOTS
Sec. 6.3 Lines
KNOTS i ui
NAME NKNOTS
Defines a vector of knot values to be used for nonuniform rational Bspline definition, see LINE POLYLINE (TYPE=NURBS). NAME [(current highest knot vector label )+ 1] Label number of the knot vector. NKNOTS The number of input knot values. { ≥ 4 } i Index of the input knot value. { 1 ≤ i ≤ NKNOTS } ui Knot value for index “i”. Auxiliary commands LIST KNOTS DELETE KNOTS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
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LINE POLYLINE
LINE POLYLINE pointi tangxi tangyi tangzi pointi weighti
NAME TYPE DEGREE KNOTS (TYPE = SEGMENTED, QBSPLINE, CBSPLINE, BIARC, BEZIER) (TYPE = NURBS)
LINE POLYLINE defines a geometry line as a polyline, i.e., a curve controlled by a series of geometry points.
SEGMENTED
QBSPLINE
CBSPLINE
BIARC
BEZIER
SPLINE
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LINE POLYLINE
Sec. 6.3 Lines
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the polyline geometry line to be defined. TYPE Selects the type of curve to be defined. SEGMENTED [SEGMENTED]
The points are connected in sequence by a series of straight line segments. At least two points must be specified. A quadratic Bspline is derived from the control points. Note that the curve passes through the first and last points but not necessarily through the intervening control points. At least three points must be specified. A cubic Bspline is derived from the control points. Note that the curve passes through the first and last points but not necessarily through the intervening control points. At least four points must be specified. Each consecutive pair of points is connected by two circular arcs. The tangent direction of the curve may be specified at any given point. The tangent directions are otherwise calculated by the program. At least three noncollinear points must be specified. Furthermore, all the control points must lie in the same plane, and any specified tangent vector must also lie in that plane – an error message is given if either of these conditions is violated. A Bezier curve is derived from the control points. Note that the curve passes through the first and last points but not necessarily through the intervening control points. At least three points must be specified. A nonuniform rational Bspline curve is derived from the control points, weights, and knots. A spline is derivied from the control points. Note that the curvarture of curve is continous at these points. At least two points must be specified.
QBSPLINE
CBSPLINE
BIARC
BEZIER
NURBS
SPLINE
DEGREE The degree of the Bspline basis functions, must be input for TYPE = NURBS.
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LINE POLYLINE
KNOTS The label number of the knot vector (see command KNOTS). The total number of knots used in the spline definition must equal (DEGREE+(number of control points)+1). pointi Label number of geometry point used to interpolate/control the desired curve. The data lines are input in the order of the sequence of points. [0.0] tangxi tangyi [0.0] tangzi [0.0] Vector specifying, with reference to the global Cartesian coordinate system, the tangent direction to the curve at point “pointi “. This vector only influences the shape of the polyline of type BIARC. Input of tangxi = tangyi = tangzi = 0.0 will result in the program automatically calculating the tangent direction from the slope of the quadratic curve interpolated through the point and its immediate neighbors in the sequence. Note: Note: A polyline may be closed be selecting the first and last points in the sequence to refer to the same geometry point. For BIARC interpolation a straight line segment may be defined by making the tangent line at a point pass through its neighbor point.
weighti The weight at each control point. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE POLYLINE DELETE LINE POLYLINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE SECTION
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINE SECTION
NAME PARENT USTART UEND PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE COUPLED
LINE SECTION defines a geometry line to be part of another geometry line.
up = 1
USTART P1
(u = 0) up = 0
up =
up =
UEND u
(u = 1)
P2
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the section geometry line to be defined. PARENT The line upon which the section line is defined. USTART [0.0] The line parameter (0.0 ≤ USTART ≤ 1.0) indicating the starting position on the line PARENT. UEND [1.0] The line parameter (0.0 ≤ UEND ≤ 1.0) indicating the end position on the line PARENT. PCOINCIDE [YES] This parameter indicates whether or not to check the location of the section line end points against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. COUPLED If COUPLED=YES, then the parent line cannot be modified. {YES/NO} [YES]
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LINE SECTION
Auxiliary commands LIST LINE SECTION DELETE LINE SECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE COMBINED
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINE COMBINED linei
NAME COUPLED
LINE COMBINED defines a geometry line as a combination of other geometry lines. The defining or “parent” lines must form a connected sequence. The combined line may be closed, by virtue of having connected first and last line subsegments.
(u = 1)
L2
P2
(u = 0)
L1 P1
u P3 LINE COMBINED L1 // L2
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the combined geometry line to be defined. COUPLED If COUPLED=YES, then the parent line cannot be modified. {YES/NO} linei Label number of a parent geometry line. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE COMBINED FIRST LAST DELETE LINE COMBINED FIRST LAST COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end point of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. [YES]
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LINE REVOLVED
LINE REVOLVED NAME MODE POINT ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE
LINE REVOLVED defines a geometry line (a circular arc) by rotating a geometry point about an axis.
AXIS P2 (u = 1) u ANGLE POINT (u = 0)
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the revolved geometry line. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to define the geometry line. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved line, other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given axis of a coordinate system. (POINT, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open – i.e., have noncoincident end points). (POINT, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (noncoincident) geometry points. (POINT, ANGLE, AP1, AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by a position vector and a direction vector. (POINT, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).
LINE
POINTS
VECTORS
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LINE REVOLVED
Sec. 6.3 Lines
POINT Label number of the initial geometry point to be rotated about the desired axis. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range 360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360 (with ANGLE = 360 or 360 defining a closed line, i.e., a circle). The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule – i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining a point on the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. PCOINCIDE [YES] A geometry point is to be located at the other end of the line from the initial point given by POINT. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO}
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LINE REVOLVED
PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE REVOLVED FIRST LAST DELETE LINE REVOLVED FIRST LAST COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE EXTRUDED
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINE EXTRUDED
NAME POINT DX DY DZ SYSTEM PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE
LINE EXTRUDED defines a geometry line by displacing a geometry point in a given direction.
ZL u YL XL
P2 (u = 1) P2 = POINT+ (DX, DY)
POINT: (u = 0)
NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the extruded geometry line. POINT Label number of the initial geometry point to be displaced. DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with reference to the base coordinates (XL, YL, ZL) of system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e., it specifies both magnitude and direction. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system which is referenced by the displacement vector (DX, DY, DZ). PCOINCIDE [YES] A geometry point is to be located at the other end of the line from the initial point given by POINT. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points.
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LINE EXTRUDED
Auxiliary commands LIST LINE EXTRUDED FIRST LAST DELETE LINE EXTRUDED FIRST LAST COPY LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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LINE TRANSFORMED
Sec. 6.3 Lines
LINE TRANSFORMED
NAME PARENT TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NCOPY
linei LINE TRANSFORMED defines a geometry line to be a geometrical transformation of another (existing) geometry line. The transformed geometry line is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed geometry lines are identified by the current highest geometry line label number + 1. NAME [(current highest geometry line label number) + 1] Label number of the transformed geometry line. PARENT The line which, after transformation, gives the line to be defined. TRANSFORMATION Label number of a geometrical transformation, see TRANSFORMATION. PCOINCIDE [NO] This parameter indicates whether or not to check the location of the transformed line end points against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of lines to be generated by the transformation  transformation is repeated NCOPY times. linei Line label number to be transformed. Auxiliary commands LIST LINE TRANSFORMED DELETE LINE TRANSFORMED FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LINE TRANSFORMED
COPY LINE
NAME TRANSFORMATION NEWNAME PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Copies line NAME to NEWNAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end point of the new line may optionally be checked for point coincidence. MOVE LINE NAME TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE Moves line NAME via transformation TRANSFORMATION. The end points of the moved line may optionally be checked for point coincidence.
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SPLITLINE
Sec. 6.3 Lines
SPLITLINE
NAME USPLIT LINE1 LINE2 COUPLED
SPLITLINE creates two geometry lines of type SECTION by “splitting” a given line into two parts connected at some point on the given line, specified via a parameter value along the line.
P2 (u = 1)
LINE 1
u
u = USPLIT
LINE 2
P1 (u = 0)
NAME Label number of the geometry line to be split. Note that this line is not altered by this command. Two new lines are created coincident with the line NAME. USPLIT [0.5] A parameter value indicating the point along line NAME at which splitting takes place. The parameter value can range between 0.0 (the starting point of line NAME) to 1.0 (the end point of line NAME), but cannot be 0.0 or 1.0, i.e., the splitting point on the line must create two new lines of nonzero length. LINE1 [(highest line label number) + 1] The label number of the new line created ranging from the starting point of line NAME (u = 0.0) to the splitting point (u = USPLIT). Note that LINE1 must not have been previously defined. LINE2 [(highest line label number) + 2] The label number of the new line created ranging from the splitting point (u = USPLIT) to the end point (u = 1.0) of line NAME. Note that LINE2 must not have been previously defined. COUPLED If COUPLED=YES, then the parent line cannot be modified. {YES/NO} [YES]
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LNTHICKNESS
LNTHICKNESS linei thicki dthick1i dthick2i LNTHICKNESS defines line thicknesses (useful for defining axisymmetric shell thicknesses, for example).
u
P1
linei The line label number. thicki The line thickness. dthick1i The deviation of the thickness at the start point of “linei”. dthick2i The deviation of the thickness at the end point of “linei”. Note: [0.0]
thic k+
[0.0] [0.0] FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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For a constant thickness only the data line entry “thicki” need be specified. The thickness may be varied linearly along the line by specifying nonzero deviations and the ends of the line.
Auxiliary commands LIST LNTHICKNESS DELETE LNTHICKNESS
632
dth
P2
ick2
thic k+ dthi ck 1
SURFACE PATCH
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
SURFACE PATCH
NAME EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4
SURFACE PATCH defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified geometry lines.
P2
EDGE1
P1
EDGE2 v P3 EDGE4 u
EDGE3
P4
NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface. EDGE1 [existing surface edge, if any] EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 Label numbers of geometry lines comprising edges of the geometry surface. To indicate a missing edge, either the corresponding parameter is not specified or, equivalently, a zero label number may be given. See Figure. Note: The edge geometry lines must form a connected sequence, i.e., their end points must match. Otherwise an error condition results. At least two edges must be specified. If two adjacent edges are specified, then a unique connecting edge is searched for to form a triangular surface patch. If two opposite edges (EDGE1 and EDGE3, or EDGE2 and EDGE4) are specified then the missing two edges are searched for to form a quadrilateral surface patch, unless the given edges are connected, in which case a single connecting edge is searched for to yield a triangular surface patch. If three edges are specified, then a unique connecting edge is searched for, unless the three edges by virtue of their connection already form a triangular surface patch. In each case of a “missing” edge, if no line is found to represent the surface edge, then a straight line will be created with label number incremented from the current highest line label number.
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SURFACE PATCH
If more than one line could represent the missing surface edge, then a warning message is given with no surface created. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting surfaces, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.
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SURFACE VERTEX
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
SURFACE VERTEX
NAME P1 P2 P3 P4 EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4
SURFACE VERTEX defines a geometry surface to be bounded by edges which are specified by their end geometry points – the vertices of the surface. This command is similar to SURFACE PATCH – the underlying surface representation is identical – only the method of definition differs. If no geometry line exists between adjacent geometry points, then the command will automatically generate straight geometry lines between the appropriate geometry point pairs.
P2 EDGE2 v
EDGE1
P1
EDGE4 P3 u
EDGE3
P4 P2 EDGE2 v P3 u EDGE1 P1 (P4)
EDGE3
NAME [(highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface. P1, P2, P3, P4 Label numbers of geometry points which are the vertices of the geometry surface. See Figure. P1, P2, P3 must be specified, and correspond to existing geometry points. A triangular surface patch is defined by repeating one pair of consecutive points (i.e., P2 = P1, P3 = P2, P4 = P3, or P1 = P4). Note that P4 defaults to P1, automatically giving a triangular surface patch if only P1, P2, P3 are specified.
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SURFACE VERTEX
EDGEi [existing surface edges, if any] Label numbers of the surface edges (i = 1, 2, 3, 4), i.e., geometry lines, input if required – see below. The parameters are related to the surface vertices as follows: EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 Line from P1 to P2. Line from P2 to P3. Line from P3 to P4. Line from P4 to P1.
If a pair of adjacent vertices is not connected by a geometry line, then a new straight line is generated between them. The label number of the new edge is given by the appropriate EDGEi parameter. Note that in this case the parameter must not refer to an existing line. If no label is given then the highest line label number successively incremented by 1 is used. If more than one line connects a pair of adjacent vertices, then the choice of line may be made via the appropriate EDGEi parameter. In this case the parameter must refer to one of the lines connecting the relevant pair of vertices. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting surfaces, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.
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SURFACE GRID
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
SURFACE GRID NAME MPOINT NPOINT TYPE EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 1 1 point1 ... irowi jcoli pointi ... MPOINT NPOINT pointMN SURFACE GRID defines a geometry surface as a grid (array) of geometry points, which control the shape of the surface. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface to be defined. MPOINT Number of rows in the array of surface grid control points. NPOINT Number of columns in the array of surface grid control points. TYPE Selects the type of surface to be defined. POLYFACE [4]
[4]
[POLYFACE]
The grid of control points is connected by a quadrilateral polygo nal mesh. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 2 for this surface type. A quadratic Bspline surface is derived from the grid of control points. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 3 for this surface type. A cubic Bspline surface is derived from the grid of control points. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 4 for this surface type. A Bezier surface is derived from the grid of control points. MPOINT and NPOINT each have a minimum value of 3 for this surface type.
QBSPLINE
CBSPLINE
BEZIER
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SURFACE GRID
EDGEi [existing edge surfaces, if any] Label numbers of the surface edges (i = 1, 2, 3, 4), i.e., geometry lines, input if required – see below. The parameters are related to the surface control points as follows (see Figure): EDGE1 EDGE2 EDGE3 EDGE4 Polyline defined by points (i, j): polyline defined by points (i, j): polyline defined by points (i, j): polyline defined by points (i, j): i = MPOINT, j = 1, 2, ..., NPOINT i = 1, 2, ..., MPOINT, jcol = 1 i = 1, j = 1, 2, ..., NPOINT i = 1,2,...,MPOINT, jcol = NPOINT
If a set of edge control points does not already define a polyline of the corresponding type (see note and table below) then a new polyline is generated. The label number of the new edge is given by the appropriate EDGEi parameter. Note that in this case the parameter must not refer to an existing line. If no label is given then the highest line label number successively incremented by 1 is used. If more than one polyline of the corresponding type is defined by a set of edge control points, then the choice of polyline is made via the appropriate EDGEi parameter. In this case the parameter must refer to one of the polylines defined by the relevant set of edge control points.
(MPOINT,1)
EDGE1 (MPOINT,NPOINT)
EDGE2
EDGE4
(1,1)
EDGE3
(1,NPOINT)
TYPE=POLYFACE, MPOINT=3, NPOINT=4
Surfacegrid definition
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SURFACE GRID
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
irowi, jcoli Row and column number, respectively, of the point “pointi” entry in the array of control points. The following range of values are allowed: 1 1 ≤ ≤ irowi jcoli ≤ ≤ MPOINT NPOINT
pointi Label number of geometry point used to interpolate/control the desired surface. Note: Note: A point label is required input for each entry (irow, jcol) in the array of points; irow = 1, 2, ..., MPOINT; jcol = 1, 2, ..., NPOINT. A line of type POLYLINE may be created at each edge of the surface, according to the following rule: Edge Polyline Type SEGMENTED QBSPLINE CBSPLINE BEZIER
Surface Grid Type POLYFACE QBSPLINE CBSPLINE BEZIER Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE
FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting surfaces, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.
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SURFACE EXTRUDED
SURFACE EXTRUDED
NAME LINE DX DY DZ SYSTEM PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV OPTION ELINE
linei SURFACE EXTRUDED defines a geometry surface by displacing a geometry line in a given direction.
ZL
YL XL
v (DX, DY, DZ)
LINE u
NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the extruded geometry surface. LINE Label number of the initial geometry line to be displaced, thereby defining the extruded surface. DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with respect to the base coordinates (XL, YL, ZL) of coordinate system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e., it specifies both magnitude and direction. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system which is referenced by the displacement vector (DX, DY, DZ).
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SURFACE EXTRUDED
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry points are to be located at the other end of the surface from the initial line given by LINE. This parameter indicates whether to check point’s location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the extruded direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. OPTION This parameter offers options to the surface extrusion: VECTOR LINE [VECTOR]
surfaces are defined by displacing geometry lines in a given direction. surfaces are defined by displacing geometry lines along a line.
ELINE The geometry line label. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE linei Label numbers of geometry lines. The data line input allows for more than one line to be extruded. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting surface, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.
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SURFACE REVOLVED
SURFACE REVOLVED
NAME MODE LINE ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV
linei
AXIS
ANGLE LINE u v
SURFACE REVOLVED defines a geometry surface by rotating a geometry line about some axis. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the revolved geometry surface. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to define the geometry surface. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved surface. Other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given coordinate axis of a coordinate system. (LINE, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open, i.e., have noncoincident end points). (LINE, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (noncoincident) geometry points. (LINE, ANGLE, AP1, AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by a position vector and a direction vector. (LINE, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).
LINE
POINTS
VECTORS
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SURFACE REVOLVED
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
LINE Label number of the initial geometry line to be rotated about the axis thereby defining the revolved surface. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range 360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360. The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule – i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the basic axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining a point on the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry points/lines are to be located at the edges of the surface beside the initial line given by LINE. This parameter indicates whether to check the edge point location against existing geometry, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO}
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SURFACE REVOLVED
PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the revolved direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. linei Label numbers of geometry lines. The data line input allows for more than one line to be revolved. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting surface, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.
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SURFACE TRANSFORMED
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
SURFACE TRANSFORMED
NAME PARENT TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NCOPY
surfacei SURFACE TRANSFORMED defines a geometry surface to be a geometrical transformation of another existing geometry surface. The transformed geometry surface is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed geometry surfaces are identified by the current highest geometry surface label number + 1. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface to be defined. PARENT The surface which, after transformation, gives the surface being defined. TRANSFORMATION Label number of a geometrical transformation, see commands TRANSFORMATION. PCOINCIDE [NO] This parameter indicates whether to check the location of the transformed surface vertices against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of surfaces to be generated by the transformation  transformation is repeated NCOPY times. surfacei Label numbers of surface to be transformed. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
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SFTHICKNESS
SFTHICKNESS namei thicki dthick1i dthick2i dthick3i dthick4i SFTHICKNESS defines surface thicknesses. <Not applicable to ADINAF.> namei The surface label number. thicki The surface thickness. dthick1i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 1. dthick2i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 2. dthick3i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 3. dthick4i The deviation of thickness for surface “surfacei” at surface vertex 4. Note: [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
Input of surface thickness is given as a constant thickness together with deviations from that value at each of the vertices. Thus the thickness at vertex1 = thick + dthick1. To input constant surface thicknesses, only the first two entries on the data line input need be entered (since the default deviations are zero). To input varying surface thickness you could enter a constant thickness of 0.0 and set the deviations to the vertex thicknesses, or use some median thickness with nonzero deviations.
Note:
Thickness is measured in the direction of the normal vector at the vertex, determined by the righthand rule in relation to the ordering of the surface vertices.
Auxiliary commands LIST SFTHICKNESS FIRST LAST
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CHECKSURFACES
Sec. 6.4 Surfaces
CHECKSURFACES CHECKSURFACES checks geometry surface connections looking for two adjoining surfaces which are oppositely oriented such that the surface normals would be opposite. Such conditions would likely be the source of a modeling error when elements of type SHELL are generated on such surfaces. The command has no parameters and reports geometry surface pairs which should be more closely examined and reoriented if necessary.
P4 n1 v1 P1
v u
P3
v u
P6
S1
u1 P2
S2
n2 u2
v2 P5
Surface S1 S2
Vertices P1P2P3P4 P2P3P6P5
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VOLUME PATCH
VOLUME PATCH
NAME SHAPE FACE1 FACE2 FACE3 FACE4 FACE5 FACE6
VOLUME PATCH defines a geometry volume to be bounded by faces which are specified geometry surfaces.
SHAPE = HEX
P2 FACE 3 P3 P6 FACE 4 P7
FACE 2 P1
SHAPE = PRISM
FACE 2 FACE 3 P2 P1
FACE 1
P4
E5 C FA
P8
P3 P5
FACE 1
P4 FACE 4
FAC
E5
P5
FACE 6
P6
SHAPE = TETRA
FACE 3 P3 P2
SHAPE = PYRAMID
FACE 3 P1 FACE 2 P3 P2
FACE 2 P1 P4
FACE 1
FACE 4
FACE 1
FACE 4
FACE 5
P4
P5
NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry volume.
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VOLUME PATCH
Sec. 6.5 Volumes
SHAPE [HEX] Selects the shape of the volume to be defined. This controls which of the parameters (geometry surface label numbers) are actually used to define the volume, other parameters are ignored. The faces of the volume must connect as shown in the Figures. HEX Hexahedral “brick” volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, FACE5, FACE6). Note that each face must be a quadrilateral geometry surface. Prismatic volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, FACE5). Note that faces FACE2 and FACE4 must be triangular geometry surfaces, whilst faces FACE1, FACE3, and FACE5 must be quadrilateral geometry surfaces. Tetrahedral volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4). Note that each face must be a triangular geometry surface. 5faced volume (FACE1, FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, FACE5). Note that face FACE1 must be a quadrilateral geometry surface, whilst faces FACE2, FACE3, FACE4, and FACE5 must be triangular geometry surfaces.
PRISM
TETRA
PYRAMID
FACE1 FACE2 FACE3 FACE4 FACE5 FACE6 Label numbers of geometry surfaces comprising the faces of the geometry volume. See Figure. Note: The faces must be connected, i.e., the edges of adjacent faces (geometry surfaces) must coincide (i.e., refer to a common geometry line), otherwise an error condition results.
Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting volume, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be deleted.
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VOLUME VERTEX
VOLUME VERTEX
NAME SHAPE VERTEX1 VERTEX2 VERTEX3 VERTEX4 VERTEX5 VERTEX6 VERTEX7 VERTEX8
VOLUME VERTEX defines a geometry volume in terms of its vertices. This command is similar to VOLUME PATCH – the underlying volume geometry point representation is identical, only the method of definition differs. If no geometry line exists between adjacent geometry points, then the command will automatically generate straight geometry lines between the appropriate geometry point pairs. If the volume edges do not comprise the edges of existing geometry surfaces at the faces of the volume, then the command will automatically generate geometry surfaces at the volume faces with the required edges (existing or generated).
SHAPE = HEX
P2 P1
SHAPE = PRISM
P2 P1
P3 P6
P4 P5
P3
P4 P5
P7
P8
P6
SHAPE = TETRA
P2
SHAPE = PYRAMID
P2 P1 P4 P1
P3
P3
P4
P5
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VOLUME VERTEX
Sec. 6.5 Volumes
NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry volume. SHAPE [HEX] Selects the shape of the volume to be defined. This controls which of the parameters (geometry point label numbers) are actually used to define the volume – other parameters are ignored. The vertices of the volume must connect as shown in the Figure. HEX PRISM TETRA PYRAMID Hexahedral “brick” volume. Prismatic volume. Tetrahedral volume. 5faced volume.
VERTEXi (i = 1…8) Label numbers of geometry points which are the vertices of the geometry volume. See Figure for vertex numbering. Auxiliary commands LISTVOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting volumes, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be deleted.
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VOLUME REVOLVED
VOLUME REVOLVED
NAME MODE SURFACE ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV
surfacei VOLUME REVOLVED defines one or more geometry volumes by rotating one or more geometry surfaces about an axis. The first newly defined geometry volume is identified by its label number NAME. The other newly defined geometry volumes are identified by the current highest geometry volume label number + 1.
AXIS
ANGLE
P2 SURFACE P3
P1
P4
NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the revolved geometry volume. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to define the geometry volume. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved volume. Other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given coordinate axis of a coordinate system. (SURFACE, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). LINE The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open – i.e., have noncoincident end points). (SURFACE, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (noncoincident) geometry points. (SURFACE, ANGLE, AP1, AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by a position vector and a direction vector. (SURFACE, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).
POINTS
VECTORS
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VOLUME REVOLVED
Sec. 6.5 Volumes
SURFACE Label number of the initial geometry surface to be rotated about the axis, thereby defining the revolved volume. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note ANGLE must be in the range 360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360 (with ANGLE = 360 or 360 defining a closed line, i.e., a circle). The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule – i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining a point on the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE = VECTORS. PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry point are to be located at the other end of the volume from the initial surface given by SURFACE. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO}
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VOLUME REVOLVED
PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the revolved direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces. The data line input allows for more than one surface to be revolved. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting volume, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be defined.
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VOLUME EXTRUDED
Sec. 6.5 Volumes
VOLUME EXTRUDED
NAME SURFACE OPTION DX DY DZ SYSTEM PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NDIV LINE RATIO PROGRESSION CBIAS
surfacei VOLUME EXTRUDED defines one or more geometry volumes by displacing geometry surfaces in a given direction or along a line. Please refer to LINE description below for limitations. ZL
YL XL P2 SURFACE P3 P4 P1 ( DX, DY, DZ )
NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the extruded geometry volume. SURFACE Label number of the initial geometry surface to be displaced, thereby defining the extruded volume. OPTION This parameter defines the type of extrusion. {VECTOR/LINE} VECTOR LINE [VECTOR]
volumes are defined by displacing geometry surfaces in a given direction. volumes are defined by displacing geometry surfaces along a line.
DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with respect to the base coordinates (XL, YL, ZL) of coordinate system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e., it specifies
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VOLUME EXTRUDED
both magnitude and direction. These parameters are only used when OPTION=VECTOR. SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry point are to be located at the other end of the volume from the initial surface given by SURFACE. This parameter indicates whether to check the location against existing geometry point coordinates, and use an existing point (YES) rather than generate a new geometry point (with a new label) (NO). {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NDIV [DEFAULT] Number of subdivisions assigned to the surface in the extruded direction. The DEFAULT number of subdivisions is taken from the parameter NDIV in the command SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. LINE The geometry line label. Only straight lines, extruded lines or combined lines are allowed. If a combined line is used, the combined line should be either straight or extruded. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE. For lines that do not meet these conditions, the command VOLUME SWEEP should be used. RATIO [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to first element edges along the extruded vector. The grading of element lengths is governed by parameter PROGRESSION. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element lengths are to be graded, the distribution of element lengths can be selected from the following options. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. {ARITHMETIC/GEOMETRIC} ARITHMETIC GEOMETRIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.
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VOLUME EXTRUDED
Sec. 6.5 Volumes
CBIAS [NO] Indicates if central bias is used along the extruded vector. This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR. {NO/YES} surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces. The data line input allows for more than one surface to be extruded. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION
When deleting volumes, OPTION = ALL will delete any vertex points, edge lines or face surfaces which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION = VOLUME), only the volume itself will be defined.
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VOLUME SWEEP
VOLUME SWEEP
NAME SURFACE LINE DELETELINE ALIGNMENT PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NPTS
surfacei Defines one or more geometry volumes by sweeping one or more geometry surfaces along a line. The first newly defined geometry volume is identified by its label number NAME. The other newly defined geometry volumes are identified by the current highest geometry volume label number + 1.
P2 SURFACE P3
P1
LINE P4
NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the swept geometry volume. SURFACE Label number of the initial geometry surface to be displaced, thereby defining the swept volume. LINE The geometry line label. Unlike the command VOLUME EXTRUDED, there is no limitation to straight lines, extruded lines or combined lines. DELETELINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after applying the command VOLUME SWEEP. ALIGNMENT This parameter specifies the direction of the surface during sweeping. NORMAL Surface normal is at fixed angle to line tangent. [NORMAL]
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VOLUME SWEEP
Sec. 6.5 Volumes
PARALLEL
Surface normal always points to the same direction.
PCOINCIDE [YES] Geometry points are to be located at the other end of the volume from the initial surface given by SURFACE. This parameter indicates whether to check locations against existing geometry point coordinates, and use existing points rather than generate new geometry points (with new labels). PTOLERANCE [Default given by TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] If PCOINCIDE=YES, then this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NPTS The number of intermediate points of nonstraight and nonarc lines. [3]
surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces. The data line input allows for more than one surface to be swept. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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VOLUME TRANSFORMED
VOLUME TRANSFORMED
NAME PARENT TRANSFORMATION PCOINCIDE PTOLERANCE NCOPY
volumei The command VOLUME TRANSFORMED defines a geometry volume to be a geometrical transformation of another existing geometry volume. The transformed geometry volume is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed geometry volumes are identified by the current highest geometry volume label number + 1. NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the transformed geometry volume to be defined. PARENT The volume which, after transformation, gives the volume being defined. TRANSFORMATION [(current transformation label number)] Label number of a geometrical transformation defined by command TRANSFORMATION. PCOINCIDE [NO] This parameter indicates whether to check the location of the transformed volume vertex points against existing geometry points, and use existing points (YES) rather than generate new geometry points (NO) (with a new label) . {YES/NO} PTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If PCOINCIDE = YES, this parameter provides a tolerance value for checking the global coordinates of a location against those of existing geometry points. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of volumes to be generated by the transformation  transformation is repeated NCOPY times. volumei Label numbers of volume to be transformed. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
Note that no geometry volume is deleted which is referenced by any other model entity, e.g., as part of the definition of another volume or by virtue of a mesh generation command (i.e. there are nodes and/or elements associated with the volume).
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BODY SURFACES
Sec. 6.6 Solid models
BODY SURFACES surfacei sensei
NAME
This command is OBSOLETE and is available only for compatibility with old input files. Defines a solid geometry body, as an oriented collection of geometry surfaces. The set of surfaces must form a complete boundary of a solid with the proper orientation such that the oriented surface normal points out of the body. In this way the surfaces yield a boundary representation of a solid — note that a manifold representation is assumed, thus each surface edge (line) must be connected to exactly two (2) surfaces. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the body to be defined. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. sensei Sense indicator for surfacei: +1 1 the surface normal points out of the body. the surface normal points into the body. [+1]
Auxiliary commands LIST BODY DELETE BODY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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BODY VOLUMES
BODY VOLUMES volumei
NAME
This commnad is OBSOLETE and is available only for compatibility with old input files. Defines a solid geometry body, as a collection of geometry volumes. The internal faces of the body resulting from connected volumes are “cancelled out” yielding a boundary representation of a solid in terms of an oriented set of surface patches. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the body to be defined. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. Auxiliary commands LIST BODY DELETE BODY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FACETHICKNESS
Sec. 6.6 Solid models
FACETHICKNESS facei thicki
BODY
FACETHICKNESS defines solid geometry face thicknesses. BODY Solid geometry body label number. facei The face label number (for body BODY). thicki The face thickness (constant). Auxiliary commands LIST FACETHICKNESS FIRST LAST [0.0] [currently active solid body]
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FACELINK
FACELINK
NAME OPTION BODY1 FACE1 BODY2 FACE2 PCTOLERANCE
FACELINK establishes a link, for meshing purposes, between two faces of distinct solid bodies, or between a face of a solid body and a surface. Once the link is established, the program stores the mesh triangulation of whichever of the two faces/surfaces is meshed first. The meshing of the corresponding linked face/surface utilizes the same triangulation, thereby resulting in congruent triangulations and compatible meshes “across” the linked faces/surfaces. NAME The label number of the face link. [(highest face link label number) + 1]
OPTION This parameter offers basic options for creating the facelinks: ONE
[TWO]
Facelinks are created between the faces of a given body and the remaining adjacent faces and surfaces. Facelinks are created between two bodies. Facelinks are created for all the faces and surfaces in the model.
TWO ALL
BODY1 The label number of the solid body of which FACE1 is a bounding face. Note: BODY1 = 0 implies that FACE1 is a surface. FACE1 The label number of the first face/surface of the linked pair. BODY2 The label number of the solid body of which FACE2 is a bounding face. Note: BODY2 = 0 implies that FACE2 is a surface. FACE2 The label number of the second face/surface of the linked pair. PCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine whether two faces match. DEFAULT value set by parameter COINCIDENCE of command TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC [DEFAULT]
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FACELINK
Sec. 6.6 Solid models
Note: Note: Note:
BODY1, FACE1, BODY2, FACE2 are used only when OPTION=ONE or TWO. BODY1 cannot equal BODY2, i.e., either two distinct bodies are given or one solid body face and a surface are given. When a body is modified, the associated face links will be updated. When a body is deleted, the associated face links will be deleted. When a surface is deleted, the associated face link will be deleted
Auxiliary commands LIST FACELINK DELETE FACELINK FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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BODYDISCREP
Sec. 6.6 Solid models
BODYDISCREP
NAME
Creates a “discrete boundary representation” for a given body. The “discrete boundary representation” (“discrete brep” in short) of a body is simply a triangular surface mesh (of the body) that has the advantage of being modifiable by command BODYDEFEATURE. NAME Body label. Auxiliary commands LIST BODYDISCREP DELETE BODYDISCREP FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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BODYDEFEATURE
BODYDEFEATURE
NAME SIZE DOMKEEP DOMREMV PREVIEW OPTION ANGLE SPREAD
After having obtained a “discrete boundary representation” (“discrete brep” in short) of a body with the command BODYDISCREP, this command enables the modification of the “discrete brep”. The actual (geometric) body is never modified. The meshing is limited to 4/ 10/11node tetrahedral elements. The main purpose of this command is the removal of “small” features which can be of the “boss” type (protrusion) or the “cut” type (may extend to being a hole). The secondary purpose is the removal of surface triangles (on the “discrete brep”) that have either a “small” length or height. NAME Body label. SIZE Any surface triangle on the “discrete brep” whose shortest length or height is below SIZE should be eliminated from the “discrete brep”. DOMKEEP [0] Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body faces that should not be modified. More exactly, the surface triangles on the “discrete brep” that are classified on a body face in the domain should not be modified. DOMREMV [0] Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body faces that should be removed. More exactly, the surface triangles on the “discrete brep” that are classified on a body face in the domain should be removed. It is recommended to use one domain per feature to remove. PREVIEW Preview flag. {YES/NO} YES [NO]
the command flags the surface triangles on the “discrete brep” that are targeted for removal to enable their display. It does not actually remove them. the command will remove the surface triangles that are targeted for removal.
NO
OPTION [COARSEN] Method by which the body faces defined by DOMREMV are removed. {REMESH1/ REMESH2/COARSEN} REMESH1, REMESH2 the body faces in domain defined by DOMREMV are removed using a remeshing algorithm. This option should be used only
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BODYDEFEATURE
Sec. 6.6 Solid models
when the frontier of the domain is convex. It has to be used when the feature is a hole (whose frontiers should be convex). With REMESH1, the normals used to remesh the domain come from the (boundary discrete representation) faces inside the domain. With REMESH2, the normals used come from the faces immediately adjacent to the domain. COARSEN the body faces in the domain defined by DOMREMV are removed using a coarsening algorithm that is incremental. It cannot be used when the feature is a hole.
ANGLE [30.0] This is the angle in degrees used when using the incremental coarsening algorithm. The larger the angle, the more surface triangles can be removed but the more deformed the “discrete brep” will be. When attempting to remove a feature using the COARSEN option, it is recommended to set the ANGLE to 180.0 so that the feature can be completely removed. {0.0 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 180.0} SPREAD [YES] Determines whether the removal of surface triangles in the “discrete brep” extends to other surfaces triangles outside the feature indicated by DOMREMV. {YES/NO} NO the command only attempts to remove surface triangles that are below SIZE or that make up a feature (as indicated by DOMREMV). Other surface triangles will not be modified. the command may also modify other surface triangles if necessary.
YES Notes:
If a DOMREMV domain is given, the command will only attempt to remove the surface triangles associated with the domain. The SIZE parameter is then only used to spread (see SPREAD parameter). If no DOMREMV domain is given, the command will attempt to remove all surface triangles whose dimensions (shortest length or height) are below SIZE.
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BODYCLEANUP
BODYCLEANUP
NAME SIZE DOMKEEP DOMREMV PREVIEW
The main purpose of this command is the removal of “short” body edges and/or “thin” body faces. The actual (geometric) body is never modified but its AUI representation is. NAME Body label. SIZE Any body edge whose length is below SIZE should be eliminated. Any body face whose boundary is reduced to 2 edges (after the elimination of body edges) and whose width is below SIZE should be eliminated. DOMKEEP [0] Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body edges and/or faces that should not be removed. DOMREMV Domain (see DOMAIN command) of body edges and/or faces that should be removed. PREVIEW Preview flag. {YES/NO} YES [0]
[NO]
the command flags the body edges and/or faces that are targeted for removal to enable their display. It does not actually remove them. the command will remove them.
NO Notes:
If a DOMREMV domain is given, the command will only attempt to remove the body edges and/or faces that are given. The SIZE parameter is not used. If no DOMREMV domain is given, the command will attempt to remove body edges and/or faces whose dimensions are below SIZE.
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BODYRESTORE
Sec. 6.6 Solid models
BODYRESTORE
BODY
Restores the AUI topological representation of the body corresponding to the state of the body before commands such as BODYCLEANUP, REMEDGE or REMFACE are executed (on that body). BODY Body label.
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LINEFUNCTION
LINEFUNCTION i fvali
NAME TYPE DL1 DL2 DL3 NPOINT (i = 1…NPOINT)
LINEFUNCTION describes the variation of a quantity along a line. It may be used, for instance, to indicate how a load is distributed along some geometry line of the model. Note that the variation is spatial; variation of a quantity in time is described by TIMEFUNCTION.
DL2 DL1 0 1 TYPE = LINEAR u
DL3 DL2 DL1 0 0.5 1 u
TYPE = QUADRATIC
TYPE = TABULAR fval
3
Du = 1/NPOINT i=3 1 u Du
NAME Label number of the linefunction. TYPE [LINEAR] Selects the type of data variation, see Figure. This controls the actual parameters used – other parameters are ignored. LINEAR A linear variation from value DL1 to DL2.
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LINEFUNCTION
Sec. 6.7 Spatial functions
QUADRATIC
A quadratic variation from value DL1, through value DL3, to value DL2. The function values are given at a set of equally spaced points along the line. The function is linearly interpolated input values.
TABULAR
between the DL1 Value at the starting point of the line (u = 0 – see Figure). DL2 Value at the end point of the line (u = 1 – see Figure).
[DL1]
DL3 [DL1] Value at the middle point of the line (u = 0.5 – see Figure). This value should not be input for TYPE = LINEAR. NPOINT [3] The number of input function values, used when TYPE = TABULAR. The values are assigned at equally spaced points along the line, with linear interpolation used to determine values along the line. The first point corresponds to the starting point of the line (u = 0), and the last point to the end point of the line (u = 1). Note that NPOINT must be at least 3 (NPOINT = 2 would be equivalent to selecting TYPE = LINEAR). i Index of the input function point, which can take a value from 1 to NPOINT. fvali Value of the function at index point “i”. Auxiliary commands LIST LINEFUNCTION DELETE LINEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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SURFACEFUNCTION
SURFACEFUNCTION
NAME TYPE DS1 DS2 DS3 DS4 DS5 DS6 DS7 DS8 DS9 MPOINT NPOINT
row col fvalij SURFACEFUNCTION describes the variation of a quantity across a surface. It may be used, for instance, to indicate how a load is distributed over some geometry surface of the model. Note that the variation is spatial; variation of a quantity in time is described by TIMEFUNCTION.
DS2 DS1 DS3
v
DS2
DS5
(0,1) DS4 (1,0)
DS6 DS8 DS9 (0,1) (1,1) DS7 DS4 DS3
v
DS1 (1,1)
(0,0) u
(0,0)
u
(1,0)
TYPE = LINEAR
(0,1) [NPOINT, 1]
TYPE = QUADRATIC
(1,1) [NPOINT, MPOINT]
(0,0) [1,1]
v u
(1,0) [1,MPOINT]
TYPE = TABULAR
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SURFACEFUNCTION
Sec. 6.7 Spatial functions
NAME Label number of the surfacefunction. TYPE [LINEAR] Selects the type of data variation – see Figure. This controls the actual parameters used. LINEAR A bilinear variation from surface vertex values DS1, DS2, DS3, DS4. A biquadratic variation from surface vertex values DS1 to DS4, and midside/internal surface point values DS5 to DS9. The function values are given at a grid of regularly spaced points on the surface. The function is bilinearly interpolated between the input values.
QUADRATIC
TABULAR
DS1 Value at the (u = 1, v = 1) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS2 Value at the (u = 0, v = 1) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS3 Value at the (u = 0, v = 0) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS4 Value at the (u = 1, v = 0) vertex point of the surface, see Figure. DS5 Value at the (u = 0.5, v = 1) midside point of the surface, see Figure. DS6 Value at the (u = 0, v = 0.5) midside point of the surface, see Figure. DS7 Value at the (u = 0.5, v = 0) midside point of the surface, see Figure. DS8 Value at the (u = 1, v = 0.5) midside point of the surface, see Figure. DS9 Value at the (u = 0.5, v = 0.5) internal point of the surface, see Figure. [DS1]
[DS1]
[DS1]
[DS1]
[DS1]
[DS1]
[DS1]
[DS1]
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SURFACEFUNCTION
MPOINT [3] The number of input points in the uparametric direction of the surface, used when TYPE = TABULAR. The function values are assigned for a grid of points on the surface, with bilinear interpolation used to determine values on the surface. MPOINT defines the number of “columns” for the input grid. NPOINT [3] The number of input points in the vparametric direction of the surface, used when TYPE = TABULAR. The function values are assigned for a grid of points on the surface, with bilinear interpolation used to determine values on the surface. NPOINT defines the number of “rows” for the input grid. row Row index of the input function point, which can take a value from 1 to NPOINT. {1 ≤ row ≤ NPOINT} col Column index of the input function point, which can take a value from 1 to MPOINT. {1 ≤ col ≤ MPOINT} fvalij Value of the function at index point (i = row, j = col). Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACEFUNCTION DELETE SURFACEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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VOLUMEFUNCTION
Sec. 6.7 Spatial functions
VOLUMEFUNCTION
NAME TYPE DV1 DV2 DV3 DV4 DV5 DV6 DV7 DV8 ... DV27
VOLUMEFUNCTION describes the variation of a quantity within a volume. It may be used, for instance, to indicate how a load is distributed within some geometry volume of the model. Note that the variation is spatial; variation of a quantity in time is described by TIMEFUNCTION. NAME Label number of the volumefunction. TYPE Selects the type of data variation. This controls the actual parameters used. LINEAR QUADRATIC [LINEAR]
A trilinear variation from volume vertex values DV1 to DV8. A triquadratic variation from volume vertex values DV1 to DV8, and midside/internal volume point values DV9 to DV27.
DV1...DV27 [DVi = DV1 (i = 2...27)] Values at the vertex, midside, and internal points of the volume, see table below. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUMEFUNCTION DELETE VOLUMEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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VOLUME FUNCTION
Volumefunction parametric locations: Value DV1 DV2 DV3 DV4 DV5 DV6 DV7 DV8 DV9 DV10 DV11 DV12 DV13 DV14 DV15 DV16 DV17 DV18 DV19 DV20 DV21 DV22 DV23 DV24 DV25 DV26 DV27 u 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1 0 0 1 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 v 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1 0 0 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 w 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 0
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TRANSFORMATION COMBINED
Sec. 6.8 Transformations
TRANSFORMATION COMBINED positioni transformi
NAME
TRANSFORMATION COMBINED defines a general transformation as an ordered sequence of existing transformations defined by command TRANSFORMATION. The associated transformation matrix is calculated by concatenating the matrices of the sequence of transformations. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of transformation being defined. positioni Index for the transformation, indicating its position in the order of transformation application. In the concatenation the transformation associated with “positioni” = 1 is applied first, then that for “positioni” = 2, and so on. If a transformation is not defined for a given index then the identity transformation is assumed. The index may also be used to delete a transformation from the concatenating sequence. transformi [0] Label number of an existing transformation defined by command TRANSFORMATION (provided that no recursion is implied). A zero value indicates the identity transformation. Example TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION TRANSFORMATION ROTATION TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION NAME=1 MODE=SYSTEM SYSTEM=1, DX=1.0 NAME=2 MODE=AXIS SYSTEM=1, AXIS=XL ANGLE=35.0 NAME=3 MODE=SYSTEM SYSTEM=1, DX=1.0
... TRANSFORMATION COMBINED NAME=4 1 1 2 2 3 3 @ ... TRANSFORMATION COMBINED NAME=5 1 4 2 1 @
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TRANSFORMATION COMBINED
The last command is equivalent to TRANSFORMATION COMBINED NAME=5 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 @ Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TRANSFORMATION DIRECT
Sec. 6.8 Transformations
TRANSFORMATION DIRECT
NAME T11 T12 T13 T14 T21 T22 T23 T24 T31 T32 T33 T34
TRANSFORMATION DIRECT defines a general 3D transformation by directly specifying the transformation matrix. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. Tij Components of the 3D transformation matrix:
⎡ T11 T12 ⎢T T 22 ⎢ 21 ⎢ T31 T32 ⎢ 0 ⎣0
T13 T23 T33 0
T14 ⎤ T24 ⎥ ⎥ T34 ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎦
Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TRANSFORMATION POINTS
TRANSFORMATION POINTS
NAME P1 P2 P3 Q1 Q2 Q3
TRANSFORMATION POINTS defines a rigidbody 3D transformation by the specification of 6 geometry points – 3 “initial” points P1, P2, P3, and 3 “target” points Q1, Q2, Q3. The transformation is such that point P1 is transformed into point Q1, the direction from P1 to P2 is transformed into the direction from Q1 to Q2, and the plane defined by the 3 initial points is transformed into the plane defined by the 3 target points. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of three noncoincident, noncollinear, initial geometry points. Q1, Q2, Q3 Label numbers of three target points, which must also be noncoincident and noncollinear. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION
Sec. 6.8 Transformations
TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION
NAME MODE SYSTEM PLANE P1 P2 P3
TRANSFORMATION REFLECTION defines a 3D reflection (mirror) transformation about a plane. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE [SYSTEM] Selects the method of defining the plane of the transformation. This controls which parameters actually define the transformation, other parameters are ignored. SYSTEM The reflection is defined to be relative to one of the base coordinate planes of a given local coordinate system. (SYSTEM, PLANE) The reflection plane is defined via three (noncollinear) points. (P1, P2, P3)
POINTS
SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Local coordinate system label number. The reflection is made relative to one of the base coordinate planes of this system. PLANE [XZ] Selects a coordinate plane with respect to the base coordinate directions (XL, YL, ZL) of the coordinate system “SYSTEM”. XY XZ YZ XLYL plane of coordinate system SYSTEM. XLZL plane of coordinate system SYSTEM. YLZL plane of coordinate system SYSTEM.
P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of geometry points which define the plane of reflection for the transformation. The points must be distinct, noncoincident, and noncollinear (in order to define a plane). Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TRANSFORMATION ROTATION
TRANSFORMATION ROTATION
NAME MODE SYSTEM AXIS LINE P1 P2 ANGLE X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA
TRANSFORMATION ROTATION defines a 3D rotation transformation, about an axis.
AXIS
T ANGLE
NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of rotation. This controls which parameters actually define the rotation – other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of rotation is taken as one of the basic axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system given by SYSTEM. (SYSTEM, AXIS, ANGLE) The axis of rotation is aligned with the straight line between the end points of a geometry line. Note that the geometry line is not necessarily straight. (LINE, ANGLE) The axis of rotation is taken to be the straight line between two geometry points. (P1, P2, ANGLE) The axis of rotation is defined by a position vector (lying on the axis), and a direction vector. (X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA, ANGLE)
LINE
POINTS
VECTORS
SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Local coordinate system label number. The rotation is relative to one of the base axes of this coordinate system.
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TRANSFORMATION ROTATION
Sec. 6.8 Transformations
AXIS [XL] Selects which of the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of the local coordinate system given by SYSTEM, is used as the axis of rotation. {XL/YL/ZL} LINE Label number of a geometry line. The axis of rotation is given by the straight line between the starting point and ending point of the geometry line LINE. P1 P2 Label numbers of two geometry points. The axis of rotation is the straight line between geometry points P1 and P2. ANGLE The angle of rotation, measured in degrees. [0.0]
X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global components of a position vector indicating a point lying on the axis of rotation. XA Y A ZA Global components of a vector indicating the direction of the axis of rotation. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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TRANSFORMATION SCALE
TRANSFORMATION SCALE
NAME MODE SYSTEM POINT SX SY SZ
TRANSFORMATION SCALE defines a 3D scaling transformation. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE Selects the method of defining the transformation. This controls which parameters actually define the transformation, other parameters are ignored. SYSTEM The scaling transformation is defined by scale factors which are relative to the origin of a given local coordinate system and which scale parallel to its base axes (XL, YL, ZL). (SYSTEM, SX, SY, SZ) The scaling transformation is defined with the origin at a given geometry point, and by scale factors which scale parallel to the global Cartesian axes. (POINT, SX, SY, SZ)
POINT
SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Coordinate system label number. The scaling is relative to this coordinate system. POINT Geometry point label number. The origin of the scaling transformation is taken as this point. SX SY SZ Scaling factors. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0] [1.0] [1.0]
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TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION
Sec. 6.8 Transformations
TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION
NAME MODE SYSTEM DX DY DZ LINE P1 P2
TRANSFORMATION TRANSLATION defines a 3D translation transformation. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation. MODE [SYSTEM] Selects the method of defining the translation. This controls which parameters actually define the translation, other parameters are ignored. SYSTEM The translation is defined by increments parallel to the base axes (XL, YL, ZL) of local coordinate system SYSTEM. (SYSTEM, DX, DY, DZ) The translation is defined as that which would translate the starting point of a geometry line to the ending point of the same geometry line. (LINE) The translation is defined as that which would translate one geometry point to another. (P1, P2)
LINE
POINTS
SYSTEM [currently active coordinate system] Local coordinate system label number. For MODE = SYSTEM the translation is relative to this coordinate system. DX [0.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Translations parallel to the base Cartesian system (XL,YL,ZL) associated with local coordinate system SYSTEM. LINE Label number of a geometry line. The translation is that which would translate the starting point of geometry line LINE to its ending point. P1 P2 Label numbers of two geometry points. The translation is that which would translate geometry point P1 to geometry point P2. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION
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TRANSFORMATION INVERSE
TRANSFORMATION INVERSE
NAME TINVERT
Defines a 3D geometry transformation as the inverse of another transformation. NAME [(current highest transformation label number) + 1] Label number of the transformation to be defined. TINVERT Label number of the transformation to be inverted to give the transformation being defined. Auxiliary commands LIST TRANSFORMATION DELETE TRANSFORMATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOMAIN
Sec. 6.9 Miscellaneous
DOMAIN typei namei bodyi
NAME
Defines a geometry “domain”, which is a collection of geometry entities. A domain may be referenced, for example, by parameter NCDOMAIN of the mesh generation commands (e.g. GSURFACE) to restrict nodal coincidence checking to within a set of geometry entities thereby facilitating partitioning of the finite element model into topologically distinct but geometrically adjacent regions. NAME [(current highest domain label number) + 1] Label number of the domain to be defined. typei Geometry entity type for entry ‘i’ in the list of geometry entities which comprise the domain. {‘POINT’/‘LINE’/‘SURFACE’/‘VOLUME’/‘EDGE’/‘FACE’/‘BODY’} namei Label number of the geometry entity of type typei bodyi Label number of a solid body, used to identify the entity when typei = EDGE or FACE. Auxiliary commands LIST DOMAIN DELETE DOMAIN FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0]
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MEASURE
MEASURE
GTYPE P1 P2 P3 BODY EDGE LINE N1 N2 N3 SUBSTRUCTURE REUSE RESPONSE PROGRAM
Measures the distance between 2 points or 2 nodes, the length of an edge or a line, or the angle formed by 3 points or 3 nodes. GTYPE Options for measurement: POINTS EDGE LINE POINTANGLE NODES NODEANGLE Distance between two points. Length of an edge of a body. Length of a line. Angle between three points. Distance between two nodes. Angle between three nodes. [POINTS]
P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of existing geometry points. P3 is only used when GTYPE=POINTANGLE. BODY Body label number. EDGE Edge label number. LINE Line label number. N1, N2, N3 Label numbers of existing nodes. N1 and N2 are only used when GTYPE=NODES or NODEANGLE. N3 is only used when GTYPE=NODEANGLE. SUBSTRUCTURE The substructure (ADINA) or model (ADINAT/F) number of the node in the model. REUSE The reuse number of the node in the model. Not applicable to ADINAT/F. RESPONSE Specifies the response for which the node is evaluated. [0]
[1]
[DEFAULT]
PROGRAM [current finite element program] The current finite element program, used only if GTYPE=NODES or NODEANGLE.
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GETEDGEFACES
Sec. 6.9 Miscellaneous
GETEDGEFACES GETEDGEPOINTS
NAME BODY NAME BODY
GETEDGEFACES lists the body faces connected to a body edge. GETEDGEPOINTS lists theAUI points bounding a body edge. NAME Edge label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the edge belongs to. {1, 2, ...}
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GETFACEEDGES
GETFACEEDGES
NAME BODY
Lists the body edges bounding a body face. NAME Face label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the face belongs to. {1, 2, ...}
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REMEDGE
Sec. 6.9 Miscellaneous
REMEDGE
NAME BODY POINT
Removes a body edge by collapsing one end point onto the other. The remaining point is given as POINT. If POINT is set to 0, the remaining point is chosen by the command. NAME Body edge label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the edge belongs to. {1, 2, ...} POINT Label of point that will remain. {0, 1, 2, ...}
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REMFACE
REMFACE
NAME BODY EDGE
Removes a body face (bounded by exactly 2 edges) by collapsing one bounding edge onto the other. The remaining edge is given as EDGE. If EDGE is set to 0, the remaining edge is chosen by the command. NAME Body face label. {1, 2, ...} BODY Label of body the face belongs to. {1, 2, ...} EDGE Label of edge that will remain. {0, 1, 2, ...}
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BODY BLEND
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY BLEND edgei or facei (OPTION=FACE)
NAME OPTION R1 R2 EDGE POINT
(OPTION=CONSTANT, LINEAR)
The command BODY BLEND takes an existing solid geometry body and modifies specified edges to have a ‘radius’ blend. Two options allow for a constant or variable ‘radius’ blend. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Specified edge
R1
Specified edge
Specified point
R2
R1
Before blend
After blend
Before blend
After blend
Constant blend
OPTION=CONSTANT
Linear blend
OPTION=LINEAR
NAME Label number of the body to be blended. An existing body label number must be specified. OPTION This parameter offers basic options for blending the edges. CONSTANT LINEAR Multiple edges are blended by a constant radius. A single edge of the body is blended by two radii  one at each end (vertex) of the edge. Multiple faces are blended by a constant radius. [CONSTANT]
FACE
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BODY BLEND
R1 The first radius of the blend. R1 must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). R2 The second radius of the blend. R2 is only used when OPTION=LINEAR,and must be input with a nonnegative value (no default is assumed). EDGE Label number of the edge to be blended. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINEAR, in whch case an existing edge label number ust be specified (no default is assumed). POINT Label number of a point at which the blend radius is R1. This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINEAR, in which case an existing point label number must be specified (no default is assumed). edgei Label numbers of body edges to be blended with (constant) radius R1. This data is only used when OPTION=CONSTANT. facei Label numbers of body faces to be blended with (constatnt) radius R1. This data is only used when OPTION=FACE.
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BODY BLOCK
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY BLOCK
NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AX AY AZ BX BY BZ DX1 DX2 DX3 P1 P2
The command BODY BLOCK defines a solid geometry block or “brick” shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the block shape. The block body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Local coordinate system
P2
z y x Center P1 DX2 DX1
DX3
NAME Label number of the body to be defined.
[(highest body label number) + 1]
OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the block: CENTERED DIAGONAL
[CENTERED]
The block is defined by its center, orientation and dimensions. The block is defined by two diagonally opposite geometry points and its orientation.
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BODY BLOCK
POSITION Specifies how the block center is located. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED). VECTOR
[VECTOR]
The center of the block is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3) with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the block is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTERED), possibly a vertex of another body. [SYSTEM]
POINT
ORIENTATION Specifies how the edges of the block are aligned: SYSTEM
The block is aligned with the base Cartesian axes of a local coordinate system (possibly the global coordinate system). The X,Y,Z directions of the block edges are input in terms of two nonparallel direction vectors (AX,AY,AZ), (BX,BY,BZ). These vectors are used to form a righthanded system as described below.
VECTORS
CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the block, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The center of the block  the label number of an existing geometry point. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, in which case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the block and/or provide the orientation of the block. The center of the block may be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. The local directions of the block are aligned with the base Cartesian system (XL,YL,ZL) of this system, see command SYSTEM, when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when POSITION=VECTOR (and OPTION=CENTERED), or when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system.
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BODY BLOCK
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the local xdirection of the block. If OPTION= CENTERED, then the component DX1 will be associated with this direction. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used if ORIENTATION=VECTOR. BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector, which specifies, in conjunction with vector (AX,AY,AZ), the local xy plane of the block orientation. The vector product, or “cross” product, of (AX,AY,AZ) with (BX,BY,BZ) gives the local zdirection, and the ydirection is then given by the right hand rule. If OPTION=CENTERED the components DX2, DX3 will be associated with the local ydirection and zdirections respectively. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used if ORIENTATION=VECTOR. DX1 DX2 DX3 The dimensions of the block, aligned with the local x, y and zdirections of the block, respectively. These lengths are only used if OPTION=CENTERED, in which case they must be input with positive values (no defaults are assumed). P1 P2 Label numbers of two existing geometry points which define the opposite corners of a diagonal of the block. These parameters are only used when OPTION= DIAGONAL, and in that case two distinct and noncoincident points must be specified (no defaults are assumed).
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BODY CHAMFER
BODY CHAMFER edgei facei or facei (OPTION=FACE) (OPTION=EDGE)
NAME R1 R2 OPTION
The command BODY CHAMFER applies chamfers to edges or faces of a solid geometry body. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Specified edge Range 1 Specified face
Range 2
Before chamfer applied
After chamfer applied
NAME Label number of the body to be chamfered. (No default  an existing body name must be given.) R1 The first range (depth) of the chamfer. R1 must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). R2 [R1] The second range (depth) of the chamfer. If R2 is input, it cannot be negative. If R2 = 0.0, then it is assumed that R2 = R1.
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BODY CHAMFER
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
OPTION This parameter offers basic options for chamfering the edges or faces: EDGE FACE Multiple edges are chamfered. Multiple faces are chamfered.
[EDGE]
edgei Label numbers of edges to be chamfered. This parameters is used only when OPTION=EDGE. facei Label numbers of faces to be chamfered with range R1. This data is only used when R2 is not equal to R1. (OPTION=EDGE) facei Label numbers of faces to be chamfered. (OPTION=FACE)
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BODY CONE
BODY CONE
NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION X1 X2 X3 APEX BASE SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ SANGLE RADIUS LENGTH
The command BODY CONE defines a solid geometry cone shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the cone shape. The cone body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Axis Apex
Semiangle Length
Base center
Radius
NAME Label number of the body to be defined.
[(highest body label number) + 1]
OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the cone: APEX BASE ENDPOINTS
[APEX]
The cone is defined by its apex, semiangle, orientation, and length. The cone is defined by its base center, orientation, radius and length. The cone is defined by two end points (APEX, BASE) and its base radius.
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BODY CONE
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the apex or base of the cone is located. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=APEX or BASE.) VECTOR The apex or base of the cone is specified by a position vector (X1,X2,X3)  with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The apex or base of the cone is specified by an existing geometry point (APEX or BASE), possibly a vertex of another body.
POINT
ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how the direction of the cone axis is defined. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=APEX or BASE.) SYSTEM The cone axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM) (possibly the global coordinate system). The cone axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.
VECTOR
X1 [0.0] X2 [0.0] X3 [0.0] The position vector of the apex or base of the cone, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR, and OPTION=APEX or BASE. APEX The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the apex of the cone. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=APEX, or when OPTION=ENDPOINTS; in either case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). BASE The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the base center of the cone. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=BASE, or when OPTION=ENDPOINTS; in either case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the apex or base of the cone and/or define the cone axis direction. The apex or base of the cone may be given in
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BODY CONE
terms of the curvilinear coordinates (X1,X2,X3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION=SYSTEM the cone axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM . This parameter is only used when OPTION=APEX or BASE, and when POSITION= VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the cone axis. Note that both positive and negative coordinate system axial directions may be requested. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=APEX or BASE. {XL/YL/ZL/XL/YL/ZL}
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BODY CYLINDER
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY CYLINDER
NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ RADIUS LENGTH P1 P2 SHEET
The command BODY CYLINDER defines a solid geometry cylinder shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the cylinder shape. The cylinder body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Radius
P1
Center
P2
Axis
Length
NAME Label number of the body to be defined.
[(highest body label number) + 1]
OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the cylinder: CENTERED ENDPOINTS
[CENTERED]
The cylinder is defined by its center, orientation and dimensions. The cylinder is defined by two end points and its radius.
POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the center of the cylinder is located. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED.
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BODY CYLINDER
VECTOR
The center of the cylinder is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3)  with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the cylinder is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body.
POINT
ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how the direction of the cylinder axis is defined. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. SYSTEM The cylinder axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM) (possibly the global coordinate system). The cylinder axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.
VECTOR
CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the cylinder, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the cylinder . This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] The number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the cylinder and/or define the cylinder axis direction. The center of the cylinder may be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION= SYSTEM the cylinder axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED and POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION= SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the cylinder axis. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL}
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BODY CYLINDER
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the cylinder axis direction. This vector is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. RADIUS The radius of the cylinder, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). LENGTH The axial length of the cylinder. This parameter is used only when OPTION=CENTERED, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). P1 P2 Label numbers of two existing geometry points which implicitly define the location, orientation, and length of the cylinder  the only other required data to complete the cylinder definition is the radius (RADIUS). These parameters are only used when OPTION=ENDPOINTS, in which case they must be distinct and noncoincident (also, no defaults are assumed). SHEET Create cylindrical sheet body instead of solid body. {NO, YES} [NO]
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BODY HOLLOW
BODY HOLLOW facei thicknessi
NAME THICKNESS
The command BODY HOLLOW hollows a solid geometry body with thickness THICKNESS. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be hollowed. An existing body name must be given. THICKNESS The thickness of all the faces except the faces listed in the table input. facei Label numbers of faces. thicknessi Thickness for the given face label number. Note: if thicknessi = 0.0, then facei is removed.
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BODY INTERSECT
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY INTERSECT bodyi
NAME KEEPTOOL
The command BODY INTERSECT takes an existing solid body (the “target”) and modifies it by taking the intersection of it with a set of other (overlapping) solid bodies (tools). This definition corresponds to a Boolean “intersection” of several bodies. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the (target) body to be modified. (No default  an existing body name must be given.) KEEPTOOL [NO] Indicates whether or not the tools are to be kept after applying the command BODY INTERSECT. {NO/YES} bodyi Label numbers of other bodies which are to be intersected with the target body. Note that bodyi cannot be the same as that specified for parameter NAME, and repeated body names are only counted once. Also, each body must overlap some part of each of the other bodies, including the target body  i.e. a solid body must result from the intersection operations  an “empty” body cannot be defined.
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BODY MERGE
BODY MERGE bodyi
NAME KEEPTOOL
The command BODY MERGE takes an existing solid body (the “target”) and modifies it by joining it together with a set of other solid bodies (tools). This definition corresponds to a Boolean “union” of several bodies. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the (target) body to be modified. (No default  an existing body name must be given.) KEEPTOOL [NO] Indicates whether or not the tools are to be kept after applying the command BODY MERGE. {NO/YES} bodyi Label numbers of other bodies which are to be merged with the target body. Note that bodyi cannot be the same as that specified for parameter NAME, and repeated body names are only counted once.
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BODY PARTITION
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY PARTITION facei
NAME EXTEND
The command BODY PARTITION takes an existing solid body and partition it with a set of faces of the body, resulting in two or more bodies. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Body 2
Face 1 Body 1 Body 1
Body 1 before partition
Body 1 and 2 after partition by face 1
NAME Label number of the body to be partitioned. (No default  an existing body name must be given.) EXTEND Indicates whether or not the faces are extended. {NO/YES} [NO]
facei Label numbers of faces used to partition the body. Note that repeated face names will only be counted once. Also, when EXTEND=YES and more than one face is used to partition the body, these extended faces should not intersect.
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BODY PIPE
BODY PIPE
NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ RADIUS LENGTH P1 P2 THICKNESS
The command BODY PIPE defines a solid geometry pipe shape. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the pipe shape. The pipe body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body can be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME [(highest body label number)+1]
Radius
P1
Center
P2
Axis
Length
Thickness
Label number of the body to be defined. OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the pipe: CENTERED ENDPOINTS [CENTERED]
The pipe is defined by its center, orientation and dimensions. The pipe is defined by two end points and dimensions.
POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the center of the pipe is located. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. VECTOR The center of the pipe is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3)  with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the pipe is specified by an existing geometry point
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POINT
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BODY PIPE
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
(CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body. ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how the direction of the pipe axis is defined. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. SYSTEM The pipe axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM), possibly the global coordinate system. The pipe axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.
VECTORS
CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the pipe, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the pipe . This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the pipe and/or define the pipe axis direction. The center of the pipe can be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION= SYSTEM the pipe axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED and POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the pipe axis. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL} AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the pipe axis direction. This vector is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED.
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BODY PIPE
RADIUS The outer radius of the pipe, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). LENGTH The axial length of the pipe. This parameter is used only when OPTION=CENTERED, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). P1 P2 Label numbers of two existing geometry points which implicitly define the location, orientation, and length of the pipe  the only other required data to complete the pipe definition is the radius and thickness (RADIUS, THICKNESS). P1 and P2 are only used when OPTION=ENDPOINTS, in which case they must be distinct and noncoincident (also, no defaults are assumed). THICKNESS The thickness of the pipe, which must be input with a positive value less than RADIUS (no default is assumed).
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BODY PRISM
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY PRISM
NAME OPTION POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS POLE AX AY AZ BX BY BZ RADIUS LENGTH P1 P2 P3 NSIDES SHEET
The command BODY PRISM defines a prismatic solid geometry shape, which is a cylinder with a regular polygonal crosssection. A number of options allow for the position, orientation, and dimensions of the prism shape. The prism body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
P3 (the pole)
P1
Center
P2 Axis Radius
Length
NAME Label number of the body to be defined.
[(highest body label number) + 1]
OPTION This parameter offers basic options for defining the prism: CENTERED
[CENTERED]
The prism is defined by its center, orientation, dimensions and number of sides. The prism is defined by two end points, a point giving the pole direction, its radius and number of sides.
POINTS
POSITION [VECTOR] Specifies how the center of the prism is located. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED.
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BODY PRISM
VECTOR
The center of the prism is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3)  with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the prism is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body.
POINT
ORIENTATION [SYSTEM] Specifies how both the axial and pole directions of the prism are defined (the pole direction passes through a vertex of the polygonal crosssection). (This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED. SYSTEM The prism axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS), and the pole with another axis (POLE), of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM), possibly the global coordinate system. The prism axis and pole directions are defined via direction vectors (AX,AY,AZ), (BX, BY, BZ) in the global coordinate system.
VECTORS
CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the prism, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the prism . This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=CENTERED, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the prism and/or define both the axis and pole directions of the prism. The center of the prism can be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION=SYSTEM the prism axis and pole directions are aligned with two of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS, POLE), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when OPTION=CENTERED and POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the prism axis. This parameter is used only when
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BODY PRISM
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL} POLE [YL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the pole direction of the prism. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM and OPTION=CENTERED. {XL/YL/ZL} AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the prism axis direction. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector, which specifies, in conjunction with vector (AX,AY,AZ), the local axispole plane of the block orientation. The vector product, or “cross” product, of (AX,AY,AZ) with (BX,BY,BZ) gives the local zdirection, and the pole direction is then given by the right hand rule. Note that this vector need not be of unit length, and is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR and OPTION=CENTERED. RADIUS The radius of the prism, i.e. the distance of the points of the polygonal crosssection from the prism axis. This value must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). LENGTH The axial length of the prism. This parameter is used only when OPTION=CENTERED, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). P1, P2, P3 Label numbers of three noncollinear existing geometry points which implicitly define the location, orientation, and length of the prism  the only other required data to complete the prism definition is the radius (RADIUS). The points P1, P2 are taken to lie at the end points on the axis of the prism, whilst point P3 determines the pole direction of the prism. These parameters are only used when OPTION=POINTS, in which case they must be distinct, noncoincident and noncollinear (also, no defaults are assumed). NSIDES [3] The number of sides of the polygonal crosssection of the prism. NSIDES must be at least 3. SHEET Create cylindrical sheet body instead of solid body. {NO, YES}
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BODY PROJECT
BODY PROJECT linei
N AME F ACE DIRECTION V ECTOR P1 P2 DX DY DZ DELETELINE
Projects lines onto a face of the body. NAME Label number of the body to be projected onto. An existing body name must be given. FACE Label number of the face to be projected onto. DIRECTION Specifies the direction of projection. {NORMAL/VECTOR} NORMAL VECTOR Lines project to the face in the direction of the face normal. Lines project to the face along the given vector direction. [NORMAL]
VECTOR [VALUES] Specifies how the vector is defined. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR.) {COMPONENTS/POINTS} COMPONENTS The vector is defined by DX, DY, and DZ. POINTS The vector is defined by two points (P1 and P2). P1 P2 Label numbers of geometry points to define the projection vector. (These two parameters are only used when VECTOR=POINTS.) DX DY DZ Components of vector to define the projection vector. (These three parameters are only used when VECTOR=COMPONENTS.) DELETELINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after projection is done. {YES/NO} linei Label numbers of geometry lines used to project to the face.
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BODY REVOLVED
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY REVOLVED
NAME MODE BODY FACE ANGLE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA MESH NODES SUBSTRUCTURE 2DEGROUP 3DEGROUP NDIV NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE DELETEFACEELEMENT
Face 1
Body 1 before revolution
Body 1 after revolution Face 1 is revolved
Creates a revolved body on an existing body by rotating a face of the body about an axis. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]
MODE [AXIS] Selects the method of defining the axis of revolution used to create the body. This controls which parameters actually define the revolved body — other parameters are ignored. AXIS The axis of revolution is taken as a given coordinate axis of a coordinate system (FACE, ANGLE, SYSTEM, AXIS). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open , i.e., have noncoincident end points) (FACE, ANGLE, ALINE). The axis of revolution is taken as the straight line between two given (noncoincident) geometry points (FACE,ANGLE,AP1,AP2). The axis of revolution is defined by an position vector and a direction vector (FACE, ANGLE, X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA).
LINE
POINTS
VECTORS
BODY Label number of the body to be revolved. FACE Label number of the face to be revolved.
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BODY REVOLVED
ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). The sign of the angle is given by the right hand rule — i.e., if you curl your fingers around the axis of revolution, with the thumb pointing along the axis, then a positive angle is in the direction of the curl of the fingers. {360 ≤ ANGLE ≤ 360} SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this cartesian coordinate system may be used to define the axis of revolution, via parameter AXIS, when MODE=AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the basic axes (XL,YL,ZL) of the local cartesian coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used as the axis of revolution {XL/YL/ZL}. ALINE Label number of a geometry line which defines the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of geometry points which define the axis of revolution. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 topoint AP2. X0, Y0, Z0 Global coordinates of the position vector defining the axis of rotation when MODE=VECTORS. [0.0]
XA [1.0] YA, ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis of rotation when MODE=VECTORS. MESH [NO] Indicates whether or not the mesh is generated while a swept body is created. If MESH = YES, 3D elements can be created if 2D elements exist on the face. NODES [0] The number of nodes per element of the mesh. {0/8/20/27} For the default 0, the program assigns the number of nodes per element in the resulting 3D mesh based on the corresponding number of nodes of the 2D mesh on the face, as follows: 2D 4 8 9 3D 8 20 27
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] The label number of the substructure (ADINA) in which the elements and nodes are created.
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BODY REVOLVED
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
2DEGROUP [largest element group of the revolved face] The element group label of the elements on the revolved face. 3DEGROUP [current group label number] The element group label of the elements on the revolved body. NDIV Number of elements created along the sweeping direction. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL [1]
[BOUNDARIES]
The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure (ADINA) or model (ADINAT/F). If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE * (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes of the substructure or model), then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed.
BOUNDARIES Coincidence checking is carried out for the nodes generated at vertices, edges, and faces of the geometry bodies. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. DELETEFACEELEMENT Indicates whether elements on the 2D mesh are deleted. ALL
[ALL]
Delete elements on 2D mesh and also the element group if it does not contain any elements. Delete elements on 2D mesh but do not delete the element group. Do not delete any elements.
ELEMENT NO
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BODY SECTION
BODY SECTION namei bodyi
NAME KEEPSHEET KEEPIMPRINT OPTION
The command BODY SECTION partitions an existing solid body using a set of sheets (defined using SHEET PLANE) or faces of other bodies, resulting in two or more bodies. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be partitioned. An existing body name must be given. KEEPSHEET [NO] Indicates whether sheets are to be kept after partitioning. This parameter is used only when OPTION = SHEET. {NO/YES} KEEPIMPRINT [NO] Indicates whether imprinted edges created by the section operation are to be kept. {NO/ YES} OPTION [SHEET] Specifies whether sheets or faces are used to partition the body. {SHEET/FACE} SHEET FACE Use sheets to section the body. Use faces of bodies to section the body.
namei Label number of a sheet (OPTION=SHEET) or face (OPTION=FACE). Note: The following remarks apply to faces also.  orientation of two adjacent sheets should be the same.  each sheet (or set of connected sheets) must divide the body into completely separate bodies;  each sheet (or set of connected sheets) cannot have its boundary within the body to be sectioned;  the sheets cannot intersect;  three or more sheets cannot meet at a common edge.
bodyi Label number of a solid body. Used when OPTION=FACE.
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BODY SEW
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY SEW bodyi
NAME SOLID DELETEBODY HEAL SEWGAP
The command BODY SEW sews a set of sheet bodies into a sewn body. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]
SOLID [YES] Indicates whether a solid body is to be created. If SOLID=NO, the created sewn body is a sheet body.{YES/NO} DELETEBODY [YES] Indicates whether the sheet bodies are deleted after the sewn body is created.{YES/NO} HEAL [NO] If the resulting sewn body does not have a complete boundary, then any holes are treated as wounds which are healed as specified by HEAL. Only used when SOLID=YES. {NO/CAP/EXTEND} NO Do not heal wounds. Any holes (gaps) will only be closed if they are smaller than the sewing gap. Create a face formed by all edges of the hole to cover up (cap) the hole. Faces around the hole are extended until they cover the hole.
CAP EXTEND
SEWGAP [0.01] Factor used to determine the sewing gap value. The gap value used to sew the body is SEWGAP * (the largest of the maximum coordinate differences in each global coordinate direction considering all the bodies that are being sewn together). bodyi Label numbers of sheet bodies which are used to create the sewn body.
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BODY SHEET
BODY SHEET linei
NAME LINE DELETELINE
The command BODY SHEET defines a sheet body by a set of geometry lines. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]
LINE Label number of geometry line comprising the external loop of the sheet body. DELETELINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after applying the command BODY SHEET. {YES/NO} linei Label numbers of geometry lines comprising the internal loops of the sheet body.
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BODY SPHERE
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY SPHERE
NAME POSITION DIMENSION CX1 CX2 CX3 SYSTEM CENTER RADIUS POINT
The command BODY SPHERE defines a solid geometry sphere shape. The sphere body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed.
Radius
Center
Point
NAME Label number of the body to be defined. POSITION Specifies how the sphere center is located: VECTOR
[(highest body label number) + 1]
[VECTOR]
The center of the sphere is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2,CX3)  with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the sphere is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body. [RADIUS]
POINT
DIMENSION Specifies the size of the sphere: RADIUS POINT
The radius of the sphere is input via parameter RADIUS. An existing geometry point lying on the surface of the sphere is used to determine its radius.
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BODY SPHERE
CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the sphere, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR. SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the sphere, in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. This parameter is only used when POSITION=VECTOR. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. CENTER The center of the sphere  the label number of an existing geometry point. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). RADIUS The radius of the sphere, used only when DIMENSION=RADIUS, in which case it must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). POINT Label number of an existing geometry point which implicitly defines the radius of the sphere (the point is assumed to be on the surface of the sphere). This parameter is only used when DIMENSION=POINT, in which case it must be noncoincident with the sphere center (also, no default is assumed).
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BODY SUBTRACT
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY SUBTRACT bodyi
NAME KEEPTOOL KEEPIMPRINT
The command BODY SUBTRACT takes an existing solid body (the “target”) and modifies it by removing from it a set of other solid bodies (tools). This definition corresponds to a Boolean subtraction of one or more bodies from a given solid body. E.g. to “drill” a hole through a body you could subtract a cylindrical body from it. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the (target) body to be modified. (No default  an existing body name must be given.) KEEPTOOL [NO] Indicates whether or not the tools are to be kept after applying the command BODY SUBTRACT. {NO/YES} KEEPIMPRINT [NO] Indicates whether or not the imprinted edges created by the Boolean operation are to be merged with the target body. {NO/YES} bodyi Label numbers of other bodies which are to be subtracted from the target body. Note that bodyi cannot be the same as that specified for parameter NAME, and repeated body names are only counted once.
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BODY SWEEP
BODY SWEEP NAME BODY FACE OPTION DX DY DZ SYSTEM LINE DELETELINE ALIGNMENT MESH NODES SUBSTRUCTURE 2DEGROUP 3DEGROUP NDIV NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE DELETEFACEELEMENT
Line 1 Face 1
Body before sweep
Body after sweep Face 1 is swept along line 1
Creates a swept body on an existing body by sweeping a face of the body in a given direction or along a line. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]
BODY Label number of the body containing face to be swept. FACE Label number of the face to be swept. OPTION This parameter offers the options of body sweep. VECTOR LINE
[VECTOR]
swept body is created by sweeping a geometry face in a given direction. swept body is created by sweeping a geometry face along a line.
DX [1.0] DY [0.0] DZ [0.0] Components of displacement vector with reference to coordinate system SYSTEM. Note that this is the actual displacement vector, i.e. it specifies both magnitude as well as direction. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR)
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BODY SWEEP
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system which is referenced by the displacement vector (DX, DY, DZ). (This parameter is only used when OPTION=VECTOR) LINE The geometry line label. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE) DELETELINE [YES] Indicates whether or not the lines are to be deleted after applying the command BODY SWEEP. (This parameter is only used when OPTION=LINE). {YES/NO} ALIGNMENT This parameter specifies the direction of the face during sweeping. NORMAL PARALLEL Face normal is at fixed angle to line tangent. Face normal always points to the same direction. [NORMAL]
MESH [NO] Indicates whether or not the mesh is generated while a swept body is created. If MESH = YES, 3D elements can be created if 2D elements exist on the face. NODES [0] The number of nodes per element of the mesh. {0/8/20/27} For the default 0, the program assigns the number of nodes per element in the resulting 3D mesh based on the corresponding number of nodes of the 2D mesh on the face, as follows: 2D 4 8 9 3D 8 20 27
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] The label number of the substructure (ADINA) in which the elements and nodes are created. 2DEGROUP [largest element group of the swept face] The element group label of the elements on the swept face. 3DEGROUP [current group label number] The element group label of the elements on the swept body. NDIV Number of elements created along the sweeping direction. [1]
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NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL
[BOUNDARIES]
The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure (ADINA) or model (ADINAT/F). If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE * (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes of the substructure or model), then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed.
BOUNDARIES Coincidence checking is carried out for the nodes generated at vertices, edges, and faces of the geometry bodies. NO No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. DELETEFACEELEMENT Indicates whether elements on the 2D mesh are deleted. ALL
[ALL]
Delete elements on 2D mesh and also the element group if it does not contain any elements. Delete elements on 2D mesh but do not delete the element group. Do not delete any elements.
ELEMENT NO
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BODY TORUS
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
BODY TORUS NAME POSITION ORIENTATION CX1 CX2 CX3 CENTER SYSTEM AXIS AX AY AZ RMAJOR RMINOR BODY TORUS defines a solid geometry torus shape. The torus body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]
Major radius
Center
Top view
Axis
Minor radius
Side view
POSITION Specifies how the center of the torus is located: VECTOR [VECTOR]
The center of the torus is specified by a position vector (CX1,CX2, CX3) with components in terms of a given coordinate system (SYSTEM). The center of the torus is specified by an existing geometry point (CENTER), possibly a vertex of another body. [SYSTEM]
POINT
ORIENTATION Specifies how the direction of the major torus axis is defined: SYSTEM
The torus axis is aligned with one of the base Cartesian axes (AXIS) of a local coordinate system (SYSTEM), possibly the global coordinate system.
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BODY TORUS
VECTOR
The torus axis is defined via a direction vector (AX,AY,AZ) in the global coordinate system.
CX1 [0.0] CX2 [0.0] CX3 [0.0] The position vector of the center of the torus, given in terms of curvilinear components of the local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note that these parameters are only used when POSITION=VECTOR. CENTER The label number of an existing geometry point indicating the center of the torus. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT, and in that case an existing geometry point must be specified (no default is assumed). SYSTEM [0] Label number of a local coordinate system which may be used to position the center of the torus and/or define the major torus axis direction. The center of the torus may be given in terms of the curvilinear coordinates (CX1,CX2,CX3) of this local system, when POSITION=VECTOR. For ORIENTATION= SYSTEM the torus axis direction is aligned with one of the base Cartesian system axes of this system (AXIS), see command SYSTEM. This parameter is only used when POSITION=VECTOR or ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. Note that the default is chosen as the global Cartesian coordinate system. AXIS [XL] Indicates which of the base Cartesian axes of the local coordinate system (SYSTEM) is to be used for the direction of the major torus axis. This parameter is used only when ORIENTATION=SYSTEM. {XL/YL/ZL} AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Global Cartesian components of a direction vector specifying the major torus axis direction. This vector is only used when ORIENTATION=VECTOR. RMAJOR The major radius of the torus, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed). RMINOR The minor radius of the torus, which must be input with a positive value (no default is assumed).
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BODY TRANSFORMED
BODY TRANSFORMED
NAME OPTION PARENT TRANSFORMATION NCOPY
bodyi The command BODY TRANSFORMED defines a solid geometry by copying or moving an existing Parasolid body. The transformed body may be used in conjunction with other body shapes to form more complex geometries using the Boolean operation commands BODY MERGE, BODY SUBTRACT, BODY INTERSECT. A body may be meshed directly via the GBODY command (in which case freeform meshing is necessarily used  there is no intrinsic parametric description of the body to support mapped meshing). The transformed body is identified by its label number NAME. If NCOPY is greater than 1, the other newly defined transformed bodies are identified by the current highest body label number + 1. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME Label number of the body to be defined. [(highest body label number) + 1]
OPTION This parameter offers two options for defining the body: COPY MOVE The body is defined by coping an existing body. The body is defined by moving an existing body.
[COPY]
PARENT The label of the body to be copied (used only when OPTION=COPY). This parameter must be entered when copying a body. TRANSFORMATION Label number of a geometrical transformation defined by one of the TRANSFORMATION commands. This parameter must be entered. NCOPY [1] Parameter defines number of bodies to be generated by the transformation  transformation is repeated NCOPY times. bodyi Label numbers of body to be transformed.
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SHEET PLANE
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
SHEET PLANE
NAME OPTION POSITION OFFSET X Y Z POINT NX NY NZ P1 P2 P3
positioni pointi The command SHEET PLANE defines a planar sheet. A number of options allow for the position, orientation and dimensions of the planar sheet. The planar sheet may be used to partition a body into one or more bodies using the command BODY SECTION. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME The sheet label number. [(current highest sheet label number)+1]
OPTION Selects the method for the planar sheet definition: POLYGON XPLANE YPLANE ZPLANE POINTNORMAL THREEPOINT Sheet defined by a set of coplanar points.
[POLYGON]
Sheet defined by normal vector in X direction. Sheet defined by normal vector in Y direction. Sheet defined by normal vector in Z direction. Sheet defined by a point and a normal vector. Sheet defined by three points.
POSITION [VECTOR] Selects the method to define origin point (only for OPTION=POINTNORMAL): VECTOR POINT Origin is defined by a position vector (X,Y,Z). Origin is defined by an existing geometry point (POINT).
OFFSET Defines position of the planar sheet along the normal vector. This parameter is only used when OPTION= XPLANE, YPLANE, or ZPLANE. X [0.0] Y [0.0] Z [0.0] Defines origin of the vector normal to the sheet plane. These parameters are only used when
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SHEET PLANE
POSITION=VECTOR and OPTION=POINTNORMAL. POINT Defines geometry point  origin of the planar sheet. This parameter is only used when POSITION=POINT and OPTION=POINTNORMAL. NX NY NZ Defines vector normal to the planar sheet. These parameters are only used when OPTION=POINTNORMAL. [1.0] [0.0] [0.0]
P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of three existing geometry points which define planar sheet. This parameters are only used when OPTION=THREEPOINT (no defaults are assumed). positioni Position numbers of geometry points. pointi Label numbers of geometry points. Note: positioni and pointi are only used when OPTION=POLYGON.
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VOLUME BODY
Sec. 6.10 ADINA  M
VOLUME BODY
NAME BODY DELETEBODY DEGEDGE NPTS
Converts a body into a geometry volume. Only body of the following geometries can be converted into volume: tetrahedron, hexahedron, prism and pyramid. This command is only active when ADINAM has been licensed. NAME [(current highest geometry volume label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry volume. BODY Label number of solid geometry body to be converted into a geometry volume. If BODY=ALL, all the bodies will be converted into volumes. DELETEBODY [YES] Indicates whether or not the body are to be deleted after applying the command VOLUME BODY. {YES/NO} DEGEDGE [0] That parameter is used to degenerate edge of the body and body is a prism shape. Parameter can not be used when BODY= ALL. NPTS The number of intermediate points of nonstraight and nonarc edges. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLUME FIRST LAST DELETE VOLUME FIRST LAST Note that no geometry volume is deleted which has nodes and/or elements associated with it. [3]
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SURFACE FACE
SURFACE FACE
NAME BODY FACE DELETEBODY DEGPOINT NPTS REVERSE
Converts a face of a body into a geometry surface. NAME [(current highest geometry surface label number) + 1] Label number of the geometry surface to be created. BODY Label number of the body that contains the face to be converted. If BODY=ALL, faces of all sheet bodies will be converted into surfaces. FACE Label number of the face to be converted to a surface. If BODY=ALL or the specified body is a sheet body, then FACE=1 by default. Otherwise, a face label number has to be input. DELETEBODY [YES] Indicates whether the body will be deleted after executing this command. {YES/NO} DEGPOINT [0] If the face is a triangle, this parameter indicates which point will be the degenerate vertex of the created triangular surface. Otherwise, this parameter is ignored. If BODY=ALL is specified, this parameter is also ignored and the degenerate vertex is set by the program. NPTS [3] The number of intermediate points used for interpolating edges that are not straight or not arcs. REVERSE Reverses the orientation of the surface. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST SURFACE DELETE SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST OPTION [NO]
When deleting surfaces, OPTION=ALL will delete any vertex points or edge lines which have no other dependent geometry; otherwise (OPTION=SURFACE), only the surface itself will be deleted.
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Chapter 7 Model definition
MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE
Chap. 7
Model definition
MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE
NAME MU LAMDA KAPPA DENSITY FITTINGCURVE VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE TREF RUBBERTABLE RUBBERVISCOELASTIC RUBBERMULLINS RUBBERORTHOTROPIC
Defines an ArrudaBoyce material model, which is a hyperelastic material model for rubber materials. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. If the label number of an existing material is given, then the previous material definition is overwritten. M U Initial shear modulus. MU > 0. LAMDA Locking stretch. LAMDA > 0. KAPPA Bulk modulus. KAPPA > 0. DENSITY Mass density. [12.6008]
[1.0]
[63000.0]
[0]
FITTINGCURVE [0] Fittingcurve label. The fitting curve is used to calculate the parameters MU and LAMDA. If FITTINGCURVE > 0 is specified, any values specified for MU and LAMDA will be ignored. VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS [0] Viscoelasticconstants label. This parameter is superseded by the RUBBERVISCOELASTIC parameter. However, this parameter is still supported for backwards compatibility. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE Specifies the temperature dependence of the material properties. {NO/TRS/FULL} NO The material properties are not temperature dependent; thermal effects are not included. The material properties are not temperature dependent, but the material is assumed to be TRS (thermorheologically simple). Thermal effects are included. [NO]
TRS
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MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE
FULL
The material properties are temperature dependent. Parameters C1 to KAPPA, and RUBBERVISCOELASTIC to RUBBERORTHOTROPIC of this command are ignored.
The only parameters used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL are NAME, TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, TREF and RUBBERTABLE. TREF [0.0] The material reference temperature, required if TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS or FULL. RUBBERTABLE The label number of a rubbertable data set. The type of rubbertable depends upon TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, as follows: TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = NO : Do not enter a rubbertable. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS : A rubbertable of type TRS must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding coefficients of thermal expansion. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL : A rubbertable of type MooneyRivlin must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding material properties. Note that the maximum allowed number of temperature points is 16. RUBBERVISCOELASTIC [0] If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERMULLINS [0] If RUBBERMULLINS is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If RUBBERMULLINS is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERORTHOTROPIC [0] If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL.
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[0]
MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL CAMCLAY
MATERIALCAMCLAY
NAME E NU LAMDA KAPPA GAMMA PNULL MIU OCR KNULL DENSITY SINITIAL
Defines a nonlinear CamClay material model NAME [(current highest material label number)+1]
E Initial Young's modulus E. {> 0.0} NU Poisson's Ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} LAMDA Isotropic normal consolidation slope. {> 0.0} KAPPA Unloadingreloading slope. {> 0.0} GAMMA Critical state constant [1]. {> 0.0} PNULL Initial size of yield surface. {≥ 0.0} MIU Critical state constant [2]. {> 0.0} OCR Overconsolidation ratio. {≥ 0.0} KNULL The coefficient of earth pressure. {≥ 0.0} DENSITY Mass density [0.0] [0.0]
[1.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
SINITIAL Applied initial conditions : initial stresses SINITIAL=1.0, initial stiffness SINITIAL=0.0. {1.0/0.0} Note: If an initial stiffness is applied, the initial size of the yield surface  PNULL >0.0.
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MATERIAL CONCRETE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL CONCRETE
NAME OPTION E0 NU SIGMAT SIGMATP SIGMAC EPSC SIGMAU EPSU BETA C1 C2 XSI STIFAC SHEFAC ALPHA TREF INDNU GF DENSITY SP11 SP12 SP13 SP14 SP15 SP16 SP311 SP321 SP331 SP341 SP351 SP361 SP312 SP322 SP332 SP342 SP352 SP362 SP313 SP323 SP333 SP343 SP353 SP363 TEMPERATAUREDEPENDENT
thetai E0i nui alphai sigmati sigmaci epsci sigmaui epsui sigmatpi gfi xsii Defines a nonlinear concrete material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. OPTION [KUPFER] Selects triaxial failure curve input method. INPUT requires the specification of 24 values, SP11 to SP363, to represent the failure curves. {KUPFER/SANDIA/INPUT} OPTION = KUPFER corresponds to: SP11 = 0.0 SP14 = 0.75 SP311 = 1.0 SP341 = 2.2 SP312 = 1.3 SP342 = 2.3 SP313 = 1.25 SP343 = 2.25 SP12 = 0.25 SP15 = 1.0 SP321 = 1.4 SP351 = 2.5 SP322 = 1.5 SP352 = 2.7 SP323 = 1.45 SP353 = 2.65 SP13 = 0.5 SP16 = 1.0 SP331 = 1.7 SP361 = 2.8 SP332 = 2.0 SP362 = 3.2 SP333 = 1.95 SP363 = 3.15
OPTION = SANDIA corresponds to: SP11 = 0.0 SP14 = 0.3 SP311 = 1.0 SP341 = 2.5 SP312 = 1.2 SP342 = 3.01 SP313 = 1.2 SP343 = 2.55 SP12 = 0.1 SP15 = 0.4 SP321 = 1.62 SP351 = 2.8 SP322 = 2.25 SP352 = 3.25 SP323 = 2.06 SP353 = 2.72 SP13 = 0.2 SP16 = 1.0 SP331 = 2.1 SP361 = 4.75 SP332 = 2.75 SP362 = 4.6 SP333 = 2.32 SP363 = 3.79
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MATERIAL CONCRETE
E0 Tangent modulus at zero strain. NU Poisson’s ratio. SIGMAT Uniaxial cutoff tensile stress. {> 0.0} SIGMATP Postcracking uniaxial cutoff tensile stress. {> 0.0} If SIGMATP=0, program sets SIGMATP=SIGMAT. SIGMAC Uniaxial maximum compressive stress. {< 0.0} EPSC Uniaxial compressive strain at SIGMAC. {< 0.0} SIGMAU Ultimate uniaxial compressive stress. {< 0.0} EPSU Ultimate uniaxial compressive strain. {< 0.0} [0.75 (OPTION = KUPFER, INPUT)] [0.5 (OPTION = SANDIA)] Principal stress ratio used for failure surface input. C1 C2 Critical strain constants. [1.4] [0.4] BETA
XSI [8.0] Constant used to define the tensile strain corresponding to zero stress in tensile failure. STIFAC Normal stiffness reduction factor. SHEFAC Shear stiffness reduction factor. ALPHA Mean coefficient of thermal expansion. [0.0001]
[0.5]
[0.0]
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
TREF [0.0] Reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. INDNU Selects one of the following options for Poisson’s ratio: CONSTANT VARIABLE GF Fracture energy. DENSITY Mass density. Poisson’s ratio remains constant. Poisson’s ratio is allowed to vary (see Theory and Modeling Guide). [0.0] [CONSTANT]
[0.0]
SP11 ... SP363 Principal stress ratios used to define failure curves. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENT [NO] Indicates whether material is temperature dependent. If YES then material property variation with temperature follows in the command data lines. Note that the maximum allowed number of temperature points is 16. {YES/ NO} thetai Temperature at data point “i”. E0i Tangent modulus at zero strain at temperature “thetai”. nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. sigmati Uniaxial cutoff tensile stress at temperature “thetai”. sigmaci Uniaxial maximum compressive stress at temperature “thetai”. epsci Uniaxial compressive strain for stress sigmaci, at temperature “thetai”.
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MATERIAL CONCRETE
sigmaui Uniaxial ultimate compressive stress at temperature “thetai”. epsui Uniaxial ultimate compressive strain at temperature “thetai”. sigmatpi Postcracking tensile stress at temperature “thetai”. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used.
gfi Fracture energy at temperature “i” xsii Constant for the tensile strain failure at temperature “i” Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL CREEP
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL CREEP
NAME CREEPLAW TEMPUNIT E NU A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15
Defines a nonlinear creep material model. This model falls under the category of the more general thermoelasticplastic and creep material model, which requires nodal temperature input. (A uniform zero nodal temperature is assumed otherwise). This model also assumes that the effective stress remains below 104×(Young’s modulus) during the analysis. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. CREEPLAW Selects type of the creep law. For details, please refer to the Theory and Modeling Guide,Section 3.6.3. {1/2/3/LUBBY2/BLACKBURN} [1]
TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Creep law 3 may refer to temperatures in degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale). {CELSIUS/KELVIN} E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} [0.0]
A0 ... A15 [0.0] Creep law constants, ai. A8 ... A15 are applicable only when CREEPLAW = BLACKBURN. ALPHA Parameter for creep rate equation time integration. The limiting values are: 0.0 Euler forward method (explicit). 1.0 Euler backward method (implicit). Note: ALPHA = 1.0 must be used with large strain analyses. [1.0]
TOLIL [1.0E10] Solution tolerance for effective stress calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
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MATERIAL CREEP
NRUPT1 [0] NRUPT2 [0] Label numbers of rupture criteria, defined by command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used simultaneously provided they are not of the same type. A zero value indicates that no rupture criteria are to be used with the material definition. TIMEHARDENING [NO] Indicates whether strain hardening (NO) or time hardening (YES) is used. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL CREEPIRRADIATION
NAME IRRADC NF TEMPUNIT E NU A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING TREF
Defines a irradiation creep material model with temperature and neutron fluence dependent properties. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. IRRADC Label number of the irradiation creep table used. The number refers to a definition made by the command IRRADIATION_CREEPTABLE. NF Label number of the fast neutron dose rate TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Creep law may refer to temperatures in degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale) CELSIUS KELVIN Celsius degrees Kelvin degrees
E Initial Youngs modulus. (E must be > 0.0) NU Poisson’s ratio. (1.0 < NU < 0.5). A1 ... A5 Creep law constants. ALPHA Parameter for creep rate equation time integration. The limiting values are: 0.0 1.0 Euler forward method (explicit) Euler backward method (implicit) [1.0] [0.0]
Note: ALPHA = 1.0 must be used with large strain analyses.
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MATERIAL CREEPIRRADIATION
TOLIL [1.0E10] Solution tolerance for effective stress calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. DENSITY Mass density. NRUPT1, NRUPT2 Label numbers of rupture criteria used. The numbers refer to definitions made by the command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used at the same time provided their types are not the same. TIMEHARDENING NO YES The usual strain hardening method will be used in ADINA. The time hardening method will be used in ADINA. [NO] [0.0]
TREF The reference temperature for thermal expansion coefficient Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIALCREEPIRRADIATION DELETE MATERIALCREEPIRRADIATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE
NAME NCOEF TEMPUNIT E NU ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING CREEPLAW
Defines a nonlinear creep material model with temperature and/or effectivestress dependent coefficients, see command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS . This model falls under the category of the more general thermoelasticplastic and creep material model, which requires nodal temperature input. (A uniform zero nodal temperature is assumed otherwise). NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. NCOEF Label number of the creep coefficient dependence function, defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS. TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Indicates the temperature unit for the creep model; degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale). {CELSIUS/KELVIN} E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} ALPHA Parameter for creep rate equation time integration. The limiting values are: 0.0 1.0 Note: Euler forward method (explicit). Euler backward method (implicit). [0.0]
[1.0]
ALPHA = 1.0 must be used with large strain analyses.
TOLIL [1.0E10] Solution tolerance for effective stress calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
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MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE
NRUPT1 [0] NRUPT2 [0] Label numbers of rupture criteria, defined by command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used simultaneously, provided they are not of the same type. A zero value indicates that no rupture criteria are to be used with the material definition. TIMEHARDENING [NO] Indicates whether strain hardening (NO) or time hardening (YES) is used. {YES/NO} CREEPLAW Specifies creep law to be used. {NONE/LAW3/LUBBY2} NONE LAW3 LUBBY2 Note: No creep. [LAW3]
ec = S ⋅ T ⋅ e −H
Lubby2 creep law.
If CREEPLAW=LAW3, the parameter NCOEF reference a creepcoefficient function defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY or CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR. If CREEPLAW=LUBBY2, the parameter NCOEF reference a creepcoefficient function defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2.
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MATERIAL CURVEDESCRIPTION
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL CURVEDESCRIPTION
NAME OPTION GAMMA STIFAC SHEFAC DENSITY (i = 1…6)
strainvi kloadi kunloadi gloadi
Defines a nonlinear geological material, with the option of tension cutoff or cracking. Moduli at 6 volume strain values must be provided. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. OPTION Selects special options. NONE TENSIONCUTOFF CRACKING No special options. Tension cutoff is modeled. Material cracking is modeled. [0.0] [NONE]
GAMMA The material density used to calculate the insitu gravity pressure. STIFAC Normal stiffness reduction factor. {< 1.0} SHEFAC Shear stiffness reduction factor. {< 1.0} DENSITY Mass density. strainvi Volume strain at data point “i”. kloadi Loading bulk modulus at strain “strainvi”. kunloadi Unloading bulk modulus at strain “strainvi”. gloadi Loading shear modulus at strain “strainvi”.
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL CURVEDESCRIPTION
Note: strainv1 = 0.0 strainvj > strainv(j1) kunloadj ≥ kloadj; gloadj < 1.5 × kloadj The unloading shear modulus is calculated as (kunload/kload) × gload Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL DRUCKERPRAGER
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL DRUCKERPRAGER
NAME E NU ALPHA KYIELD WCAP DCAP TCUT ICPOS RCAP DENSITY BETA POTENTIAL
Defines a nonlinear DruckerPrager material model with a hardening cap and tension cutoff. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} ALPHA Yield function parameter α {≥ 105} KYIELD Yield function parameter. {> 0.0} WCAP Cap hardening parameter. {< 0.0} DCAP Cap hardening parameter. {< 0.0} TCUT Tension cutoff limit. {≥ 0.0} ICPOS Initial cap position. {≤ 0.0} [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
RCAP [0.0] Cap ratio. This the ratio of the major/minor axes of the elliptical cap. RCAP = 0.0 corresponds to a planar cap. {≥ 0.0} DENSITY Mass density. BETA Potential function parameter β {≥ 0.0} [0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL DRUCKERPRAGER
POTENTIAL Indicates whether to use or ignore the specified BETA. If NO is specified BETA = ALPHA. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL FIRST LAST DELETEMATERIAL FIRST LAST
[NO] {YES/NO}
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MATERIAL ELASTIC
MATERIALELASTIC
NAME E NU DENSITY ALPHA
Defines an isotropic linear elastic material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} DENSITY Mass density. ALPHA Coefficient of thermal expansion. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL FLUID
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL FLUID Defines a linear fluid material.
NAME K DENSITY GRAVITY X0 Y0 Z0
NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. K Bulk modulus. DENSITY Mass density. GRA VITY The gravity constant used in calculating free surface effects. Note: [0.0]
[0.0]
This parameter is used only when MASTER FLUIDPOTENTIAL=YES. specify gravity loads when MASTER FLUIDPOTENTIAL=AUTOMATIC use commands: APPLYLOAD and LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL INTERPRETATION=BODYFORCE.
To
X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] X's, Y’s and Z’s datum value for body force potential. See Theory and Modeling Guide. Note: These parameters are used only when MASTER FLUIDPOTENTIAL=AUTOMATIC and when there are gravity loads entered using command LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL INTERPRETATION=BODYFORCE. See the ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide, Equation 2.1135.
Auxiliary Commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL GASKET
MATERIAL GASKET
NAME TREF DENSITY YIELDCURVE GG EG ALPHAG LEAKAGEPRESSURE EINPLANE NUINPLANE ALPHAINPLANE NPOINTS
lcurvei Defines a gasket material model. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. If the label number of an existing material is given, then the previous material definition is overwritten. TREF Reference temperature for thermal expansion coefficient. DENSITY Mass density. YIELDCURVE Label of yield (loading) curve. This curve is defined using the LCURVE command. GG Transverse shear modulus. {GG>=0.0} EG Tensile Young's modulus in normal direction.{EG>=0.0} ALPHAG Mean coefficient of thermal expansion in normal direction. {ALPHAG>=0.0} LEAKAGEPRESSURE Leakage pressure. EINPLANE Inplane Young's modulus. {EINPLANE>=0.0} NUINPLANE Inplane Poisson's ratio. {NUINPLANE>=0.0} ALPHAINPLANE Inplane mean coefficient of thermal expansion. {ALPHAINPLANE>=0.0} [0.0]
[0.0]
[1]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
NPOINTS [2] The point number on the yield curve which corresponds to the initial yield point. All previous points are nonlinear elastic loading/unloading data. lcurvei Label numbers of loadingunloading curves. The curves are defined using the LCURVE command. Note: All loadingunloading curves must have same number of points (=NPOINT) and their first point must have Pressure = 0.0 and their last point must coincide with a yield point.
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MATERIAL GURSONPLASTIC
MATERIAL GURSONPLASTIC
NAME E NU YIELD Q1 Q2 Q3 F0 N FN SN EN TOL DENSITY ALPHA TREF FC FF
Command MATERIAL GURSONPLASTIC defines a Gurson plastic material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. If the label number of an existing material is given, then the previous material definition is overwritten. E Young=s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson=s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} YIELD Initial yield stress in simple tension. Q1 Q2 Q3 Tvergaard parameters. F0 Initial void volume fraction. N Stressstrain curve constant. FN Volume fraction of void nucleating particles. SN Standard deviation of normal distribution. EN Mean plastic strain of normal distribution. TOL Solution tolerance. [1.5] [1.0] [2.25] [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.1]
[0.04]
[0.1]
[0.3]
[1.0E7]
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
DENSITY Mass density.
[0.0]
ALPHA [0.0] Mean coefficient of thermal expansion. ALPHA is only considered if thermal loading is modeled. TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion coefficient. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL HYPERELASTIC
MATERIAL HYPERELASTIC
NAME MODEL TENSIONCURVE SHEARCURVE EQUIBIAXIALCURVE ORDER WEIGHTING CURVETYPE ALPHA1 ALPHA2 ALPHA3 ALPHA4 ALPHA5 ALPHA6 ALPHA7 ALPHA8 ALPHA9 KAPPA DENSITY METHOD NSINGULAR MAXSINGV MINSINGV ECHO
This material model will not be supported from ADINA version 8.0 onwards, but is retained for the convenience of users of previous versions. Defines a hyperelastic material model, which is an incompressible nonlinear elastic material model for rubber materials. A least squares curve fitting technique is employed to determine the parameters for a generalized MooneyRivlin or an Ogden material model from experimental stress versus strain (or stretch) data. The data can be input for any of three test cases: (i) simple tension, (ii) pure shear, or (iii) equibiaxial tension. A single test or combination of any two, or all three, can be supplied. The accuracy of the model curve thus fitted depends on the number of data points, and the desired approximation order of the model. The total number of data points, from all three test cases, is subject to a minimum (equal to the input order for an Ogden model, and 2, 5, 9 for a generalized MooneyRivlin model of input order 1, 2, 3 respectively). See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. MODEL Specifies which type of material model is to be used. OGDEN [OGDEN]
The Ogden constants µi are determined, from the input data curves and αi values. The MooneyRivlin constants Ci are determined.
MOONEYRIVLIN
TENSIONCURVE [0] Indicates the label number of a (stress, strain) data curve, defined by command SCURVE, which provides data for the simple tension test case. A value of 0 indicates no simple tension data is supplied. The abscissae may be interpreted as strain or stretch as indicated by parameter CURVETYPE. SHEARCURVE [0] Indicates the label number of a (stress, strain) data curve, defined by command SCURVE,
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
which provides data for the pure shear test case. A value of 0 indicates no pure shear data is supplied. The abscissae may be interpreted as strain or stretch as indicated by parameter CURVETYPE. EQUIBIAXIALCURVE [0] Indicates the label number of a (stress, strain) data curve, defined by command SCURVE, which provides data for the equibiaxial tension test case. A value of 0 indicates no equibiaxial tension data is supplied. The abscissae may be interpreted as strain or stretch as indicated by parameter CURVETYPE. ORDER Approximation order. Allowed values are: 1 ≤ ORDER ≤ 3 1 ≤ ORDER ≤ 9 Note: (MODEL = MOONEYRIVLIN) (MODEL = OGDEN) [3]
If MODEL=MOONEYRIVLIN, then the material constants derivied are as follows: ORDER 1 2 3 Constants C1 ÷ C2 C1 ÷ C5 C1 ÷ C9
WEIGHTING [NO] Specifies whether or not the least squares fitting scheme utilizes weighted data intervals. Their use may provide a better fit for data with very irregular spacing of the strain (or stretch) abscissae. {YES/NO} CURVETYPE [STRAIN] Indicates the type of input curve data given by parameters TENSIONCURVE, SHEARCURVE, and EQUIBIAXIALCURVE. The option is given for the data abscissae to be either principal (engineering) strain, or principal stretch (= deformed length / undeformed length). The ordinate values in either case are values of nominal stress (= force / unit undeformed area). STRAIN STRETCH ALPHAi Ogden constants αi. Input principal engineering strain data. Input principal stretch data. [i (1 ≤ i ≤ 9)]
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KAPPA Bulk modulus. DENSITY Mass density.
[determined from the initial shear modulus, assuming near incompressibility ( ν=0.499)]
[0.0]
METHOD [SVD] Specifies the least squares matrix equation solution method. Use of Gaussian elimination may well result in model constants which alternate in sign and have very high magnitude. This is due to the presence of nearsingular terms in the least squares system. The “singular value decomposition” method attempts to remove these terms during solution, yielding more reasonable model constants without affecting the overall quality of the least squares fit. The number of nearsingular terms to be removed may be controlled by parameters MAXSINGV, MINSINGV. Nearsingular terms are removed by default until a monotone increasing solution is obtained for all test cases. SVD GAUSS The singular value decomposition method. Standard Gaussian elimination technique.
NSINGULAR [AUTOMATIC] Indicates whether the number of nearsingular terms to be removed in the singular value decomposition solution method is controlled automatically by the program, or is to be specified by you via parameters MAXSINGV, MINSINGV. This parameter is only applicable when METHOD = SVD. AUTOMATIC The program controls the number of nearsingular terms to be removed by the singular value decomposition solution method. You indicate the maximum and minimum number of nearsingular terms to be removed.
CUSTOM
MAXSINGV
[ORDER (MODEL=OGDEN)] [2 (ORDER=1, MODEL=MOONEYRIVLIN)] [5 (ORDER=2, MODEL=MOONEYRIVLIN)] [9 (ORDER=3, MODEL=MOONEYRIVLIN)] If NSINGULAR = CUSTOM, this parameter indicates the maximum number of nearsingular terms which are permitted to be removed during the search for a monotone increasing set of result curves. MAXSINGV may range from 0 (for which the resulting solution is identical to that obtained by Gaussian elimination) to the total desired number of model constants, as indicated by parameter ORDER. MINSINGV [0] If NSINGULAR = CUSTOM, this parameter indicates the minimum number of nearsingular
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
terms which will be removed by the singular value decomposition method, i.e., the SVD algorithm will remove at least MINSINGV terms even if a monotone solution set was obtained with fewer terms removed. ECHO Specifies the level of information reported by the command. NONE MODEL ALL The command behaves silently, except for a completion message. The resulting Ogden / MooneyRivlin model constants are reported. As well as model constants, curve fitting statistics and comparison tables of input and fitted stress values for the input strain/stretch points is reported. [ALL]
Note:
It is required that the initial shear modulus be positive, i.e., µ i ⋅ α i > 0.0 or
C1 + C2 > 0.0
for an Ogden model.
for a MooneyRivlin model.
Note: Note:
KAPPA is used in plane strain, axisymmetric and threedimensional analyses. For a discussion on the singular value decomposition method and its application to the least squares curve fitting algorithm, please consult the Theory and Modeling Guide. It is unwise to apply this command to a small set of data within a narrow range of strains (stretches). If possible, some values of strain (stretch) should be input for compression, and it is recommended that the resulting material behavior always be checked graphically with the MATERIALSHOW command. The generalized MooneyRivlin parameters C1 through C9 may be evaluated by this command; the parameters D1, D2 are, however, set to zero by this command.
Note:
Note:
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL HYPERFOAM
MATERIAL HYPERFOAM
NAME NPOINTS MU1 MU2 ... MU9 ALPHA1 ALPHA2 ... ALPHA9 BETA1 BETA2 ... BETA9 DENSITY FITTINGCURVE ISOVISCOELASTICCONSTANTS VOLVISCOELASTICCONSTANTS TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE TREF RUBBERTABLE RUBBERVISCOELASTIC RUBBERMULLINS RUBBERORTHOTROPIC
Defines a hyperfoam material model, which is a hyperelastic material model for rubber materials. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. If the label number of an existing material is given, then the previous material definition is overwritten. NPOINTS This parameter is not used in this version of the AUI. [1]
MUi [1.85 (i=1); 9.2 (i=2); 0.0 (i=3,4,5,...,9)] ALPHAi [4.5 (i=1); 4.5 (i=2); 0.0 (i=3,4,5,...,9)] BETAi [9.2 (i=1); 9.2 (i=2); 0.0 (i=3,4,5,...,9)] Nonviscoelastic constants µi, αi, βi (i=1,2,3,...,9). DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
FITTINGCURVE [0.0] Fittingcurve label. The fitting curve is used to calculate the parameters MUi, ALPHAi and BETAi. If FITTINGCURVE > 0 is specified, any values specified for MUi, ALPHAi and BETAi will be ignored. ISOVISCOELASTICCONSTANTS [0] Viscoelasticconstants label (isochoric) . This parameter is superseded by the RUBBERVISCOELASTIC parameter. However, this parameter is still supported for backwards compatibility. VOLVISCOELASTICCONSTANTS [0] Viscoelasticconstants label (volumetric) . This parameter is superseded by the RUBBERVISCOELASTIC parameter. However, this parameter is still supported for backwards compatibility.
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
Notes: 1 µi * αi must be greater than zero. 2 βi must be greater than 1/3. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE Specifies the temperature dependence of the material properties. {NO/TRS/FULL} NO The material properties are not temperature dependent; thermal effects are not included. The material properties are not temperature dependent, but the material is assumed to be TRS (thermorheologically simple). Thermal effects are included. The material properties are temperature dependent. Parameters C1 to KAPPA, and RUBBERVISCOELASTIC to RUBBERORTHOTROPIC of this command are ignored. [NO]
TRS
FULL
The only parameters used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL are NAME, TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, TREF and RUBBERTABLE. TREF [0.0] The material reference temperature, required if TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS or FULL. RUBBERTABLE The label number of a rubbertable data set. The type of rubbertable depends upon TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, as follows: TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = NO : Do not enter a rubbertable. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS : A rubbertable of type TRS must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding coefficients of thermal expansion. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL : A rubbertable of type MooneyRivlin must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding material properties. Note that the maximum allowed number of temperature points is 16. RUBBERVISCOELASTIC [0] If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. This parameter is not used when
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MATERIAL HYPERFOAM
TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERMULLINS [0] If RUBBERMULLINS is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If RUBBERMULLINS is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERORTHOTROPIC [0] If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL ILYUSHIN
MATERIAL ILYUSHIN
NAME E NU YIELD ET GAMMA DENSITY
Defines a nonlinear elasticplastic material with the Ilyushin yield condition and isotropic hardening. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} YIELD Yield stress in simple tension. E T Strain hardening modulus. GAMMA Ilyushin factor. DENSITY Mass density. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL MOHRCOULOMB
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL MOHRCOULOMB
NAME E NU PHI PSI COH TCUT DENSITY DILATATION
Define a nonlinear MohrCoulomb material model NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} PHI Friction angle in degrees. {≥ 0.0} PSI Dilatation angle in degrees. {≥ 0.0} COH Cohesion. {≥ 0.0} TCUT Tensile strength. {≥ 0.0} DENSITY Mass density. DILATATION Indicates whether to use or ignore the specified dilatation angle. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[1.0E10]
[0.0]
[YES]
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MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN
MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN
NAME C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 D1 D2 KAPPA DENSITY FITTINGCURVE VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE TREF RUBBERTABLE RUBBERVISCOELASTIC RUBBERMULLINS RUBBERORTHOTROPIC
Defines a MooneyRivlin material model, which is an incompressible nonlinear elastic material model for rubber materials. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. Ci [0.0 (1 ≤ i ≤ 9)] Dj [0.0 (1 ≤ j ≤ 2)] Generalized MooneyRivlin constants Ci, Dj. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. KAPPA Bulk modulus. Note: [determined from the initial shear modulus, assuming near incompressibility ( ν=0.499)]
It is required that the initial shear modulus be positive, i.e., C1 + C2 + D1⋅D2 > 0.0 KAPPA is used in plane strain, axisymmetric and threedimensional analyses.
DENSITY Mass density. FITTINGCURVE Fittingcurve label. The fitting curve is used to calculate the parameters Ci and Di. If FITTINGCURVE > 0 is specified, any values specified for Ci and Di will be ignored.
[0.0]
[0]
VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS [0] Viscoelasticconstants label. This parameter is superseded by the RUBBERVISCOELASTIC parameter. However, this parameter is still supported for backwards compatibility. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE Specifies the temperature dependence of the material properties. {NO/TRS/FULL} NO The material properties are not temperature dependent; thermal effects are not included. [NO]
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
TRS
The material properties are not temperature dependent, but the material is assumed to be TRS (thermorheologically simple). Thermal effects are included. The material properties are temperature dependent. Parameters C1 to KAPPA, and RUBBERVISCOELASTIC to RUBBERORTHOTROPIC of this command are ignored.
FULL
The only parameters used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL are NAME, TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, TREF and RUBBERTABLE. TREF [0.0] The material reference temperature, required if TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS or FULL. RUBBERTABLE The label number of a rubbertable data set. The type of rubbertable depends upon TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, as follows: TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = NO : Do not enter a rubbertable. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS : A rubbertable of type TRS must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding coefficients of thermal expansion. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL : A rubbertable of type MooneyRivlin must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding material properties. Note that the maximum allowed number of temperature points is 16. RUBBERVISCOELASTIC [0] If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERMULLINS [0] If RUBBERMULLINS is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If RUBBERMULLINS is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERORTHOTROPIC If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If RUBBERADINA R & D, Inc.
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[0]
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MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN
ORTHOTROPIC is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL MROZBILINEAR
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL MROZBILINEAR
NAME E NU YIELD BOUND ET ETB EPA DENSITY ALPHA TREF
Defines an elasticplastic material with the Mroz yield criteria and bilinear hardening. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} YIELD Initial yield stress in simple tension. BOUND Bounding stress. E T Strain hardening modulus. ETB Hardening modulus of the bounding surface. EPA [0.0] The maximum allowable effective plastic strain, which enables the modeling of rupture. The stresses are set to zero when the effective plastic strain is greater than the rupture strain EPA. EPA = 0.0 corresponds to no rupture condition. DENSITY Mass density. ALPHA The mean coefficient of thermal expansion. [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0]
TREF [0.0] Reference temperature for calculation of ALPHA. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP
MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP
NAME HARDENING CREEPLAW TEMPUNIT A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 TREF ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15
thetai Ei nui alphai dcurvei Defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplasticmultilinear and creep material, with von Mises yield condition and isotropic or kinematic strain hardening. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening used by the material. ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. [ISOTROPIC]
CREEPLAW [0] Indicates type of the creep law. For details of the creep laws, please refer to Section 3.6.3 of the Theory and Modeling Guide. {0/1/2/3/LUBBY2/BLACKBURN} TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Creep law 3 may refer to temperatures in degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale). {CELSIUS/KELVIN} A0 ... A15 [0.0] Creep law constants, ai. A8 ... A15 are applicable only when CREEPLAW = BLACKBURN. TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. ALPHA [1.0] Time integration parameter {0.0 ≤ ALPHA ≤ 1.0}, used in the integration of the thermo
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MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP
Sec. 7.1 Material models
plastic and creep rate equations. The limiting values are: 0.0 1.0 Euler forward method (explicit). Euler backward method (implicit). [1.0E10]
TOLIL Solution tolerance. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. DENSITY Mass density.
[0.0]
NRUPT1 [0] NRUPT2 [0] Label numbers of rupture criteria, defined by command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used simultaneously provided that they are not of the same type. A zero value indicates that no rupture criteria are to be used with the material definition. TIMEHARDENING [NO] Indicates whether strain hardening (NO) or time hardening (YES) is used. {YES/NO} thetai Temperature at data point “i”. Ei Young’s Modulus at temperature “thetai”. nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. dcurvei Stress vs. strain curve at temperature “thetai”. This data entry is the label number of a stressstrain curve defined via SCURVE. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used.
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE NAME HARDENING NCOEF TEMPUNIT TREF ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING CREEPLAW thetai Ei nui alphai dcurvei Defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplasticmultilinear and creep material, with temperature and/or effectivestress dependent coefficients (see command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS ), von Mises yield condition, and isotropic or kinematic strain hardening. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening rule: ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. [ISOTROPIC]
NCOEF Label number of the creep coefficient dependence function, defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS. TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Indicates the temperature unit for the creep model; degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale). {CELSIUS/KELVIN} TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. ALPHA [1.0] Time integration parameter {0.0 ≤ ALPHA ≤ 1.0}, used in the integration of the thermoplastic and creep rate equations. The limiting values are: 0.0 1.0 Note: Euler forward method (explicit). Euler backward method (implicit).
ALPHA = 1.0 must be used with large strain analyses. [1.0E10]
TOLIL Solution tolerance. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details.
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
DENSITY Mass density.
[0.0]
NRUPT1 [0] NRUPT2 [0] Label numbers of rupture criteria, as defined by command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used simultaneously, provided they are not of the same type. A zero value indicates that no rupture criteria are to be used with the material definition. TIMEHARDENING [NO] Indicates whether strain hardening (NO) or time hardening (YES) is used. {YES/NO} CREEPLAW Specifies creep law to be used. {NONE/LAW3/LUBBY2} NONE LAW3 LUBBY2 Note: No creep. [LAW3]
ec = S ⋅ T ⋅ e −H
Lubby2 creep law.
If CREEPLAW=LAW3, the parameter NCOEF reference a creepcoefficient function defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY or CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR. If CREEPLAW=LUBBY2, the parameter NCOEF reference a creepcoefficient function defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2.
thetai Temperature at data point “i”. Ei Young’s Modulus at temperature “thetai”. nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. dcurvei Stress v strain curve at temperature “thetai”. This data entry is the label number of a stress
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MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
strain curve defined via SCURVE. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used.
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL NONLINEARELASTIC
MATERIAL NONLINEARELASTIC straini stressi
NAME DENSITY DCURVE
Defines a nonlinear elastic material. The model is uniaxial and the stressstrain curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (straini, stressi) which can be entered as data lines following the command or can be referenced via the DCURVE parameter (see SCURVE ). For a given strain, the total stress and tangent modulus are interpolated from the input curve. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
DCURVE [0] Label number of a stressstrain curve defined by command SCURVE. This defines the stressstrain data points associated with this material model. If DCURVE is input as 0, then the data lines following the command define the stressstrain data points. Conversely, if DCURVE is greater than zero then no data lines are expected. straini Strain at data point “i”. stress i Stress at strain “straini”. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL OGDEN
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL OGDEN
NAME MU1 ALPHA1 MU2 ALPHA2 MU3 ALPHA3 MU4 ALPHA4 MU5 ALPHA5 MU6 ALPHA6 MU7 ALPHA7 MU8 ALPHA8 MU9 ALPHA9 KAPPA DENSITY FITTINGCURVE VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE TREF RUBBERTABLE RUBBERVISCOELASTIC RUBBERMULLINS RUBBERORTHOTROPIC
Defines an Ogden material model, which is an incompressible nonlinear elastic material model for rubber materials. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. MUi [0.0 (1 ≤ i ≤ 9)] ALPHAi [0.0 (1 ≤ i ≤ 9)] Ogden constants µi, αi. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. Note that if ALPHAi = 0.0 and curve fitting is used (i.e., FITTINGCURVE > 0), ALPHAi = i will be assigned. KAPPA Bulk modulus. DENSITY Mass density. Note: It is required that the initial shear modulus be positive, i.e., µi .νi > 0.0 . KAPPA is used in plane strain, axisymmetric and threedimensional analyses. FITTINGCURVE [0] Fittingcurve label. The fitting curve is used to calculate the parameters MUi and ALPHAi. If FITTINGCURVE > 0 is specified, any values specified for MUi and ALPHAi will be ignored. VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS [0] Viscoelasticconstants label. This parameter is superseded by the RUBBERVISCOELASTIC parameter. However, this parameter is still supported for backwards compatibility. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE Specifies the temperature dependence of the material properties. {NO/TRS/FULL} [NO] [determined from the initial shear modulus, assuming near incompressibility ( ν=0.499)]
[0.0]
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL OGDEN
NO
The material properties are not temperature dependent; thermal effects are not included. The material properties are not temperature dependent, but the material is assumed to be TRS (thermorheologically simple). Thermal effects are included. The material properties are temperature dependent. Parameters C1 to KAPPA, and RUBBERVISCOELASTIC to RUBBERORTHOTROPIC of this command are ignored.
TRS
FULL
The only parameters used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL are NAME, TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, TREF and RUBBERTABLE. TREF [0.0] The material reference temperature, required if TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS or FULL. RUBBERTABLE The label number of a rubbertable data set. The type of rubbertable depends upon TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE, as follows: TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = NO : Do not enter a rubbertable. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = TRS : A rubbertable of type TRS must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding coefficients of thermal expansion. TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL : A rubbertable of type MooneyRivlin must be entered. This rubbertable is a table of temperatures and corresponding material properties. Note that the maximum allowed number of temperature points is 16. RUBBERVISCOELASTIC [0] If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If RUBBERVISCOELASTIC is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. RUBBERMULLINS [0] If RUBBERMULLINS is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If RUBBERMULLINS is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL.
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[0]
MATERIAL OGDEN
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERORTHOTROPIC [0] If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If RUBBERORTHOTROPIC is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command. This parameter is not used when TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE = FULL. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC
MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC
NAME EA EB EC NUAB NUAC NUBC GAB GAC GBC DENSITY WRINKLE WTIME
Defines an orthotropic linear elastic material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. EA adirection modulus. {> 0.0} EB bdirection modulus. {> 0.0} EC [0.0] cdirection modulus. EC=0 is admissible only for PLATE elements ( EGROUP PLATE ). {≥ 0.0} NUAB ab strain ratio. NUAC ac strain ratio. NUBC bc strain ratio. GAB ab shear modulus. {> 0.0} GAC ac shear modulus. GAC=0 is admissible only for PLATE and 2D solid elements ( EGROUP PLATE and EGROUP TWODSOLID ). {≥ 0.0} GBC bc shear modulus. GBC=0 is admissible only for PLATE and 2D solid elements ( EGROUP PLATE and EGROUP TWODSOLID ). {≥ 0.0} DENSITY Mass density. [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL ORTHOTROPIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
WRINKLE Indicates whether wrinkling is to be modeled (e.g., for fabrics). {YES/NO} Note: Modeling of wrinkling is only allowed for TWODSOLID plane stress elements.
[NO]
WTIME Wrinkling time, i.e., the time at which wrinkling of the material is activated. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0]
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL PLASTICBILINEAR
MATERIAL PLASTICBILINEAR NAME HARDENING E NU YIELD ET EPA STRAINRATEFUNCTION DENSITY ALPHA TREF DEPENDENCY TRANSITIONSTRAINRATE EPSTRAINRATE BCURVE BVALUE XMINF XM0 ETA Defines a bilinear elasticplastic material model with von Mises yield condition. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING [ISOTROPIC] Selects the type of strain hardening used by the material. {ISOTROPIC / KINEMATIC / MIXED} ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC MIXED E Young’s modulus. Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. Mixed hardening. See Theory and Modeling Guide, Section 3.4.1 {> 0.0} [0.0]
NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} YIELD Initial yield stress in simple tension. E T Strain hardening modulus.
[0.0]
EPA [0.0] Maximum allowable effective plastic strain. This allows for the modeling of material rupture, whereby the stresses are set to zero whenever the effective plastic strain is greater than the rupture strain EPA. If EPA is input as 0.0, the rupture condition is not used. STRAINRATEFUNCTION [0] The label number of a strain rate function describing the strain rate dependence of the yield stress. The function must have been defined using the STRAINRATEFUNCTION command. This option can only be used for TRUSS elements. A zero value indicates no strain rate dependence.
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MATERIAL PLASTICBILINEAR
Sec. 7.1 Material models
DENSITY Mass density.
[0.0]
ALPHA [0.0] Mean coefficient of thermal expansion. ALPHA is only considered if thermal loading is modeled. TREF [0.0] Reference temperature for calculations of ALPHA. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Note: The parameters ALPHA, TREF are not applicable to TRUSS elements. [NO]
DEPENDENCY Flag indicating strain rate dependency. {YES/NO} TRANSITIONSTRAINRATE Transition strain rate. EPSTRAINRATE Nonzero strain rate.
[0.0001]
[0.0]
BCURVE [0] Label number of a stressstrain curve defined by command SCURVE. If BCURVE is input as zero, then the command uses BVALUE as the strain rate hardening value. If BCURVE is greater than zero then the program will calculate the strain rate hardening value and BVALUE will be ignored. BV ALUE Strain rate hardening parameter. XMINF Hardening parameter M∞ , used only for mixed hardening. XM0 Hardening parameter M0 , used only for mixed hardening. ETA Hardening parameter η , used only for mixed hardening. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL PLASTICCREEP
MATERIAL PLASTICCREEP
NAME HARDENING CREEPLAW TEMPUNIT A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 TREF ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING
thetai Ei nui yieldi ETi alphai EPAi Defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplastic and creep material, with von Mises yield condition and isotropic or kinematic strain hardening. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening used by the material. ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. [ISOTROPIC]
CREEPLAW [0] Indicates type of the creep law. Please refer to the Theory and Modeling Guide, Section 3.6.3 for details of the formulation of these creep laws. {0/1/2/3/LUBBY2/BLACKBURN} TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Creep law 3 may refer to temperatures in degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale). {CELSIUS/KELVIN} A0 ... A15 Creep law constants, ai. [0.0]
TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. ALPHA [1.0] Time integration parameter { 0.0 ≤ ALPHA ≤ 1.0}, used in the integration of the thermoplastic and creep rate equations. The limiting values are: 0.0 Euler forward method (explicit).
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
1.0
Euler backward method (implicit). [1.0E10]
TOLIL Solution tolerance. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. DENSITY Mass density.
[0.0]
NRUPT1 [0] NRUPT2 [0] Label numbers of rupture criteria, defined by command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used simultaneously provided that they are not of the same type. A zero value indicates that no rupture criteria are to be used with the material definition. TIMEHARDENING [NO] Indicates whether strain hardening (NO) or time hardening (YES) is used. {YES/NO} thetai Temperature at data point “i”. Ei Young’s Modulus at temperature “thetai”. nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. yieldi Yield stress in simple tension at temperature “thetai”. ETi Strain hardening modulus at temperature “thetai”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. EPAi Maximum allowable effective plastic strain at temperature “thetai” enabling the modeling of rupture. If EPAi = 0.0 the rupture condition is not used at temperature “thetai”.
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL PLASTICCREEP
Note:
The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used.
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
NAME HARDENING NCOEF, TEMPUNIT TREF ALPHA TOLIL DENSITY NRUPT1 NRUPT2 TIMEHARDENING CREEPLAW
thetai Ei nui yieldi ETi alphai EPAi Defines a nonlinear thermoelasticplastic and creep material, with temperature and/or effectivestress dependent coefficients (see command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS ), von Mises yield condition, and isotropic or kinematic strain hardening. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening rule: ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. [ISOTROPIC]
NCOEF Label number of the creep coefficient dependence function, defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS. TEMPUNIT [CELSIUS] Indicates the temperature unit for the creep model; degrees Celsius (the centigrade scale) or degrees Kelvin (the absolute scale). {CELSIUS/KELVIN} TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. ALPHA [1.0] Time integration parameter {0.0 ≤ ALPHA ≤ 1.0}, used in the integration of the thermoplastic and creep rate equations. The limiting values are: 0.0 1.0 Note: Euler forward method (explicit). Euler backward method (implicit).
ALPHA = 1.0 must be used with large strain analyses.
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
TOLIL Solution tolerance. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. DENSITY Mass density.
[1.0E10]
[0.0]
NRUPT1 [0] NRUPT2 [0] Label numbers of rupture criteria, as defined by command RUPTURE. Two rupture criteria can be used simultaneously, provided they are not of the same type. A zero value indicates that no rupture criteria are to be used with the material definition. TIMEHARDENING [NO] Indicates whether strain hardening (NO) or time hardening (YES) is used. {YES/NO} thetai Temperature at data point “i”. Ei Young’s Modulus at temperature “thetai”. nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. yieldi Yield stress in simple tension at temperature “thetai”. ETi Strain hardening modulus at temperature “thetai”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. EPAi Maximum allowable effective plastic strain at temperature “thetai” enabling the modeling of rupture. If EPAi = 0.0 the rupture condition is not used at temperature “thetai”. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used. [LAW3]
CREEPLAW Specifies creep law to be used. {NONE/LAW3/LUBBY2}
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MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
NONE LAW3 LUBBY2 Note:
No creep.
ec = S ⋅ T ⋅ e −H
Lubby2 creep law.
If CREEPLAW=LAW3, the parameter NCOEF reference a creepcoefficient function defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY or CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR. If CREEPLAW=LUBBY2, the parameter NCOEF reference a creepcoefficient function defined by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2.
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
MATERIAL PLASTICMULTILINEAR
MATERIAL PLASTICMULTILINEAR
NAME HARDENING E NU STRAINRATEFUNCTION DENSITY ALPHA TREF DCURVE DEPENDENCY TRANSITIONSTRAINRATE EPSTRAINRATE BCURVE BVALUE
strain1 stress1 ... straini stressi
(stress1 = initial yield stress)
Defines a multilinear elasticplastic material model with von Mises yield condition. The stressstrain curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (straini, stressi) which can be entered as data lines following the command or can be referenced via the DCURVE parameter (see SCURVE ). NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening used by the material. ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC E Young’s modulus. {> 0.0} NU Poisson’s ratio. {1.0 < NU < 0.5} Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. [0.0] [ISOTROPIC]
[0.0]
STRAINRATEFUNCTION [0] The label number of a strain rate function describing the strain rate dependence of the yield stress. The function must have been defined using the STRAINRATEFUNCTION command. This option can only be used for TRUSS elements. A zero value indicates no strain rate dependence. DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
ALPHA [0.0] Mean coefficient of thermal expansion. ALPHA is only considered if thermal loading is modeled.
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
TREF [0.0] Reference temperature to calculations of ALPHA. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Note: Parameters ALPHA, TREF are not applicable to TRUSS elements.
DCURVE [0] Label number of a stressstrain curve defined by command SCURVE. This defines the stressstrain data points associated with this material model. If DCURVE is input as 0, then the data lines following the command define the stressstrain data points. Conversely, if DCURVE is greater than zero then no data lines are expected. DEPENDENCY Flag indicating strain rate dependency. {YES/NO} TRANSITIONSTRAINRATE Transition strain rate. EPSTRAINRATE Nonzero strain rate. [NO]
[0.0001]
[0.0]
BCURVE [0] Label number of a stressstrain curve defined by command SCURVE. If BCURVE is input as zero, then the command uses BVALUE as the strain rate hardening value. If BCURVE is greater than zero then the program will calculate the strain rate hardening value and BVALUE will be ignored. BV ALUE Strain rate hardening parameter. [0.0]
strain1 Strain at data point 1. The input value here is overwritten by the calculated initial yield strain (stress1 / E). stress 1 Stress at strain1, equal to the initial yield stress. straini Strain at data point i (i > 1). stressi Stress at straini.
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MATERIAL PLASTICMULTILINEAR
Note:
The strainstress data points can be input in any strain order (they will be automatically sorted in increasing strain order) but all input strains must be greater than or equal to strain1 = (stress1 / E). The stress is assumed to be zero when the effective plastic strain is greater than the maximum input strain value. The slope of the stressstrain curve (the tangent modulus, ET) must satisfy (for all points in the nonlinear part of the curve): 0 ≤ ET < E 0.0001 × E ≤ ET < E for isotropic hardening. for kinematic hardening.
Note: Note:
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL PLASTICORTHOTROPIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL PLASTICORTHOTROPIC
NAME EA EB EC NUAB NUAC NUBC GAB GAC GBC YIELDAA YIELDBB YIELDCC YIELDAB YIELDAC YIELDBC ETAA ETBB ETCC ETAB ETAC ETBC EPLU EPA DENSITY ALPHAA ALPHAB ALPHAC TREF OPTION METHOD R0 R45 R90 F G H L M N C E0 NN
Defines a nonlinear orthotropic plastic material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. EA adirection modulus. {> 0.0} EB bdirection modulus. {> 0.0} EC cdirection modulus. {> 0.0} NUAB ab strain ratio. NUAC ac strain ratio. NUBC bc strain ratio. GAB ab shear modulus. {> 0.0} GAC [0.0] ac shear modulus. GAC=0 is admissible only for 2D solid elements ( EGROUP TWODSOLID ). {≥ 0.0} GBC [0.0] bc shear modulus. GBC=0 is admissible only for 2D solid elements ( EGROUP TWODSOLID ). {≥ 0.0} [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL PLASTICORTHOTROPIC
YIELDAA Initial yield stress for adirection. YIELDBB Initial yield stress for bdirection. YIELDCC Initial yield stress for cdirection. YIELDAB Initial yield stress for abplane. YIELDAC Initial yield stress for acplane. YIELDBC Initial yield stress for bcplane. ETAA Strain hardening modulus for adirection. ETBB Strain hardening modulus for bdirection. ETCC Strain hardening modulus for cdirection. ETAB Strain hardening modulus for abplane. ETAC Strain hardening modulus for acplane. ETBC Strain hardening modulus for bcplane. [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
EPLU [0.0] Universal plastic modulus; ratio of effective plastic stress to effective plastic strain (Hill). EPA [0.0] Maximum allowable effective plastic strain. This allows for the modeling of material rupture, whereby the stresses are set to zero whenever the effective plastic strain is greater than the rupture strain EPA. If EPA is input as 0.0, the rupture condition is not used.
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MATERIAL PLASTICORTHOTROPIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
DENSITY Mass density. ALPHAA Mean coefficient of thermal expansion for adirection. ALPHAB Mean coefficient of thermal expansion for bdirection. ALPHAC Mean coefficient of thermal expansion for cdirection.
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
TREF [0.0] Reference temperature for calculation of ALPHAA, ALPHAB and ALPHAC. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. OPTION Indicates method to determine plastic moduli: 1 [1]
The universal plastic modulus EPLU is used to determine the plastic moduli. Any input values for the strain hardening moduli ETAA, ETBB, ETCC, ETAB, ETAC, ETBC are ignored. 2 The moduli EA, EB, EC, GAB, GAC, GBC are used with the strain hardening moduli ETAA, ETBB, ETCC, ETAB, ETAC, ETBC to determine the plastic moduli. Any input value for the universal plastic modulus EPLU is ignored. Constants C, E0 and NN are used to determine the plastic moduli. Any input values for the strain hardening moduli ETAA, ETBB, ETCC, ETAB, ETAC, ETBC, EPLU are ignored. [1]
3
METHOD Indicates method to determine Hill’s anisotropy parameters F, G, H, L, M, N: 1
Anisotropy parameters are calculated by AUI based on yield stresses. Any input values for R0, R45, R90, F, G, H, L, M, N are ignored. Anisotropy parameters are calculated based on Lankford coefficients R0, R45, R90. Any input values for F, G, H, L, M, N are ignored. Anisotropy parameters are directly defined  F, G, H, L, M, N. Any input values for R0, R45, R90 are ignored.
2
3
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MATERIAL PLASTICORTHOTROPIC
R0 Lankford coefficient for 00 degree to rolling direction. R45 Lankford coefficient for 450 degree to rolling direction. R90 Lankford coefficient for 900 degree to rolling direction. F Hill's anisotropy parametry F. G Hill's anisotropy parametry G. H Hill's anisotropy parametry H. L Hill's anisotropy parametry L. M Hill's anisotropy parametry M. N Hill's anisotropy parametry N. C Constant C of analytical stressstrain curve σ = C ⋅ (ε 0 + ε ) .
n
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[1.0]
[0.5]
[0.5]
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[1.0]
E0 Constant ε0 of analytical stressstrain curve σ = C ⋅ (ε 0 + ε ) .
n
[0.001]
NN Constant n of analytical stressstrain curve σ = C ⋅ (ε 0 + ε ) .
n
[0.1]
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL SMA
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIAL SMA
NAME EM EA NUM NUA ALPHAM ALPHAA CM CA MS MF AS AF SIGMAR CR ETMAX TOLIL DENSITY TREF VTM0
Defines a shapememory alloy (SMA) material. An SMA material may be used with truss, 2D solid, 3D solid and isobeam elements. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. E M Elastic modulus for martensite. {> 0} EA Elastic modulus for austenite.{> 0} NUM Poisson’s ratio for martensite.{0 ≤ NUM < 0.5} NUA Poission’s ratio for austenite.{0 ≤ NUA < 0.5} ALPHAM Mean coefficient of thermal expansion for martensite. {≥ 0.0} ALPHAA Mean coefficient of thermal expansion for austenite.{≥ 0.0} CM Slope of the martensite transformation conditions. {> 0} CA Slope of the austenite transformation conditions. {> 0} MS Transformation temperature at the start of martensite. {real} M F Transformation temperature at the end of martensite. {real} AS Transformation temperature at the start of austenite. {real} [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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MATERIAL SMA
AF Transformation temperature at the end of austenite. {real} SIGMAR [0.0] Martensite reorientation yield property at temperature θ=0. If SIGMAR > 0.0, the martensite reorientation calculation is performed.{≥ 0.0} CR Slope of the martensite reorientation yield function.{≥ 0.0} ETMAX Maximum residual transformation strain.{> 0.0} TOLIL Solution tolerance for effective stress calculation. {> 0.0} DENSITY Mass density. TREF Reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. VTM0 Initial twinned martensite fraction.{0.0 ≤ VTM0 ≤ 1.0} [1.0E10] [0.0]
[0.0]
[0]
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MATERIAL THERMOISOTROPIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MATERIALTHERMOISOTROPIC thetai Ei nui alphai
NAME TREF DENSITY
Defines a nonlinear isotropic thermoelastic material model which considers the variation of material properties with temperature. Linear interpolation is performed to determine values at intermediate temperatures. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for expansion coefficient calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. DENSITY Mass density. thetai Temperature at data point “i”. (i ≤ 16) Ei Young’s Modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given value is used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
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MATERIAL THERMOORTHOTROPIC
MATERIALTHERMOORTHOTROPIC
NAME TREF DENSITY
thetai Eai Ebi Eci nuabi nuaci nubci Gabi Gaci Gbci alphaai alphabi alphaci Defines a nonlinear orthotropic thermoelastic material model which considers the variation of material properties with temperature. Linear interpolation is performed to determine values at intermediate temperatures. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. DENSITY Mass density. thetai Temperature at data point “i”. (i ≤ 16) Eai adirection modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) Ebi bdirection modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) Eci cdirection modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) nuabi ab strain ratio at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) nuaci ac strain ratio at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) nubci bc strain ratio at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) Gabi ab shear modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) [0.0]
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
Gaci ac shear modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) Gbci bc shear modulus at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) alphaai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion in adirection at temperature “thetai”. alphabi Mean coefficient of thermal expansion in bdirection at temperature “thetai”. alphaci Mean coefficient of thermal expansion in cdirection at temperature “thetai”. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL THERMOPLASTIC
MATERIALTHERMOPLASTIC
NAME HARDENING TREF TOLIL DENSITY
thetai Ei nui yieldi ETi alphai EPAi Defines a nonlinear thermoplastic material. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening used by the material. ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. [ISOTROPIC]
TREF [0.0] The reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. TOLIL Solution tolerance. See Theory and Modeling Guide. DENSITY Mass density. thetai Temperature at data point “i”. Ei Young’s Modulus at temperature “thetai”. nui Poisson’s ratio at temperature “thetai”. yieldi Yield stress in simple tension at temperature “thetai”. ETi Strain hardening modulus at temperature “thetai”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”.
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MATERIAL THERMOPLASTIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
EPAi Maximum allowable effective plastic strain at temperature “thetai” enabling the modeling of rupture. If EPAi = 0.0 the rupture condition is not used at temperature “thetai”. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used. Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL USERSUPPLIED
MATERIAL USERSUPPLIED
NAME INTEG NSUBD TREF DENSITY LENGTH1 LENGTH2 OPTION NCTI NSCP NCTD CTI1 ... CTI99 SCP1 ... SCP99
tempi alphai ctd1i ctd2i ... CtdNCTDi Defines a usersupplied material for use with ADINA, with options for piezoelectric or consolidation analyses (requiring interaction with ADINAT). NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. INTEG Stress integration scheme. FORWARD BACKWARD Forward integration scheme. Backward integration scheme. [10] [FORWARD]
NSUBD Number of subdivisions of strain increments used in the integration of stresses.
TREF [0.0] Reference temperature for thermal expansion calculation. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
LENGTH1 [60] Length of working real array for storing/retrieving history dependent variables. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. LENGTH2 [2] Length of working integer array for storing/retrieving history dependent variables. See Theory and Modeling Guide for details. OPTION [NONE] Special analysis options. {NONE/PIEZOELECTRIC/CONSOLIDATION/LINEAR} NONE PIEZOELECTRIC  No special analysis option  Piezoelectric analysis (involving interaction with ADINAT)
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MATERIAL USERSUPPLIED
Sec. 7.1 Material models
CONSOLIDATION LINEAR
 Consolidation analysis.  Linear material model option
NCTI Number of active material property constants. {0 ≤ NCTI ≤ 99} NSCP Number of active solution control parameters. {0 ≤ NSCP ≤ 99} NCTD Number of active temperature dependent material properties. {0 ≤ NCTD ≤ 98} CTI1 ... CTI99 User defined material constants. SCP1 ... SCP99 User defined solution control parameters. tempi Temperature at data point “i”. alphai Mean coefficient of the thermal expansion at temperature “tempi”. ctdJi value of temperaturedependent material property “J” at temperature “tempi”. Note: The material properties are automatically sorted in order of increasing temperature. If the same temperature is given several times, only the last given values are used. [0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATERIAL VISCOELASTIC
MATERIAL VISCOELASTIC
NAME NSUBD TREF C1 C2 ALPHA GFUNCTION KFUNCTION DENSITY
thetai alphai Defines a viscoelastic material with time dependent and temperature dependent material properties. NAME [(current highest material label number) + 1] Label number of the material to be defined. If the label number of an existing material is given, the existing material definition is overwritten. NSUBD Number of subdivisions of strain increments used in the integration of stresses. [10]
TREF [0.0] Reference temperature used by WLF equation (WilliamsLandellFerry), for temperaturetime shift calculation. C1 [0.0] C2 [0.0] Material constants used by WLF equation (WilliamsLandellFerry), for temperaturetime shift calculation. ALPHA [0.0] Constant mean coefficient of thermal expansion. If no temperature table is defined, alpha is assumed constant. GFUNCTION Label number of a table, defined by command FTABLE, containing a series of shear moduli and decay coefficients to represent the shear modulus relaxation function. KFUNCTION Label number of a table, defined by command FTABLE, containing a series of bulk moduli and decay coefficients to represent the bulk modulus relaxation function. DENSITY Mass density. [0.0]
The following data lines are used only when the coefficient of thermal expansion is temperaturedependent:
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MATERIAL VISCOELASTIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
thetai Temperature at data point “i”. (i ≤ 16) alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature “thetai”. (i ≤ 16) Auxiliary commands LIST MATERIAL DELETE MATERIAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CURVEFITTING
CURVEFITTING
NAME ORDER TENSIONCURVE SHEARCURVE EQUIBIAXIALCURVE WEIGHTING CURVETYPE METHOD NSINGULAR MAXSINGV MINSINGV ECHO
Defines a fitting curve for hyperelastic material models. A least squares curve fitting technique is employed to determine the parameters for a MooneyRivlin, Ogden, ArrudaBoyce or hyperfoam material model from experimental stress versus strain (or stretch) data. The data can be input for any of three test cases: (i) simple tension, (ii) pure shear, or (iii) equibiaxial tension. A single test or combination of any two, or all three, can be supplied. The accuracy of the model curve thus fitted depends on the number of data points, and the desired approximation order of the model.
• • • •
The total number of data points, from all three test cases, is subject to a minimum, as follows: 2,5,9 for a MooneyRivlin model of input order 1, 2, 3 respectively; the input order for the Ogden material; 2 for the ArrudaBoyce material; and the input order for the hyperfoam material.
NAME [(current highest curvefitting label number) + 1] Label number of the curvefitting to be defined. If the label number of an existing curvefitting is given, then the previous curvefitting definition is overwritten. This curve number can be assigned to the MooneyRivlin, Ogden, ArrudaBoyce or hyperfoam material model where material constants for the model are evaluated form the input curves (see Notes at the end of this command). ORDER Approximation order. Allowed values are: • MooneyRivlin material: 1 to 3 • Ogden material: 1 to 9 • ArrudaBoyce material: 2 • Hyperfoam material: 1 to 9 [3]
TENSIONCURVE [0] Indicates the label number of a (stress, strain) data curve, which provides data for the simple tension test case. This data curve is defined by command SSCURVE. A value of 0 indicates no simple tension data is supplied. The abscissae may be interpreted as strain or stretch as
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CURVEFITTING
Sec. 7.1 Material models
indicated by parameter CURVETYPE. SHEARCURVE [0] Similar to TENSIONCURVE, except that this curve provides data for the pure shear test case. EQUIBIAXIALCURVE [0] Similar to TENSIONCURVE, except that this curve provides data for the equilbiaxial tension test case. WEIGHTING [NO] Specifies whether the least squares fitting scheme utilises weighted data intervals or not their use may provide a better fit for data with very irregular spacing of the strain (or stretch) abscissae. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. Input values are YES or NO. CURVETYPE [STRAIN] Indicates the type of input curve data given by parameters TENSIONCURVE, SHEARCURVE, and EQUIBIAXIALCURVE. The option is given for the data abscissae to be either principal (engineering) strain, or principal stretch (= deformed length /undeformed length). The ordinate values in either case are values of nominal stress (= force / unit undeformed area). {STRAIN/STRETCH} STRAIN STRETCH input principal engineering strain data  input principal stretch data
METHOD [SVD] Specifies the least squares matrix equation solution method. Use of Gaussian elimination may well result in model constants which alternate in sign and have very high magnitude. This is due to the presence of nearsingular terms in the least squares system. The "singular value decomposition" method attempts to remove these terms during solution, yielding more reasonable model constants without affecting the overall quality of the least squares fit. The number of nearsingular terms to be removed may be controlled by parameters MAXSINGV, MINSINGV. Nearsingular terms are removed by default until a monotone increasing solution is obtained for all test cases. This parameter is only used for the MooneyRivlin and Ogden material models. SVD  The singular value decomposition method GAUSS  Standard Gaussian elimination technique NSINGULAR [AUTOMATIC] Indicates whether the number of nearsingular terms to be removed in the singular value decomposition solution method is controlled automatically by the program, or is to be
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CURVEFITTING
userspecified via parameters MAXSINGV, MINSINGV. This parameter is only applicable when METHOD=SVD. AUTOMATIC  the program controls the number of nearsingular terms to be removed by the singular value decomposition solution method. CUSTOM  the user indicates the maximum and minimum number of nearsingular terms to be removed. MAXSINGV [0] If NSINGULAR=CUSTOM, this parameter indicates the maximum number of nearsingular terms which are permitted to be removed during the search for a monotone increasing set of result curves. MAXSINGV may range from 0 (for which the resulting solution is identical to that obtained by Gaussian elimination) to the total desired number of model constants, as indicated by parameter ORDER. This parameter is only applicable when METHOD=SVD. MINSINGV [0] If NSINGULAR=CUSTOM, this parameter indicates the minimum number of nearsingular terms which will be removed by the singular value decomposition method, i.e. the SVD algorithm will remove at least MINSINGV terms even if a monotone solution set was obtained with fewer terms removed. This parameter is only applicable when METHOD=SVD. ECHO Specifies the level of information reported by the command: NONE MODEL ALL [ALL]
 the command behaves silently, except for a completion message  the resulting material model constants are reported  as well as model constants, curve fitting statistics and comparison tables of input and fitted stress values for the input strain/stretch points is reported.
Notes: 1 2 For a discussion on the singular value decomposition method and its application to the least squares curve fitting algorithm, please consult the Theory and Modeling Guide. It is unwise to apply this command to a small set of data within a narrow range of strains/ stretches. If possible, some values of strain/stretch should be input for compression, and
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Sec. 7.1 Material models
it is recommended that the resulting curvefitting behavior always be checked with the MATERIALSHOW command. 3 The respective constants for each material model calculated from the input data curves are as follows (see Section 3.8.5 of the Theory and Modeling Guide Volume I for more details): MooneyRivlin: ORDER Constants 1 C1, C2 2 C1  C5 3 C1  C9 Ogden: The constants µi and αi are calculated from i = 1 to ORDER. ArrudaBoyce: ORDER = 2 only, with constants C1 to C5. Hyperfoam: The constants µi, αi and βi are calculated from i = 1 to ORDER.
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VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS
Sec. 7.1 Material models
VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS
NAME NPOINTS BETA1 BETA2 BETA3 BETA4 BETA5 TAU1 TAU2 TAU3 TAU4 TAU5 ETA1 ETA2 ETA3 ETA4 ETA5
Defines viscoelastic contants for a viscoelastic material model. NAME [(current highest viscoelasticconstants label number) + 1] Label number of the viscoelasticcontants to be defined. If the label number of an existing viscoelasticcontants is given, then the previous definition is overwritten. NPOINTS Number of constants. {1<=NPOINTS<=5} BETA1 BETA2 BETA3 BETA4 BETA5 Free energy factors. {BETA>=0.0} TAU1 TAU2 TAU3 TAU4 TAU5 Relaxation time. {TAU>0.0} ETA1 ETA2 ETA3 ETA4 ETA5 {ETA>=0.0} Auxiliary commands LIST VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS DELETE VISCOELASTICCONSTANTS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [2]
[1.0] [1.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[30.0] [20.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[4.002676E6] [4.002676E6] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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RUBBERTABLE MOONEYRIVLIN
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERTABLE MOONEYRIVLIN
NAME
thetai alphai c1i c2i c3i c4i c5i c6i c7i c8i c9i d1i d2i kappai fittingcurvei rubberviscoelastici rubbermullinsi rubberorthotropici Defines a rubbertable data set of type MooneyRivlin. This data set can be used to describe the temperature dependence of the MooneyRivlin material constants in the MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN command. NAME [(current highest rubbertable label number) + 1] Label number of the rubbertable data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubbertable data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. thetai The temperature corresponding to the material properties entered in this data input line. alphai The coefficient of thermal expansion. c1i ... c9i d1i ... d2i kappai The material properties. [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
fittingcurvei [0] If fittingcurvei is zero, no fitting curve is used. If fittingcurvei is nonzero, curvefitting data from the CURVEFITTING command is used to compute the material properties, and c1i to d2i are ignored. [0] rubberviscoelastici If rubberviscoelastici is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If rubberviscoelastici is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. rubbermullinsi If rubbermullinsi is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If rubbermullinsi is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. [0]
rubberorthotropici [0] If rubberorthotropici is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If rubberorthotropici is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command.
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RUBBERTABLE MOONEY RIVLIN
Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERTABLE DELETE RUBBERTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERTABLE OGDEN
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERTABLE OGDEN NAME thetai alphai mu1i alpha1i mu2i alpha2i mu3i alpha3i mu4i alpha4i mu5i alpha5i mu6i alpha6i mu7i alpha7i mu8i alpha8i mu9i alpha9i kappai fittingcurvei rubberviscoelastici rubbermullinsi rubberorthotropici Defines a rubbertable data set of type Ogden. This data set can be used to describe the temperature dependence of the Ogden material constants in the MATERIAL OGDEN command. NAME [(current highest rubbertable label number) + 1] Label number of the rubbertable data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubbertable data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. thetai The temperature corresponding to the material properties entered in this data input line. alphai The coefficient of thermal expansion. mu1i ... mu9i alpha1i ... alpha9i kappai The material properties. [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
fitttingcurvei [0] If fitttingcurvei is zero, no fitting curve is used. If fitttingcurvei is nonzero, curvefitting data from the CURVEFITTING command is used to compute the material properties, and mu1i to alpha9i are ignored. rubberviscoelastici [0] If rubberviscoelastici is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If rubberviscoelastici is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. rubbermullinsi If rubbermullinsi is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If rubbermullinsi is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. [0]
rubberorthotropici [0] If rubberorthotropici is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If rubberorthotropici is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command.
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RUBBERTABLE OGDEN
Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERTABLE DELETE RUBBERTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERTABLE ARRUDABOYCE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERTABLE ARRUDABOYCE
NAME
thetai alphai mui lambdai kappai fittingcurvei rubberviscoelastici rubbermullinsi rubberorthotropici Defines a rubbertable data set of type ArrudaBoyce. This data set can be used to describe the temperature dependence of the ArrudaBoyce material constants in the MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE command. NAME [(current highest rubbertable label number) + 1] Label number of the rubbertable data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubbertable data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. thetai The temperature corresponding to the material properties entered in this data input line. alphai The coefficient of thermal expansion. mui lambdai kappai The material properties. [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
fitttingcurvei [0] If fitttingcurvei is zero, no fitting curve is used. If fitttingcurvei is nonzero, curvefitting data from the CURVEFITTING command is used to compute the material properties, and mui , lambdai are ignored. [0] rubberviscoelastici If rubberviscoelastici is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If rubberviscoelastici is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. rubbermullinsi If rubbermullinsi is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If rubbermullinsi is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. [0]
rubberorthotropici [0] If rubberorthotropici is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If rubberorthotropici is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command.
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RUBBERTABLE ARRUDABOYCE
Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERTABLE DELETE RUBBERTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERTABLE HYPERFOAM
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERTABLE HYPERFOAM
NAME
thetai alphai mu1i alpha1i beta1i mu2i alpha2i beta2i mu3i alpha3i beta3i mu4i alpha4i beta4i mu5i alpha5i beta5i mu6i alpha6i beta6i mu7i alpha7i beta7i mu8i alpha8i beta8i mu9i alpha9i beta9i fittingcurvei rubberviscoelastici rubbermullinsi rubberorthotropici Defines a rubbertable data set of type hyperfoam. This data set can be used to describe the temperature dependence of the hyperfoam material constants in the MATERIAL HYPERFOAM command. NAME [(current highest rubbertable label number) + 1] Label number of the rubbertable data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubbertable data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. thetai The temperature corresponding to the material properties entered in this data input line. alphai The coefficient of thermal expansion. mu1i ... betai The material properties. [0.0]
[0.0]
fitttingcurvei [0] If fitttingcurvei is zero, no fitting curve is used. If fitttingcurvei is nonzero, curvefitting data from the CURVEFITTING command is used to compute the material properties, and mu1i to alpha9i are ignored. [0] rubberviscoelastici If rubberviscoelastici is zero, no viscoelastic effects are included. If rubberviscoelastici is nonzero, viscoelastic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERVISCOELASTIC command. rubbermullinsi If rubbermullinsi is zero, no Mullins effects are included. If rubbermullinsi is nonzero, Mullins effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERMULLINS command. [0]
rubberorthotropici [0] If rubberorthotropici is zero, no orthotropic effects are included. If rubberorthotropici is nonzero, orthotropic effects are included, using the data set from the corresponding RUBBERORTHOTROPIC command.
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RUBBERTABLE HYPERFOAM
Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERTABLE DELETE RUBBERTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERTABLE TRS
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERTABLE TRS NAME thetai alphai Defines a rubbertable data set of type TRS. This data set can be used to specify the coefficients of thermal expansion for the MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN, MATERIAL OGDEN, MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE and MATERIAL HYPERFOAM materials, when the TRS temperature dependence option is used. NAME [(current highest rubbertable label number) + 1] Label number of the rubbertable data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubbertable data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. thetai The temperature corresponding to the material properties entered in this data input line. alphai The coefficient of thermal expansion. Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERTABLE DELETE RUBBERTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
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RUBBERMULLINS OGDENROXBURGH
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERMULLINS OGDENROXBURGH
NAME R M GENERATION_FACTOR
Defines a data set of type rubberMullins, subtype OgdenRoxburgh. This data set can be referenced by the MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN, MATERIAL OGDEN, MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE and MATERIAL HYPERFOAM commands to add the Mullins effect to any of these materials. NAME [current highest rubbermullins label number + 1] Label number of the rubberMullins data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubberMullins data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. R [0.0] M [0.0] The material constants of the OgdenRoxburgh model for the Mullins effect, see the ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. GENERATION_FACTOR [0.0] The fraction of energy dissipated by the Mullins effect model that is considered as heat generation. For example, if GENERATION_FACTOR = 1.0, then all energy dissipated by the Mullins effect model is considered as heat generation. Heat generation can cause heating in a TMC (thermomechanical coupling) analysis. Auxiliary commands: LIST RUBBERMULLINS DELETE RUBBERMULLINS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERMULLINS OGDENROXBURGH
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RUBBERVISCOELASTIC HOLZAPFEL
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERVISCOELASTIC HOLZAPFEL betai taui generation_factori usagei
NAME SHIFT C1 C2
Defines a data set of type rubberviscoelastic, subtype Holzapfel. This data set can be referenced by the MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN, MATERIAL OGDEN, MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE and MATERIAL HYPERFOAM commands to add the viscoelastic effect to any of these materials. See the ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide for the meanings of the material parameters. NAME [current highest rubberviscoelastic label number + 1] Label number of the rubberviscoelastic data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubberviscoelastic data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. SHIFT [NONE] Specifies the timetemperature superposition shift law.If SHIFT = NONE, timetemperature superposition is not used.If SHIFT = WLF, the WLF (WilliamsLandelFerry) shift functionis used for the timetemperature superposition. {NONE/WLF} C1 C2 The material constants for the WLF shift function. betai Beta for chain (i) of the viscoelastic model. taui Tau for chain (i) of the viscoelastic model. Tau must be greater than 0. [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0] generation_factori The heat generation factor (fraction of dissipation energy convered into heat generation). If generation_factori = 0, the dissipation is not calculated and there is no heat generation. usagei [DEVIATORIC] The usage of the chain. {COMBINED/DEVIATORIC/VOPLUMETRIC/AORTHO/ BORTHO/CORTHO} COMBINED DEVIATORIC VOLUMETRIC The chain is based on the total strain energy. The chain is based on the deviatoric strain energy. The chain is based on the volumetric strain energy.
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RUBBERVISCOELASTIC HOLZAPFEL
AORTHO BORTHO CORTHO
The chain is based on the A direction orthotropic strain energy. The chain is based on the B direction orthotropic strain energy. The chain is based on the C direction orthotropic strain energy (not supported in this version)
Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERVISCOELASTIC DELETE RUBBERVISCOELASTIC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERORTHOTROPIC HOLZAPFEL
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUBBERORTHOTROPIC HOLZAPFEL
NAME BETAA BETAB K1 K2 COMPRESSION
Defines a data set of type rubberorthotropic, subtype Holzapfel. This data set can be referenced by the MATERIAL MOONEYRIVLIN, MATERIAL OGDEN, MATERIAL ARRUDABOYCE and MATERIAL HYPERFOAM commands to add the orthotropic effect to any of these materials. See the ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide for the meanings of the material parameters. NAME [current highest rubberorthotropic label number + 1] Label number of the rubberorthotropic data set to define. If the label number of an existing rubberorthotropic data set is defined, then the previous definition is overwritten. BETAA The angle (in degrees) between the material a axis and the fiber A direction na. [0.0]
BETAB [0.0] The angle (in degrees) between the material b axis and the fiber B direction nb. This parameter is not used if DIRECTION = AHOOP. K1 K1 The material constants of the orthotropic strain energy function. [0.0] [0.0]
COMPRESSION [NO] If COMPRESSION = NO, then material fibers in compression do not contribute to the orthotropic strain energy (no strain energy in compression). If COMPRESSION = YES, then material fibers in compression contribute to the orthotropic strain energy. DIRECTION [AB] If DIRECTION = AB, then the fiber directions are na and nb. If DIRECTION = AHOOP, then the fiber directions are na and x (the hoop direction). AHOOP is allowed only for axisymmetric elements. Auxiliary commands LIST RUBBERORTHOTROPIC DELETE RUBBERORTHOTROPIC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUBBERORTHOTROPIC HOLZAPFEL
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COEFFICIENTSTABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
COEFFICIENTSTABLE
NAME
sigmai a0i a1i a2i a3i a4i a5i a6i a7i Defines an effectivestress v creepcoefficients table, which can be referenced by command CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR to define the temperature and/or effectivestress dependence of creep material models with variable coefficients, see commands MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. NAME [(current highest COEFFICIENTSTABLE label number) + 1] Label number of the stress v creepcoefficient table to be defined. sigmai Stress at data point “i”. a0i Creep law coefficient a0 at stress sigmai. a1i Creep law coefficient a1 at stress sigmai. a2i Creep law coefficient a2 at stress sigmai. a3i Creep law coefficient a3 at stress sigmai. a4i Creep law coefficient a4 at stress sigmai. a5i Creep law coefficient a5 at stress sigmai. a6i Creep law coefficient a6 at stress sigmai. a7i Creep law coefficient a7 at stress sigmai. Auxiliary commands LIST COEFFICIENTSTABLE DELETE COEFFICIENTSTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2
CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2 thetai a0i a1i a2i a3i a4i a5i
NAME
Defines the dependency of creep law coefficients on temperature. This creep coefficient function is referenced by the NCOEF parameter in the commands: MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE if CREEPLAW=LUBBY2 is specified in those commands. NAME [(current highest creepcoefficient function label number) + 1] Label number of the creepcoefficient function to be defined. thetai Temperature at data point "i". a0i Creep law coefficient a0 at "thetai". a1i Creep law coefficient a1 at "thetai". a2i Creep law coefficient a2 at "thetai". a3i Creep law coefficient a3 at "thetai". {≠ 0.0} a4i Creep law coefficient a4 at "thetai". {≠ 0.0} a5i Creep law coefficient a5 at "thetai". {≠ 0.0} Auxiliary commands: LIST CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2 DELETE CREEPCOEFFICIENTS LUBBY2 FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
[1.21e8]
[188000]
[251000]
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CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR
Sec. 7.1 Material models
CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR thetai ccurvei
NAME
Defines the temperature and/or effectivestress dependence of creep material models with variable coefficients, see commands MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, and COEFFICIENTSTABLE. NAME [(current highest creepcoefficient function label number) + 1] Label number of the creepcoefficient function to be defined. thetai Temperature at data point “i”. ccurvei Stress vs. creepcoefficient table at temperature thetai, see command COEFFICIENTSTABLE. Auxiliary commands LISTCREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR DELETE CREEPCOEFFICIENTS MULTILINEAR FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY
CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY thetai a0i a1i a2i a3i a4i a5i a6i a7i
NAME
Defines the dependency of creep law coefficients on temperature. This creep coefficient function is referenced by the NCOEF parameter in the commands: MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE if CREEPLAW=LAW3 is specified in those commands. NAME [(current highest creepcoefficient function label number) + 1] Label number of the creepcoefficient function to be defined. thetai Temperature at data point “i”. a0i Creep law coefficient a0 at "thetai". a1i Creep law coefficient a1 at "thetai". a2i Creep law coefficient a2 at "thetai". a3i Creep law coefficient a3 at "thetai". a4i Creep law coefficient a4 at "thetai". a5i Creep law coefficient a5 at "thetai". a6i Creep law coefficient a6 at "thetai". a7i Creep law coefficient a7 at "thetai".
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CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY
Sec. 7.1 Material models
Auxiliary commands: LIST CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY DELETE CREEPCOEFFICIENTS TEMPERATUREONLY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CREEPCOEFFICIENTS USERSUPPLIED
CREEPCOEFFICIENTS USERSUPPLIED
NAME
Defines the temperature and/or effectivestress dependence of creep material models with variable coefficients, see commands: MATERIAL CREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, MATERIAL MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE. The dependence is defined via a usersupplied function, see the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. [(current highest creepcoefficient function label number) + 1] Label number of the creepcoefficient function to be defined. Auxiliary commands LIST CREEPCOEFFICIENTS USERSUPPLIED DELETE CREEPCOEFFICIENTS USERSUPPLIED FIRST LAST FIRST LAST NAME
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CURVATUREMOMENT
Sec. 7.1 Material models
CURVATUREMOMENT curvaturei momenti
NAME
Defines a curvature v moment curve which can be referenced by the command MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE . The curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (curvaturei, momenti). NAME [(current highest CURVATUREMOMENT label number) + 1] Label number of the curvature v moment curve to be defined. curvaturei Curvature at data point “i”. momenti Moment at curvaturei. Auxiliary commands LIST CURVATUREMOMENT DELETE CURV ATUREMOMENT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FTABLE
FTABLE modulusi modulusi decayi timei
NAME F0 OPTION WEIGHTING W1 W2 TAU (OPTION=DIRECT) (OPTION=TEST)
Defines a series of modulus and decay coefficients to represent a modulus relaxation function used by command MATERIAL VISCOELASTIC. F0 is 0th term of modulus and the corresponding decay coefficient is zero. If OPTION=TEST, input data are interpreted as the modulus response vs. time. The program will convert time history curve into a PronyDirichlet series representation. NAME [(current highest FTABLE label number) + 1] Label number of the modulusdecay function to be defined. If the label number of an existing function is given, existing function definition is overwritten. F0 The 0th term of modulus representation. Used only when OPTION=DIRECT OPTION DIRECT TEST Table data are input in Prony series Table data are input in pairs of modulus vs. time [NO] [0.0]
[DIRECT]
WEIGHTING Specifies if least squares fitting scheme is used to smooth moduli terms. Used only if OPTION=TEST. {NO/YES} W1 Weighting parameter 1. Active only if WEIGHTING=YES. W2 Weighting parameter 2. Active only if WEIGHTING=YES. TAU Relaxation parameter for calculating decayi. modulusi Modulus at term "i", or modulus corresponding to time "i"
[0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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FTABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
decayi Decay coefficient at term "i" timei Time corresponding to modulusi. Auxiliary commands LIST FTABLE DELETE FTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FORCESTRAIN
FORCESTRAIN straini forcei
NAME
Defines a forcestrain curve which can be referenced by the command RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE. The curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (straini, forcei). NAME [(current highest FORCESTRAIN label number) + 1] Label number of the forcestrain curve to be defined. straini Axial strain at data point “i”. forcei Axial force at straini. Note: The force is assumed to be zero when the effective plastic axial strain exceeds the maximum effective plastic axial strain on the yield curve (force vs. plasticstrain) obtained from the above force v totalstrain curve.
Auxiliary commands LIST FORCESTRAIN DELETE FORCESTRAIN FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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IRRADIATION_CREEPTABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
IRRADIATION_CREEPTABLE NAME temperaturei neutrontablei Defines the dependency of irradiation creep variables on temperature and fast neutron fluence. NAME [(current highest irradiation_creeptable label number) + 1] Label number of the irradiation creep table to be defined. temperaturei Temperature at data point “i”. neutrontablei Neutron fluence table at temperature “thetai”. Auxiliary commands LIST IRRADIATION_CREEPTABLE DELETE IRRADIATION_CREEPTABLE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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IRRADIATION_CREEPTABLE
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MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE forcei curvaturemomenti
NAME
Defines a momentcurvature curve which can be referenced by the command RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE . NAME [(current highest MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE label number) + 1] Label number of the curvature v moment curve to be defined. forcei Axial force at data point “i”. curvaturemomenti Label number of the curvaturemoment at forcei. (See CURVATUREMOMENT ). Note: For plasticity models, the curves defined by the input data are transformed to yield curves which are linearly interpolated to obtain the yield curve corresponding to the current axial force.
Note: The bending moment is assumed to be zero when the effective plastic curvature exceeds the maximum effective plastic curvature reached by the interpolated yield curves. Auxiliary commands LIST MOMENTCURV ATUREFORCE DELETE MOMENTCURV ATUREFORCE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MOMENTTWISTFORCE
MOMENTTWISTFORCE NAME forcei twistmomenti Defines a momenttwist curve which can be referenced by the command RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE. NAME [(current highest MOMENTTWISTFORCE label number) + 1] Label number of the momenttwist curve to be defined. forcei Axial force at data point “i”. twistmomenti Label number of the twistmoment at forcei. (See TWISTMOMENT ). Note: For plasticity models, the curves defined by the input data are transformed to yield curves which are linearly interpolated to obtain the yield curve corresponding to the current axial force. The bending moment is assumed to be zero when the effective plastic twist exceeds the maximum effective plastic twist reached by the interpolated yield curves.
Note:
Auxiliary commands LIST MOMENTTWISTFORCE DELETE MOMENTTWISTFORCE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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POREFLUIDPROPERTY
Sec. 7.1 Material models
POREFLUIDPROPERTY
MATERIAL PX PY PZ COMPRESS FLUIDBULK POROSITY
Defines pore fluid properties. MATERIAL Label number of the material (must be existing). PX PY PZ Permeability in X, Y and Z directions. Must be positive. COMPRESS Indicates whether the fluid is compressible. {NO/YES} FLUIDBULK Bulk modulus of the pore fluid. Used only when COMPRESS = YES. {>0.0} [1.0E9] [1.0E9] [1.0E9]
[NO]
[2.1E9]
POROSITY [0.75] Porosity of the porous solid material. Used only when COMPRESS = YES. {>0.0}
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NEUTRONDOSE
NEUTRONDOSE
NAME
timei neutronfluencei Defines a neutron fluence as a function of time. The command defines a time dependent total neutron fluence for the irradiation creep material model. The time range input should cover the entire time interval required in the solution. NAME [(current highest neutron dose label number) + 1] Label number of neutron dose to be defined. If the label number of an existing neutron dose is given, then the previous definition is overwritten. timei Time at data point “i”. neutronfluencei Neutron fluence at timei.
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NEUTRONTABLE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
NEUTRONTABLE
NAME
neutronfluencei irradiationstraini Ei alphai Defines a neutron fluence table which can be referenced by an irradiation creep table. NAME [(current highest NEUTRONTABLE label number) + 1] Label number of the neutron fluence table to be defined. neutronfluencei Neutronfluence at data point “i”. irradiationstraini Irradiationstrain at “neutronfluencei ”. Ei Young’s modulus at “neutronfluencei ”. alphai Mean coefficient of thermal expansion at “neutronfluencei ”. Auxiliary commands: LIST NEUTRONTABLE FIRST LAST DELETE NEUTRONTABLE FIRST LAST
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PROPERTY NONLINEARC
PROPERTY NONLINEARC
NAME XC XN
Defines a nonlinear relationship between the damping force and the relative velocity of the nonlinear spring element. The relationship is of the form,
˙N FD = C ⋅ U
NAME [(current highest property label number) + 1] Label number of the property to be defined. XC Constant “C” in the definition of function FD, see above. XN Exponent “N” in the definition of function FD, see above. Auxiliary Commands LIST PROPERTY NONLINEARC DELETE PROPERTY NONLINEARC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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PROPERTY NONLINEARK
Sec. 7.1 Material models
PROPERTY NONLINEARK relativedisplacementi forcei
NAME RUPTURE
Defines a nonlinear relationship between relativedisplacement and force from which the stiffness and force of a nonlinear spring element are obtained. NAME [(current highest property label number) + 1] Label number of the property to be defined. RUPTURE [NO] Indicates whether a spring ruptures if the relative displacement exceeds the limiting values of the input relativedisplacements. If YES then the force is assumed zero beyond the minimum, maximum values of the relativedisplacement. {YES/NO} relativedisplacementi Relative displacement (between spring nodes) at data point “i”. forcei Spring force at relativedisplacementi. Auxiliary Commands LIST PROPERTY NONLINEARK DELETE PROPERTY NONLINEARK FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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PROPERTY NONLINEARM
PROPERTY NONLINEARM timei massi
NAME
Defines the timedependent total mass for nonlinear spring elements. The input time range should cover that of the entire analysis. NAME [(current highest property label number) + 1] Label number of the property to be defined. timei Time at data point “i”. massi Spring mass at timei. Auxiliary Commands LIST PROPERTY NONLINEARM DELETE PROPERTY NONLINEARM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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PROPERTYSET
Sec. 7.1 Material models
PROPERTYSET NAME K M C S NONLINEAR NK NM NC Defines stiffness, mass, damping, and stress transformation properties for SPRING elements in a set termed a “propertyset”. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details on the resulting spring element stiffness, mass, damping, and stress transformation matrices evaluated from these constants. NAME [(current highest property label number) + 1] Label number of the propertyset to be defined. K Linear spring element stiffness. {> 0.0} M [0.0] Total mass of linear spring element. The corresponding mass matrix is lumped or consistent according to the MASSMATRIX command. C Linear spring element damping coefficient. [0.0]
S [0.0] Stress transformation constant for a linear spring element. This constant is used to form a stress transformation matrix, which when multiplied by the element nodal displacements gives a stress value. NONLINEAR Indicates whether a nonlinear spring propertyset is to be defined. {YES/NO} NK Label number of a nonlinear stiffness property (see PROPERTY NONLINEARK ). For NONLINEAR = YES a value must be supplied. NM Label number of a nonlinear mass property (see PROPERTY NONLINEARM ). NC Label number of a nonlinear damping property (see PROPERTY NONLINEARC ). Note: If skew degreeoffreedom systems are applied at the nodes of a spring element then ADINA will make any necessary transformation to account for the skew system directions. For a grounded spring, with one nodal degree of freedom specified, the total mass
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[NO]
[0]
[0]
[0]
Note:
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Chap. 7 Model definition
PROPERTYSET
of the element is lumped at the spring node degree of freedom. Note: Stress calculations are carried out for spring elements only when RESULTS = STRESSES is set by the EGROUP SPRING command.
Auxiliary commands LIST PROPERTYSET DELETE PROPERTYSET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE NONLINEARELASTIC
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE
NONLINEARELASTIC NAME RIGIDITYAXIAL MOMENTR MOMENTS MOMENTT DENSITY MASSAREA MASSRINERTIA MASSSINERTIA MASSTINERTIA ALPHA
Defines a nonlinearelastic rigidity for BEAM elements. [(current highest RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE label number) + 1] Label number of the rigidity to be defined. RIGIDITYAXIAL Axial rigidity. MOMENTR [0] Label number of a curve defined by MOMENTTWISTFORCE giving the torsional moment of inertia as a nonlinear elastic function of the twist per unit length. MOMENTS [0] Label number of a curve defined by MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE giving the bending moment of inertia about the saxis of a beam element as a nonlinear elastic function of the corresponding curvature. MOMENTT [0] Label number of a curve defined by MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE giving the bending moment of inertia about the taxis of a beam element as a nonlinear elastic function of the corresponding curvature. DENSITY Mass density (in units of mass/length3 ). Used in the calculation of the mass matrix. [0.0] NAME
MASSAREA Crosssectional area (in units of length2 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. MASSRINERTIA Second moment of area for torsion about the raxis of a beam element, including warping effects (in units of length4 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. MASSSINERTIA Second moment of area for bending about the saxis of a beam element (in units of length4 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix.
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RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE NONLINEARELASTIC
MASSTINERTIA Second moment of area for bending about the taxis of a beam element (in units of length4 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. ALPHA Thermal expansion coefficient. Auxiliary commands LIST RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE DELETE RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE PLASTICMULTILINEAR
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE
PLASTICMULTILINEAR NAME HARDENING BETA FORCEAXIAL MOMENTR MOMENTS MOMENTT AXIALCYCLICFACTOR BENDINGCYCLICFACTOR TORSIONCYCLICFACTOR DENSITY MASSAREA MASSRINERTIA MASSSINERTIA MASSTINERTIA ACURVETYPE TCURVETYPE BCURVETYPE ALPHA
Defines a plasticmultilinear rigidity for BEAM elements. [(current highest RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE label number) + 1] Label number of the rigidity to be defined. HARDENING Selects the type of strain hardening rule: ISOTROPIC KINEMATIC MIXED Linear isotropic strain hardening. Linear kinematic strain hardening. Linear mixed strain hardening. [ISOTROPIC] NAME
BETA Factor used in mixed hardening to determine the amounts of kinematic and isotropic hardening. BETA = 0 results in purely kinematic hardening while BETA = 1 results in purely isotropic hardening. {0.0 < BETA < 1.0} FORCEAXIAL [0] Label number of a curve defined by FORCESTRAIN giving the axial force as a multilinear plastic function of the axial strain. MOMENTR [0] Label number of a curve defined by MOMENTTWISTFORCE giving the torsional moment of inertia as a multilinear function of the twist per unit length. MOMENTS [0] Label number of a curve defined by MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE giving the bending moment of inertia about the saxis of a beam element as a multilinear function of the corresponding curvature.
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RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE PLASTICMULTILINEAR
MOMENTT [0] Label number of a curve defined by MOMENTCURVATUREFORCE giving the bending moment of inertia about the taxis of a beam element as a multilinear function of the corresponding curvature. AXIALCYCLICFACTOR [1.0] Ratio of the initial elastic axial rigidity and the elastic axial rigitity after first yield. {≥ 1.0} BENDINGCYCLICFACTOR [1.0] Ratio of the initial elastic bending rigidity and the elastic bending rigidity after first yield. {≥ 1.0} TORSIONALCYCLICFACTOR [1.0] Ratio of the initial elastic torsional rigidity and the elastic torsional rigidity after first yield. {≥ 1.0} DENSITY Mass density (in units of mass/length3 ). Used in the calculation of the mass matrix. [0.0]
MASSAREA Crosssectional area (in units of length2 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. MASSRINERTIA Second moment of area for torsion about the raxis of a beam element, including warping effects (in units of length4 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. MASSSINERTIA Second moment of area for bending about the saxis of a beam element (in units of length4 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. MASSTINERTIA Second moment of area for bending about the taxis of a beam element (in units of length4 ). Used only in the calculation of the mass matrix. Note: For the curves input via FORCEAXIAL, MOMENTR, MOMENTS, and MOMENTT, the first data point corresponds to the yield point, all data points must have positive coordinates, and the slope (hardening modulus) of any curve segment cannot be greater than the elastic modulus of the curve. Softening is not modeled.
Note:
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RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE PLASTICMULTILINEAR
Sec. 7.1 Material models
ACURVETYPE Indicates whether the axial forcestrain curve is symmetric or not. {SYMMETRIC/UNSYMMETRIC} TCURVETYPE [SYMMETRIC] Indicates whether the torsional momenttwist curves are symmetric or not. {SYMMETRIC/UNSYMMETRIC}
[SYMMETRIC]
BCURVETYPE [SYMMETRIC] Indicates whether the bending momentcurvature curves are symmetric or not. {SYMMETRIC/UNSYMMETRIC} ALPHA Thermal expansion coefficient. Auxiliary commands LIST RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE DELETE RIGIDITYMOMENTCURV ATURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RUPTURE MULTILINEAR
RUPTURE MULTILINEAR thetai rupturecurvei
NAME COMPRESS TRIAXIALITY
Defines a rupture criterion in terms of a multilinear relationship between temperature and creep rupture strain v. effective stress curves  see the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. The rupture criterion may be referenced by any of the creep material models, e.g. see command MATERIAL CREEP. NAME [(current highest rupture criterion label number) + 1] Label number of the rupture criterion to be defined. COMPRESS Indicates whether creep rupture can occure in compression. {YES/NO} TRIAXIALITY Indicates whether triaxiality factor is used. {YES/NO} thetai Temperature at data point “i”. rupturecurvei Creep rupturestrain vs. effective stress curve at temperature thetai, defined by command RUPTURECURVE. Auxiliary commands LIST RUPTURE MULTILINEAR DELETE RUPTURE MULTILINEAR FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [YES]
[YES]
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RUPTURE THREEPARAMETER
Sec. 7.1 Material models
RUPTURE THREEPARAMETER
NAME ALPHA BETA SIGMA
Defines a rupture criterion in terms of the first three stress invariants  see the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. The rupture criterion may be referenced by any of the creep material models, e.g. see command MATERIAL CREEP. NAME [(current highest rupture criterion label number) + 1] Label number of the rupture criterion to be defined. ALPHA First coefficient of the threeparameter rupture law. BETA Second coefficient of the threeparameter rupture law. SIGMA Effective stress at rupture for the threeparameter rupture law. Auxiliary commands LIST RUPTURE THREEPARAMETER DELETE RUPTURE THREEPARAMETER FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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RUPTURECURVE
RUPTURECURVE straini stressi
NAME
Defines a creep rupture strain v. effective stress curve which may be referenced by command RUPTURE to define a rupture criterion for a creep material model. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for further details. NAME [(current highest RUPTURECURVE label number) + 1] Label number of the creep rupture strain vs. effective stress curve to be defined. straini Creep rupture strain at data point “i”. stress i Stress at creep rupture strain straini. Auxiliary commands LIST RUPTURECURVE DELETE RUPTURECURVE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SCURVE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
SCURVE
NAME
straini stressi Defines a stressstrain curve which can be referenced by a material model. The stressstrain curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (straini, stressi). NAME [(current highest SCURVE label number) + 1] Label number of the stressstrain curve to be defined. straini Strain at data point “i”. stressi Stress at strain “straini”. Auxiliary commands LIST SCURVE DELETE SCURVE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SSCURVE
SSCURVE
NAME CONSTANTNU NU
straini stressi strain2i Defines a stressstrain curve which can be referenced by a material model. The stressstrain curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (straini , stressi ). This command is currrenlty used only for hyperelastic curve fitting. NAME [(current highest SSCURVE label number) + 1] Label number of the stressstrain curve to be defined. If the label number of an existing curve is given, then the previous curve definition is overwritten. CONSTANTNU [NO] Flag indicate constant nu is used or not {YES/NO} This parameter is only used when this curve is referenced by the hyperfoam material model. NU Specifies the Poissons ratio when CONSTANTNU=YES. This parameter is only used with the hyperfoam material model. Note that NU must be in one of the ranges: 1 < NU < 0.0, 0.0 < NU < 0.5
straini Strain at data point "i". stress i Stress at data point "i". strain2i Lateral strain at data point "i". strain2i is only used if CONSTANTNU=NO is specified and this curve is used for a hyperfoam material model. Auxiliary commands LIST SSCURVE FIRST LAST DELETE SSCURVE FIRST LAST
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SSCURVE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
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LCURVE
LCURVE
NAME
closurei pressurei Defines a loadingunloading curve which can be referenced by the gasket material model. The loadingunloading curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (pressurei , closurei ). NAME [(current highest LCURVE label number) + 1 ] Label number of the loadingunloading curve to be defined. If the label number of an existing curve is given, then the previous curve definition is overwritten. closurei Closure at data point "i". pressurei Pressure at data point "i". Note: First point must have pressure =0. Auxiliary commands LIST LCURVE DELETELCURVE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LCURVE
Sec. 7.1 Material models
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STRAINRATEFUNCTION
STRAINRATEFUNCTION strainratei ratioi
NAME (i=1…4)
Defines a strainrate function which can be referenced by a plasticity material model. NAME [(current highest STRAINRATEFUNCTION label number) + 1] Label number of the strainrate function to be defined. strainratei Strainrate at data point “i”. Strainrate1 must be > 0.0 and subsequent values must be progressively larger. ratioi
D Ratio ( σ D y σ y ), where σ y is the yield stress including strainrate effects at strainratei, Ratio1 must be > 1.0 and progressively larger for subsequent data points.
Auxiliary commands LIST STRAINRATEFUNCTION DELETE STRAINRATEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TWISTMOMENT
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
TWISTMOMENT twisti momenti
NAME
Defines a twist v moment curve which can be referenced by the MOMENTTWISTFORCE command. The curve is defined as piecewise linear through the data points (twisti, momenti). NAME [(current highest TWISTMOMENT label number) + 1] Label number of the twist v moment curve to be defined. twisti Twist per unit length at data point “i”. momenti Moment at twisti. Auxiliary commands LIST TWISTMOMENT DELETE TWISTMOMENT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION BOX
CROSSSECTION BOX
NAME WIDTH HEIGHT THICK1 THICK2 SC TC TORFAC SSHEARF TSHEARF
CROSSSECTION BOX defines a box crosssection which can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of an elastic Hermitian BEAM element. THICK1 THICK1
THICK2
Y' HEIGHT
X' centroid
THICK2 WIDTH
NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined. WIDTH HEIGHT THICK1 THICK2 The dimensions of the box crosssection. See Figure.
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CROSSSECTION BOX
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
SC [0.0] TC [0.0] Offset coordinates from the origin of the st beam axes to the centroid of the crosssection. Note that the principal axes x’y’ of the crosssection are assumed parallel to the st axes of the beam. TORFAC [1.0] The torsional rigidity of the crosssection, corresponding to St. Venant torsion with free warping, is multiplied by the factor TORFAC. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for details). SSHEARF [0.0 (no sdirection shear effect)] TSHEARF [0.0 (no tdirection shear effect)] The shear areas corresponding to the beam s and t directions are calculated as the total crosssectional area multiplied by the factors SSHEARF, TSHEARF, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION I
CROSSSECTION I
NAME WIDTH1 HEIGHT WIDTH2 THICK1 THICK2 THICK3 SC TC TORFAC SSHEARF TSHEARF
CROSSSECTION I defines an I crosssection which can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of an elastic Hermitian BEAM element. WIDTH2
THICK3
THICK2 Y' centroid HEIGHT X'
THICK1 WIDTH1
NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined. WIDTH1 HEIGHT WIDTH2 THICK1 THICK2 THICK3 The dimensions of the I crosssection. See Figure.
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CROSSSECTION I
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
SC [0.0] TC [0.0] Offset coordinates from the origin of the st beam axes to the centroid of the crosssection. Note that the principal axes x’y’ of the crosssection are assumed parallel to the st axes of the beam. TORFAC [1.0] The torsional rigidity of the crosssection, corresponding to St. Venant torsion with free warping, is multiplied by the factor TORFAC. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for details). SSHEARF [0.0 (no sdirection shear effect)] TSHEARF [0.0 (no tdirection shear effect)] The shear areas corresponding to the beam s and t directions are calculated as the total crosssectional area multiplied by the factors SSHEARF, TSHEARF, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION L
CROSSSECTION L
NAME WIDTH HEIGHT THICK1 THICK2 SC TC TORFAC SSHEARF TSHEARF
CROSSSECTION L defines an L crosssection which can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of an elastic Hermitian BEAM element.
THICK1
centroid
NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined. WIDTH1 HEIGHT THICK1 THICK2 The dimensions of the L crosssection. See Figure. SC [0.0] TC [0.0] Offset coordinates from the origin of the st beam axes to the centroid of the crosssection. Note that the principal axes x’y’ of the crosssection are assumed parallel to the st axes of the beam. TORFAC [1.0] The torsional rigidity of the crosssection, corresponding to St. Venant torsion with free warping, is multiplied by the factor TORFAC. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for details).
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THICK2
HEIGHT
Y'
X'
CROSSSECTION L
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
SSHEARF [0.0 (no sdirection shear effect)] TSHEARF [0.0 (no tdirection shear effect)] The shear areas corresponding to the beam s and t directions are calculated as the total crosssectional area multiplied by the factors SSHEARF, TSHEARF, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION PIPE
CROSSSECTION PIPE
NAME DIAMETER THICKNESS SC TC TORFAC SSHEARF TSHEARF SOLID
CROSSSECTION PIPE defines a pipe crosssection which can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of a BEAM or PIPE element. NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined.
Y'
X' centroid
DIAMETER
DIAMETER THICKNESS The diameter and thickness dimensions, respectively, of the pipe crosssection. See Figure. SC [0.0] TC [0.0] Offset coordinates from the origin of the st beam axes to the centroid of the crosssection. Note that the principal axes x’y’ of the crosssection are assumed parallel to the st axes of the beam.
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TH
IC
K
N
ES S
CROSSSECTION PIPE
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
TORFAC [1.0] The torsional rigidity of the crosssection, corresponding to St. Venant torsion with free warping, is multiplied by the factor TORFAC. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for details). SSHEARF [0.0 (no sdirection shear effect)] TSHEARF [0.0 (no tdirection shear effect)] The shear areas corresponding to the beam s and t directions are calculated as the total crosssectional area multiplied by the factors SSHEARF, TSHEARF, respectively. Note: The parameters SC, TC, TORFAC, SSHEARF, TSHEARF are only applicable to elastic Hermitian BEAM elements.
SOLID [NO] Indicates whether the cross section is solid, i.e. not hollow. If SOLID=YES, THICKNESS input is ignored and the thickness is set to half the diameter value. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION RECTANGULAR
CROSSSECTION RECTANGULAR
NAME WIDTH HEIGHT SC TC TORFAC SSHEARF TSHEARF ISHEAR SQUARE
CROSSSECTION RECTANGULAR defines a rectangular crosssection which can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of a BEAM or ISOBEAM element.
Y' HEIGHT
X' centroid
WIDTH
NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined. WIDTH HEIGHT The width and height dimensions, respectively, of the rectangular crosssection. See Figure. SC [0.0] TC [0.0] Offset coordinates from the origin of the st beam axes to the centroid of the crosssection. Note that the principal axes x’y’ of the crosssection are assumed parallel to the st axes of the beam.
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CROSSSECTION RECTANGULAR
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
TORFAC [1.0] The torsional rigidity of the crosssection, corresponding to St. Venant torsion with free warping, is multiplied by the factor TORFAC. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for details). SSHEARF [0.0 (no sdirection shear effect)] TSHEARF [0.0 (no tdirection shear effect)] The shear areas corresponding to the beam s and t directions are calculated as the total crosssectional area multiplied by the factors SSHEARF, TSHEARF, respectively. ISHEAR Indicates whether transverse shear effects are to be included. {YES/NO} Note: The parameters SC, TC, TORFAC, SSHEARF, TSHEARF are applicable only to elastic Hermitian BEAM elements. Note: The parameter ISHEAR is applicable only to plastic Hermitian BEAM elements. [NO]
SQUARE [NO] Indicates whether the cross section shape is square. If SQUARE=YES, HEIGHT input is ignored and the height is set equal to the width.{YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION U
CROSSSECTION U
NAME WIDTH HEIGHT THICK1 THICK2 SC TC TORFAC SSHEARF TSHEARF
CROSSSECTION U defines a U crosssection which can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of an elastic Hermitian BEAM element.
THICK2
Y'
HEIGHT
centroid
X'
THICK1
WIDTH
NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined. WIDTH HEIGHT THICK1 THICK2 The dimensions of the U crosssection. See Figure.
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CROSSSECTION U
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
SC [0.0] TC [0.0] Offset coordinates from the origin of the st beam axes to the centroid of the crosssection. Note that the principal axes x’y’ of the crosssection are assumed parallel to the st axes of the beam. TORFAC [1.0] The torsional rigidity of the crosssection, corresponding to St. Venant torsion with free warping, is multiplied by the factor TORFAC. (See Theory and Modeling Guide for details). SSHEARF [0.0 (no sdirection shear effect)] TSHEARF [0.0 (no tdirection shear effect)] The shear areas corresponding to the beam s and t directions are calculated as the total crosssectional area multiplied by the factors SSHEARF, TSHEARF, respectively. Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CROSSSECTION PROPERTIES
CROSSSECTION PROPERTIES
NAME RINERTIA SINERTIA TINERTIA AREA SAREA TAREA
CROSSSECTION PROPERTIES defines a general crosssection in terms of principal moments of inertia and areas. This crosssection definition can be used to describe the crosssectional characteristics of an elastic Hermitian BEAM element. (See Figure for beam element coordinate system.)
s AUX
Node AUX lies in rs plane r N2
Z N1 t X Y
The raxis represents the beam axis, but not necessarily the principal axis of the section
BEAM ELEMENT COORDINATE SYSTEM
NAME [(current highest crosssection label number) + 1] Label number of the crosssection to be defined. RINERTIA Torsional moment of inertia, about the beam raxis. This includes warping effects. SINERTIA Bending moment of inertia about the beam saxis. TINERTIA Bending moment of inertia about the taxis.
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CROSSSECTION PROPERTIES
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
AREA Crosssectional area. SAREA Effective shear area in the sdirection. TAREA Effective shear area in the tdirection. Note: [0.0]
[0.0]
All of the moments of inertia refer to the beam raxis, and must include any offset to the symmetry axes of the beam section.
Auxiliary commands LIST CROSSSECTION DELETE CROSSSECTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LAYER
LAYER
SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP PLYDATA
namei materiali tinti pthicki maxesi phii iaxesi phiii printi savei intloci failurei LAYER defines the control parameters for each surface layer for use by multilayer shell elements.
layer 3 layer 2 layer 1
thickness
midsurface midsurface node
SUBSTRUCTURE Label number of the substructure. GROUP The label number of the element group.
[current substructure label number]
[current element group]
PLYDATA [NO] The label number of plydata, as defined by the command PLYDATA. If PLYDATA = NO, or number of layers is equal 1, this parameter will be ignored. {YES/NO} namei Layer label number. {1 ≤ namei ≤ NLAYER, NLAYER = total number of layers, see EGROUP SHELL}
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LAYER
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
materiali Material label number used for layer namei. tinti Integration order for the throughthickness direction (local tdirection) in layer namei. 2 7 ≤ ≤ tinti ≤ tinti ≤ 6 3 Gauss formulas. Closed NewtonCotes formulas.
[1]
[2]
pthicki [(1./NLAYER) × 100] Percentage of element thickness assigned to this layer. (NLAYER is the total number of layers, see EGROUP SHELL). maxesi Material axes for orthotropic model, for layer namei. <not currently used> phii Offset angle for orthotropic model, for layer namei. iaxesi Initial strain axes, for layer namei. <not currently used> phiii Offset angle for initial strains, for layer namei. printi YES NO STRAINS DEFAULT savei YES NO DEFAULT Print the element results for layer namei. No results are printed for layer namei. Strains are printed in addition to the stresses for layer namei. Layer printing is governed by element data commands. [DEFAULT] Save the element results on the porthole file for layer namei. No saving of results for layer namei. Layer saving is governed by element data commands. [0]
[0.0]
[0]
[0.0]
[DEFAULT]
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LAYER
intloci YES NO DEFAULT
[DEFAULT] Print integration point (global) coordinates for layer namei. No printing of integration point data for layer namei. Printout of integration point data is governed by element data commands. [0]
failurei The label number of failure criterion. (See FAILURE ). A zero value indicates no failure criterion for layer namei. Auxiliary commands LIST LAYER DELETELAYER FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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PLYDATA
Sec. 7.2 Crosssections / layers
PLYDATA
NAME WEIGHT DENSITY FRACTION FZ
Command PLYDATA defines the layer thickness for a fibermatrix composite. It is used in definition of shell elements by the LAYER command. NAME [(current highest plydata label number) + 1] Label number of the plydata to be defined. If the label number of an existing plydata is given, then the previous plydata definition is overwritten. WEIGHT Weight per unit surface of the fiber. DENSITY Density of the fiber. FRACTION Fiber volume fraction of the fibermatrix compound. Auxiliary commands LIST PLYDATA DELETE PLYDATA FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LINEELEMDATA TRUSS
LINEELEMDATA TRUSS linei materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi gapwidthi intloci epsini EDGEELEMDATA TRUSS BODY
edgei materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi gapwidthi intloci epsini LINEELEMDATA TRUSS assigns data for TRUSS elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA TRUSS assigns data for TRUSS elements to solid geometry edges. BODY The geometry body label number. linei Line label number. edgei Edge label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/ edge will take the default material for the host element group. areai Crosssectional area for each TRUSS element on the line/edge. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [0] [current active BODY]
[DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for TRUSS elements on the line/edge. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for TRUSS elements on the line/edge.
NO
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LINEELEMDATA TRUSS
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
DEFAULT
Saving of element results is governed by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death. gapwidthi Gap width for each TRUSS element on the line/edge. A zero value indicates no gap.
[0.0]
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Indicates whether to print element integration point coordinates (global) in the undeformed configuration. {YES/NO} epsini Initial strain for each TRUSS element on the line/edge. Auxiliary commands LIST LINEELEMDATA TRUSS DELETE LINEELEMDATA TRUSS LIST EDGEELEMDATA TRUSS DELETE EDGEELEMDATA TRUSS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
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SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID
SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID surfacei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci gammai FACEELEMDATA TWODSOLID BODY
facei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci gammai SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID assigns data for TWODSOLID elements to geometry surfaces. FACEELEMDATA TWODSOLID assigns data for TWODSOLID elements to solid geometry faces. BODY The geometry body label number. surfacei Surface label number. facei Face label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the surface/ face will take the default material for the host element group. betai [0.0] Material angle, in degrees, for each TWODSOLID element on the surface/face. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO STRAINS DEFAULT Print results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for TWODSOLID elements on the surface/face. In addition to stresses, strains are printed. Printout is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] [current active BODY]
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SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
savei YES
[DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for TWODSOLID elements on the surface/face. Saving of element results is governed by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
NO DEFAULT
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Specifies whether element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration are printed. {YES/NO} gammai [0.0] Initial strain angle, in degrees, used in conjunction with any definition of element initial strains. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID DELETE SURFELEMDATA TWODSOLID LIST FACEELEMDATA TWODSOLID DELETE FACEELEMDATA TWODSOLID FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID
VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID volumei materiali maxesi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci maxesii ngeomi BODYELEMDATA THREEDSOLID bodyi materiali maxesi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intlocii maxesii ngeomi VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID assigns data for THREEDSOLID elements to geometry volumes. BODYELEMDATA THREEDSOLID assigns data for THREEDSOLID elements to solid geometry bodies. volumei Volume label number. bodyi Body label number. materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated in the volume/ body will take the default material for the host element group. maxesi [0] Material axes set for each THREEDSOLID element in the volume/body. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for THREEDSOLID elements in the volume/body. Strains as well as stresses are printed for THREEDSOLID elements in the volume/body. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT.
STRAINS
DEFAULT
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VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
savei YES
[DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for THREEDSOLID elements in the volume/ body. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
NO
DEFAULT
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Determines whether or not element integration point (global) coordinates in the undeformed configuration are printed. {YES/NO} maxesii [0] Initial strain axes set for each THREEDSOLID element in the volume/body. Used in conjunction with element initial strains. ngeomi The number of geometry defining nodes for elements in the volume/body. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID DELETE VOLELEMDATA THREEDSOLID LIST BODYELEMDATA THREEDSOLID DELETE BODYELEMDATA THREEDSOLID FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LINEELEMDATA BEAM
LINEELEMDATA BEAM linei materiali sectioni endreleasei printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epsini, momentri momentsi momentti rigidstarti rigidendi EDGEELEMDATA BEAM BODY
edgei materiali sectioni endreleasei printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epsini, momentri momentsi momentti rigidstarti rigidendi LINEELEMDATA BEAM assigns data for BEAM elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA BEAM assigns data for BEAM elements to solid geometry edges. BODY Body label number linei Line label number. edgei Edge label number. materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/edge will take the default material for the host element group. [0] sectioni Crosssection label number for each BEAM element on the line/edge. See CROSSSECTION. endreleasei Endrelease condition label number for each BEAM element on the line/edge. See ENDRELEASE. printi YES NO DEFAULT [0] [current active BODY]
[DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for BEAM elements on the line/edge. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT.
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LINEELEMDATA BEAM
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
savei YES
[DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for BEAM elements on the line/edge. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
NO DEFAULT
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates in the undeformed configuration. {YES/NO} epsini Initial axial strain for each BEAM element on the line/edge, or initial force if BEAM OPTION=BOLT is used. momentri momentsi momentti <not currently active> rigidstarti [0.0] Length of the rigid endzone connected to the startpoint (at u=0.0) of the geometry line/ edge. Note that this zone can span at most one element meshed onto the line. rigidendi [0.0] Length of the rigid endzone connected to the endpoint (at u=1.0) of the geometry line/edge. Note that this zone can span at most one element meshed onto the line. Auxiliary commands LIST LINEELEMDATA BEAM DELETE LINEELEMDATA BEAM LIST EDGEELEMDATA BEAM DELETE EDGEELEMDATA BEAM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
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LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM
LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM linei materiali sectioni printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epaxli ephoopi EDGEELEMDATA ISOBEAM BODY
edgei materiali sectioni printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epaxli ephoopi LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM assigns data for ISOBEAM elements to geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA ISOBEAM assigns data for ISOBEAM elements to solid geometry edges. BODY Body label number linei Line label number. edgei Edge label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/edge will take the default material for the host element group. sectioni [0] Crosssection label number for each ISOBEAM element on the line/edge. See CROSSSECTION. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for ISOBEAM elements on the line/edge. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. [current active BODY]
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Sec. 7.3 Element properties
NO DEFAULT
No saving of results for ISOBEAM elements on the line/edge. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates in the undeformed configuration. {YES/NO} epaxli Initial axial strain for each ISOBEAM element on the line/edge. ephoopi Initial hoop strain for each ISOBEAM element on the line/edge. Auxiliary commands LIST LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM DELETE LINEELEMDATA ISOBEAM LIST EDGEELEMDATA ISBEAM DELETE EDGEELEMDATA ISOBEAM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
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SURFELEMDATA PLATE
SURFELEMDATA PLATE surfacei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci gammai, eps11i eps22i eps12i flex11i flex22i flex12i FACEELEMDATA PLATE BODY
facei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci gammai, eps11i eps22i eps12i flex11i flex22i flex12i SURFELEMDATA PLATE assigns data for PLATE elements to geometry surfaces. FACEELEMDATA PLATE assigns data for PLATE elements to solid geometry faces. BODY Body label number surfacei Surface label number. facei Face label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the surface/ facve will take the default material for the host element group. [0.0] betai Material angle, in degrees, for each PLATE element on the surface/face. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for PLATE elements on the surface/face. Printout is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS.
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[current active BODY]
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Sec. 7.3 Element properties
NO DEFAULT
No saving of results for PLATE elements on the surface/face. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Specifies whether or not element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration, together with direction cosines of stress reference axes are printed. {YES/NO} gammai [0.0] Initial strain angle, in degrees, used in conjunction with any definition of element initial strains. eps11i [0.0] eps22i [0.0] eps12i [0.0] Initial membrane strain components in the element, assumed constant within the element. flex11i [0.0] flex22i [0.0] flex12i [0.0] Initial flexural strain components in the element, assumed constant within the element. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFELEMDATA PLATE DELETE SURFELEMDATA PLATE LIST FACEELEMDATA PLATE DELETE FACEELEMDATA PLATE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SURFELEMDATA SHELL
SURFELEMDATA SHELL surfacei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi ithsi intloci gammai, eps11i, eps22i eps12i eps13i eps23i geps11i geps22i geps12i geps13i, geps23i FACEELEMDATA SHELL BODY
facei materiali betai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi ithsi intloci gammai eps11i, eps22i eps12i eps13i eps23i geps11i geps22i geps12i geps13i geps23i SURFELEMDATA SHELL assigns data for SHELL elements to geometry surfaces. FACEELEMDATA SHELL assigns data for SHELL elements to solid geometry faces. BODY Body label number surfacei Surface label number. facei Face label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the surface/ face will take the default material for the host element group. [0.0] betai Material angle, in degrees, for each SHELL element on the surface/face. Used in conjunction with orthotropic material types. printi YES NO STRAINS DEFAULT Print results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for SHELL elements on the surface/face. In addition to stresses, strains are printed. Printout is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] [current active BODY]
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SURFELEMDATA SHELL
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
savei YES
[DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for SHELL elements on the surface/face. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
NO DEFAULT
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
ithsi [NO] Specifies whether or not the thick shell assumption is made for transverse shear behavior of SHELL elements on the surface/face. {YES/NO} intloci [NO] Specifies whether or not element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration, together with direction cosines of stress reference axes are printed. {YES/NO} gammai [0.0] Initial strain angle, in degrees, used in conjunction with any definition of element initial strains. epsjki (jk = 11, 22, 12, 13, 23) Initial strain components in the element, assumed constant within the element. [0.0]
gepsjki (jk = 11, 22, 12, 13, 23) [0.0] Initial strain gradient components in the element, assumed constant within the element. Auxiliary commands LIST SURFELEMDATA SHELL DELETE SURFELEMDATA SHELL LIST FACEELEMDATA SHELL DELETE FACEELEMDATA SHELL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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ELAYER
ELAYER GROUP elementi layeri materiali ELAYER assigns material to individual elements on different layers for shell elements. GROUP The label number of the element group. elementi The element label number. layeri The layer label number. materiali The material label number. Auxiliary commands LIST ELAYER GROUP DELETE ELAYER GROUP [1] [Current element group]
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ELAYER
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
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LINEELEMDATA PIPE
LINEELEMDATA PIPE linei materiali sectioni printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epsini EDGEELEMDATA PIPE BODY
edgei materiali sectioni printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epsini LINEELEMDATA PIPE assigns data for PIPE elements on geometry lines. EDGEELEMDATA PIPE assigns data for PIPE elements on solid geometry edges. BODY Body label number. linei Line label number. edgei Edge label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line/edge will take the default material for the host element group. sectioni [0] Crosssection label number for each PIPE element on the line/edge. See CROSS SECTION. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for PIPE elements on the line/edge. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for PIPE elements on the line/edge. [current active BODY]
NO
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LINEELEMDATA PIPE
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
DEFAULT
Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates in the undeformed configuration. {YES/NO} epsini Initial axial strain for each PIPE element on the line/edge. Auxiliary commands LIST LINEELEMDATA PIPE DELETE LINEELEMDATA PIPE LIST EDGEELEMDATA PIPE DELETE EDGEELEMDATA PIPE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
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LINEELEMDATA GENERAL
LINEELEMDATA GENERAL linei mseti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi EDGEELEMDATA GENERAL edgei mseti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi SURFELEMDATA GENERAL surfacei mseti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi FACEELEMDATA GENERAL facei mseti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi VOLELEMDATA GENERAL volumei mseti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi BODYELEMDATA GENERAL bodyi mseti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi LINEELEMDATA GENERAL assigns data for GENERAL elements on lines. EDGEELEMDATA GENERAL assigns data for GENERAL elements to solid geometry edges. SURFELEMDATA GENERAL assigns data for GENERAL elements to geometry surfaces FACEELEMDATA GENERAL assigns data for GENERAL elements to solid geometry faces. VOLELEMDATA GENERAL assigns data for GENERAL elements to geometry volumes. BODYELEMDATA GENERAL assigns data for GENERAL elements to solid geometry bodies. BODY Body label number. linei Line label number. [currently active BODY] BODY BODY
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LINEELEMDATA GENERAL
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
edgei Edge label number (for BODY). surfacei Surface label number. facei Face label number (for BODY). volumei Volume label number. bodyi Body label number. mseti [0] Matrixset label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the geometry will take the default matrixset for the host element group. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for GENERAL elements on the geometry. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for GENERAL elements on the geometry. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [0.0]
NO DEFAULT
tbirthi Element birth time. tdeathi Element death time.
[0.0]
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LINEELEMDATA GENERAL
Note:
tbirthi < tdeathi, or tbirthi = tdeathi = 0.0
Auxiliary commands LIST LINEELEMDATA GENERAL DELETE LINEELEMDATA GENERAL LIST EDGEELEMDATA GENERAL DELETE EDGEELEMDATA GENERAL LIST SURFELEMDATA GENERAL DELETE SURFELEMDATA GENERAL LIST FACEELEMDATA GENERAL DELETE FACEELEMDATA GENERAL LIST VOLELEMDATA GENERAL DELETE VOLELEMDATA GENERAL LIST BODYELEMDATA GENERAL DELETE BODYELEMDATA GENERAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SURFELEMDATA FLUID2
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
SURFELEMDATA FLUID2 surfacei materiali printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci FACEELEMDATA FLUID2 BODY
facei materiali printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci SURFELEMDATA FLUID2 assigns data for FLUID2 elements on surfaces. FACEELEMDATA FLUID2 assigns data for FLUID2 elements on solid geometry faces. BODY Body label number. surfacei Surface label number. facei Face label number (for BODY). materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the surface/ face will take the default material for the host element group. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for FLUID2 elements on the surface/face. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for FLUID2 elements on the surface/face. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. [currently active BODY]
NO DEFAULT
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SURFELEMDATA FLUID2
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates in the undeformed configuration. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST SURFELEMDATA FLUID2 DELETE SURFELEMDATA FLUID2 LIST FACEELEMDATA FLUID2 DELETE FACEELEMDATA FLUID2 FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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VOLELEMDATA FLUID3
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
VOLELEMDATAFLUID3 volumei materiali printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci ngeomi BODYELEMDATAFLUID3 bodyi materiali printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci ngeomi VOLELEMDATA FLUID3 assigns data for FLUID3 elements in volumes. BODYELEMDATA FLUID3 assigns data for FLUID3 elements in solid geometry bodies. volumei Volume label number. bodyi Body label number. materiali [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the volume/ body will take the default material for the host element group. printi YES NO DEFAULT savei YES [DEFAULT] Print element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No results are printed for FLUID3 elements on the volume/body. Element printing is governed by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. [DEFAULT] Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by EGROUP RESULTS. No saving of results for FLUID3 elements on the volume/body. Saving of element results is governed by command PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT.
NO DEFAULT
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VOLELEMDATA FLUID3
tbirthi The time of element birth. tdeathi The time of element death.
[0.0]
[0.0]
intloci [NO] Indicates whether to print element integration point (global) coordinates in the undeformed configuration. {YES/NO} ngeomi The number of nodes to be used in the description of the element geometry. Auxiliary commands LIST VOLELEMDATAFLUID3 DELETE VOLELEMDATAFLUID3 LIST BODYELEMDATAFLUID3 DELETE BODYELEMDATAFLUID3 FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0]
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MATRIX STIFFNESS
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
MATRIX STIFFNESS rowi ... kij ...
NAME ND (j = i, i + 1, ..., ND)
Defines a stiffness matrix for use by GENERAL elements. It may be referenced by MATRIXSET. NAME [(current highest matrix label number) + 1] Label number of the matrix to be defined. ND [1] The total number of rows entered in this matrix, equal to the number of nodes in the general element multiplied by the number of active degrees of freedom per node. {1 ≤ ND ≤ 600} rowi Row index number for matrix. k ij Entries in the stiffness matrix (kij = entry for row “i”, column “j”). [0.0]
Note: Only the upperdiagonal part of the stiffness matrix is entered by this command. Thus, for rowi, only the first (ND  i + 1) entries are used  the rest are ignored due to symmetry. Auxiliary Commands LIST MATRIX DELETE MATRIX FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATRIX MASS
MATRIX MASS
NAME ND
rowi ... mij ... (j = i, (i + 1), ..., ND) Defines a mass matrix for use by GENERAL elements. It may be referenced by MATRIXSET. NAME [(current highest matrix label number) + 1] Label number of the matrix to be defined. ND [1] The total number of rows entered in this matrix, equal to the number of nodes in the general element multiplied by the number of active degrees of freedom per node. {1 ≤ ND ≤ 600} rowi Row index number for matrix. mij Entries in the mass matrix (mij = entry for row “i”, column “j”). [0.0]
Note: For a consistent mass matrix, only the upperdiagonal part of the mass matrix is entered by this command. Thus, for rowi, only the first (ND  i + 1) entries are used. When the mass matrix is lumped, only the diagonal term, mij, should be entered  the rest are ignored due to symmetry. Auxiliary Commands LIST MATRIX DELETE MATRIX FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATRIX DAMPING
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
MATRIX DAMPING rowi ... cij ...
NAME ND (j = i, (i + 1), ..., ND)
Defines a damping matrix for use by GENERAL elements. It may be referenced by MATRIXSET. NAME [(current highest matrix label number) + 1] Label number of the matrix to be defined. ND [1] The total number of rows entered in this matrix, equal to the number of nodes in the general element multiplied by the number of active degrees of freedom per node. {1 ≤ ND ≤ 600} rowi Row index number for matrix. cij Entries in the damping matrix (cij = entry for row “i”, column “j”). [0.0]
Note: Only the upperdiagonal part of the damping matrix is entered by this command. Thus, for rowi only the first (ND  i + 1) entries are used, the rest are ignored due to symmetry. Auxiliary Commands LIST MATRIX DELETE MATRIX FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATRIX STRESS
MATRIX STRESS rowi ... sij ...
NAME NS ND (i=1…NS; j=1…ND)
Defines a stress matrix for use by GENERAL elements. It may be referenced by MATRIXSET. NAME [(current highest matrix label number) + 1] Label number of the matrix to be defined. NS The total number rows in the matrix, equal to the number of stress components. {1 ≤ NS ≤ 60} [1]
ND [1] The number of nodes in the general element multiplied by the number of active degrees of freedom per node. {1 ≤ ND ≤ 600} rowi Row index number. s ij Entries in the stresstransformation matrix (sij = entry for row “i”, column “j”). Note: The full matrix should be entered  no symmetry is assumed. [0.0]
Auxiliary Commands LIST MATRIX DELETE MATRIX FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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MATRIXSET
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
MATRIXSET
NAME STIFFNESS MASS DAMPING STRESS
Defines a “matrixset” for GENERAL mass/stiffness/damping elements. One stiffness, one mass, one damping, and one stress transformation matrix are grouped into a matrix set, which can then be associated with the GENERAL elements of the element group through the matrix set entry in element data commnads. NAME [(current highest matrix label number) + 1] Label number of the matrixset to be defined. STIFFNESS Label number of stiffness matrix defined by MATRIX STIFFNESS. MASS Label number of mass matrix defined by MATRIX MASS. DAMPING Label number of damping matrix defined by MATRIX DAMPING. STRESS Label number of stresstransformation matrix defined by MATRIX STRESS. Auxiliary commands LIST MATRIXSET DELETE MATRIXSET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0]
[0]
[0]
[0]
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MATRIX USERSUPPLIED
MATRIX USERSUPPLIED
NAME ELEMENTSUBTYPE ELNDOF MATERIAL NUIPT NUIT1 NUIT2 NUIT3
Command MATRIX USERSUPPLIED defines the element stiffness matrix and nodal force vector in a general element group, to be provided in the ADINA subroutine CUSERG. The material constants, variables and solution control parameters required in subroutine CUSERG can be input via parameter MATERIAL. The element subtype must be input to predetermine the sizes of arrays RE (element nodal forces) and AS (element stiffness) in CUSERG. If some element results, e.g. stresses and strains, are to be displayed by ADINAPLOT, the integration scheme locations need to be provided through parameters NUIPT, NUIT1, NUIT2 and NUIT3. NAME [(current highest matrix label number) + 1] Label number of the matrix to be defined. If the label of an existing matrix is given, then the previous matrix definition is overwritten. ELEMENTSUBTYPE Element subtype indicator for assembling the general element stiffness. This parameter must be entered. {TWODSOLID/THREEDSOLID/BEAM/SHELL} ELNDOF [subtype dependent] Number of active degrees of freedom for each general element node. The default is 3 for THREEDSOLID subtype, 2 for TWODSOLID subtype and 6 for BEAM and SHELL subtypes. MATERIAL The label number of MATERIAL USERSUPPLIED, in which material constants/variables and solution control parameters to be used in the calculations of element stiffness matrices and force vectors are entered. The material constants/variables can be temperatureindependent or temperaturedependent. NUIPT [NUIT1 × NUIT2 × NUIT3] Number of userprovided interior points used to assemble the element stiffness matrix and to display the element results at these locations. NUIT1 [1] NUIT2 [1] NUIT3 [1] Integration orders in the first, second and third local directions of general elements (less than or equal to 6).
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MASSES
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
MASSES POINTS pointi mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i MASSES LINES linei mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i MASSES SURFACES surfacei mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i MASSES VOLUMES volumei mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i MASSES EDGES BODY
edgei mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i MASSES FACES BODY
facei mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i MASSES POINTS assigns concentrated masses to the nodes at a set of geometry points. MASSES LINES assigns concentrated masses to the nodes on a set of geometry lines. MASSES VOLUMES assigns concentrated masses to the nodes in a set of geometry volumes. MASSES EDGES assigns concentrated masses to the nodes on solid geometry edges. MASSES FACES assigns concentrated masses to the nodes on solid geometry faces. BODY Body label number. [currently active BODY]
pointi Label number of a geometry point. All nodes coincident with this geometry point are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated mass divided by the number of nodes.
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MASSES
linei Label number of a geometry line. All nodes on this line are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated mass divided by the number of nodes. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. All nodes on this surface are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated mass divided by the number of nodes. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. All nodes in this volume are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated mass divided by the number of nodes. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). All nodes of this entity are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated mass divided by the number of nodes. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). All nodes of this entity are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated mass divided by the number of nodes. mass1i [0.0] Mass assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal xtranslation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). mass2i [0.0] Mass assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal ytranslation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). mass3i [0.0] Mass assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal ztranslation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). mass4i [0.0] Mass assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal xrotation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). mass5i [0.0] Mass assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal yrotation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). mass6i [0.0] Mass assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal zrotation degreeoffreedom (global or skew).
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MASSES
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
Auxiliary commands LIST MASSES POINTS DELETE MASSES POINTS LIST MASSES LINES DELETE MASSES LINES LIST MASSES SURFACES DELETE MASSES SURFACES LIST MASSES VOLUMES DELETE MASSES VOLUMES LIST MASSES EDGES DELETE MASSES EDGES LIST MASSES FACES DELETE MASSES FACES FIRST FIRST FIRST FIRST LAST LAST LAST LAST
FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DAMPERS
DAMPERS POINTS pointi damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i DAMPERS LINES linei damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i DAMPERS SURFACES surfacei damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i DAMPERS VOLUMES volumei damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i DAMPERS EDGES BODY
edgei damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i DAMPERS FACES BODY
facei damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i DAMPERS POINTS assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes at a set of geometry points. DAMPERS LINES assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes on a set of geometry lines. DAMPERS SURFACES assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes on a set of geometry surfaces. DAMPERS VOLUMES assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes on a set of geometry volumes. DAMPERS EDGES assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes on solid geometry edges. DAMPERS FACES assigns concentrated dampers to the nodes on a set of solid geometry faces. BODY Body label number. [currently active BODY]
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DAMPERS
Sec. 7.3 Element properties
pointi Label number of a geometry point. All nodes coincident with this geometry point are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated damper divided by the number of nodes. linei Label number of a geometry line. All nodes on this line are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated damper divided by the number of nodes. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. All nodes on this surface are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated damper divided by the number of nodes. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. All nodes in this volume are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated damper divided by the number of nodes. edgei Label number of a geometry edge (for BODY). All nodes on this entity are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated damper divided by the number of nodes. facei Label number of a geometry face (for BODY). All nodes on this entity are assigned a value equal to the specified concentrated damper divided by the number of nodes. damp1i [0.0] Damper assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal xtranslation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). damp2i [0.0] Damper assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal ytranslation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). damp3i [0.0] Damper assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal ztranslation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). damp4i [0.0] Damper assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal xrotation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). damp5i [0.0] Damper assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal yrotation degreeoffreedom (global or skew).
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DAMPERS
damp6i [0.0] Damper assigned to the geometry entity for the nodal zrotation degreeoffreedom (global or skew). Auxiliary commands LIST DAMPERS POINTS DELETE DAMPERS POINTS LIST DAMPERS LINES DELETE DAMPERS LINES LIST DAMPERS SURFACES DELETE DAMPERS SURFACES LIST DAMPERS VOLUMES DELETE DAMPERS VOLUMES LIST DAMPERS EDGES DELETE DAMPERS EDGES LIST DAMPERS FACES DELETE DAMPERS FACES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SUBSTRUCTURE
Sec. 7.4 Substructure and cyclic symmetry
SUBSTRUCTURE
NAME
The model can consist of a main structure and one or more substructures. This command sets the current substructure. NAME [(current highest substructure label number) + 1] Label number of the current substructure. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBSTRUCTURE DELETE SUBSTRUCTURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
REUSE
REUSE slavenamei masternamei typei
NAME LOADREUSE
Connects the current substructure to the main structure. As the command name implies, each substructure can be used several times and the command REUSE therefore defines the reuse identifying number for the current substructure. Input data provided to the following commands refers only to the current reuse number of the current substructure: PRINTSTEPS, SETINITCONDITION, APPLYLOAD NAME The label number of the reuse. LOADREUSE Loading indicator for the reuse. SAME [(highest reuse label number) + 1]
[SAME]
Same loading as for the previous (i.e. NAME1) reuse of the current substructure. Loading for this reuse of the current substructure is specified by subsequent uses of command APPLYLOAD.
DIFFERENT
slavenamei The label number of the substructure boundary geometry entity (point, line or surface) for the “i”th term of the reuse. masternamei The label number of the main structure connection geometry entity (point, line or surface) for the “i”th term of the reuse. typei The type of geometry entity. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE} Note: A connection between main structure and substructure is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entity must be the same. Auxiliary commands LIST REUSE DELETE REUSE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CYCLICLOADS
Sec. 7.4 Substructure and cyclic symmetry
CYCLICLOADS
NAME
A cyclic symmetry analysis can be performed by defining the finite element discretization of the fundamental part of the geometrically cyclic symmetric structure. This fundamental part is rotated M times about a cyclic axis to represent the complete structure. CYCLICLOADS indicates that the loads subsequently defined are to be on a particular one of these M parts. NAME Label number of the cyclic part to be loaded. Auxiliary commands LIST CYCLICLOADS DELETE CYCLICLOADS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
CYCLICBOUNDARY
CYCLICBOUNDARY
POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / NODES / NODESET
slavenamei masternamei CYCLICBOUNDARY is used to associate cyclic boundaries (defined by points, lines, surfaces, nodes, or nodesets) with each other. The command specifies the cyclic boundaries of the fundamental part of a cyclicaly symmetric structure termed the master cyclic boundary and the slave cyclic boundary. When the nodes on the master cyclic boundary are rotated 360/M (where M is the number of cyclic parts) degrees counter clockwise about the cyclic symmetry axis, they should coincide with the nodes on the slave cyclic boundary. slavenamei The label number of the slave entity (point, line, surface, node, or nodeset) for the “i”th term of the cyclic boundary. masternamei The label number of the master entity (point, line, surface, node, or nodeset) for the “i”th term of the cyclic boundary.
Slave cyclic boundary
360 M
o
Fundamental cyclic part
Cyclic symmetry axis (Default: X axis)
Master cyclic boundary
Note: When cyclic boundaries are based on geometric entities, the number of nodes on both the master and slave geometries must be the same. The cyclic boundaries are not restricted to straight lines and flat surfaces. Auxiliary commands LIST CYCLICBOUNDARY POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / NODES / NODESET DELETE CYCLICBOUNDARY POINTS / LINES / SURFACES / NODES / NODESET MASTER ... AXISCYCLIC PERIODIC
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CYCLICBOUNDARY TWOD
Sec. 7.4 Substructure and cyclic symmetry
CYCLICBOUNDARY
TWOD
slavenamei sbody masternamei mbody CYCLICBOUNDARY TWOD is used to associate cyclic boundaries with each other (defined by lines or edges).The command specifies the cyclic boundary nodes of the fundamental part of a cyclically symmetric structure. The cyclic boundaries of the fundamental part consist of two sets of lines or edges, namely, the cyclic boundary 1 (master cyclic boundary) and the cyclic boundary 2 (slave cyclic boundary).
Slave cyclic boundary
360 M
o
Fundamental cyclic part
Cyclic symmetry axis (Default: X axis)
Master cyclic boundary
slavenamei The label number of the geometry slave entity (line or edge) for the “i”’th independent term of the cyclic boundary. sbody Geometry body label of slave edge. masternamei The label number of the geometry master entity (line or edge) for the “i”’th independent term of the cyclic boundary. mbody Geometry body label of master edge. Auxiliary commands LIST CYCLICBOUNDARY TWOD DELETE CYCLICBOUNDARY TWOD MASTER ... AXISCYCLIC PERIODIC
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Chap. 7 Model definition
CYCLICBOUNDARY THREED
CYCLICBOUNDARY
THREED
slavenamei sbody masternamei mbody Command CYCLICBOUNDARY THREED is used to associate cyclic boundaries with each other (defined by surfaces or faces).The command specifies the cyclic boundary nodes of the fundamental part of a cyclically symmetric structure. The cyclic boundaries of the fundamental part consist of two sets of surfaces or faces, namely, the cyclic boundary 1 (master cyclic boundary) and the cyclic boundary 2 (slave cyclic boundary).
Slave cyclic boundary
360 M
o
Fundamental cyclic part
Cyclic symmetry axis (Default: X axis)
Master cyclic boundary
slavenamei The label number of the geometry slave entity (line or edge) for the “i”’th independent term of the cyclic boundary. sbody Geometry body label of slave edge. masternamei The label number of the geometry master entity (line or edge) for the “i”’th independent term of the cyclic boundary. mbody Geometry body label of master edge. Auxiliary commands LIST CYCLICBOUNDARY THREED DELETE CYCLICBOUNDARY THREED MASTER ... AXISCYCLIC PERIODIC
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AXISROTATION
Sec. 7.4 Substructure and cyclic symmetry
AXISROTATION
NAME MODE SYSTEM AXIS ALINE AP1 AP2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA
Defines a rotational axis which can be referenced by other commands. NAME Label number of the axis. [(current highest axis label number) + 1]
MODE [AXIS] Selects the method used to define the axis. The parameters (parenthesized) used to define the axis depends on the method selected. AXIS LINE The rotational axis is defined by a coordinate axis of a coordinate system. (SYSTEM, AXIS) The rotational axis is defined by a straight line between the end points of a geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open  i.e., have noncoincident end points). (ALINE) The rotational axis is defined by a straight line between two noncoincident geometry points. (AP1, AP2) The rotational axis is defined by the coordinate position and direction of a vector. (X0, Y0, Z0, XA, YA, ZA)
POINTS VECTOR 
SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the rotational axis, via parameter AXIS, when MODE = AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects the axis of the coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, to be used as the axis of rotation. {XL/YL/ZL} ALINE Label number of the geometry line used to define the rotational axis. The direction of the axis is taken from the start point of the line to the end point of the line. AP1, AP2 Label numbers of the geometry points used to define the rotational axis. The direction of the axis is taken from point AP1 to point AP2.
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Chap. 7 Model definition
AXISROTATION
X0, Y0, Z0 [0.0, 0.0, 0.0] The coordinates (in global coordinates) of the starting position of the vector that defines the rotational axis. XA, YA, ZA [1.0, 0.0, 0.0] The direction (in global coordinates) of the vector that defines the rotational axis. Auxiliary commands LIST AXISROTATION DELETEAXISROTATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGSUBSTRUCTURE
Sec. 7.4 Substructure and cyclic symmetry
EGSUBSTRUCTURE substructurei eg1i ... egNEGi
NEG
Creates substructures as sets of existing element groups. NEG The maximum number of element groups to be allocated to one substructure. substructurei Label number of a substructure. eg1i ... egNEGi Element group label numbers. [1]
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Chap. 7 Model definition
ANALYTICALRIGIDTARGET
ANALYTICALRIGIDTARGET
ANALYTICAL X0 Y0 Z0 RADIUS GTYPE GNAME
Command ANALYTICALRIGIDTARGET defines parameters for analytical rigid target contact analysis. Note: This command is only available for nodetonode contact (i.e., NODETONODE=YES in the CGROUP CONTACT... command). ANALYTICAL Analytical rigid target type: NONE PLANE SPHERE CYLINDER Analytical rigid target is not used. Infinite plane. Sphere (3D), or circle (2D). Infinite cylinder. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [NONE]
X0 Y0 Z0 Global cartesian component of:  initial plane normal verctor inside the target body (ANALYTICAL=PLANE).  initial cylinder axis verctor (ANALYTICAL=CYLINDER).
RADIUS [0.0] Radius of sphere (ANALYTICAL=SPHERE) or cylinder (ANALYTICAL=CYLINDER). GTYPE Geometry type for reference node: node or point. {NODE/POINT} [POINT]
GNAME Label number of reference node or point. An existing label number must be specified. Auxiliary commands LIST ANALYTICALRIGIDTARGET
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CONTACTCONTROL
Sec. 7.4 Substructure and cyclic symmetry
CONTACTCONTROL
NSUPPRESS SEGMENTINNERITERATION POSTIMPACT CONTROLALGORITHM XCONT ALGORITHM RTSUBD CSTYPE
Specifies certain parameters controlling the behavior of the algorithms used in modeling contact. For further details on these parameters, please consult the Theory and Modeling Guide. NSUPPRESS [0] Indicates the number of iterations for which previous target segments are stored for contactor nodes  in order to suppress oscillation between adjacent segments. Such oscillation can occur when a contactor node approaches the junction between two adjacent target segments. Use of NSUPPRESS > 0 allows for such oscillation to be detected and eliminated. NSUPPRESS = 0 (the default) indicates that no such checking and associated storage is required. {≥ 0} For NSUPPRESS >0, ADINA stores all target segments that have previously (during equilibrium iterations) come into contact with a contactor node. To limit the amount of memory required, NSUPPRESS is limited to a maximum value of 99. Notes: 1 NSUPPRESS has no effect if the nodetonode contact algorithm is used. 2 NSUPPRESS should be less than the maximum number of equilibrium iterations. SEGMENTINNERITERATION [YES] Indicates whether the inner iteration loop is to be performed for the segment method contact algorithm. {YES/NO} POSTIMPACT [YES] Indicates whether the postimpact correction of velocities and accelerations is performed along with the displacement constraint in dynamic contact problems. {YES/NO} CONTROLALGORITHM [CONSTRAINTFUNCTION] Selects the default algorithm used to solve contact problems in implicit analysis. {CONSTRAINTFUNCTION / SEGMENTMETHOD / RIGIDTARGET} XCONTALGORITHM [KINEMATICCONSTRAINT] Selects the default algorithm used to solve contact problems in explicit analysis. {KINEMATICCONSTRAINT / PENALTY / EXPLICITRIGIDTARGET} RTSUBD [MAGNITUDE] Selects the subdivision scheme used in the rigidtarget algorithm when the tensile contact force (and penetration if selected) is too large. {MAGNITUDE / ATS}
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Chap. 7 Model definition
CONTACTCONTROL
MAGNITUDE
Subdivision is based on the magnitude of the tensile contact force (and penetration), i.e., the larger the magnitude, the smaller will be the subdivided time step size. Subdivision is based on the global automatic time stepping (ATS) subdivsion settings. [OLD]
ATS
CSTYPE Selects the type of contact segment to use. {OLD/NEW} OLD NEW Use the old contact segment. Use the new contact segment.
Auxiliary commands LIST CONTACTCONTROL
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CONTACTCONTROL
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
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CGROUP CONTACT2
CGROUP CONTACT2
NAME SUBTYPE FORCES TRACTIONS NODETONODE FRICTION EPSN EPST DIRECTION CONTINUOUSNORMAL INITIALPENETRATION PENETRATIONALGORITHM DEPTH OFFSET OFFSETTYPE CORNERCONTACT TBIRTH TDEATH TIED TIEDOFFSET HHATTMC FCTMC FTTMC RIGIDTARGET NORMALSTIFFNESS TANGENTIALSTIFFNESS PTOLERANCE RESIDUALFORCE LIMITFORCE ITERATIONLIMIT TIMEPENETRATION CONSISTENTSTIFF USERFRICTION CFACTOR1 CSEXTENSION ALGORITHM XALGORITHM XKNCRIT XKNORMAL XKTCRIT XKTANGENT RTPCHECK RTPMAX XDAMP XNDAMP
Defines a contact group consisting of 2D planar or axisymmetric contactsurfaces. Note that in the following description, each parameter name heading may have one of the following superscripts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Applicable for standard contact, i.e., NODETONODE = NO and RIGIDTARGET = NO. Applicable for the rigid target contact algorithm, i.e., RIGIDTARGET = YES. Applicable for the node to node contact algorithm, i.e., NODETONODE = YES. Applicable only to implicit analysis. Applicable only to explicit analysis.
The absence of a superscript indicates general applicability. A summary of parameters applicable for each contact algorithm at the end of the description of CGROUP CONTACT3. NAME [(current highest contact group label number) + 1] Label number of the contact group to be defined. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of CONTACT2 contactsurfaces, all defined in the global YZ plane. {AXISYMMETRIC/STRAIN/STRESS} AXISYMMETRIC  Axisymmetric contactsurfaces. The global Z axis is that of rotational symmetry, and Y is the radial direction (Y ≥ 0). STRAIN  Planar contactsurfaces. STRESS  Planar contactsurfaces (identical to STRAIN). FORCES 1, 2 [YES] Indicates whether or not concentrated contact nodal forces are calculated for every contactsurface node of this contact group. The contact forces are evaluated with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. If NODETONODE = YES, nodal forces are always calculated and this parameter is ignored. {YES/NO}
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CGROUP CONTACT2
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
TRACTIONS 1 [YES] Indicates whether or not average contactor segment tractions (and concentrated contact nodal forces at solitary nodes in contact) are calculated for every contactor surface of this contact group. {YES/NO} Note: The combination FORCES = NO, TRACTIONS = NO is not permitted.
NODETONODE [NO] Indicates whether or not a nodetonode contact algorithm is used by the contact group. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. {YES/NO} FRICTION [0.0] Coefficient of Coulomb’s friction law. FRICTION = 0.0 indicates frictionless contact. EPSN 1, 3, 4 [0.0] The normal contact wfunction εΝ parameter. Used only when constraintfunction algorithm is active (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). See the Theory and Modeling Guide for more details. Guidelines for choosing this parameter are provided in the ADINAAUI Online Help. When ESPN = 0.0, ADINA automatically determines this parameter. EPST 1, 3, 4 [0.0] The friction contact vfunction εΤ parameter. Used only when constraintfunction algorithm is active (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). See the Theory and Modeling Guide for more details. Guidelines for choosing this parameter are provided in the ADINAAUI Online Help. When ESPT = 0.0, ADINA automatically sets it to 0.001. [NORMAL] DIRECTION 3 Indicates the type of vector describing a nodal pair for nodetonode contact. {NORMAL/ VECTOR} NORMAL  Use a normal vector inside a target body. VECTOR  Use a vector between target and contactor nodes. CONTINUOUSNORMAL 1, 2, 4 [YES] Indicates whether or not a continuous (interpolated) contact segment normal is to be used for contact surfaces in the contact group. {YES/NO} INITIALPENETRATION 1 Initial contactor node penetration flag. {ALLOWED/PRINT/DISCARDED} ALLOWED [ALLOWED]
 Any initial penetration of a contactor node into a target surface is
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Chap. 7 Model definition
CGROUP CONTACT2
eliminated either in the first solution step or over a specified time interval (see TIMEPENETRATION parameter). In successive steps each contactor node cannot penetrate. PRINT  Same as ALLOWED, but a printout of the penetrating contactor nodes is produced. DISCARDED  Any initial penetration of a contactor node into a target surface is not eliminated in the first solution step. In successive steps each contactor node is allowed to penetrate up to the initial penetration. PENETRATIONALGORITHM 1, 2 [ONE] The penetration algorithm. This parameter is reserved for future use. Currently it must be set to ONE. {ONE} ONE  Each contact surface is singlesided. You must insure that each contact surface has proper orientation. DEPTH 1, 2 [0.0] This parameter is used when PENETRATIONALGORITHM = ONE. If DEPTH > 0.0, then penetration is detected when the penetration depth is less than or equal to DEPTH, and if the penetration distance is greater than DEPTH, penetration is deemed not to occur. OFFSET [0.0] For PENETRATIONALGORITHM = ONE, the actual contact surface is raised a distance OFFSET away from the surface defined by the nodes. OFFSETTYPE [CONSTANT] Specifies the type of offset to be used for contact surfaces belonging to this group. {CONSTANT/NONE} CONSTANT  Constant offset as specified by the parameter OFFSET is used. See note under OFFSET. NONE  No offset is used (regardless of the value of the parameter OFFSET).
CORNERCONTACT [NO] Indicates whether or not contactor nodes are allowed to contact several targets simultaneously. Currently only the value NO is allowed. This parameter is reserved for future use. {NO} TBIRTH 1, 2 [0.0] TDEATH 1, 2 [0.0] The birth and death times for all contact pairs in the contact group. If TBIRTH=0.0 and TDEATH=0.0, the birth and death feature is not used.
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CGROUP CONTACT2
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
TIED 1, 4 [NO] Indicates the type of TIED contact. This parameter is ignored when PENETRATIONALGORITHM = TWO. {NO/SMALL} NO SMALL No TIED contact. Small displacement is used in TIED contact.
TIEDOFFSET 1, 4 [0.0] If TIED = SMALL, contactor nodes are tied to target if the gap between them is less than or equal to this parameter. This parameter is ignored when TIED = NO. HHATTMC 1, 3, 4 [0.0] Contact heat transfer coefficient used for thermomechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. Applicable only if the constraint function algorithm is used (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). FCTMC 1, 3, 4 [0.5] Friction contact heat distribution fraction coefficient for contactor used for thermomechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. Applicable only if the constraint function algorithm is used (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). {0.0 ≤ FCTMC ≤ 1.0} FTTMC 1, 3, 4 [0.5] Friction contact heat distribution fraction coefficient for target used for thermomechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. Applicable only if the constraint function algorithm is used (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). {0.0 ≤ FTTMC ≤ 1.0} RIGIDTARGET [NO] Indicates whether rigid target contact algorithm is used for current contact group. It is preferable to set ALGORITHM anad XALGORITHM instead.{NO/YES} [1.0E11] NORMALSTIFFNESS 2, 4 Contact stiffness in direction normal to the contact surface; used only when rigid target contact algorithm is active (RIGIDTARGET = YES). TANGENTIALSTIFFNESS 2, 4 [0.0] Contact stiffness in direction tangential to the contact surface; used only when rigid target contact algorithm is active (RIGIDTARGET = YES). PTOLERANCE 2, 4 [1.0E8] Maximum allowable penetration of target surface. If penetration is less than PTOLERANCE, contact is assumed to be not yet established for the node in consideration.
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CGROUP CONTACT2
RESIDUALFORCE 2, 4 [0.001] Minimum tensile contact force required to change state of a contact node from "node in contact" to "free node". If the normal component of a tensile contact force is less than RESIDUALFORCE, a "node in contact" remains in contact. If the normal tensile force is greater than RESIDUALFORCE, a "node in contact" becomes a "free node". LIMITFORCE 2, 4 [1.0] Limit (maximum) for the sum of all contact forces for nodes changing from the state of "node in contact" to "free node". If the absolute value of the sum of the forces is bigger than LIMITFORCE, then the automatic time stepping (ATS) method will be activated to subdivide the current time step into smaller time increments. ITERATIONLIMIT 2, 4 [2] Maximum number of ATS time step subdivisions due to LIMITFORCE criterion described above. TIMEPENETRATION 1 Specifies the time used to eliminate any initial penetration. {≥ 0.0} [0.0]
If INITIALPENETRATION=ALLOWED or PRINT, and TIMEPENETRATION=0.0, then the initial penetration is eliminated in the first time step. By specifying TIMEPENETRATION > 0.0, initial penetration can be eliminated gradually. This may help in the convergence of the solution. CONSISTENTSTIFF 1, 4 [DEFAULT] Indicates whether consistent contact stiffness is used. {DEFAULT/OFF/ON} When CONSISTENTSTIFF = DEFAULT, consistent contact stiffness is used if:  the direct skyline equation solver is not used, i.e., SOLVER is not set to DIRECT in the MASTER command, and  CONTINUOUSNORMAL = NO is specified. Note that this option is not used if DISPLACEMENT=SMALL in the KINEMATICS command. The use of consistent contact stiffness increases the size of the stiffness matrix. However, it can improve the convergence rate in contact problems, especially in cases where the normal vector between the contacting surfaces frequently changes direction during the analysis. USERFRICTION 1, 4 [NO] Indicates whether a usersupplied friction law is used for this contact group. If USERFRICTION=YES is specified, additional parameters for defining the usersupplied friction law can be input using the USERFRICTION command. {YES/NO}
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CGROUP CONTACT2
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
CFACTOR1 1, 3, 4 Compliance factor for contact pairs in this contact group. {≥ 0.0} CSEXTENSION 1 The maximum nondimensional extension of target contact surfaces. {0.0 < CSEXTENSION < 0.1}
[0.0]
[0.001]
ALGORITHM 4 [DEFAULT] Selects the contact algorithm for current group if the analysis is implicit. If DEFAULT is selected the algorithm type is determined based on the CONTACTALGORITHM parameter of the MASTER command. {DEFAULT/ CONSTRAINTFUNCTION/ SEGMENTMETHOD/ RIGIDTARGET} XALGORITHM 5 [DEFAULT] Selects the contact algorithm for current group if the analysis is explicit. If DEFAULT is selected the algorithm type is determined based on XCONTALGORITHM variable of the MASTER command. {DEFAULT/KINEMATICCONSTRTAINT/PENALTY/EXPLICITRIGIDTARGET} XKNCRIT 5 [GLOBAL] Criterion for evaluation of normal penalty stiffness for the explicit penalty contact algorithm. {GLOBAL/USER} XKNORMAL 5 [0.0] The normal stiffness for the explicit penalty contact algorithm. It must be greater than 0.0. It is only used for XKNCRIT=USER. XKTCRIT 5 [GLOBAL] Criterion for evaluation of tangential penalty stiffness for the explicit penalty contact algorithm. {GLOBAL/USER} XKTANGENT 5 [0.0] The tangetial stiffness for the explicit penalty contact algorithm. It must be greater than 0.0. It is only used for XKTCRIT=USER. RTPCHECK 2, 4 [NO] Specifies whether penetration is checked (in addition to checking the tensile contact force) against the maximum allowable penetration when the rigidtarget algorithm is used. {NO / RELATIVE / ABSOLUTE} NO Penetration is not checked. Note that with this setting, there is a possiblity that the rigid target surface may excessively penetrate the contactor surface.
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CGROUP CONTACT2
RELATIVE ABSOLUTE

Penetration is checked and RTPMAX is specified as a factor of the overall model size. Penetration is checked and RTPMAX is the absolute value of penetration allowed.
Note that if penetration check is selected, the program will perform subdivision of time steps if the penetration exceeds the maximum allowable penetration. The subdivision scheme is specified in the RTSUBD parameter in the CONTACTCONTROL command. RTPMAX 2, 4 [0.001] Specifies the maximum allowable penetration when the rigid target algorithm is used. RTPMAX is either a factor of the model size or an absolute value depending on the RTPCHECK parameter. {> 0.0} XDAMP 5 [NO] Indicates whether normal damping (proportional to the rate of penetration) is used with the penalty explicit contact algorithm.{NO/RELATIVE/ABSOLUTE} NO RELATIVE Damping is not used, i.e., XNDAMP parameter is ignored. Damping is used and XNDAMP is a factor of the critical damping, i.e., the normal contact damping coefficient is given by XNDAMP multiplied by the critical damping. This is the recommended choice if damping is used. Damping is included and the normal contact damping coefficient is specified directly by XNDAMP.
ABSOLUTE
XNDAMP 5 [0.1] Specifies the relative or absolute normal damping coefficient (for normal penalty stiffness) when the penalty explicit contact algorithm is used. { ≥ 0.0} Auxiliary Commands LIST CGROUP DELETE CGROUP FIRST LAST FIRST LAST NODES
NODES = YES (the default) will remove nodes which were only attached to contact segments in the deleted contact group.
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CGROUP CONTACT2
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
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CGROUP CONTACT3
CGROUP CONTACT3
NAME FORCES TRACTIONS NODETONODE FRICTION EPSN EPST DIRECTION CONTINUOUSNORMAL INITIALPENETRATION PENETRATIONALGORITHM DEPTH OFFSET OFFSETTYPE CORNERCONTACT TBIRTH TDEATH TIED TIEDOFFSET HHATTMC FCTMC FTTMC RIGIDTARGET NORMALSTIFFNESS TANGENTIALSTIFFNESS PTOLERANCE RESIDUALFORCE LIMITFORCE ITERATIONLIMIT TIMEPENETRATION CONSISTENTSTIFF USERFRICTION CFACTOR1 CSEXTENSION ALGORITHM XALGORITHM XKNCRIT XKNORMAL XKTCRIT XKTANGENT RTPCHECK RTPMAX XDAMP XNDAMP
Defines a contact group consisting of 3D contactsurfaces. Note that in the following description, each parameter name heading may have one of the following superscripts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Applicable for standard contact, i.e., NODETONODE = NO and RIGIDTARGET = NO. Applicable for the rigid target contact algorithm, i.e., RIGIDTARGET = YES. Applicable for the node to node contact algorithm, i.e., NODETONODE = YES. Applicable only to implicit analysis. Applicable only to explicit analysis.
The absence of a superscript indicates general applicability. A summary of parameters applicable for each contact algorithm is found at the end of the description of this command. NAME [(current highest contact group label number) + 1] Label number of the contact group to be defined. FORCES 1, 2 [YES] Indicates whether or not concentrated contact nodal forces are calculated for every contact surface node of this contact group. The contact forces are evaluated with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. If NODETONODE = YES, nodal forces are always calculated and this parameter is ignored. {YES/NO} TRACTIONS 1 [YES] Indicates whether or not average contactor segment tractions (and concentrated contact nodal forces at solitary nodes in contact) are calculated for every contactor surface of this contact group. {YES/NO} Note: The combination FORCES = NO, TRACTIONS = NO is not permitted.
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CGROUP CONTACT3
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
NODETONODE [NO] Indicates whether or not a nodetonode contact algorithm is used by the contact group. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. {YES/NO} FRICTION [0.0] Coefficient of Coulomb’s friction law. FRICTION = 0.0 indicates frictionless contact. EPSN 1, 3, 4 [0.0] The normal contact wfriction εΝ parameter. Used only when constraintfunction algorithm is active (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). See the Theory and Modeling Guide for more details. Guidelines for choosing this parameter are provided in the ADINAAUI Online Help. When ESPN = 0.0, ADINA automatically determines this parameter. EPST 1, 3,4 [0.0] The friction contact vfriction εT parameter. Used only when constraintfunction algorithm is active (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). See the Theory and Modeling Guide for more details. Guidelines for choosing this parameter are provided in the ADINAAUI Online Help. When ESPT = 0.0, ADINA automatically sets it to 0.001. DIRECTION 3 [NORMAL] Indicates the type of vector describing a nodal pair for nodetonode contact. {NORMAL/ VECTOR} NORMAL  Use normal vector inside a target body. VECTOR  Use a vector between target and contactor nodes. [YES if PENETRATION = ONE] [NO if PENETRATION = TWO] Indicates whether or not a continuous (interpolated) contact segment normal is to be used for contact surfaces in the contact group. {YES/NO} CONTINUOUSNORMAL 1, 2, 4 INITIALPENETRATION1 Initial contactor node penetration flag. {ALLOWED/PRINT/DISCARDED} ALLOWED [ALLOWED]
 Any initial penetration of a contactor node into a target surface is eliminated either in the first solution step or over a specified time interval (see TIMEPENETRATION parameter). In successive steps each contactor node cannot penetrate. PRINT  Same as ALLOWED, but a printout of the penetrating contactor nodes is produced. DISCARDED  Any initial penetration of a contactor node into a target surface is
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not eliminated in the first solution step. In successive steps each contactor node is allowed to penetrate up to the initial penetration. PENETRATIONALGORITHM1 The penetration algorithm can be chosen as follows: [ONE]
ONE  Each contact surface is singlesided. You must insure that each contact surface has proper orientation. TWO  Each contact surface is doublesided. The contact surface orientation does not matter. It is recommended that the nodal offset be greater than zero in this case. DEPTH 1, 2 [0.0] This parameter is used when PENETRATIONALGORITHM=ONE. If DEPTH > 0.0, then penetration is detected when the penetration depth is less than or equal to DEPTH, and if the penetration distance is greater than DEPTH, penetration is deemed not to occur. OFFSET [0.0 if PENETRATION = ONE] [0.001 if PENETRATION = TWO] For PENETRATIONALGORITHM=ONE, the actual contact surface is raised a distance OFFSET away from the surface defined by the nodes. For PENETRATIONALGORITHM=TWO, two contact surfaces are constructed for each defined contact surface, each contact surface placed a distance OFFSET from the defined contact surface. Note: For non rigidtarget contact, the OFFSET parameter specifies the default offset distance. For each individual contact surface, a different offset distance can be specified using the command CSOFFSET.
OFFSETTYPE [CONSTANT] Specifies the type of offset to be used for contact surfaces belonging to this group. {CONSTANT/TRUE/NONE} CONSTANT  Constant offset as specified by the parameter OFFSET is used. See note under OFFSET. TRUE  The actual shell half thickness is used as the offset distance even for large strains. NONE  No offset is used (regardless of the value of the parameter OFFSET). CORNERCONTACT [NO] Indicates whether or not contactor nodes are allowed to contact several targets simultaneously. Currently only the value NO is allowed. This parameter is reserved for future use.
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
TBIRTH 1, 2 [0.0] TDEATH 1, 2 [0.0] The birth and death times for all contact pairs in the contact group. If TBIRTH=0.0 and TDEATH=0.0, the birth and death feature is not used. TIED 1, 4 Indicates the type of TIED contact. This parameter is ignored when PENETRATIONALGORITHM = TWO. {NO/SMALL} NO  No TIED contact. SMALL  Small displacement is used in TIED contact. TIEDOFFSET 1, 4 [0.0] If TIED = SMALL, contactor nodes are tied to target if the gap between them is less than or equal to this parameter. This parameter is ignored when TIED = NO. HHATTMC 1, 3 , 4 [0.0] Contact heat transfer coefficient used for thermomechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. Applicable only if the constraint function algorithm is used (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). FCTMC 1, 3, 4 [0.5] Friction contact heat distribution fraction coefficient for contactor used for thermomechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. Applicable only if the constraint function algorithm is used (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). {0.0 ≤ FCTMC ≤ 1.0} FTTMC 1, 3, 4 [0.5] Friction contact heat distribution fraction coefficient for target used for thermomechanical coupling (TMC) analysis. Applicable only if the constraint function algorithm is used (i.e., CONTACTALGORITHM = CONSTRAINTFUNCTION in MASTER command). {0.0 ≤ FTTMC ≤ 1.0} RIGIDTARGET [NO] Indicates whether rigid target contact algorithm is used for current contact group. It is preferable to set ALGORITHM anad XALGORITHM instead. {NO/YES} NORMALSTIFFNESS 2, 4 [1.0E11] Contact stiffness in direction normal to the contact surface; used only when rigid target contact algorithm is active (RIGIDTARGET = YES). TANGENTIALSTIFFNESS 2, 4 [0.0] Contact stiffness in direction tangential to the contact surface; used only when rigid target contact algorithm is active (RIGIDTARGET = YES).
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PTOLERANCE 2, 4 [1.0E8] Maximum allowable penetration of target surface. If penetration is less than PTOLERANCE, contact is assumed to be not yet established for the node in consideration. RESIDUALFORCE 2, 4 [0.001] Minimum tensile contact force required to change state of a contact node from "node in contact" to "free node". If the normal component of a tensile contact force is less than RESIDUALFORCE, a "node in contact" remains in contact. If the normal tensile force is greater than RESIDUALFORCE, a "node in contact" becomes a "free node". LIMITFORCE 2, 4 [1.0] Limit (maximum) for the sum of all contact forces for nodes changing from the state of "node in contact" to "free node". If the absolute value of the sum of the forces is bigger than LIMITFORCE, then the automatic time stepping (ATS) method will be activated to subdivide the current time step into smaller time increments. ITERATIONLIMIT 2, 4 [2] Maximum number of ATS time step subdivisions due to LIMITFORCE criterion described above. TIMEPENETRATION 1 Specifies the time used to eliminate any initial penetration. {≥ 0.0} [0.0]
If INITIALPENETRATION = ALLOWED or PRINT, and TIMEPENETRATION=0.0, then the initial penetration is eliminated in the first time step. By specifying TIMEPENETRATION > 0.0, initial penetration can be eliminated gradually. This may help in the convergence of the solution. CONSISTENTSTIFF 1, 4 [DEFAULT] Indicates whether consistent contact stiffness is used. {DEFAULT/OFF/ON} When CONSISTENTSTIFF = DEFAULT, consistent contact stiffness is used if:  the direct skyline equation solver is not used, i.e., SOLVER is not set to DIRECT in the MASTER command, and  CONTINUOUSNORMAL = NO is specified. Note that this option is not used if DISPLACEMENT = SMALL in the KINEMATICS command. The use of consistent contact stiffness increases the size of the stiffness matrix. However, it can improve the convergence rate in contact problems, especially in cases where the normal vector between the contacting surfaces frequently changes direction during the analysis.
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
USERFRICTION 1, 4 [NO] Indicates whether a usersupplied friction law is used for this contact group. If USERFRICTION=YES is specified, additional parameters for defining the usersupplied friction law can be input using the USERFRICTION command. {YES/NO} CFACTOR1 1, 3, 4 Compliance factor for contact pairs in this contact group. {≥ 0.0} CSEXTENSION 1 The maximum nondimensional extension of target contact surfaces. {0.0 < CSEXTENSION < 0.1} [0.0]
[0.001]
ALGORITHM 4 [DEFAULT] Selects the contact algorithm for current group if the analysis is implicit. If DEFAULT is selected the algorithm type is determined based on the CONTACTALGORITHM parameter of the MASTER command. {DEFAULT/ CONSTRAINTFUNCTION/ SEGMENTMETHOD/ RIGIDTARGET} XALGORITHM 5 [DEFAULT] Selects the contact algorithm for current group if the analysis is explicit. If DEFAULT is selected the algorithm type is determined based on XCONTALGORITHM variable of the MASTER command. {DEFAULT/KINEMATICCONSTRTAINT/PENALTY/EXPLICITRIGIDTARGET} XKNCRIT 5 [GLOBAL] Criterion for evaluation of normal penalty stiffness for the explicit penalty algorithm. {GLOBAL/USER} XKNORMAL 5 [0.0] The normal stiffness for the explicit penalty contact algorithm. It must be greater than 0.0. It is only used for XKNCRIT=USER. XKTCRIT 5 [GLOBAL] Criterion for evaluation of tangential penalty stiffness for the explicit penalty algorithm. {GLOBAL/USER} XKTANGENT 5 [0.0] The tangetial stiffness for the explicit penalty contact algorithm. It must be greater than 0.0. It is only used for XKTCRIT=USER. RTPCHECK 2, 4 [NO] Specifies whether penetration is checked (in addition to checking the tensile contact force)
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against the maximum allowable penetration when the rigidtarget algorithm is used. {NO / RELATIVE / ABSOLUTE} NO Penetration is not checked. Note that with this setting, there is a possiblity that the rigid target surface may excessively penetrate the contactor surface. Penetration is checked and RTPMAX is specified as a factor of the overall model size. Penetration is checked and RTPMAX is the absolute value of penetration allowed.
RELATIVE ABSOLUTE
Note that if penetration check is selected, the program will perform subdivision of time steps if the penetration exceeds the maximum allowable penetration. The subdivision scheme is specified in the RTSUBD parameter in the CONTACTCONTROL command. RTPMAX 2, 4 [0.001] Specifies the maximum allowable penetration when the rigid target algorithm is used. RTPMAX is either a factor of the model size or an absolute value depending on the RTPCHECK parameter. {> 0.0} XDAMP 5 [NO] Indicates whether normal damping (proportional to the rate of penetration) is used with the penalty explicit contact algorithm.{NO/RELATIVE/ABSOLUTE} NO RELATIVE Damping is not used, i.e., XNDAMP parameter is ignored. Damping is used and XNDAMP is a factor of the critical damping, i.e., the normal contact damping coefficient is given by XNDAMP multiplied by the critical damping. This is the recommended choice if damping is used. Damping is included and the normal contact damping coefficient is specified directly by XNDAMP.
ABSOLUTE
XNDAMP 5 [0.1] Specifies the relative or absolute normal damping coefficient (for normal penalty stiffness) when the penalty explicit contact algorithm is used. { ≥ 0.0} Auxiliary Commands LIST CGROUP3 DELETE CGROUP3 FIRST LAST FIRST LAST NODES
NODES = YES (the default) will remove nodes which were only attached to contact segments in the deleted contact group.
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
The summary of parameters applicable for each contact algorithm is presented in two tables following, one for implicit analysis and one for explicit analysis.
Summary of parameters applicable for each contact algorithm (Implicit analysis)
C O N TACT ALGO RITHM C O N STRAIN TFUN CTIO N N AME SUBTYPE (2D O N LY) FRICTIO N EPSN EPST O FFSET O FFSETTYPE CFACTO R1 ALGO RITHM SEGMEN TMETHO D N AME SUBTYPE (2D O N LY) FRICTIO N O FFSET O FFSETTYPE ALGO RITHM RIGIDTARGET N AME SUBTYPE (2D O N LY) FO RC ES FRICTIO N CO N TIN UO USN O RMAL DEPTH O FFSET O FFSETTYPE TBIRTH, TDEATH N O RMALSTIFFN ESS TAN GEN TIALSTIFFN ESS PTO LERAN CE RESIDUALFO RCE LIMITFO RCE ITERATIO N LIMIT ALGO RITHM RTPCHECK RTPMAX
N O DETO N O DE = N O FO RCES TRACTIO N S CO N TIN UO USN O RMAL IN ITIALPEN ETRATIO N PEN ETRATIO N ALGO RITHM (3 D O N LY) DEPTH TBIRTH, TDEATH TIED TIEDO FFSET HHATTMC FCTMC FTTMC TIMEPEN ETRATIO N C O N SISTEN TSTIFF USERFRICTIO N CSEXTEN SIO N FO RC ES TRAC TIO N S C O N TIN UO USN O RMAL IN ITIALPEN ETRATIO N PEN ETRATIO N ALGO RITHM (3 D O N LY) DEPTH TBIRTH, TDEATH TIED TIEDO FFSET TIMEPEN ETRATIO N CO N SISTEN TSTIFF USERFRICTIO N C SEXTEN SIO N
N O DETO N O DE = YES DIRECTIO N DIRECTIO N
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Summary of parameters applicable for each contact algorithm (Explicit analysis)
CO N TAC T ALGO RITHM K IN EMATIC CO N STRAIN T N AME SUBTYPE (2D O N LY) FRIC TIO N O FFSET O FFSETTYPE XALGO RITHM PEN ALTY N AME SUBTYPE (2D O N LY) FRICTIO N O FFSET O FFSETTYPE XALGO RITHM XK N CRIT XK N O RMAL XK TC RIT XK TAN GEN T XDAMP XN DAMP N O DETO N O DE = N O FO RC ES TRACTIO N S IN ITIALPEN ETRATIO N PEN ETRATIO N ALGO RITHM (3D O N LY) DEPTH TBIRTH, TDEATH TIMEPEN ETRATIO N CSEXTEN SIO N N O DETO N O DE = YES DIRECTIO N FO RC ES TRACTIO N S IN ITIALPEN ETRATIO N PEN ETRATIO N ALGO RITHM (3D O N LY) DEPTH TBIRTH, TDEATH TIMEPEN ETRATIO N CSEXTEN SIO N EXPLICIT RIGIDTARGET N AME SUBTYPE (2D O N LY) FO RCES FRIC TIO N CO N TIN UO USN O RMAL DEPTH O FFSET O FFSETTYPE TBIRTH, TDEATH XALGO RITHM
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
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CONTACTBODY
CONTACTBODY operationi typei labeli
NAME PRINT SAVE SOLID BODY
Command CONTACTBODY defines a “contact body”, i.e. a geometry surface in 2D analysis or a geometry volume in 3D analysis, which is expected to be in contact with a defined contactsurface (from the command CONTACTSURFACE). This allows all the nodes in the volume to potentially be in contact with a target surface. The target surface should still be defined using the CONTACTSURFACE command. Each data input line specifies an operation, entity type and entity label. For example, you can create a contactbody composed of a geometry volume excluding a geometry point by specifying two data input lines, the first line adding the volume and the second line subtracting the point. NAME [(current highest contactbody/surface number) + 1] Label number of the contactbody to be defined. Note that the contactbody names are unique only within a contact group, i.e. two different contact groups may each define its own contactbody “1”. Note also that the name must be distinguished from that in the CONTACTSURFACE command, because a contactpair can be formed between a geometry defined by the CONTACTBODY and a geometry defined by the CONTACTSURFACE. PRINT [DEFAULT] Flag controlling printout of the results of the contact analysis as determined by the FORCES and TRACTIONS parameters of the CGROUP command. Choices are NO, YES and DEFAULT; when PRINT=DEFAULT, printout is controlled by the PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT parameter. SAVE [DEFAULT] Flag controlling saving (to the porthole file) of the results of the contact analysis as determined by the FORCES and TRACTIONS parameters of the CGROUP command. Choices are NO, YES and DEFAULT; when SAVE=DEFAULT, saving is controlled by the PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT parameter. SOLID [NO] Flag indicating whether the contact body is defined on a BRep solid model body. {NO/YES} BODY Geometry body label number of a BRep solid model. This parameter is required if SOLID=YES.
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CONTACTBODY
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
operationi [ADD] The entity specified in this data line is either added to or subtracted from the contactbody. {ADD/SUBTRACT} typei The type of the entity specified in this data line. The entity can either be a geometry entity (POINT, LINE, SURFACE, VOLUME, EDGE, FACE, BODY) or a finite element entity (NODE). Command line parameter SOLID must be YES if the type is EDGE, FACE or BODY and the command line parameter BODY must be specified if the type is EDGE or FACE. labeli The label number of the entity. Auxilary commands LIST CONTACTBODY DELETE CONTACTBODY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
CONTACTSURFACE
NAME PRINT SAVE SOLID BODY ORIENTATION SENSE
namei sensei bodyi CONTACTSURFACE defines a “contactsurface”, i.e., a set of boundary entities which are expected to be in contact either initially or during analysis with another similarly defined contactsurface. NAME [(current highest contactsurface label number) + 1] Label number of the contact surface to be defined. Note that the contactsurface names are unique only within a contact group, i.e., two different contact groups may each define its own contactsurface “1”. PRINT [DEFAULT] Flag controlling printout of the results of the contact analysis as determined by the FORCES and TRACTIONS parameters of CGROUP. If DEFAULT is specified, printout is controlled by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} SAVE [DEFAULT] Flag controlling saving (to the porthole file) of the results of the contact analysis as determined by the FORCES and TRACTIONS parameters of CGROUP. If DEFAULT is specified, saving is controlled by the PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT parameter. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} SOLID [NO] Indicates whether the contact surface is defined on solid body (or bodies). {NO/YES/ MULTI/BODY} NO Contact surface is defined on native AUI geometry. Enter lines or surfaces in the data input lines. Contact surface is defined on a single solid body (specified by parameter BODY). Enter edges or faces in the data input lines. Contact surface is defined on surfaces or faces of multiple bodies. (Only for 3D contact surface). Enter surfaces or faces (and parent bodies) in the data input lines. Contact surface is defined on all boundary faces of a body (specified by parameter BODY). Do not enter data input lines. [currently active body]
YES
MULTI
BODY
BODY Geometry body label number.
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CONTACTSURFACE
ORIENTATION Indicates contact surface orientation. AUTOMATIC
[AUTOMATIC]
The sense flag for each component of the contactsurface is determined automatically. The sense flag for contactsurface components is input in the following data lines. [+1]
INPUT
SENSE Default for the data line entry for contactsurface orientation. {+1/1}
namei Label of geometric entities used to define this contact surface. The type of geometric entity depends on the contact group and the parameter SOLID as indicated below. Contact Group 2D 2D 3D 3D 3D SOLID NO YES NO YES MULTI namei line label edge label surface label face label surface or face label [SENSE]
sensei Orientation flag for geometry component: +1 contactsurface uses same orientation as geometry. 1 contactsurface uses opposite orientation to geometry. bodyi Label of the parent solid body when namei is an edge label or a face label. Note:
The label numbers for contactsurface definitions include those defined by commands CONTACTSURFACE, CONTACTPOINT and CONTACTFACENODES. Thus you cannot define CONTACTSURFACE “1” and CONTACTPOINT “1”, one would overwrite the prior definition.
Auxiliary commands LIST CONTACTSURFACE DELETE CONTACTSURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CONTACTPOINT
CONTACTPOINT pointi tnxi tnyi tnzi
NAME PRINT SAVE
Defines a “contactpoint”, i.e., a contactsurface defined as a set of geometry points (in 2D or 3D analysis) which are expected to be in contact, either initially or during analysis, with another similarly defined contactpoint or contactsurface (see CONTACTSURFACE ). Note: This command is only available for nodetonode contact (i.e., NODETONODE=YES in the CGROUP CONTACT... command). NAME [(current highest contact point label number) + 1] Label number of the contactpoint to be defined. Note that the contactpoint names are unique only within a contact group, i.e., two different contact groups may each define its own contactpoint “1”. PRINT [DEFAULT] Flag controlling printout of the results of the contact analysis as determined by the FORCES and TRACTIONS parameters of CGROUP. If DEFAULT is specified, printout is controlled by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} SAVE [DEFAULT] Flag controlling saving (to the porthole file) of the results of the contact analysis as determined by the FORCES and TRACTIONS parameters of CGROUP. If DEFAULT is specified, saving is controlled by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} pointi Geometry point label number. tnxi Xcomponent of normal vector directed inside target body. tnyi Ycomponent of normal vector directed inside target body. tnzi Zcomponent of normal vector directed inside target body. Note: The label numbers for contactsurface definitions include those defined by commands CONTACTSURFACE , CONTACTPOINT and CONTACTFACENODES. Thus you cannot define CONTACTSURFACE “1” and CONTACTPOINT “1”, one would overwrite the prior definition.
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CONTACTPOINT
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
Auxiliary commands LIST CONTACTPOINT DELETE CONTACTPOINT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DRAWBEAD
DRAWBEAD
NAME CONTACTOR TARGET1 TARGET2 HEIGHT RFORCE UFORCE PRINT SAVE DFPRINT TBIRTH TDEATH GTYPE
namei Defines a drawbead for metal forming analysis. This command is only active if the current contact group is a rigidtarget 3D contact group. NAME [(current highest DRAWBEAD label number) + 1 ] Label number of the drawbead to be defined. CONTACTOR Specifies the contactor surface for the drawbead. A contactor surface is a contact surface that is assigned as a contactor in a contact pair definition. TARGET1 Specifies the first target surface for the drawbead. A target surface is a contact surface that is assigned as a target in a contact pair definition. TARGET2 Specifies the second target surface for the drawbead. HEIGHT Specifies the drawbead height. {HEIGHT>0.0} RFORCE Specifies the restraining force per unit length of the drawbead. {RFORCE>0.0} UFORCE Specifies the uplifting force per unit length of the drawbead. {UFORCE>=0.0} PRINT Indicates whether drawbead segment nodal forces are printed. NO  do not print drawbead forces RFORCE  print only restraining forces RUFORCE  print restraining and uplifting forces SAVE Indicates whether drawbead segment nodal forces are saved. [NO] [0.0]
[NO]
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
NO  do not save drawbead forces RFORCE  save only restraining forces RUFORCE  save restraining and uplifting forces DFPRINT [NO] Indicates whether drawbead segment distributed forces (traction) are printed and/or saved to the porthole file. NO YES  do not print/save distributed forces  print/save distributed forces
Option DFPRINT = YES takes effect only if drawbead segment nodal forces are printed/ saved (parameter PRINT or SAVE is set to RFORCE or RUFORCE). TBIRTH Specifies the birth time of the drawbead. TDEATH Specifies the death time of the drawbead. [TBIRTH of contact group]
[TDEATH of contact group]
GTYPE Specifies the entity type used to define the drawbead. {LINE/NODE} namei Specifies the geometry lines or nodes that defines the drawbead.
[LINE]
Auxiliary commands LIST DRAWBEAD DELETE DRAWBEAD FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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COULOMBFRICTION
COULOMBFRICTION cpairi modeli A1i A2i A3i Specifies variable Coulomb friction coefficient for each contact pair under the current contact group. Note that this command is not available for rigid target contact (i.e., the parameter RIGIDTARGET=YES is specified in the CGROUP command). cpairi Contact pair label number. If zero is specified, the parameter specified in the other fields of this row will apply to all contact pairs. modeli Specifies the formula to define Coulomb friction coefficient µ. {LAW1/LAW2} LAW1 LAW2
µ
µ
= =
A1 [1.0 − exp ( − A2 Tn )] Tn A2 + ( A1 − A2 ) ⋅ exp ( − A3 Tn )
where Tn is normal contact pressure and A1, A2, A3 are constants. A1i Constant A1. A2i Constant A2. A3i Constant A3. This constant is only applicable if LAW2 is used. Auxiliary commands LIST COULOMBFRICTION DELETE COULOMBFRICTION
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USERFRICTION
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
USERFRICTION integeri reali Specifies the integer and real parameters passed to the usersupplied friction subroutine (FUSER) for the current contact group. Note that this feature cannot be used with the rigid target contact option (i.e., RIGIDTARGET=YES is specified in the CGROUP command). In the current implementation of FUSER, the first integer parameter is used to select a friction model. Each friction model requires a number of real integer parameters as explained in Section 4.3.2 of the Theory and Modeling Guide, Volume I (ADINA).
integeri Integer number. reali Real number.
Auxiliary commands LIST USERFRICTION DELETE USERFRICTION
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CSOFFSET
CSOFFSET csurfi offseti Specifies offset distances for individual contactsurfaces under the current contact group. If an individual contact surface is not specified here, the contact surface will use the default offset distance specified by the OFFSET parameter in the CGROUP command. csurfi Contact surface label number. offseti Offset distance. Note: This feature is not available for rigid target contact (i.e the parameter RIGIDTARGET=YES is specified in the CGROUP command).
Auxiliary commands LIST CSOFFSET DELETE CSOFFSET
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CONTACTPAIR
Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
CONTACTPAIR
NAME TARGET CONTACTOR FRICTION TBIRTH TDEATH HHATTMC FCTMC FTTMC NX NY NZ
Defines a “contact pair,” i.e., two contactsurfaces (see CONTACTSURFACE ) which are either initially in contact or are anticipated to come into contact during analysis. One contact surface is termed the “contactor” contactsurface and must be deformable, i.e., has contact segments associated with the boundary surfaces of deformable finite elements (i.e., with nodes with free displacement degrees of freedom) within the model. The other contactsurface which makes up the contact pair is termed the “target” contactsurface. The target contactsurface may be deformable or have prescribed displacement.
Body III Contactor surface top surface of Body I
Target surface top surface of Body I
Contact Pair 2
Contact Pair 1
Contactor surface bottom surface of Body III
Target surface bottom surface of Body II Body I
Body II
Three contact surafces forming 2 contact pairs
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CONTACTPAIR
NAME [(current highest contactpair label number) + 1] Label number of the contact pair to be defined. The contactpair numbering is independent for each contact group. TARGET Target contactsurface, which must have been defined by the command CONTACTSURFACE, CONTACTPOINT or CONTACTFACENODES for the currently active group. CONTACTOR Contactor contactsurface, defined by the CONTACTSURFACE, CONTACTPOINT or CONTACTFACENODES for the currently active contact group. Note: To specify “selfcontact”, you may specify TARGET and CONTACTOR to be the same contactsurface.
FRICTION [CGROUP FRICTION] Coefficient of friction between the target and contactor contactsurfaces. FRICTION = 0.0 implies the default friction specified by CGROUP command is used. TBIRTH [0.0] TDEATH [0.0] The birth and death times for current contact pair. If TBIRTH=0.0 and TDEATH=0.0, the birth and death feature is not used. Note: TBIRTH and TDEATH options can not be used with nodetonode contact (parameter NODETONODE for commands CGROUP CONTACT2 or CGROUP CONTACT3 ). If FRICTION, TBIRTH and TDEATH parameters are not specified, default values defined by commands CGROUP CONTACT2 or CGROUP CONTACT3 are used.
Note:
HHATTMC [0.0] Contact heat transfer coefficient; used only when thermomechanical coupling is active. FCTMC [0.5] Friction contact heat distribution fraction coef. for contactor; used only when thermomechanical coupling is active. {0.0 ≤ FCTMC ≤ 1.0} FTTMC [0.5] Friction contact heat distribution fraction coef. for target; used only when thermomechanical coupling is active. {0.0 ≤ FTTMC ≤ 1.0}
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Sec. 7.5 Contact conditions
NX [1] NY NZ Number of sorting buckets in X, Y, Z direction. For 2D contact groups (CGROUP CONTACT2) parameter NX is ignored. Auxiliary commands LIST CONTACTPAIR DELETE CONTACTPAIR FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FRACTURE
FRACTURE
TECHNIQUE METHOD DIMENSION TYPE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE DYNAMIC LVUS3
FRACTURE defines the controlling data for analysis of fracture mechanics problems. TECHNIQUE [STANDARD] Defines whether standard or usersupplied fracture criteria / propagation models are used in the analysis. STANDARD USERSUPPLIED COMBINED Standard analysis model. User defined model. Standard analysis with access to user defined model.
METHOD [VIRTUALCRACKEXTENSION] The method of evaluating the Jparameter value. {VIRTUALCRACKEXTENSION/ LINECONTOUR/BOTH} DIMENSION Dimension of fracture analysis. 2 3 TYPE Type of crack. STATIONARY PROPAGATION Analysis of a stationary crack. Analysis of a propagating crack. [NO] 2D crack. 3D crack. [STATIONARY] [2]
PRESSURE Pressure correction for virtual crack extension method. NO YES No correction. Pressure correction applied.
TEMPERATURE Temperature correction for virtual crack extension method.
[NO]
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Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
NO YES
No correction. Temperature correction applied. [NO]
DYNAMIC Dynamic correction for virtual crack extension method. NO YES No correction. Dynamic correction applied.
LVUS3 [0] Dimension of the working array for analyses using TECHNIQUE=USER_SUPPLIED or COMBINED. Auxiliary commands LIST FRACTURE
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CRACKGROWTH
CRACKGROWTH
CONTROLTYPE JVERSION FACTOR RCURVE LOCTYPE DOF SHIFTRELEASE POINT NODE
CRACKGROWTH specifies parameters which govern the growth of a propagating crack. This command should be used whenever the FRACTURE command indicates a 2D propagating crack. CONTROLTYPE The type of crack growth control: FIXED MOVING NODAL A fixed virtual material shift. A moving virtual material shift. A nodal degree of freedom. [CORRECTIONS] [FIXED]
JVERSION The version of the Jparameter used in crack growth control. CORRECTIONS NONE
Jparameter with thermal, pressure and dynamic corrections. Jparameter without thermal, pressure and dynamic corrections. [1.0]
FACTOR This parameter is not used any more, and is permanently set to 1.0 by the program.
RCURVE [1] The identifying number of a resistance curve used in crack growth control (see command RCURVE ). {POINT/NODE} LOCTYPE [POINT] The type of location where a specified degree of freedom is used to control the crack propagation. {POINT/NODE} DOF The degree of freedom at the point (or node) used to control the crack propagation. 1 2 3 Xtranslation. Ytranslation. Ztranslation.
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CRACKGROWTH
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
SHIFTRELEASE [SHIFTRELEASE] Indicates the mesh updating method used for a propagating crack. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for details. SHIFTRELEASE The node “shift & release” technique is used to model the propagation of the crack tip through the finite element mesh. Only the node “release” technique is applied, when the crack opens.
RELEASE
POINT The label number of a point where a specified degree of freedom is used to control the crack propagation. NODE The label number of a node where a specified degree of freedom is used to control the crack propagation. Auxiliary commands LIST CRACKGROWTH
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CRACKPROPAGATION
CRACKPROPAGATION pointi nvshfti factori CRACKPROPAGATION
POINTS NAME
LINES NAME
linei frontpointi nvshfti factori CRACKPROPAGATION SURFACES NAME
surfacei frontlinei nvshfti factori
POINT
LINE
generator lines
initial crack front
general direction of crack propagation
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CRACKPROPAGATION
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
CRACKPROPAGATION defines the initial crack front position, or the virtual/actual crack propagation path along which a crack would propagate. This command should always be used in a fracture mechanics analysis, whether it is a stationary or a propagating crack analysis. Note that in 2D analysis, the crack front corresponds to a single node – the crack tip node. The virtual propagation path corresponds to a single point or line of nodes starting at the crack tip node. The crack propagation line must be parallel to the Y axis in 2D mode. In 3D analysis, the crack front corresponds to a line of nodes. The virtual/actual crack propagation path corresponds to a surface developed from the crack front line along “generator” lines originating from the crack front nodes. The crack propagation surface must be in the XY plane in 3D mode. NAME [1] The label number of the crack propagation surface. (At present only one crack is allowed.) pointi The label number of a geometry point. linei The label number of a geometry line. surfacei The label number of a geometry surface. frontlinei The label number of a line which defines initial crack front. frontpointi The label number of a point which defines the initial crack front. nvshfti In the case of fixed virtual material shift (CRACKGROWTH CONTROLTYPE = FIXED) this specifies the label number of virtual shift (defined by JVIRTUALSHIFT command). In the case of moving virtual material shift (CRACKGROWTH CONTROLTYPE = MOVING) this specifies the number of “rings” of elements about the (moving) crack tip on the generator line. factori Resistance factor. This parameter is no longer used. Auxiliary commands LIST CRACKPROPAGATION DELETE CRACKPROPAGATION
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FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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JLINE POINT
JLINE POINT
NAME POINT RADIUS PRINT SAVE STARTFACE ENDFACE
JLINE POINT defines a line contour by using a circle defined by its center and radius. The line contour is defined by a series of elements intersected by the circle.
elements in JLINE contour
IU S
NAME [(current highest label number) + 1] Label number of the line contour to be defined. If the label number of an existing line contour is given, then the previous line contour definition is overwritten. POINT The point label number; the center of the circle. RADIUS The radius of the circle. PRINT <not currently active> SAVE <not currently active> STARTFACE [0] If the first element of the contour does not have a unique face on the mesh boundary then this parameter determines which face is selected to start the contour. STARTFACE should [0]
RA D
POINT
[0.0]
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Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
be an integer in the range 0  4, inclusive. A zero value (the default) will cause the program to select the face opposite that of the second element in the contour definition. 1 2 3 4 face N1N2. face N2N3. face N3N4. face N4N1.
(Where N1, N2, N3, N4 are the element vertex nodes.) ENDFACE [0] If the last element of the contour does not have a unique face on the mesh boundary then this parameter determines which face is selected to terminate the contour. ENDFACE should be an integer in the range 0  4, inclusive. A zero value (the default) will cause the program to select the face opposite that of the penultimate element in the contour definition. 1 2 3 4 face N1N2. face N2N3. face N3N4. face N4N1.
(Where N1, N2, N3, N4 are the element vertex nodes.) Auxiliary commands LIST JLINE POINT DELETE JLINE POINT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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JLINE RING
JLINE RING FACE
NAME NRING POINT PRINT SAVE STARTFACE END
JLINE RING defines a line contour by using a “ring” number. A ring of elements is defined as follows. Given an origin node, ring number 1 consists of those elements connected at that node. Ring number 2 then consists of all elements connected to (and including) the elements in ring number 1, and so on. The line contour is defined by a series of elements. The “origin” node of the ring is taken to be the one coincident with a given geometry point.
element in JLINE contour NRING=3
NAME [(current highest label number) + 1] Label number of the line contour to be defined. If the label number of an existing line contour is given, then the previous line contour definition is overwritten. NRING Determines the number of rings of elements around the “origin” node. POINT The point label number. The node at this point is at the ring origin. PRINT <not currently active> SAVE <not currently active> STARTFACE [0] If the first element of the contour does not have a unique face on the mesh boundary then this parameter determines which face is selected to start the contour. STARTFACE should [0]
[0]
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Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
be an integer in the range 0  4, inclusive. A zero value (the default) will cause the program to select the face opposite that of the second element in the contour definition. 1 2 3 4 face N1N2. face N2N3. face N3N4. face N4N1.
(Where N1, N2, N3, N4 are the element vertex nodes.) ENDFACE [0] If the last element of the contour does not have a unique face on the mesh boundary then this parameter determines which face is selected to terminate the contour. ENDFACE should be an integer in the range 0  4, inclusive. A zero value (the default) will cause the program to select the face opposite that of the penultimate element in the contour defini tion. 1 2 3 4 face N1N2. face N2N3. face N3N4. face N4N1.
(Where N1, N2, N3, N4 are the element vertex nodes.) Auxiliary commands LIST JLINE RING DELETE JLINE RING FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT
JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT
NAME VECTOR VX VY VZ N3DSH NORMAL NX NY NZ THICKNESS POINT RADIUS
JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT defines a virtual material shift by using a circle defined by its center and radius.
POINT
US
NAME [(current highest label number) + 1] Label number of the virtual shift to be defined. If the label number of an existing virtual shift is given, then the previous virtual shift definition is overwritten. VECTOR [AUTOMATIC] Controls whether the actual material shift vector is calculated internally by ADINA, or is input via the global component values VX, VY, VZ below. AUTOMATIC The shift vector is calculated automatically by ADINA, from the crack surface definition (see CRACKPROPAGATION ). In the case of a 3D crack, N3DSH is used to explicitly select a generator line associated with the automatic shift vector calculation. The shift vector is input directly via VX, VY, VZ. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
INPUT
VX VY VZ The global components of the material shift vector.
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RA
nodes in virtual shift
DI
JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
N3DSH [0] Identifies a generator line of the crack surface with automatic shift vector calculation for a 3D crack. A zero value causes ADINA to calculate the shift vector based on the generator line whose crack tip node appears first in the list of nodes which comprises the virtual shift definition. NORMAL [NONE] Controls (for 3D virtual material shift) whether or not the nodes of the shift are required to lie in a disk of given thickness. NONE AUTOMATIC The nodes of the shift are not required to lie in a disk. The central plane of the disk is determined automatically from the crack surface definition. The plane is taken to be perpendicu lar to the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH. The normal vector to the central plane of the disk is input via NX, NY, NZ. The central plane of the disk passes through the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH.
INPUT
NX [0.0] NY [0.0] NZ [0.0] The global components of the normal to the central plane of the disk in which shift nodes must lie. THICKNESS [1.0E5] The thickness of the disk containing the shift nodes. If NORMAL ≠ NONE then a positive value for THICKNESS must be given. POINT [0] The label number of the point which is the center of the circle. For 3D virtual material shifts, the points must be vertices of elements, i.e. no points located at midside nodes should be specified RADIUS The radius of the circle. Auxiliary commands LIST JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT DELETE JVIRTUALSHIFT POINT
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[0.0]
FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE
JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE
NAME VECTOR VX VY VZ N3DSH NORMAL NX NY NZ THICKNESS
linei JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE defines a virtual material shift. The shift is defined by those nodes lying on any of a given set of lines. NAME [(current highest label number) + 1] Label number of the virtual shift to be defined. If the label number of an existing virtual shift is given, then the previous virtual shift definition is overwritten. VECTOR [AUTOMATIC] Controls whether the actual material shift vector is calculated internally by ADINA, or is input via the global component values VX, VY, VZ below. AUTOMATIC The shift vector is calculated automatically by ADINA, from the crack surface definition (see CRACKPROPAGATION ). In the case of a 3D crack, parameter N3DSH may be used to explicitly select a generator line associated with the automatic shift vector calculation. The shift vector is input directly via VX, VY, VZ. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
INPUT
VX VY VZ The global components of the material shift vector.
N3DSH [0] Identifies a generator line of the crack surface with automatic shift vector calculation for a 3D crack. A zero value causes ADINA to calculate the shift vector based on the generator line whose crack tip node appears first in the list of nodes which comprises the virtual shift definition. NORMAL [NONE] Controls (for 3D virtual material shift) whether or not the nodes of the shift are required to lie in a disk of given thickness. NONE AUTOMATIC The nodes of the shift are not required to lie in a disk. The central plane of the disk is determined automatically from the crack surface definition. The plane is taken to be
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JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
perpendicular to the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH. INPUT The normal vector to the central plane of the disk is input via NX, NY, NZ. The central plane of the disk passes through the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH.
NX [0.0] NY [0.0] NZ [0.0] The global components of the normal to the central plane of the disk in which shift nodes must lie. THICKNESS [1.0E5] The thickness of the disk containing the shift nodes. If NORMAL≠NONE, a positive value for THICKNESS must be given. linei Label number of a geometry line. Auxiliary commands LIST JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE DELETE JVIRTUALSHIFT LINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE
JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE
NAME VECTOR VX VY VZ N3DSH NORMAL NX NY NZ THICKNESS
surfacei JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE defines a virtual material shift. The shift is defined by those nodes lying on any of a given set of surfaces. NAME [(current highest label number) + 1] Label number of the virtual shift to be defined. If the label number of an existing virtual shift is given, then the previous virtual shift definition is overwritten. VECTOR [AUTOMATIC] Controls whether the actual material shift vector is calculated internally by ADINA, or is input via the global component values VX, VY, VZ below. AUTOMATIC The shift vector is calculated automatically by ADINA, from the crack surface definition (see CRACKPROPAGATION ). In the case of a 3D crack, parameter N3DSH may be used to explicitly select a generator line associated with the automatic shift vector calculation. The shift vector is input directly via VX, VY, VZ. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
INPUT
VX VY VZ The global components of the material shift vector.
N3DSH [0] Identifies a generator line of the crack surface with automatic shift vector calculation for a 3D crack. A zero value causes ADINA to calculate the shift vector based on the generator line whose crack tip node appears first in the list of nodes which comprises the virtual shift definition. NORMAL [NONE] Controls (for 3D virtual material shift) whether or not the nodes of the shift are required to lie in a disk of given thickness. NONE AUTOMATIC The nodes of the shift are not required to lie in a disk. The central plane of the disk is determined automatically from the crack surface definition. The plane is taken to be
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JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
perpendicular to the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH. The normal vector to the central plane of the disk is input via NX, NY, NZ. The central plane of the disk passes through the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH.
INPUT
NX [0.0] NY [0.0] NZ [0.0] The global components of the normal to the central plane of the disk in which shift nodes must lie. THICKNESS [1.0E5] The thickness of the disk containing the shift nodes. If NORMAL ≠ NONE, a positive value for THICKNESS must be given. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. Auxiliary commands LIST JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE DELETE JVIRTUALSHIFT SURFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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JVIRTUALSHIFT RING
JVIRTUALSHIFT RING
NAME VECTOR VX VY VZ N3DSH NORMAL NX NY NZ THICKNESS RINGTYPE RINGNUMBER
namei JVIRTUALSHIFT RING defines a virtual material shift by using a number of rings of elements around the crack front points. elements subject to virtual distortions NRING = 3
shifted elements
nodes in virtual shift
NAME [(current highest label number) + 1] Label number of the virtual shift to be defined. If the label number of an existing virtual shift is given, then the previous virtual shift definition is overwritten. VECTOR [AUTOMATIC] Controls whether the actual material shift vector is calculated internally by ADINA, or is input via the global component values VX, VY, VZ below. AUTOMATIC The shift vector is calculated automatically by ADINA, from the crack surface definition (see CRACKPROPAGATION ). In the case of a 3D crack, parameter N3DSH may be used to explicitly select a generator line associated with the automatic shift vector calculation. The shift vector is input directly via VX, VY, VZ. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
INPUT
VX VY VZ The global components of the material shift vector.
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Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
N3DSH [0] Identifies a generator line of the crack surface with automatic shift vector calculation for a 3D crack. A zero value causes ADINA to calculate the shift vector based on the generator line whose crack tip node appears first in the list of nodes which comprises the virtual shift definition. NORMAL [NONE] Controls (for 3D virtual material shift) whether or not the nodes of the shift are required to lie in a disk of given thickness. NONE AUTOMATIC The nodes of the shift are not required to lie in a disk. The central plane of the disk is determined automatically from the crack surface definition. The plane is taken to be perpendicular to the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH. The normal vector to the central plane of the disk is input via NX, NY, NZ. The central plane of the disk passes through the crack tip node for the generator line associated with parameter N3DSH.
INPUT
NX [0.0] NY [0.0] NZ [0.0] The global components of the normal to the central plane of the disk in which shift nodes must lie. THICKNESS [1.0E5] The thickness of the disk containing the shift nodes. If NORMAL ≠ NONE, a positive value for THICKNESS must be given. RINGTYPE The type of geometry on which the origin nodes lie. POINT LINE SURFACE [POINT]
The origin nodes are taken to be those at a set of points. The origin nodes are taken to be those lying on a set of lines. The origin nodes are taken to be those lying on a set of surfaces.
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JVIRTUALSHIFT RING
RINGNUMBER Controls the number of rings of elements around the origin nodes. 0 1 Corresponds to a shift comprised of the origin nodes alone. Includes the nodes of elements connected to the origin nodes.
[0]
Higher values of RINGNUMBER recursively define the shift such that RINGNUMBER = (n + 1) gives a shift including the nodes of elements containing any of the nodes defined in the shift given by RINGNUMBER = n. namei Label number of the geometry entities (point, line or surface) according to the parameter RINGTYPE. For 3D material virtual shifts, if the geometry entities are points, these points must be vertices of elements, i.e. no points located at midside nodes should be specified. Auxiliary commands LIST JVIRTUALSHIFT RING DELETE JVIRTUALSHIFT RING FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RCURVE
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
RCURVE
NAME MPOINT
thetai x1i y1i x2i y2i . . . xmi ymi RCURVE defines a resistance curve set which can be referenced by a crack growth analysis (see CRACKGROWTH ). Note that (xji, yji) comprises a data point on the resistance curve associated with temperature “thetai”. The curve data is first sorted by increasing temperature “thetai”, then by increasing crack increment “xji”. NAME [(current highest RCURVE label number) + 1] Label number of the resistance curve set to be defined. If the label number of an existing curve set is given, then the previous curve set definition is overwritten. MPOINT The maximum number of data points in any single resistance curve, defined in the subsequent data lines. thetai Reference temperature for resistance curve “i”. xji Crack increment value at data point “j” on resistance curve “i”. yji Resistance value at crackincrement “j” on resistance curve “i”. Auxiliary commands LIST RCURVE DELETE RCURVE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SINGULAR POINT
SINGULAR POINT pointi SINGULAR LINE linei
QPOINT
QPOINT
SINGULAR defines a set of “singular” nodes on geometry points/lines. These are element vertex nodes whose adjacent nonvertex nodes are moved to the “1/4 point” giving a singularity at the required nodes.
node at ¼ point
singular node singular node
node at ¼ point
Singular vertex on TWODSOLID and THREEDSOLID elements
QPOINT [QUARTER] Controls whether nonvertex nodes adjacent to the desired vertex nodes are moved to the “1/ 4 point”, or the opposite action is taken. QUARTER MID Nodes are moved to the “1/4 point”. Nodes are moved from the “1/4 point” back to the relevant midside/face position.
pointi Label number of a singular geometry point.
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SINGULAR POINT
Sec. 7.6 Fracture mechanics
linei Label number of a geometry line defining a sequence of singular nodes, i.e., all element vertex nodes associated with the geometry line. Auxiliary commands LIST SINGULAR DELETE SINGULAR
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USERFORMAT
USERFORMAT i1 i2 i3 ... i8 r1 r2 r3 r4
NAME TYPE OPTION (TYPE = INTEGER) (TYPE = REAL)
USERFORMAT allows for the specification of usersupplied formatted data to be written directly into the ADINA file. Currently this option is used only in fracture mechanics analysis when FRACTURE TECHNIQUE = USERSUPPLIED. NAME [(current highest USERFORMAT label number) + 1] Label number of the userformat to be defined. If the label number of an existing userformat is given, then the previous definition is overwritten. TYPE Format of numerical input in data lines. INTEGER REAL Integer input is given on the subsequent data lines. Real input is given on the subsequent data lines. [REAL]
OPTION [FRACTURE] The data is used for usersupplied fracture mechanics criteria. {FRACTURE} ij Integer number supplied to ADINA data file. rj Real number supplied to ADINA data file. Auxiliary commands LIST USERFORMAT DELETE USERFORMAT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RIGIDLINK
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
RIGIDLINK
NAME SLAVETYPE SLAVENAME MASTERTYPE MASTERNAME DISPLACEMENTS OPTION SLAVEBODY MASTERBODY DOF
slavenamei Specifies rigid links between pairs of nodes on geometry entities. As the nodes displace under model deformation, the “slave” node is constrained to translate and rotate such that the distance between the “master” node and the slave node remains constant and the rotations at the slave node are the same as the corresponding rotations at the master node. A rigid link can be specified only between nodes in the main structure, and the distance between the nodes must be greater than zero. The displacement degrees of freedom at the master node must all be independent, i.e., they cannot be constrained to other degrees of freedom. Fixity conditions may, however, be specified for the master node. Different skew degreeoffreedom systems may be assigned for the master and slave nodes. If either the master or slave node is a shell midsurface node, then six degrees of freedom must be specified for both nodes. Only the displacement degrees of freedom (translations and rotations) are constrained by a rigid link. Other degrees of freedom, e.g., pipe ovalization, warping, and fluid potential, are not constrained by a rigid link. NAME [(highest rigid link label number) + 1] The label number of the rigid link. SLAVETYPE [POINT] Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify slave nodes. {POINT/LINE/ SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET/VOLUME/BODY} SLA VENAME The label number of the geometry slave entity (point, line, etc. as directed by parameter SLAVETYPE). MASTERTYPE [POINT] Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify master nodes. {POINT/LINE/ SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET} Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET or MASTERTYPE = NODESET, then OPTION = 1 will be used, overriding any input of OPTION = 0.
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RIGIDLINK
OPTION = 0
slave surface master line u u slave line master surface u rigid links v u u v rigid links
OPTION = 1
slave line u rigid links v slave surface u rigid links u v
master line
u
master surface
MASTERNAME The label number of the geometry master entity (point, line, etc. as directed by parameter MASTERTYPE). DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Specifies whether the constraint equations in ADINA are for kinematically linear (infinitesimal displacements), or large displacements. DISPLACEMENTS = DEFAULT indicates that displacements are controlled by the KINEMATICS command. {SMALL/LARGE/DEFAULT}
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RIGIDLINK
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
OPTION [0] {0/1/2/3/4} When multiple nodes exist on both the slave and master geometry entities, OPTION indicates how the rigid link between nodes on each entity is defined. 0 A rigid link is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entities must be the same. 1 A rigid link is constructed for each node on the slave geometry entity to the closest node on the master geometry entity. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the slave and master geometry entities. A rigid link is constructed between slave node to master node using reverse u parametric order. Applies to line/edge and surface/face. A rigid link is constructed between slave node to master node using reverse v parametric order. Applies to surface/face. A rigid link is constructed between slave node to master node using reverse u and v parametric order. Applies to surface/face.
2
3
4
SLAVEBODY [currently active BODY] Indicates the solid geometry body used to reference a slave edge or face when SLAVETYPE = EDGE or FACE, respectively. MASTERBODY [currently active BODY] Indicates the solid geometry body used to reference a master edge or face when MASTERTYPE = EDGE or FACE, respectively. Note: Only the following SLAVETYPE, MASTERTYPE combinations are allowed:
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RIGIDLINK
SLAVETYPE POINT LINE LINE SURFACE SURFACE EDGE EDGE FACE FACE NODESET any
MASTERTYPE POINT POINT LINE POINT SURFACE POINT EDGE POINT FACE any NODESET [ALL]
DOF Indicates whether all relevant slave DOFs are constrained to the master node. ALL MASTER All relevant slave DOFs are constrained to the master node.
The slave DOF is only constrained where the corresponding master DOF is not fixed.
slavenamei Slave geometry label (TYPE = SLAVETYPE). If SLAVETYPE = EDGE or FACE , all Slave geometry belongs to SLAVEBODY. Auxiliary commands LIST RIGIDLINK DELETE RIGIDLINK
FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
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CONSTRAINT
CONSTRAINT
NAME SLAVETYPE SLAVENAME SLAVEDOF MASTERTYPE SBODY OPTION
masternamei masterdofi betai masterbodyi Specifies a constraint equation which expresses a slave (dependent) degree of freedom as a linear combination of a set of master (independent) degrees of freedom. The slave and master degrees of freedom are input by reference to geometry entities, constraining the degrees of freedom at points, lines, surfaces, edges or faces. A constraint equation can only reference nodes in the main structure. A constraint equation at a slave degree of freedom is unique. Therefore, if several constraint equations are input for the same slave degree of freedom, then only that for the highest label number will be output to the ADINA data file. A fluid velocity potential slave degree of freedom can have only fluid velocity potential master degrees of freedom, and a displacement (translation, rotation) slave degree of freedom can have only displacement master degrees of freedom. Constraint equations cannot refer to pipe ovalization or warping degrees of freedom. Note that constraint equations necessary to enforce a rigid link between two geometry entities can be defined using RIGIDLINK. NAME [(highest constraint equation label number) + 1] The label number of the constraint equation. SLAVETYPE [POINT] Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify slave nodes. {POINT/LINE/ SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET} SLA VENAME The label number of the geometry slave entity (point, line, surface, edge or face as directed by SLAVETYPE). SLAVEDOF The degree of freedom associated with the slave geometry entity. {XTRANSLATION/ YTRANSLATION/ZTRANSLATION/XROTATION/YROTATION/ZROTATION/ ALLTRANSLATION/ALLROTATION/FLUIDPOTENTIAL} MASTERTYPE [POINT] Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify master nodes. {POINT/LINE/ SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET}
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CONSTRAINT
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
Note: Note: Note:
If SLAVETYPE = NODESET, there is no restriction on MASTERTYPE, and viceversa. If SLAVETYPE = NODESET or MASTERTYPE = NODESET, then OPTION = 1 will be used, overriding any input of OPTION = 0. Only the following SLAVETYPE, MASTERTYPE combinations are allowed: MASTERTYPE POINT POINT LINE POINT SURFACE POINT EDGE POINT FACE any NODESET [currently active body]
SLA VETYPE POINT LINE LINE SURFACE SURFACE EDGE EDGE FACE FACE NODESET any
SBODY The label number of the geometry slave body.
OPTION [0] When multiple nodes exist on both the slave and master geometry entities, OPTION indicates how the constraint between nodes on each entity is defined. {0/1/2/3/4} 0 A constraint is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entities must be the same. A constraint is constructed for each node on the slave geometry entity to the closest node on the master geometry entity. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the slave and master geometry entities. Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u parametric order. Applies to line/edge and surface/face. Constrain slave node to master node using reverse v parametric order. Applies to surface/face.
1
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CONSTRAINT
4
Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u and v parametric order. Applies to surface/face.
masternamei The label number of the geometry master entity (point, line, surface, edge or face as directed by MASTERTYPE) for the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. masterdofi The degree of freedom of the master geometry entity for the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. Possible values are the same as for SLAVEDOF. betai [1.0] The coefficient of the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. Note that this value remains constant throughout the time history of the response. A zero value is not accepted since it implies no contribution to the linear combination of independent master degrees of freedom. masterbodyi [currently active body] The label number of the geometry master body (used when MASTERTYPE = EDGE or FACE). Note: A constraint equation is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entities must be the same. For a cyclic symmetric analysis, constraint equations may be applied to degrees of freedom within the fundamental part, but in this case similar constraint equations for corresponding degrees of freedom in all other cyclic parts of the structure will be applied.
Note:
Auxiliary commands LIST CONSTRAINT DELETE CONSTRAINT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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CONSTRAINTMS
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
CONSTRAINTMS
NAME MASTERTYPE MASTERNAME MASTERDOF SLAVETYPE MBODY OPTION
slavenamei slavedofi betai slavebodyi This command is similar to the CONSTRAINT command. The difference between the CONSTRAINTMS and CONSTRAINT commands is that CONSTRAINTMS allows the specification of multiple slave entities for a single master entity. Note that constraint equations that are necessary to enforce a rigid link between two geometry entities can be defined using RIGIDLINK. NAME [(highest constraintms equation label number) + 1] The label number of the constraintms equation. MASTERTYPE Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify master nodes. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET} [POINT]
MASTERNAME The label number of the geometry master entity (point, line, surface, edge, face or nodeset) as directed by MASTERTYPE. MASTERDOF The degree of freedom associated with the master geometry entity. {XTRANSLATION/YTRANSLATION/ZTRANSLATION/XROTATION/ YROTATION/ZROTATION/ALLTRANSLATION/ALLROTATION/ FLUIDPOTENTIAL} SLAVETYPE Indicates the type of the geometry entity used to specify slave nodes. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET} Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET, there is no restriction on MASTERTYPE, and viceversa. Note: If SLAVETYPE = NODESET or MASTERTYPE = NODESET, then OPTION = 1 will be used, overriding any input of OPTION = 0. Note: Only the following SLAVETYPE, MASTERTYPE combinations are allowed: [POINT]
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CONSTRAINTMS
SLAVETYPE POINT LINE LINE SURFACE SURFACE EDGE EDGE FACE FACE NODESET any
MASTERTYPE POINT POINT LINE POINT SURFACE POINT EDGE POINT FACE any NODESET
MBODY The label number of the geometry master body.
[currently active body]
OPTION [0] When multiple nodes exist on both the slave and master geometry entities, OPTION indicates how the constraint between nodes on each entity is defined. {0/1/2/3/4} 0 A constraint is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on the slave and master geometry entities must be the same. A constraint is constructed for each node on the slave geometry entity to the closest node on the master geometry entity. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the slave and master geometry entities. Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u parametric order. Applies to line/edge and surface/face. Constrain slave node to master node using reverse v parametric order. Applies to surface/face. Constrain slave node to master node using reverse u and v parametric order. Applies to surface/face.
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3
4
slavenamei The label number of the geometry slave entity (point, line, surface, edge, face or nodeset) as directed by MSLAVEYPE for the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation.
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Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
slavedofi The degree of freedom of the slave geometry entity for the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. Possible values are the same as for SLAVEDOF. betai [1.0] The coefficient of the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. Note that this value remains constant throughout the time history of the response. A zero value is not accepted since it implies no contribution to the linear combination of independent master degrees of freedom. [currently active body] slavebodyi The label number of the geometry slave body (used when SLAVETYPE = EDGE or FACE).
Auxiliary commands LIST CONSTRAINTMS FIRST LAST DELETE CONSTRAINTMS FIRST LAST
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CONSTRAINTG
CONSTRAINTG nodei dofi betai
NAME
Defines a generalized constraint equation between specified degrees of freedom.
U k = ∑ β jU j
j
NAME [(highest generalized constraint label number) + 1] Label number of the generalized constraint.
nodei Node label associated with the ith term (degree of freedom) in the generalized constraint equation. dofi Degree of freedom (global or skew direction) at nodei.{XTRANSLATION / YTRANSLATION / ZTRANSLATION / XROTATION / YROTATION / ZROTATION / FLUIDPOTENTIAL} betai Coefficient for the ith term.
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FIXITY
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
FIXITY dofi
NAME
FIXITY defines a fixity boundary condition which is referenced by FIXBOUNDARY, which assigns the fixity to a given geometry entity. All degrees of freedom are assumed free unless fixed by this command (subject to the overall control of active degrees of freedom as determined by MASTER ). NAME The identifying name of the fixity condition (1 to 30 alphanumeric characters). Note: The following predefined fixities exist (and cannot be updated): All degrees of freedom are fixed. No degrees of freedom are fixed.
ALL NONE
dofi Degree(s) of freedom to be fixed. {XTRANSLATION/YTRANSLATION/ ZTRANSLATION/XROTATION/YROTATION/ZROTATION/OVALIZATION/ FLUIDPOTENTIAL/POREFLUIDPRESSURE} Note: The fixity conditions will be applied to the nodes of the model, albeit indirectly, via the model geometry. The translations and rotations of the fixity thus refer to the degreeoffreedom system at each node, which may be the global coordinate system or a skewsystem. (See SKEWSYSTEM, DOFSYSTEM ).
Auxiliary commands LIST FIXITY DELETE FIXITY NAME NAME
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FIXBOUNDARY POINTS
FIXBOUNDARY POINTS pointi fixityi FIXBOUNDARY LINES linei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY SURFACES surfacei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY VOLUMES volumei fixityi FIXBOUNDARYEDGES edgei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY FACES facei fixityi FIXBOUNDARY BODIES bodyi fixityi FIXBOUNDARY NODESETS nodeseti fixityi
FIXITY
FIXITY
FIXITY
FIXITY
FIXITY BODY
FIXITY BODY
FIXITY
FIXITY
FIXBOUNDARY assigns fixity conditions to a set of geometry entities. FIXITY [ALL] Default fixity condition (see command FIXITY ) for geometry entities given in the subsequent data lines. BODY Body label number. [currently active BODY]
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FIXBOUNDARY POINTS
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
pointi Label number of a geometry point. linei Label number of a geometry line. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. edgei Label number of a geometry edge (for BODY). facei Label number of a geometry face (for BODY). bodyi Label number of a geometry body. nodeseti Label number of a nodeset. fixityi Fixity condition to be applied at the geometry entity. Auxiliary commands LIST FIXBOUNDARY POINTS DELETE FIXBOUNDARY POINTS LIST FIXBOUNDARY LINES DELETE FIXBOUNDARY LINES LIST FIXBOUNDARY SURFACES DELETE FIXBOUNDARY SURFACES LIST FIXBOUNDARY VOLUMES DELETE FIXBOUNDARY VOLUMES LIST FIXBOUNDARY EDGES DELETE FIXBOUNDARY EDGES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [FIXITY]
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FIXBOUNDARY POINTS
LIST FIXBOUNDARY FACES DELETE FIXBOUNDARY FACES LIST FIXBOUNDARY BODIES DELETE FIXBOUNDARY BODIES LIST FIXBOUNDARY NODESETS DELETE FIXBOUNDARY NODESETS
FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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ZOOMBOUNDARY
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
ZOOMBOUNDARY namei bodyi
NAME GTYPE
Specifies the boundary of a mesh overlay model that is inside (internal to) the coarse model (see Figure A). Note that if no zoom boundary is defined, all the boundary of the mesh overlay model will be treated as being inside the coarse model (see Figure B, next page).
This part of the boundary of the zoom model needs to be specified as zoom boundary
Zoom model
Coarse model
Figure A: Zoom boundary must be defined
NAME [current highest ZOOMBOUNDARY label number + 1] Label number of the ZOOMBOUNDARY to be defined. GTYPE {TWOD / THREED / NODESET} The geometry type used to define ZOOMBOUNDARY. TWOD THREED NODESET line or edge surface or face node set [TWOD]
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ZOOMBOUNDARY
Since the zoom model is completely inside the coarse model, there is no need to identify the zoom boundary.
Zoom Model
Coarse Model
Figure B: No need to define zoom boundary
namei List of geometry label numbers or node set numbers. bodyi Geometry body label of edges and faces. Auxiliary commands LIST ZOOMBOUNDARY FIRST LAST DELETE ZOOMBOUNDARY FIRST LAST
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ENDRELEASE
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
ENDRELEASE
NAME MOMENT1 MOMENT2 MOMENT3 MOMENT4 MOMENT5 MOMENT6
Defines an “endrelease” condition for elements of type BEAM, which may be used to prescribe that selected end forces and/or moments of the elements are zero. The endrelease may be referenced (e.g. by LINEELEMDATA ) to assign the endrelease to the elements (on a given geometry line). AUX node AUX lies in rs plane S8 t S2 S5 S4 S1 node 1 S6 S3 Z neutral axis S12 node 2 S11 S7 S10 S9
s r
X
Y
NAME [(current highest endrelease label number) + 1] The label number of the endrelease condition to be defined. MOMENTi [0] List of up to six identifiers (i = 1,...,6) indicating which of the element end forces on moments are prescribed to be zero. See Figure. 1 2 3 Force in rdirection at local node 1 = 0.0. Force in sdirection at local node 1 = 0.0. Force in tdirection at local node 1 = 0.0.
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ENDRELEASE
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0
Moment about raxis at local node 1 = 0.0. Moment about saxis at local node 1 = 0.0. Moment about taxis at local node 1 = 0.0. Force in rdirection at local node 2 = 0.0. Force in sdirection at local node 2 = 0.0. Force in tdirection at local node 2 = 0.0. Moment about raxis at local node 2 = 0.0. Moment about saxis at local node 2 = 0.0. Moment about taxis at local node 2 = 0.0. No selection.
Auxiliary commands LIST ENDRELEASE DELETE ENDRELEASE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FSBOUNDARY
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
FSBOUNDARY LINES linei FSBOUNDARY SURFACES surfacei FSBOUNDARY EDGES edgei FSBOUNDARY FACES facei
NAME
NAME
NAME BODY
NAME BODY
Defines a fluidstructureinteraction boundary, as a set of geometry lines/edges (2D analysis), or as a set of geometry surfaces/faces (3D analysis), which establish those areas of the structure, which may interact with fluid flow. Note that the FSBOUNDARY defined is not referenced by another ADINAIN for ADINA command, but may be referenced by the BOUNDARYCONDITION FLUIDSTRUCTURE command for ADINAF. NAME [(current highest fsboundary label number) + 1] Label number of the fluidstructureboundary to be defined. BODY Body label number. linei Geometry line label number. surfacei Geometry surface label number. edgei Geometry edge label number (for BODY). facei Geometry face label number (for BODY). Auxiliary commands LIST FSBOUNDARY DELETE FSBOUNDARY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FSBOUNDARY TWOD
FSBOUNDARY TWOD namei bodyi
NAME
Defines a fluidstructureinteraction boundary, as a set of geometry lines/edges (2D analysis) that establish those areas of the structure to be analysed using ADINA. This boundary may interact with a fluid flow analysed by ADINAF. Note that the FSBOUNDARY defined is not referenced by another ADINAIN for ADINA command, but rather may be referenced by the BOUNDARYCONDITION FLUIDSTRUCTURE command for ADINAF. NAME [(current highest fsboundary label number) + 1] Label number of the fluidstructureboundary to be defined. namei Geometry line/edge label number. bodyi Geometry body label number. Auxiliary commands LIST FSBOUNDARY DELETE FSBOUNDARY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FSBOUNDARY THREED
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
FSBOUNDARY THREED namei bodyi
NAME
Defines a fluidstructureinteraction boundary, as a set of geometry surfaces/faces (3D analysis) that establish those areas of the structure to be analysed using ADINA. This boundary may interact with a fluid flow analysed by ADINAF. Note that the FSBOUNDARY defined is not referenced by another ADINAIN for ADINA command, but rather may be referenced by the BOUNDARYCONDITION FLUIDSTRUCTURE command for ADINAF. NAME [(current highest fsboundary label number) + 1] Label number of the fluidstructureboundary to be defined. namei Geometry line/edge label number. bodyi Geometry body label number. Auxiliary commands LIST FSBOUNDARY DELETE FSBOUNDARY FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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POTENTIALINTERFACE
POTENTIALINTERFACE ADINAF
NAME GTYPE BODY
POTENTIALINTERFACE FLUIDFLUID
NAME GTYPE BODY
POTENTIALINTERFACE FLUIDSTRUCTUR
NAME GTYPE BODY
POTENTIALINTERFACE FREESURFACE
NAME GTYPE BODY
POTENTIALINTERFACE INLETOUTLET
NAME GTYPE BODY
POTENTIALINTERFACE RIGIDWALL namei bodyi
NAME GTYPE BODY
Defines an interface between potentialbased fluid elements and structural elements. NAME [(current potentialinterface label number) + 1] Label number of the potentialinterface to be defined. GTYPE The type of geometry used to define the potentialinterface. {LINES/SURFACES/EDGES/FACES/THREED/NODES} [LINES]
BODY [1] Label number of a solid geometry body. Must be specified when GTYPE=EDGES or FACES. namei Label number of a geometry entity or node. bodyi [0] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used when GTYPE=THREED and namei is a face. bodyi=0 means that namei is a surface.
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POTENTIALINTERFACE
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
Auxiliary commands LIST POTENTIALINTERFACE DELETE POTENTIALINTERFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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POTENTIALINTERFACE INFINITE
POTENTIALINTERFACE INFINITE
NAME GTYPE BODY INFTYPE RADIUS PRESSURE VELOCITY ALLEXT
namei bodyi Defines an interface between potentialbased fluid elements and an infinite boundary. NAME [(current potentialinterface label number) + 1] Label number of the potentialinterface to be defined. GTYPE The type of geometry used to define the infinite potentialinterface. {LINES/SURFACES/EDGES/FACES/THREED} [LINES]
BODY [1] Label number of a solid geometry body. Must be specified when GTYPE=EDGES or FACES. INFTYPE The type of infinite boundary. {PLANAR/CYLINDRICAL/SPHERICAL} RADIUS The radius of cylinder or sphere. [PLANAR]
[1.0]
PRESSURE [0.0] The pressure at infinity, used only for a planar infinite boundary in conjunction with the subsonic formulation for the potentialbased fluid elements. VELOCITY [0.0] The velocity at infinity, used only for a planar infinite boundary in conjunction with the subsonic formulation for the potentialbased fluid elements. The velocity is assumed to be normal to the planar boundary and is positive for flow out of the planar boundary. ALLEXT namei Label number of a geometry entity or node. bodyi [0] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used when GTYPE=THREED and namei is a face. bodyi=0 means that namei is a surface.
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POTENTIALINTERFACE INFINITE
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
Auxiliary commands LIST POTENTIALINTERFACE DELETE POTENTIALINTERFACE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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BOUNDARYSURFACE SURFACETENSION
BOUNDARYSURFACE SURFACETENSION
NAME GTYPE ALLEXT NODES SUBTYPE SIGMAT
namei bodyi Defines a surface tension boundary for ADINA. NAME [(current highest surfacetension label number) + 1] Label number of the surfacetension to be defined. GTYPE The type of geometry used to define the surface boundary condition. {TWOD/THREED/ELEMENTEDGESET/ELEMENTFACESET} ALLEXT (Currently not used) NODES Number of nodes for each element. Only used if the surface tension boundary is not attached to any finite elements. {0/2/3/4/8/9} [0] [TWOD]
SUBTYPE [PLANE] The type of 2D surface tension boundary. Only used if the boundary is not attached to any finite elements. If the boundary is attached to finite elements, the subtype of the 2D finite elements will be used. {AXISYMMETRIC/PLANE} SIGMAT Surface tension value. namei Label number of a geometry entity or element edge/face set. bodyi [0] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used when GTYPE=TWOD/THREED and namei is a face or edge. bodyi=0 means that namei is a surface or line. Auxiliary commands LIST BOUNDARYSURFACE DELETE BOUNDARYSURFACE ALL FIRST LAST ALL FIRST LAST [0.0]
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BOUNDARYSURFACE SURFACETENSION
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
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OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT POINT
OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT POINT pointi
TYPE
Enforces the zeroslopeofskin in the longitudinal direction for pipe element nodes. TYPE FLANGE The flange condition is applied at the specified points. Both ovalization and warping at these points are suppressed. The symmetry condition is applied to the specified points. The ovalization at these points is left free but the warping suppressed.
SYMMETRY
pointi A point label number where the constraint of the ovalization derivative is enforced. Auxiliary commands LIST OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT POINT DELETE OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT POINT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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FREESURFACE
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
FREESURFACE linei or surfacei (for FLUID3 element groups) (for FLUID2 element groups)
Defines the free surface on the boundary lines (2D) or surface (3D) of previouslydefined surfaces (2D) or volumes (3D) consisting of potentialbased elements. linei Geometry line label number. surfacei Geometry surface label number.
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BCELL
BCELL
NAME REVERSE
celli n1i n2i n3i n4i Defines a boundary cell using 4node or 3node cells. A boundary cell must be defined by all 3node cells or all 4node cells. It cannot be defined by a mixture of 3node and 4node cells. NAME [(current highest bcell label number) + 1] Label number of the boundary cell to be defined. REVERSE {NO/YES} Normal direction reverse flag. celli Cell label number. n1i n2i n3i n4i Node labels for celli . Auxiliary commands LIST BCELL DELETE BCELL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [NO]
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BCELL
Sec. 7.7 Boundary conditions
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LOAD CENTRIFUGAL
LOAD CENTRIFUGAL
NAME OMEGA FACTOR AX AY AZ BX BY BZ
Defines a centrifugal load. The actual load vector is calculated as (mass) × OMEGA2 × FACTOR × f(t) × (radius) where “mass” is a concentrated nodal point mass or a differential mass element at a distance “radius” from the axis of revolution. The load may be applied to the model via APPLYLOAD whereby it may also be assigned a time function, specifying how its magnitude varies in time. Only one centrifugal load may currently be applied to the model.
OMEGA Z (BX, BY, BZ)
centrifugal forces
Y X
(AX, AY, AZ)
structure
NAME
[(current highest centrifugal load label number) + 1] Label number of the centrifugal load to be defined. OMEGA Angular velocity. FACTOR Multiplying factor.
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LOAD CENTRIFUGAL
Sec. 7.8 Loading
AX [0.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Position vector (in global coordinate system) of one end of axis of revolution, see Figure. BX [1.0] BY [0.0] BZ [0.0] Position vector (in global coordinate system) of other end of axis of revolution. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD CENTRIFUGAL DELETE LOAD CENTRIFUGAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD CONTACTSLIP
LOAD CONTACTSLIP
NAME OMEGA FACTOR AX AY AZ BX BY BZ
Defines a contactslip load. The actual tangential slip of a contact surface is calculated as OMEGA * FACTOR * (RADIUS) * F(t) The load may be applied to a contact surface via command APPLYLOAD whereby it may also be assigned a time function F(t), specifying how its magnitude varies with time. NAME [(current highest contactslip load label number) + 1] Label number of the contactslip load to be defined. If the label number of an existing contactslip load is given, then the previous contactslip load definition is overwritten. OMEGA Angular velocity. FACTOR Multiplying factor. AX A Y AZ Position vector (in global coordinate system) of one end of axis of revolution. BX BY BZ Position vector (in global coordinate system) of other end of axis of revolution. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD CONTACTSLIP DELETE LOAD CONTACTSLIP FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[1.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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LOAD DISPLACEMENT
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD DISPLACEMENT
NAME DX DY DZ AX AY AZ
Defines a prescribed displacement load. This command defines prescribed displacements which may be assigned to certain degrees of freedom (global or skew) of the model. Note that this command only defines a displacement load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest displacement load label number) + 1] Label number of the displacement load to be defined. DX [FREE] Prescribed value for the Xtranslation (or atranslation for a skew dofsystem) degree of freedom. DY [FREE] Prescribed value for the Ytranslation (or btranslation for a skew dofsystem) degree of freedom. DZ [FREE] Prescribed value for the Ztranslation (or ctranslation for a skew dofsystem) degree of freedom. AX [FREE] Prescribed value for the Xrotation (or arotation for a skew dofsystem) degree of freedom, in radians. A Y [FREE] Prescribed value for the Yrotation (or brotation for a skew dofsystem) degree of freedom, in radians. AZ [FREE] Prescribed value for the Zrotation (or crotation for a skew dofsystem) degree of freedom, in radians. Note: For parameters DX, DY, DZ, AX, AY, AZ the value FREE may be specified, indicating that the corresponding degree of freedom is not prescribed.
Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD DISPLACEMENT DELETE LOAD DISPLACEMENT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD ELECTROMAGNETIC
LOAD ELECTROMAGNETIC
NAME
Defines an electromagnetic load. Note that the command only defines a electromagnetic load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest electromagnetic load label number)+ 1] Label number of the electromagnetic load to be defined. Note: The magnitude of the load is governed by the currents specified by the timefunction parameter of APPLYLOAD.
Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD ELECTROMAGNETIC DELETE LOAD ELECTROMAGNETIC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD FORCE
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD FORCE
NAME MAGNITUDE FX FY FZ
Defines a force load. Note that the command only defines a force load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME Label number of the force load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Force magnitude. FX F Y FZ Force direction. Note: The vector (FX, FY, FZ) specifies only the direction of the force. [1.0] [0.0] [0.0] [(current highest force load label number) + 1]
Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD FORCE DELETE LOAD FORCE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD LINE
LOAD LINE
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a line load, i.e., a distributed load in terms of force / unit length. Note that the command only defines a line load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. Note that line loads may be applied to geometry lines or edges, in order to specify distributed loading to BEAM, ISOBEAM, and PIPE elements, and to edges of SHELL elements. NAME Label number of the line load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Distributed load magnitude [force / unit length]. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD FORCE DELETE LOAD FORCE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [(current highest line load label number) + 1]
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LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL NAME MAGNITUDE AX AY AZ INTERPRETATION Defines a massproportional load. Such loads may be used to model gravity loading (including static analysis) or ground acceleration. The load acts uniformly on the entire structure. APPLYLOAD is used to apply a massproportional load to the model, at which time it may be assigned a time function specifying how its magnitude varies in time. More than one massproportional load may be applied to the model. NAME [(current highest massproportional load label number) + 1] Label number of the massproportional load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Magnitude of massproportional loading. AX [0.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [1.0] Vector giving direction of massproportional load. Note the components of the massproportional loading are: MAGNITUDE × AX MAGNITUDE × AY MAGNITUDE × AZ i.e., the magnitude of vector (AX, AY, AZ) is used together with MAGNITUDE to give the total load vector. INTERPRETATION [BODYFORCE] Flag indicating static or dynamic effect for potentialbased fluid elements: BODYFORCE GROUNDACCELERATION The load is interpreted as a physical body force The load is interpreted as a ground motion acceleration, and is numerically integrated to obtain ground motion velocities and displacements.
This parameter is used only by potentialbased fluid elements and is not used by any of the other element types. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL DELETE LOAD MASSPROPORTIONAL
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LOAD MOMENT
LOAD MOMENT
NAME MAGNITUDE MX MY MZ
Defines a moment load. Note that the command only defines a moment load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest moment load label number) + 1] Label number of the moment load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Moment magnitude. MX M Y MZ Components of moment vector. Note: The vector (MX, MY, MZ) specifies only the direction of the moment axis. [1.0] [0.0] [0.0]
Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD MOMENT DELETE LOAD MOMENT FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD NODALPHIFLUX
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD NODALPHIFLUX
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a nodalphiflux load. This command defines prescribed nodalphifluxs which may be assigned to certain degrees of freedom (global or skew) of the model. Note that this command only defines a nodalphiflux load  to apply it to the model you must use command APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest nodalphiflux load label number) + 1] Label number of the nodalphiflux load to be defined. If the label number of an existing nodalphiflux load is given, then the previous nodalphiflux load definition is overwritten. MAGNITUDE Prescribed value for the pore fluid pressure degree of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD NODALPHIFLUX DELETE LOAD NODALPHIFLUX FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD NODALPHIFLUX
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LOAD PHIFLUX
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD PHIFLUX
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a phiflux load. Note that this command only defines a phiflux load  to apply it to the model you must use command APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest phiflux load label number) + 1] Label number of the phiflux load to be defined. If the label number of an existing phiflux load is given, then the previous phiflux load definition is overwritten. MAGNITUDE Prescribed value for the pore fluid pressure degree of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD PHIFLUX DELETE LOAD PHIFLUX FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD PHIFLUX
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LOAD PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a pipeinternalpressure load. Note that the command only defines a pipeinternalpressure load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest pipeinternalpressure load label number) + 1] Label number of the pipeinternalpressure load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Pipe internal pressure magnitude (force / unit area). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE DELETE LOAD PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD POREFLOW
LOAD POREFLOW
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a poreflow load. Poreflow loads may be applied ( command APPLYLOAD ) to surfaces (element groups THREEDSOLID, TWODSOLID subtype STRESS3 ) or lines ( TWODSOLID element edges ). NAME [(current highest poreflow load label number) + 1] Label number of the poreflow load to be defined. If the label number of an existing poreflow load is given, then the previous poreflow load definition is overwritten. MAGNITUDE Flux magnitude (velocity). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD POREFLOW FIRST LAST The command LIST LOAD POREFLOW lists the loads of type POREFLOW with label numbers in a given range. If no range is specified, then a list of all the label numbers of loads of type POREFLOW is given. DELETE LOAD POREFLOW FIRST LAST The command DELETE LOAD POREFLOW deletes all loads of type POREFLOW with label numbers in a given range. Note: Note: A load will not be deleted if it is referenced by the command APPLYLOAD (i.e. the load has been applied to the model). For command DELETE LOAD POREFLOW, one of the parameters FIRST, LAST must be specified.
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LOAD POREPRESSURE
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD POREPRESSURE
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a porepressure load, which may be assigned to certain degrees of freedom (global or skew) of the model. To apply a porepressure load to the model command APPLYLOAD should be used. NAME [(current highest porepressure load label number) + 1] Label number of the porepressure load to be defined. If the label number of an existing porepressure load is given, then the previous porepressure load definition is overwritten. MAGNITUDE Prescribed value for the pore pressure degree of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD POREPRESSURE DELETE LOAD POREPRESSURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD PRESSURE
LOAD PRESSURE
NAME MAGNITUDE BETA LINE
Defines a pressure load. Note that the command only defines a pressure load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. Note: Pressure loads may be applied to: Surfaces/Faces Lines/Edges SHELL, THREEDSOLID, TWODSOLID (subtype STRESS3), THREEDFLUID elements. TWODSOLID, TWODFLUID element edges.
To apply distributed loads to unidimensional elements (e.g., beams) or to edges of shell elements, command LOAD LINE should be used to define such a load in terms of force/unit length. Note that for potentialbased elements, pressure loads may be applied only on the boundary of fluidstructure, freesurface, inletoutlet or fluidfluid interface elements. NAME Label number of the pressure load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Pressure magnitude [force / unit area]. BETA [0.0] Specifies the angle to the reference line (LINE) that will determine the direction of the tangential traction. (in degrees) LINE [0] Reference line for tangential traction direction. If LINE=0, the reference direction for the tangential traction will be the parametric udir of the surface or face. Note: The parameters BETA and LINE are only applicable when applying pressure loading on surface/face and the tangential pressure loading is specified (i.e. idirn=4 in command APPLYLOAD). [(current highest pressure load label number) + 1]
Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD PRESSURE DELETE LOAD PRESSURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD TEMPERATURE
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOAD TEMPERATURE
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a prescribed temperature load. Note that the command only defines a temperature load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest temperature load label number) + 1] Label number of the temperature load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Temperature (in chosen units). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD TEMPERATURE DELETE LOAD TEMPERATURE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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LOAD TGRADIENT
LOAD TGRADIENT
NAME MAGNITUDE
Defines a prescribed temperature gradient load to specify the temperature gradient in the thickness direction of a surface (when applied to shell elements). Note that the command only defines a temperature gradient load, to apply it to the model you must use APPLYLOAD. NAME [(current highest temperature gradient load label number) + 1] Label number of the temperature gradient load to be defined. MAGNITUDE Temperature gradient (degrees / unit length). Auxiliary commands LIST LOAD TGRADIENT DELETE LOAD TGRADIENT
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LOADCASE
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOADCASE
NAME
LOADCASE may be used in a linear static analysis to identify the current load case. LOADCASE cannot be used in the analysis of a cyclic symmetric structure. If load cases are specified, no reference to, or specification of, time functions can be made. Therefore, use of the commands TIMEFUNCTION, TIMESTEP, or any timefunction reference by any APPLYLOAD command, is not allowed. NAME Label number of the loadcase to be defined. Auxiliary commands LIST LOADCASE DELETE LOADCASE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [(current highest loadcase label number) + 1]
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LCOMBINATION
LCOMBINATION lcasei factori
NAME
May be used in a linear static analysis to define a new load case as a linear combination of load cases previously defined by LOADCASE. The combination is performed so that (combined loadcase results) = i=1
Σ (results for lcase ) × factor
i
i
NAME [(highest lcombination label number) + 1] The label number of the loadcombination. lcasei The label number of a load case previously defined by command LOADCASE. factori The factor associated with lcasei. Auxiliary commands LIST LCOMBINATION DELETE LCOMBINATION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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APPLYLOAD
Sec. 7.8 Loading
APPLYLOAD
BODY LCASE
namei ltypei lnamei stypei snamei idvari ncuri artmi idirn iddli pfocusi bodyi psensei i unloadi timeui forceui ncurui cgroupi (no load cases) or namei ltypei lnamei stypei snamei idvari lcasei idirni iddli pfocusi bodyi psensei unloadi timeui forceui ncurui cgroupi (load cases) Command APPLYLOAD specifies the loads applied to a model. This command is used to apply named loads (see commands LOAD FORCE, LOAD MOMENT, LOAD PRESSURE, etc.) to the model geometry. The spatial variation of the load may be specified by reference to a dataline, datasurface, or datavolume as appropriate (see command LINEFUNCTION, SURFACEFUNCTION, VOLUMEFUNCTION ). The time dependence of the load may be specified by reference to a time function (see command TIMEFUNCTION ). BODY Solid geometry body label number. LCASE Loadcase number (see LOADCASE, LCOMBINATION ). namei Label number of a load application. ltypei The type of load to be applied. {FORCE/MOMENT/PRESSURE/LINE/CENTRIFUGAL/ MASSPROPORTIONAL/DISPLACEMENT/TEMPERATURE/TGRADIENT/PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE/ELECTROMAGETIC/POREFLOW/POREPRESSURE/CONTACTSLIP/PHIFLUX/NODALPHIFLUX} A table of load types and the corresponding allowed application site types is given below. lnamei Label number of the load (defined by LOAD FORCE, etc.). stypei The type of site where the load is to be applied. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE/VOLUME/ EDGE/FACE/BODY/MODEL/NODE/ELEMENTEDGE/ELEMENTFACE/CONTACTSURFACE} [currently active BODY]
[1]
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APPLYLOAD
snamei The label number of the application site, e.g., point label number, line label number, etc. idvari [0] The label number of the spatial function (defined by LINEFUNCTION, SURFACE FUNCTION, VOLUMEFUNCTION as appropriate). Enter 0 for the load to be considered constant in space (but not necessarily in time). If load ltypei=PRESSURE and stypei=FACE, idvari is the line spatial function for the reference line (pfocusi). Note: The spatial variation along the reference line is used to determine the spatial variation of the load on the face. For a point on the face, the closest point on the line is determined and the spatial value at that point is used. ncuri The label number of a time function, as defined by command TIMEFUNCTION. [1]
artmi [0.0] The “arrival time” associated with time dependent loads. The load is considered zero for t ≤ artmi, and is governed by the time function “ncuri” for t > artmi. The time function is effectively shifted along in the time direction. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. idirni Specifies the direction and form of pressure load. {0/1/2/3/4/11/12/13} 0 1 2 3 4 11 12 13 total (normal) pressure load is applied. only the Xcomponent of the load is applied. only the Ycomponent of the load is applied. only the Zcomponent of the load is applied. tangential traction. load acts in the global Xdirection. load acts in the global Ydirection. load acts in the global Zdirection. [0]
The following table liss the allows load types and application site types:
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APPLYLOAD
Sec. 7.8 Loading
Table: Allowed load type / application site types Point Force1 Moment Line Centrifugal Mass proportional
1 2
Line ! × ! ! × × ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
Surface Volume Edge ! × ! × × × ! ! ! × × ! ! ! ! × × × × × × ! ! × × × × ! × ! ! × ! ! × × ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
Face ! × ! × × × ! ! ! × × ! ! ! !
Body × × × × × × ! ! × × × × ! × !
Model × × × × ! ! × × × × × × × × ×
! ! × × × ×
Pressure
Displacement1 ! Temperature1 ! Temperature gradient1 PipeInternal pressure1 Electromagnetic Pore flow2 Pore pressure1 Phiflux2 ! ! × × ! ×
Nodal phiflux1 !
Notes: 1. Can also be applied to Node Sets. 2. Can also be applied to ElementEdge Sets and ElementFace Sets. 3. The CONTACTSLIP load can only be applied to Contact Surfaces. iddli [1] If ltypei={PRESSURE/LINE/CENTRIFUGAL/ELECTROMAGNETIC/PORE FLOW}, this specifies whether the load is deformationdependent, i.e. the direction of the load changes in response to the (large displacement) deformation of the structure. {0/1/1} 0 1 the load is independent of structural deformation. the load is deformationdependent.
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APPLYLOAD
1
the load is deformationdependent for large displacement or large strain formulation, otherwise the load is deformation independent.
iddli [0] If ltypei=DISPLACEMENT, this specifies whether the prescribed displacement is applied to the original configuration or the deformed configuration for a restart analysis. {0/1} 0 1 original configuration. deformed configuration.
[0] pfocusi Specifies a point which determines the plane of load application for loads of type LINE. It may also be used to specify a “follower” force or moment, in which case the direction of the load application is determined by the relative positions of the point of application and the focus point “pfocusi”. If point “pfocusi” is input, then a unique node must be defined at the same location as the focus point. If load ltypei=PRESSURE and stypei=FACE, pfocusi means the reference line for spatial function of line. bodyi Body label number, used when stypei = FACE or EDGE. [BODY]
psensei [0] Qualifies the direction of the distributed line load controlled by the point “pfocusi”. If psensei=0 then the plane of action of the load is determined by the focal point and the end nodes of each element edge along the application line; in this case a single auxiliary node will be generated at the focal point. If psensei=1 the load will act perpendicular to the plane defined by the focal point and the element edge end nodes; in this case an auxiliary node will be generated for each element edge along the line (positioned “above” the plane defined by the vertex nodes and the focal point). Furthermore, for psensei=0 (inplane) a positive load acts toward the element from the focal point. The convention for load direction when psensei=1 can be understood as follows: imagine walking along the line in its positive parametric direction (i.e. from the start point to the end point) such that the focal point is always above you  a positive load is then assumed to act from your left. unloadi Specifies the type of unloadng for prescribed displacement. {TIME/FORCE/NO} [NO]
timeui [0.0] If unloadi=TIME, this specifies the time at which unloading of prescribed displacement starts. forceui If unloadi=FORCE, this specifies the force (or reaction) value at the prescribed displacement at which unloading starts.
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APPLYLOAD
Sec. 7.8 Loading
ncurui Label number of a time function for the unloading of prescribed displacement. cgroupi Contact group label number. Auxiliary commands LIST APPLYLOAD DELETE APPLYLOAD
[1]
[0]
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APPLYLOAD
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LOADPENETRATION
Sec. 7.8 Loading
LOADPENETRATION groupi Defines a region in terms of element groups where an initial pressure load can penetrate; i.e. if an element in the region, to which a pressure load is applied ruptures or “dies”, the pressure load is distributed to its neighboring element faces. This command is only active if MASTER LOADPENETRATION = YES. Note: A pressure load must already be applied to the penetration region, see APPLYLOAD or LOADSELEMENT.
groupi Element group label number. Auxiliary commands LIST LOADPENETRATION DELETE LOADPENETRATION
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INITIALCONDITION
INITIALCONDITION variablei valuei
NAME INITIALSTRESS
Defines an initial condition that can be referenced by SETINITCONDITION to assign the initial condition to geometry entities. All variables are assumed initially zero unless set by this command in conjunction with SETINITCONDITION. NAME The identifying name of the initial condition (1 to 30 alphanumeric characters). INITIALSTRESS Controls whether the initial strain input at nodes are to be interpreted initial stresses. NO YES DEFORMATION No change to nodal initial strain input. Nodal initial strains are to be interpreted as initial stresses. Nodal initial strains are to be interpreted as initial stresses which result in deformations. [NO]
variablei Degree(s) of freedom or their time derivatives to be set initially. Possible values (strings) are: XTRANSLATION YTRANSLATION ZTRANSLATION XROTATION YROTATION ZROTATION XVELOCITY YVELOCITY ZVELOCITY OVALIZATION1 OVALIZATION2 OVALIZATION3 OVALIZATION4 OVALIZATION5 OVALIZATION6 XROTVELOCITY YROTVELOCITY ZROTVELOCITY XACCELERATION YACCELERATION ZACCELERATION XROTACCELERATION YROTACCELERATION ZROTACCELERATION WARPING1 WARPING2 WARPING3 WARPING4 WARPING5 WARPING6 TEMPERATURE TGRADIENT PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE STRAIN11 STRAIN22 STRAIN33 STRAIN12 STRAIN13 STRAIN23 FLUIDDOF FPOTVELOCITY FPOTACCELERATION STRAINGRADIENT11 STRAINGRADIENT22 STRAINGRADIENT12 STRAINGRADIENT13 STRAINGRADIENT23 FLEXURALSTRAIN11 FLEXURALSTRAIN22 FLEXURALSTRAIN12
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INITIALCONDITION
Sec. 7.9 Initial conditions
valuei The value to be assigned to “variablei”. Note: The initial conditions will be applied to the nodes of the model, albeit indirectly via the model geometry. The variables of the initial condition thus refer to the degreeoffreedom system at each node, which may be the global coordinate system or a skewsystem. See SKEWSYSTEM, DOFSYSTEM.
Auxiliary commands LIST INITIALCONDITION DELETE INITIALCONDITION NAME NAME
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SETINITCONDITION
SETINITCONDITION POINTS pointi conditioni SETINITCONDITION LINES linei conditioni idvari SETINITCONDITION SURFACES surfacei conditioni idvari SETINITCONDITION VOLUMES volumei conditioni idvari SETINITCONDITION EDGES edgei conditioni idvari SETINITCONDITION FACES facei conditioni idvari SETINITCONDITION BODIES bodyi conditioni
CONDITION
CONDITION
CONDITION
CONDITION
CONDITION
BODY
CONDITION
BODY
CONDITION
BODY
SETINITCONDITION POINTS assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry points. SETINITCONDITION LINES assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry lines. SETINITCONDITION SURFACES assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry surfaces. SETINITCONDITION VOLUMES assigns initial conditions to a set of geometry volumes. SETINITCONDITION EDGES assigns initial conditions to a set of solid geometry edges. SETINITCONDITION FACES assigns initial conditions to a set of solid geometry faces. SETINITCONDITION BODIES assigns initial conditions to a set of solid geometry bodies.
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SETINITCONDITION
Sec. 7.9 Initial conditions
CONDITION [lowest (alphabetically) INITIALCONDITION] Default initial condition ( see command INITIALCONDITION ) for subsequent data lines. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. pointi Label number of a geometry point. linei Label number of a geometry line. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. volumei Label number of a geometry volume. edgei Label number of a solid geometry edge (for BODY). facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. conditioni Initial condition to be applied at point “pointi”. [CONDITION] [currently active body]
idvari [0] Label number of a spatial data variation, defined by LINEFUNCTION, SURFACEFUNCTION or VOLUMEFUNCTION, as appropriate. A 0 value indicates the initial condition is assumed constant over the geometry entity. Auxiliary commands LIST SETINITCONDITION POINTS DELETE SETINITCONDITION POINTS LIST SETINITCONDITION LINES DELETE SETINITCONDITION LINES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SETINITCONDITION
LIST SETINITCONDITION SURFACES DELETE SETINITCONDITION SURFACES LIST SETINITCONDITION VOLUMES DELETE SETINITCONDITION VOLUMES LIST SETINITCONDITION EDGES DELETE SETINITCONDITION EDGES LIST SETINITCONDITION FACES DELETE SETINITCONDITION FACES LIST SETINITCONDITION BODIES DELETE SETINITCONDITION BODIES
FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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STRAINFIELD
Sec. 7.9 Initial conditions
STRAINFIELD
NAME A B C D E F
Defines an initial geological strain field which varies in the global zdirection for 2D and 3D solid elements. This strainfield may be referenced by element groups using commands TWODSOLID and THREEDSOLID (Section8.1) in order to give initial element strains. NAME [(current highest strainfield label number) + 1] Label number of the strainfield to be defined. A B C D E F Parameters used to evaluate an initial strain field as follows: TWODSOLID elements:
e 22 = A + B ⋅ z e11 = C ⋅ e 22 + D e 33 = E ⋅ e 22 + F (axisymmetric analysis only)
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
THREEDSOLID elements:
e 33 = A + B ⋅ z e11 = C ⋅ e 33 + D e 22 = E ⋅ e 33 + F
where eij are the normal components of initial strain, and z is the global zcoordinate. Auxiliary commands LIST STRAINFIELD DELETE STRAINFIELD FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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IMPERFECTION POINTS
IMPERFECTION POINTS bucklingmodei pointi directioni displacementi Specifies imperfections based on the buckling mode shapes, which have been calculated and stored in a previous run. The total imperfection applied is a superposition of the imperfections from each specified buckling mode. List of buckling modes has to be continous  all buckling modes between the first and last mode have to be specified. For modes which are not significant, displacementi should be set to 0. bucklingmodei The number of the buckling modeshape. pointi Point label number where the magnitude of imperfection is specified. directioni Translational degree of freedom for displacementi. 1 2 3 Xtranslation (atranslation if skew system). Ytranslation (btranslation if skew system). Ztranslation (ctranslation if skew system).
displacementi Magnitude of imperfection in the same length unit as the global coordinates. ADINA scales the buckling mode shape indicated by bucklingmodei to have this value for the node at the point and in the direction specified. Auxiliary commands LIST IMPERFECTION POINTS DELETE IMPERFECTION POINTS
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IMPERFECTION SHAPE
Sec. 7.9 Initial conditions
IMPERFECTION SHAPE
OPTION
Indicates when initial nodal displacements should be read for initial shape calculations (but not for initial load vector or stress calculations) (OPTION = READ), or when ADINA should write out all nodal displacements (OPTION = WRITE). OPTION The flag of initial imperfection input: READ WRITE Auxiliary commands LIST IMPERFECTION SHAPE DELETE IMPERFECTION SHAPE Read initial nodal displacements. Save nodal displacements. [READ]
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INITIALMAPPING
INITIALMAPPING variablei
FILENAME EXTERNALNODE DISTANCE
Loads an initial “mappingfile” and interpolates variable values at existing model nodes using variable values at another set of nodes for a mesh which is stored in the initial mapping file. FILENAME The mapping file to be loaded. {Any filename accepted by the computer system (up to 80 characters long)}. EXTERNALNODE [ALL] The option for the treatment of external nodes (i.e., outside the boundary of the mesh contained in the mappingfile). ALL NONE DISTANCE Interpolation for all external nodes. No interpolation (extrapolation). Interpolation for nodes which are within a maximum specified distance from the mappingfile mesh.
DISTANCE [0.0] Maximum allowed distance from the mappingfile mesh (used when EXTERNALNODE = DISTANCE). variablei Degree(s) of freedom or their time derivatives to be interpolated for as nodal initial conditions. These include the following: XTRANSLATION YTRANSLATION XVELOCITY YVELOCITY XACCELERATION YACCELERATION ZTRANSLATION ZVELOCITY ZACCELERATION
XROTATION YROTATION ZROTATION XROTVELOCITY YROTVELOCITY ZROTVELOCITY XROTACCELERATION YROTACCELERATION ZROTACCELERATION TEMPERATURE STRAIN11 STRAIN12 TGRADIENT STRAIN22 STRAIN13 STRAIN33 STRAIN23
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NITIALMAPPING
Sec. 7.9 Initial conditions
OVALIZATION1 OVALIZATION4 WARPING1 WARPING4
OVALIZATION2 OVALIZATION5 WARPING2 WARPING5
OVALIZATION3 OVALIZATION6 WARPING3 WARPING6 FPOTACCELERATION
FLUIDPOTENTIAL
FPOTVELOCITY
PIPEINTERNALPRESSURE
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THERMALMAPPING
Sec. 7.9 Initial conditions
THERMALMAPPING
FILENAME EXTERNALNODE DISTANCE
Creates a nodal temperature and temperature gradient file for the current finite element model by interpolation from a “mappingfile” which contains a finite element mesh with nodal temperatures / gradients for a range of solution times. This command is useful for prescribing temperatures for the ADINA model from a temperature solution obtained from an independent mesh, e.g. from an ADINAT model. FILENAME The mappingfile to be read. EXTERNALNODE [ALL] The option for the treatment of external nodes, i.e. those which lie outside the mesh contained within the mappingfile: ALL NONE DISTANCE Interpolation (extrapolation) for all external nodes. No interpolation (zero value assigned). Interpolation for nodes which are within a maximum specified distance from the mappingfile mesh. [0.0]
DISTANCE Maximum distance for external node interpolation.
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SKEWSYSTEMS CYLINDRICAL
SKEWSYSTEMS CYLINDRICAL ni xorigini yorigini zorigini xaxisi yaxisi zaxisi normali Command SKEWSYSTEMS CYLINDRICAL defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of a cylinder origin and axis direction. Skew systems can be referenced (via command DOFSYSTEM ) by geometry and nodes to indicate the local orientation of the nodal degrees of freedom. Note that skew system definitions are distinct from coordinate systems defined via command SYSTEM, which are used to indicate point and node locations. ni Label number for the desired skew system. xorigini yorigini zorigini The global coordinates of the origin of the axis of the cylinder. xaxisi yaxisi zaxisi Global system components of the direction axis of the cylinder. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [1.0] [0.0]
normali [B] normali indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the er (radial) direction. Valid choices are ‘A’, ‘B’. If normal = A, skew system axis C is aligned with the ez (axis) direction of the cylinder. If normal = B, skew system axis A is aligned with the ez direction of the cylinder. Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SKEWSYSTEMS EULERANGLES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
SKEWSYSTEMS EULERANGLES ni phii thetai xsii Defines “skew” Cartesian coordinate systems in terms of Euler angles. Skew systems can be referenced, via DOFSYSTEM, to indicate the local orientation of the nodal degrees of freedom. Note that skew system definitions are distinct from coordinate systems defined via command SYSTEM, which are used to indicate point and node locations. ni Label number for the desired skew system. phii [0.0] thetai [0.0] xsii [0.0] Rotations, in degrees, about the global Cartesian system axes, required to orient the local directions of the skew system, see SYSTEM for Eulerangle definition. Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SKEWSYSTEMS NORMAL
SKEWSYSTEMS NORMAL
NAME
Defines a skew Cartesian coordinate system to be such that one of its directions is normal to a given line or surface. Note that no other parameters are required to define this skewsystem. When assigned via DOFSYSTEM, each node referenced has a skew system defined such that a selected local axis is normal to the underlying geometry. Note that skew system definitions are distinct from coordinate systems defined via command SYSTEM, which are used to indicate point and node locations. NAME Label number of the skew coordinate system, which may be referenced by commands DOFSYSTEM. Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SKEWSYSTEMS POINTS
Sec. 7.10 Systems
SKEWSYSTEMS POINTS ni p1i p2i p3i Defines “skew” Cartesian coordinate systems in terms of geometry points. Skew systems can be referenced, via DOFSYSTEM, to indicate the local orientation of the nodal degrees of freedom. Note that skew system definitions are distinct from coordinate systems defined via command SYSTEM, which are used to indicate point and node locations.
Zs
P1 Xs Z
Ys P3 P2 Zs
Y X node Xs
Ys
ni Label number for the desired skew system. p1i p2i p3i Geometry point label numbers. The vector from point p1i to point p2i defines the direction of the local Xaxis of the skew system. The vector from p1i to p3i is taken to lie in the local XYplane of the skew system. Note that points p1i, p2i, p3i must not be collinear. Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 7 Model definition
SKEWSYSTEMS SPHERICAL
SKEWSYSTEMS SPHERICAL ni xorigini yorigini zorigini Command SKEWSYSTEMS SPHERICAL defines a “skew” Cartesian coordinate system in terms of a sphere origin. Skew systems can be referenced (via command DOFSYSTEM ) by geometry and nodes to indicate the local orientation of the nodal degrees of freedom. Note that skew system definitions are distinct from coordinate systems defined via command SYSTEM, which are used to indicate point and node locations. The skew system axis A is aligned with the er direction of the sphere, axis B is aligned with the eΘ direction and axis C is chosen to create a righthanded orthogonal coordinate system. ni Label number for the desired skew system. xorigini yorigini zorigini The global coordinates of the origin of the sphere. Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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SKEWSYSTEMS VECTORS
Sec. 7.10 Systems
SKEWSYSTEMS VECTORS ni axi ayi azi bxi byi bzi Defines “skew” Cartesian coordinate systems in terms of direction vectors. Skew systems can be referenced, via DOFSYSTEM, to indicate the local orientation of the nodal degrees of freedom. Note that skew system definitions are distinct from coordinate systems defined via command SYSTEM, which are used to indicate point and node locations.
Zs Ys Z node Xs Y X
ni Label number for the desired skew system. [1.0] axi ayi [0.0] azi [0.0] Vector aligned with the local Xaxis of the skew system, defined with respect to the global Cartesian system. Note that for twodimensional problems vector (axi,ayi,azi) must be parallel to the global Cartesian Xaxis. bxi [0.0] byi [1.0] bzi [0.0] Vector lying in the local XYplane of the skew system, defined with respect to the global Cartesian system. Note that vector (bxi,byi,bzi) must not be parallel to vector (axi,ayi,azi). Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
(bx,by,bz)
(ax,ay,az)
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DOFSYSTEM POINTS
DOFSYSTEM POINTS namei skewsystemi Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of geometry points. namei Label number of a geometry point. All nodes coincident with this geometry point are assigned the specified skew system. skewsystemi Label number of a skewsystem. See SKEWSYSTEM. The value 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM POINTS DELETE DOFSYSTEM POINTS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM LINES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
DOFSYSTEM LINES linei skewsystemi normali tangenti pfocusi nsensei tsensei Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of geometry lines. Furthermore, for skew coordinate systems defined to be of type NORMAL, the local skew system axes to be aligned with the normal and tangent directions to the line are specified. The normal vector may also be directed such that it points toward or away from a given “focal” point, and the sense of the tangent vector may be similarly assigned. linei Label number of a geometry line. skewsystemi Label number of a skew coordinate system, as defined by SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. normali [C] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction normal to the line namei. {A/B/C} tangenti [B] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction tangential to the line namei. {A/B/C} pfocusi Label number of a geometry point which is the “focal” point for directing the normal vector, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. The principal normal vector at a point on the line is determined to point away from the local center of curvature. The opposite direction is also normal to the line, and thus a “focal point” may be used so that the actual normal direction used points toward or away from this point, the selection of which is made by nsensei. If input as 0, then no focus is specified, and the principal normal direction is used. Note: For straight lines, straight line segments, or points of inflection on a curve, for which the curvature is zero, the normal vector is taken to be either:
(a) when pfocusi = 0, or when pfocusi >0 and the tangent points directly toward or away from point pfocusi; the cross product of the tangential direction with the global Xdirection (or Ydirection if the tangent is parallel to the Xdirection) (b) otherwise, a binormal vector is calculated as the cross product of the tangent vector and the vector directed from the point on the curve to the focal point (the “focal vector”). The normal vector is then taken as the cross product of the binormal and the tangent
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DOFSYSTEM LINES
vectors. In this way the normal vector lies in the plane formed by the tangent and focal vectors, and is directed toward the focal point (or away from the focal point, as controlled by nsensei). nsensei [+1] The sense of the normal vector with reference to the focal point, used when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with the pfocusi to orient the normal direction. +1 1 Normal direction points toward point pfocusi. Normal direction points away from point pfocusi.
tsensei [+1] The sense of the tangent vector, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with tangenti to orient the skew system tangent direction. +1 1 Direction tangenti same as line tangent direction. Direction tangenti opposite to line tangent direction.
Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM LINES DELETE DOFSYSTEM LINES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM EDGES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
DOFSYSTEM EDGES
BODY
edgei skewsystemi normali tangenti pfocusi nsensei tsensei Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of solid geometry edges. Furthermore, for skew coordinate systems defined to be of type NORMAL, the local skew system axes to be aligned with the normal and tangent directions to the edge are specified. The normal vector may also be directed such that it points toward or away from a given “focal” point, and the sense of the tangent vector may be similarly assigned. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. edgei Label number of a geometry edge (for BODY). skewsystemi Label number of a skew coordinate system, as defined by SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. normali [C] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction normal to edgei. {A/B/C} tangenti [B] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction tangential to edgei. {A/B/C} pfocusi Label number of a geometry point which is the “focal” point for directing the normal vector, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. The principal normal vector at a point on the edge is determined to point away from the local center of curvature. The opposite direction is also normal to the edge, and thus a “focal point” may be used so that the actual normal direction used points toward or away from this point, the selection of which is made by nsensei. If input as 0, then no focus is specified, and the principal normal direction is used. Note: a) For straight edges or points of inflection on a curve, for which the curvature is zero, the normal vector is taken to be either: [currently active body]
when pfocusi = 0, or when pfocusi > 0 and the tangent points directly toward or away from point pfocusi; the cross product of the tangential direction with the global Xdirection (or Ydirection if the tangent is parallel to the Xdirection)
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DOFSYSTEM EDGES
b)
otherwise, a binormal vector is calculated as the cross product of the tangent vector and the vector directed from the point on the curve to the focal point (the “focal vector”). The normal vector is then taken as the cross product of the binormal and the tangent vectors. In this way, the normal vector lies in the plane formed by the tangent and focal vectors, and is directed toward the focal point (or away from the focal point, as controlled by nsensei). [+1] nsensei The sense of the normal vector with reference to the focal point, used when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with pfocusi to orient the normal direction. +1 1 Normal direction points toward point pfocusi. Normal direction points away from point pfocusi.
tsensei [+1] The sense of the tangent vector, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with tangenti to orient the skew system tangent direction. +1 1 Direction tangenti same as edge tangent direction. Direction tangenti opposite to edge tangent direction.
Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM EDGES DELETE DOFSYSTEM EDGES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM SURFACES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
DOFSYSTEM SURFACES surfacei skewsystemi normali tangenti pfocusi nsensei tsensei Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of geometry surfaces. Furthermore, for skew coordinate systems defined to be of type NORMAL, the local skew system axis to be aligned with the normal direction to the surface is specified along with the axis to be aligned with the surface tangent parallel to the local surface parametric ucoordinate direction. The normal vector may also be directed such that it points toward or away from a given “focal” point, and the sense of the tangent vector may be similarly assigned. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. skewsystemi Label number of a skew coordinate system, as defined by SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. normali [A] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction normal to the surface namei. {A/B/C} tangenti [B] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction tangential to the surface namei, parallel with the local parametric ucoordinate direction. {A/B/C} pfocusi Label number of a geometry point which is the “focal” point for directing the normal vector, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. The principal normal vector at a point on the surface is determined from the surface orientation. The opposite direction is also normal to the surface, and thus a “focal point” may be used so that the actual normal direction used points toward or away from this point, the selection of which is made by nsensei. If input as 0 then no focus is specified, and the principal surface normal direction is used. nsensei [+1] The sense of the normal vector with reference to the focal point, used when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with pfocusi to orient the normal direction. +1 1 Normal direction points toward point pfocusi. Normal direction points away from point pfocusi.
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DOFSYSTEM SURFACES
tsensei [+1] The sense of the tangent vector with reference to the local surface parametric ucoordinate direction, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with tangenti to orient the surface tangent direction: +1 1 Tangent direction in positive ucoordinate direction. Tangent direction in negative ucoordinate direction.
Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM SURFACES DELETE DOFSYSTEM SURFACES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM FACES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
DOFSYSTEM FACES
BODY
facei skewsystemi normali tangenti pfocusi nsensei tsensei Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of solid geometry faces. Furthermore, for skew coordinate systems defined to be of type NORMAL, the local skew system axis to be aligned with the normal direction to the face is specified along with the axis to be aligned with the face tangent parallel to the local face parametric ucoordinate direction. The normal vector may also be directed such that it points toward or away from a given “focal” point, and the sense of the tangent vector may be similarly assigned. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. facei Label number of a geometry face (for BODY). skewsystemi Label number of a skew coordinate system, as defined by SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. normali [A] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction normal to facei. {A/B/C} tangenti [B] When skewsystemi is of type NORMAL, this indicates which of the skew system axes is to be aligned with the direction tangential to facei, parallel with the local face parametric ucoordinate direction. {A/B/C} pfocusi Label number of a geometry point which is the “focal” point for directing the normal vector, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. The principal normal vector at a point on the face is determined from the face orientation. The opposite direction is also normal to the face, and thus a focal point may be used so that the actual normal direction used points toward or away from this point, the selection of which is made by nsensei. If input as 0 then no focus is specified, and the principal face normal direction is used. nsensei [+1] The sense of the normal vector with reference to the focal point, used when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with pfocusi to orient the normal direction. [currently active body]
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DOFSYSTEM FACES
+1 1
Normal direction points toward point pfocusi. Normal direction points away from point pfocusi.
tsensei [+1] The sense of the tangent vector with reference to the local face parametric ucoordinate direction, when skewsystemi is of type NORMAL. It is used in conjunction with tangenti to orient the face tangent direction. +1 1 Tangent direction in positive ucoordinate direction. Tangent direction in negative ucoordinate direction.
Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM FACES DELETE DOFSYSTEM FACES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM VOLUMES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
DOFSYSTEM VOLUMES namei skewsystemi Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of geometry volumes. namei Label number of a geometry volume. skewsystemi Label number of a skewsystem. See SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM VOLUMES DELETE DOFSYSTEM VOLUMES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM BODIES
DOFSYSTEM BODIES bodyi skewsystemi Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of geometry bodies. bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. skewsystemi Label number of a skewsystem. See SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM BODIES DELETE DOFSYSTEM BODIES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SHELLNODESDOF
Sec. 7.10 Systems
SHELLNODESDOF POINTS pointi nsdofi SHELLNODESDOF LINES linei nsdofi SHELLNODESDOF SURFACES surfacei nsdofi SHELLNODESDOF EDGES edgei nsdofi SHELLNODESDOF FACES facei nsdofi SHELLNODESDOF POINTS specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes associated with a set of geometry points. SHELLNODESDOF LINES specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes associated with a set of geometry lines. SHELLNODESDOF SURFACES specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes associated with a set of geometry surfaces. SHELLNODESDOF EDGES specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes associated with a set of solid geometry edges. SHELLNODESDOF FACES specifies the number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes associated with a set of solid geometry faces. BODY Solid geometry body label number. pointi Geometry point label number. [currently active body] BODY BODY
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SHELLNODESDOF
linei Line label number. surfacei Surface label number. edgei Edge label number (for BODY). facei Face label number (for BODY). nsdofi [AUTOMATIC] Number of degrees of freedom for shell midsurface nodes at the geometry entity. FIVE Three translation, and two rotation degrees of freedom (in local midsurface system). See the Theory and Modeling Guide. Three translation and three rotation (global or skew) degrees of freedom. The program automatically decides on the number of degrees of freedom to be assigned to shell nodes based on certain modeling considerations. See the Theory and Modeling Guide.
SIX
AUTOMATIC
Auxiliary commands LIST SHELLNODESDOF POINTS DELETE SHELLNODESDOF POINTS LIST SHELLNODESDOF LINES DELETE SHELLNODESDOF LINES LIST SHELLNODESDOF SURFACES DELETE SHELLNODESDOF SURFACES LIST SHELLNODESDOF EDGES DELETE SHELLNODESDOF EDGES LIST SHELLNODESDOF FACES DELETE SHELLNODESDOF FACES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES CONSTANT
Sec. 7.10 Systems
AXES CONSTANT
NAME AX AY AZ BX BY BZ
Defines an “axessystem” in terms of constant direction vectors. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively. NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. AX [1.0] A Y [0.0] AZ [0.0] Vector aligned with the local xaxis of the axessystem, defined with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. BX [0.0] BY [1.0] BZ [0.0] Vector lying in the local xyplane of the axessystem, defined with respect to the global Cartesian coordinate system. Note that vector (BX, BY, BZ) must not be parallel to vector (AX, AY, AZ). Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES LINE1
AXES LINE1
NAME LINE
Defines an “axessystem” via a geometry line. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively. LINE P z element y t
C centroid
x ( t)
NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. LINE Label number of the geometry line defining the axessystem. Note: The axessystem at an element centroid C is determined by calculating the tangent vector at the nearest point P on the geometry line. This gives the local xdirection of the axessystem. The local xyplane of the axessystem is calculated to include both the tangent vector to the line and the vector from the element centroid to the nearest point on the line. See Figure.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES LINE2
Sec. 7.10 Systems
AXES LINE2
NAME LINE1 LINE2
Defines an “axessystem” via two geometry lines. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively.
LINE 1 t1 y element C centroid t2 LINE 2 P2 (t2) x (  t1)
z (  t1 x t2)
P1
NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. LINE1 Label number of the first geometry line defining the axessystem. LINE2 Label number of the second geometry line defining the axessystem. Note: The axessystem at an element centroid C is determined by calculating the tangent vector at the nearest point P1 on the first geometry line. This gives the local xdirection of the axessystem. The local xyplane of the axessystem is determined to include this tangent vector and the tangent vector at the nearest point P2 on the second geometry line. See Figure.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES NODES
AXES NODES
NAME NODE1 NODE2 NODE3
Defines an “axessystem” using three nodes. Axessystems can be referenced by commands SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, by elements to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively. NAME Label number for the desired axessystem. NODE1 Label number of the first axessystem defining node.
z (a x b)
y (a x b) x a
(a x b ) NODE3 b
element C x (a ) NODE1 a NODE2
centroid
NODE2 Label number of the second axessystem defining node. NODE3 Label number of the third axessystem defining node. Note: The local xdirection of the axessystem is determined by the vector from the first node “NODE1” to the second node NODE2. The local zdirection of the axessystem is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the three nodes NODE1, NODE2, and NODE3. The local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule. See figure.
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AXES NODES
Sec. 7.10 Systems
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AXES POINT2
AXES POINT2
NAME POINT1 POINT2
Defines an “axessystem” via two geometry points. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively.
POINT2 z ( a x b) y b
element C
POINT1 x a
centroid
NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. POINT1 Label number of the first geometry point defining the axessystem. POINT2 Label number of the second geometry point defining the axessystem, which must not be coincident with point “POINT1”. Note The local xdirection of the axessystem at an element centroid C is determined by the vector from the centroid to POINT1. The local zdirection of the axessystem is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the centroid, POINT1 and POINT2. The local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule. See Figure.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES POINT3
Sec. 7.10 Systems
AXES POINT3
NAME POINT1 POINT2 POINT3
Defines an “axessystem” via three geometry points. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively.
z (a x b)
y ( a x b) x a ( a x b) POINT3 b a POINT1 POINT2
element
C
x ( a)
centroid
NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. POINT1 Label number of the first geometry point defining the axessystem. POINT2 Label number of the second geometry point defining the axessystem. POINT3 Label number of the third geometry point defining the axessystem. Note: The local xdirection of the axessystem is determined by the vector from POINT1 to POINT2. The local zdirection of the axessystem is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the three points POINT1, POINT2, and POINT3. The local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule. See Figure. Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES POINTLINE
AXES POINTLINE
NAME LINE POINT
Defines an “axessystem” via a geometry line and a geometry point. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively.
axb b P1 z ( a x b)
P
POINT u t a
LINE P2
y centroid
element C x (t)
NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. LINE Label number of the geometry line defining the axessystem. Note that the line must not be closed, i.e., it must have noncoincident endpoints. POINT Label number of the geometry point defining the axessystem. The point must not be collinear with the endpoints of line LINE. Note: The axessystem at an element centroid C is determined by calculating the tangent vector at the nearest point P on the geometry line. This gives the local xdirection of the axessystem. The local xyplane of the axessystem is defined by the endpoints of the geometry line “LINE”, and the given geometry point “POINT”. Thus, in order to determine this plane, the line must have distinct endpoints P1 and P2, i.e., it cannot be closed or degenerate, and the geometry point must not be collinear with those endpoints. See Figure.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES SURFACE
Sec. 7.10 Systems
AXES SURFACE
NAME SURFACE
Defines an “axessystem” via a geometry surface. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively.
z (n)
y (n x u)
element C
x (u)
centroid
n
v u
P
NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. SURFACE Label number of the geometry surface defining the axessystem. Note: The axessystem at an element centroid C is determined by calculating the surface tangent and normal vectors at the nearest point P on the geometry surface. The local xdirection of the axessystem is given by the tangent vector in the local parametric udirection of the surface. The local zdirection of the axessystem is given by the surface normal direction and the local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule. See Figure.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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AXES EDGE
AXES EDGE
NAME EDGE BODY
Defines an “axessystem” via a geometry edge. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively. n u P z element C centroid NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. EDGE Label number of the geometry edge defining the axessystem. BODY [currently active body] Label number of the geometry body containing the edge. Note: The axessystem at an element centroid C is determined by calculating the edge tangent and normal vectors at the nearest point P on the geometry edge. The local xdirection of the axessystem is given by the edge tangent vector (in the local parametric udirection of the edge). The local zdirection of the axessystem is given by the edge normal direction and the local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule. See Figure. y x (t) t EDGE
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AXES FACE
Sec. 7.10 Systems
AXES FACE
NAME FACE BODY
Defines an “axessystem” via a geometry face. Axessystems can be referenced by SETAXESMATERIAL, SETAXESSTRAIN, to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain, respectively. NAME Label number for the axessystem to be defined. FACE Label number of the geometry face defining the axessystem. BODY Label number of the geometry body containing the face. Note: [currently active body]
The axessystem at an element centroid is determined by calculating the face tangent and normal vectors at the nearest point on the geometry face. The local xdirection of the axessystem is given by the tangent vector in the local parametric udirection of the face. The local zdirection of the axessystem is given by the face normal direction and the local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule. See Figure for AXES SURFACE.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXES DELETEAXES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SETAXESMATERIAL
SETAXESMATERIAL SURFACES surfacei axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESMATERIAL VOLUMES volumei axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESMATERIAL FACES facei axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESMATERIAL BODIES bodyi axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESMATERIALELEMENTSETS elementseti axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESMATERIAL SURFACES assigns axessystems, as defined by AXES, to a set of geometry surfaces. SETAXESMATERIAL VOLUMES assigns axessystems, as defined by AXES, to a set of geometry volumes. SETAXESMATERIAL FACES assigns axessystems, as defined by AXES, to a set of solid geometry faces. SETAXESMATERIAL BODIES assigns axessystems, as defined by AXES, to a set of solid geometry bodies. SETAXESMATERIAL ELEMENTSETS assigns axessystems, defined by command AXES, to a set of element sets. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. [currently active body] BODY
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SETAXESMATERIAL
Sec. 7.10 Systems
volumei Label number of a geometry volume. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). bodyi Label number for a solid geometry body. Note: Any elements generated for the referenced geometry will adopt orthotropic material directories as calculated by the assigned axessystem.
elementseti Label number of a element set. Any elements generated in this element set will calculate orthotropic material directions from the assigned the axessystem “axesi”. axesi Label number of an axessystem defined by AXES. adiri [1] The material adirection is selected to be determined from one of the calculated local x, y, or zdirections of the axessystem. 1 2 3 1 2 3 adirection coincides with local xdirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local ydirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local zdirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local negative xdirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local negative ydirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local negative zdirection of axissystem.
[2] bdiri The material bdirection is selected to be determined from one of the calculated local x, y, or zdirections of the axessystem. 1 bdirection coincides with local xdirection of axissystem.
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SETAXESMATERIAL
2 3 1 2 3
bdirection coincides with local ydirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local zdirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local negative xdirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local negative ydirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local negative zdirection of axissystem.
Note: abs(adiri) must differ from abs(bdiri). Auxiliary commands LIST SETAXESMATERIAL SURFACES DELETE SETAXESMATERIAL SURFACES LIST SETAXESMATERIALVOLUMES DELETE SETAXESMATERIALVOLUMES LIST SETAXESMATERIAL FACES DELETE SETAXESMATERIALFACES LIST SETAXESMATERIAL BODIES DELETE SETAXESMATERIALBODIES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
LIST SETAXESMATERIALELEMENTSETS DELETE S ETAXESMATERIALELEMENTSETS
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SETAXESSTRAIN
Sec. 7.10 Systems
SETAXESSTRAIN SURFACES surfacei axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESSTRAIN VOLUMES volumei axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESSTRAIN FACES facei axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESSTRAIN BODIES bodyi axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESSTRAIN ELEMENTSETS elementseti axesi adiri bdiri SETAXESSTRAIN SURFACES assigns axessystems, defined by AXES, to a set of geometry surfaces. SETAXESSTRAIN VOLUMES assigns axessystems, defined by AXES, to a set of geometry volumes. SETAXESSTRAIN FACES assigns axessystems, defined by AXES, to a set of solid geometry faces. SETAXESSTRAIN BODIES assigns axessystem, defined by AXES, to a set of solid geometry bodies. SETAXESSTRAIN ELEMENTSETS assigns axessystems, defined by command AXES, to a set of element sets. BODY Label number of a solid geometry body. surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. [currently active body] BODY
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SETAXESSTRAIN
volumei Label number of a geometry volume. facei Label number of a solid geometry face (for BODY). bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. Note: Any elements generated for the referenced geometry will adopt initialstrain directions as calculated by the assigned axessystem.
elementseti Label number of a element set. Any elements generated in this element set will calculate orthotropic strain directions from the assigned the axessystem “axesi”. axesi Label number of an axessystem defined by AXES. adiri [1] The strain adirection is selected to be determined from one of the calculated local x, y or zdirections of the axessystem. 1 2 3 1 2 3 adirection coincides with local xdirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local ydirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local zdirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local negative xdirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local negative ydirection of axissystem. adirection coincides with local negative zdirection of axissystem.
[2] bdiri The strain bdirection is selected to be determined from one of the calculated local x, y or zdirections of the axessystem. 1 bdirection coincides with local xdirection of axissystem.
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SETAXESSTRAIN
Sec. 7.10 Systems
2 3 1 2 3
bdirection coincides with local ydirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local zdirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local negative xdirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local negative ydirection of axissystem. bdirection coincides with local negative zdirection of axissystem.
Note: abs(adiri) must differ from abs(bdiri). Auxiliary commands LIST SETAXESSTRAIN SURFACES DELETE SETAXESSTRAIN SURFACES LIST SETAXESSTRAIN VOLUMES DELETE SETAXESSTRAIN VOLUMES LIST SETAXESSTRAIN FACES DELETE SETAXESSTRAIN FACES LIST SETAXESSTRAIN BODIES DELETE SETAXESSTRAIN BODIES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
LIST SETAXESSTRAIN ELEMENTSETS FIRST LAST DELETE SETAXESSTRAIN ELEMENTSETS FIRST LAST
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Chapter 8 Finite element representation
EGROUP TRUSS
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUPTRUSS
NAME SUBTYPE DISPLACEMENTS MATERIAL INT GAPS INITIALSTRAIN CMASS TIMEOFFSET OPTION RBLINE AREA
Defines an element group consisting of truss elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can only be given if it is of type TRUSS. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group you must first delete that group using command DELETE EGROUP TRUSS. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of TRUSS element. GENERAL AXISYMMETRIC General 3D truss elements with 24 nodes. Axisymmetric truss (ring) elements with 1 node in the global YZ plane. Z is the axis of rotational symmetry and Y is the radial direction (Y ≥ 0). [GENERAL]
DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material as specified by an element data command, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type TRUSS can use materials of the following types: ELASTIC THERMOISOTROPIC PLASTICBILINEAR PLASTICMULTILINEAR THERMOPLASTIC CREEP PLASTICCREEP NONLINEARELASTIC
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EGROUP TRUSS
INT Numerical integration order. {1 ≤ INT ≤ 4} DEFAULT =1 2 3 GAPS YES
[DEFAULT]
when SUBTYPE = AXISYMMETRIC, or maximum number of element nodes is 2. when maximum number of nodes per element is 3. when maximum number of nodes per element is 4. [NO] All elements in this (nonlinear) group have gaps, i.e., no element in the group can resist tensile force. The gap width for elements may be specified via the element data commands. This option may only be used when material models PLASTIC BILINEAR or PLASTICMULTILINEAR are employed, in conjunction with 2node general truss elements. The gap element option is inactive for this element group, and all elements can resist tensile as well as compressive forces. [NONE]
NO
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates whether initial strains are to be applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group.
Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via the element data commands are accounted for. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
ELEMENT
BOTH
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} TIMEOFFSET [0.0] With this parameter, a creep law can be modified as follows (example given for creep law number 1) :
e c = a 0 ⋅ σ a1 ⋅ ( t − t 0 )
a2
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EGROUP TRUSS
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
where t is the absolute time and t0=TIMEOFFSET represents a shift in the time scale. Note: When TIMEOFFSET is used, the same shift is applied to all time dependent terms. The TIMEOFFSET value can be negative or positive and can be modified for a restart run. [NONE]
OPTION Special option for this element group. NONE REBAR No special option. Elements are regular truss elements. Elements are used as rebar elements.
RBLINE [1] Rebar label number as defined by the command REBARLINE. Only used if OPTION=REBAR. AREA Specifies the default crosssection area for elements in the group. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP TRUSS DELETE EGROUPTRUSS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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EGROUP TWODSOLID
EGROUP TWODSOLID NAME SUBTYPE DISPLACEMENTS STRAINS MATERIAL INT RESULTS DEGEN FORMULATION STRESSREFERENCE INITIALSTRAIN FRACTURE CMASS STRAINFIELD PNTGPS NODGPS LVUS1 LVUS2 SED RUPTURE INCOMPATIBLEMODES TIMEOFFSET POROUS WTMC OPTION THICKNESS
Defines an element group consisting of planar or axisymmetric elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number on an existing element group can only be given if it is of type TWODSOLID. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using command DELETE EGROUP TWODSOLID. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of TWODSOLID element. (See the Theory and Modeling Guide). AXISYMMETRIC Axisymmetric elements in the global YZ plane. Z is the axis of rotational symmetry and Y is the radial direction (Y≥0). Plane strain elements in the global YZ plane. Plane stress elements in the global YZ plane. General 3D plane stress elements. Generalized plane strain in the global YZ plane.
STRAIN STRESS2 STRESS3 STRAIN3
DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
STRAINS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large strains are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group.
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EGROUP TWODSOLID
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
SMALL LARGE DEFAULT
Small strains only. Effects of large strains are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
Note: DISPLACEMENTS = LARGE is automatically set if STRAINS = LARGE is input. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material as specified by an element data command, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type TWODSOLID can use materials of the following types. Only elements marked with an asterisk (*) can be used with large strains. ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC *PLASTICBILINEAR *THERMOPLASTIC DRUCKERPRAGER GURSON *CREEPVARIABLE *PLASTICCREEP CURVEDESCRIPTION CONCRETE *MOONEYRIVLIN *HYPERELASTIC THERMOISOTROPIC THERMOORTHOTROPIC *PLASTICMULTILINEAR PLASTICORTHOTROPIC *MROZBILINEAR *CREEP *PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE *MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP *MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE CAMCLAY *OGDEN *USERSUPPLIED [DEFAULT]
INT Numerical integration order. {1 ≤ INT ≤ 6} DEFAULT
Full Gauss integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. [STRESSES]
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
Element nodal forces are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew).
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EGROUP TWODSOLID
STRESSES
Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not.
DEGEN [NO] Indicator for spatial isotropy correction for degenerate (triangular) 8node elements. When elements are a true triangles option UNUSED should be selected. {NO/YES/UNUSED} FORMULATION Indicates use of displacement or mixed interpolation formulation. DISPLACEMENT [1] MIXED [2] DEFAULT [0] N Note: Displacement interpolation only. Mixed pressuredisplacement interpolation. See note below. N is the number of pressure degrees of freedom for each element. The mixed formulation cannot be used for material models CAMCLAY, GURSON, CURVEDESCRIPTION, CONCRETE, DRUCKERPRAGER, PLASTICORTHOTROPIC and USERSUPPLIED. Furthermore, it is only applicable for plane strain and axisymmetric analyses. The value DEFAULT assumes a MIXED formulation for element groups with material models OGDEN, MOONEYRIVLIN, and HYPERELASTIC. For all other material models the value assumed for DEFAULT is that of DISPLACEMENT formulation. When using the mixed formulation, 1 pressure degree of freedom is used for elements with 8 or fewer nodes, and 3 pressure degrees of freedom are used for the 9node element. In general, the 9node element is the most effective, and is thus recommended. To explicitly set the number of pressure degrees of freedom, input FORMULATION = N, where N is the desired number of pressure degrees of freedom within each element. [GLOBAL] [DEFAULT]
Note:
Note:
STRESSREFERENCE Indicates the reference system for calculated stresses. GLOBAL MATERIAL
The global Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, Z). The element material system, for orthotropic materials.
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EGROUP TWODSOLID
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates whether initial strains are to be applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group.
[NONE]
Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via the STRAINFIELD parameter are accounted for. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
ELEMENT
BOTH
FRACTURE [NO] Indicates whether the element group employs user defined data sets (see UFORMAT) to describe usersupplied fracture mechanics criteria for the element group. {YES/NO} CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} STRAINFIELD [0] Label number of a “strainfield” defined by STRAINFIELD command (Section7.9). A 0 value indicates no initial element strains, and any initial element strains selected by input of STRAINFIELD > 0 will only be considered if INITIALSTRAIN = ELEMENT or BOTH. PNTGPS [0] Label number of a geometry point at which the auxiliary node for generalized plane strain elements (SUBTYPE = STRAIN3) is located. NODGPS Label number of the auxiliary node for generalized plane strain elements. Note: [0]
For SUBTYPE = STRAIN3, PNTGPS = NODGPS = 0 is not allowed (an auxiliary node must be specified). If PNTGPS and NODGPS are both > 0, then the input for PNTGPS is used. [0]
LVUS1 The base length of the first working array for user supplied fracture mechanics. LVUS2 The base length of the second working array for user supplied fracture mechanics.
[0]
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EGROUP TWODSOLID
SED [NO] Indicate whether or not to compute, and output, the strain energy density at all integration points of elements within the group. {NO/YES} RUPTURE [ADINA] Indicates whether the program rupture criteria or usersupplied rupture criteria to be applied to the material used in this element group. ADINA USER Use the program criteria. User must provide fortrancoded subroutine CURUP2 to decide the element rupture.
Note that material models available for this option are: PLASTICBILINEAR, PLASTICMULTILINEAR, MROZBILINEAR, PLASTICORTHOTROPIC, THERMOPLASTIC, CREEP, PLASTICCREEP, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP, USERSUPPLIED INCOMPATIBLEMODES [DEFAULT] Specifies whether incompatible modes are included in the formulation of 4node 2D solid elements. NO YES DEFAULT Incompatible modes are not included. Incompatible modes are included. Choice of formulation is controled by the KINEMATICS command.
TIMEOFFSET [0.0] With this parameter, a creep law can be modified as follows (example given for creep law number 1) :
e c = a 0 ⋅ σ a1 ⋅ ( t − t 0 )
a2
where t is the absolute time and t0=TIMEOFFSET represents a shift in the time scale. Note: When TIMEOFFSET is used, the same shift is applied to all time dependent terms. The TIMEOFFSET value can be negative or positive and can be modified for a restart run.
POROUS This parameter is now obsolete. It is replaced by the parameter OPTION.
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EGROUP TWODSOLID
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
WTMC [1.0] Plastic work to heat factor for thermomechanical coupling. Must be in the range<0.0,1.0> OPTION {NONE/POROUS/USERCODED/GASKETSIMPLE/GASKETGENERAL} NONE POROUS USERCODED GASKETSIMPLE GASKETGENERAL No special option. This element group is used with porous media properties. Usersupplied code is used for this element group. This element group is used with a simple gasket material. This element group is used with a general gasket material. [1.0] [NONE]
THICKNESS Defines the default element thickness. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP TWODSOLID DELETE EGROUP TWODSOLID FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGROUP THREEDSOLID
EGROUP THREEDSOLID
NAME DISPLACEMENTS STRAINS MATERIAL RSINT TINT RESULTS DEGEN FORMULATION STRESSREFERENCE INITIALSTRAIN FRACTURE CMASS STRAINFIELD LVUS1 LVUS2 SED RUPTURE INCOMPATIBLEMODES TIMEOFFSET POROUS WTMC OPTION
Defines an element group consisting of threedimensional solid elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number )+ 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can only be given if it is of type THREEDSOLID. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group you must first delete that group using command DELETE EGROUP THREEDSOLID. DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
STRAINS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large strains are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small strains only. Effects of large strains are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
Note: DISPLACEMENTS = LARGE is automatically set if STRAINS = LARGE is input. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by an element data command, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter.
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EGROUP THREEDSOLID
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
Note:
Elements of type THREEDSOLID can use materials of the following types. Only elements marked with an asterisk (*) can be used with large strains. ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC *PLASTICBILINEAR *THERMOPLASTIC DRUCKERPRAGER GURSON *CREEPVARIABLE *PLASTICCREEP CURVEDESCRIPTION CONCRETE *MOONEYRIVLIN *HYPERELASTIC THERMOISOTROPIC THERMOORTHOTROPIC *PLASTICMULTILINEAR PLASTICORTHOTROPIC *MROZBILINEAR *CREEP *PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE *MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP *MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE CAMCLAY *OGDEN *USERSUPPLIED
RSINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the r and s element coordinate directions. {2 ≤ RSINT ≤ 6} DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side.
TINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the telement coordinate direction. {2 ≤ TINT ≤ 6} DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. [STRESSES]
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
Element nodal forces are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not.
STRESSES
DEGEN [NO] Indicator for spatial isotropy correction of degenerate 20node elements. When elments are a true tetrahedrons, option UNUSED should be selected. {NO/YES/UNUSED}
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EGROUP THREEDSOLID
FORMULATION Indicates use of displacement or mixed interpolation formulation. DISPLACEMENT [1] Displacement interpolation only. MIXED [2] DEFAULT [0] N Note: Mixed pressuredisplacement interpolation. See note below.
[DEFAULT]
N is the number of pressure degrees of freedom for each element. The mixed formulation cannot be used for material models CAMCLAY, GURSON, CURVEDESCRIPTION, CONCRETE, DRUCKERPRAGER, PLASTICORTHOTROPIC and USERSUPPLIED. The value DEFAULT assumes a MIXED formulation for element groups with material models OGDEN, MOONEYRIVLIN, and HYPERELASTIC. For all other material models the value assumed for DEFAULT is that of DISPLACEMENT formulation. When using the mixed formulation, 1 pressure degree of freedom is used for elements with 8 to 21 nodes, and 4 pressure degrees of freedom are used for the 27node element. In general, the 27node element is the most effective, and is thus recommended. To explicitly set the number of pressure degrees of freedom, input FORMULATION = N, where N is the desired number of pressure degrees of freedom within each element. [GLOBAL]
Note:
Note:
STRESSREFERENCE Indicates the reference system for calculated stresses. GLOBAL MATERIAL
The global Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, Z). The element material system, for orthotropic materials. [NONE]
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates initial strains applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group.
Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via the STRAINFIELD parameter are accounted for.
ELEMENT
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EGROUP THREEDSOLID
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
BOTH
Nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
FRACTURE [NO] Indicates whether the element group employs usersupplied data sets (see UFORMAT) to describe usersupplied fracture mechanics criteria for the element group. {YES/NO} CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} STRAINFIELD [0] Label number of a “strainfield” defined by STRAINFIELD command (Section7.9). A 0 value indicates no initial element strains, and any initial element strains selected by input of STRAINFIELD > 0 will only be considered if INITIALSTRAIN = ELEMENT or BOTH. LVUS1 The base length of the first working array for user supplied fracture mechanics. LVUS2 The base length of the second working array for user supplied fracture mechanics. [0]
[0]
SED [NO] Indicate whether or not to compute, and output, the strain energy density at all integration points of elements within the group. {YES/NO} RUPTURE [ADINA] Indicates whether the program rupture criteria or usersupplied rupture criteria to be applied to the material used in this element group. ADINA USER Use the program criteria. User must provide fortrancoded subroutine CURUP3 to decide the element rupture.
Note:
Material models available for this option are: PLASTICBILINEAR, PLASTICMULTILINEAR, MROZBILINEAR, PLASTICORTHOTROPIC, THERMOPLASTIC, CREEP, PLASTICCREEP, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP, USERSUPPLIED
INCOMPATIBLEMODES [DEFAULT] Specifies whether incompatible modes are included in the formulation of 8node 3D solid elements. NO
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EGROUP THREEDSOLID
YES DEFAULT
Incompatible modes are included. Choice of formulation is controled by the KINEMATICS command
TIMEOFFSET [0.0] With this parameter, a creep law can be modified as follows (example given for creep law number 1) :
e c = a 0 ⋅ σ a1 ⋅ ( t − t 0 )
a2
where t is the absolute time and t0=TIMEOFFSET represents a shift in the time scale. Note: When TIMEOFFSET is used, the same shift is applied to all time dependent terms. The TIMEOFFSET value can be negative or positive and can be modified for a restart run.
POROUS [NO] Indicates whether porous media properties are used for elements in this group. {NO/YES} WTMC [1.0] Plastic work to heat fator for thermomechanical coupling. Must be in the range <0.0,1.0> OPTION {NONE,POROUS,USERCODED, GASKETSIMPLE,GASKETGENERAL} NONE USERCODED GASKETSIMPLE GASKETGENERAL Auxiliary commands LIST GROUP THREEDSOLID DELETE EGROUP THREEDSOLID FIRST LAST FIRST LAST No special option. Usersupplied code is used for this element group. This element group is used with a simple gasket material. This element group is used with a general gasket material. [NONE]
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EGROUP BEAM
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP BEAM
NAME SUBTYPE DISPLACEMENTS MATERIAL RINT SINT TINT RESULTS INITIALSTRAIN CMASS RIGIDENDTYPE MOMENTCURVATURE RIGIDITY MULTIPLY BOLT RUPTURE OPTION BOLTTOL SECTION SPOINT
Defines an element group consisting of Hermitian beam elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type BEAM. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP BEAM. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of BEAM element. TWOD [THREED]
Twodimensional action beam elements, defined parallel to one of the XY, YZ, or XZ global coordinate planes. Threedimensional action beam elements.
THREED
DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by an element data command, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type BEAM can use materials of the following types: ELASTIC PLASTICBILINEAR
RINT [5] Numerical integration order along the centroidal axis of each element, the local element rdirection. {1 ≤ RINT ≤ 7}
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EGROUP BEAM
SINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the local sdirection of each element, which lies in the element plane defined by the element nodes including the auxiliary node. {1 ≤ SINT ≤ 7} DEFAULT = 7 for 3D action elements of rectangular crosssection, 3 otherwise.
TINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the local tdirection of each general 3D beam element, normal to the plane of the element. {1 ≤ TINT ≤ 8} DEFAULT = 1 7 5 8 Note: for 2D action elements of rectangular crosssection. for 3D action elements of rectangular crosssection. for 2D action elements of pipe crosssection. for 3D action elements of pipe crosssection.
The element matrices are integrated exactly when used in conjunction with a linear elastic material, and, therefore, parameters RINT, SINT, TINT are not considered.
RESULTS [STRESSES] The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. {STRESSES/FORCES/ SFORCES} FORCES Element nodal forces are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not. Element forces and moments are calculated at equidistant section points along the length of the element. The number of section points is set by the parameter SPOINT. This option is only available for static, linear analysis.
STRESSES
SFORCES
Note:
When an elastic material model is used, the choice STRESSES is not considered since no integration point data are available. In this case, the default ouput choice is FORCES.
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates initial strains applied to this element group.
[NONE]
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EGROUP BEAM
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
NONE NODAL
No initial strains for elements of this group. Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via the EDATA command are accounted for. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
ELEMENT
BOTH
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} RIGIDENDTYPE [NONE] Specifies whether rigid endzones exist for elements of the group. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. NONE ABSOLUTE INFINITE No rigid endzones are defined. Rigid endzones are defined in terms of dimensions in length units. Rigid endzones with infinite stiffness are defined in terms of dimensions in length units.
MOMENTCURV ATURE [NO] Specifies whether or not momentcurvature properties are to be utilized by elements in the group. {YES/NO} RIGIDITY [0] Label number of a rigidity momentcurvature property set to be used for elements of the group. See RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE. Used when MOMENTCURVATURE = YES. MULTIPLY [1.0E6] This parameter is only applicable if RIGIDENDTYPE=ABSOLUTE. It specifies a multiplier to the stiffness properties of the element in case of rigid ends. The multiplier is used to compute the stiffness of the rigid ends. {>=0.0} BOLT This parameter in now obsolete. It is replaced by the parameter OPTION. [NO]
RUPTURE [ADINA] Indicates whether the program rupture criteria or usersupplied rupture criteria to be applied
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EGROUP BEAM
to the material used in this element group. ADINA USER Use the program criteria. User must provide fortrancoded subroutine CURUP4 to decide the element rupture.
Note that the only material model available for this option is: RIGIDITYMOMENTCURVATURE PLASTICMULTILINEAR OPTION Option for the behaviour of beam elements in this group. {NONE/TIED/BOLT} Note: OPTION=TIED replaces BOLT=YES. The parameter BOLT is now obsolete. [0.01] [NONE]
BOLTTOL Bolt force tolerance. SECTION Specifies the default cross section label for elements in the group.
[1]
SPOINT Specifies the number of section points for output of section forces when RESULTS=SFORCES. The points are located equidistant along length of the element. { 2 ≤ SPOINT ≤ 7 } Note: SPOINT is only considered when the option SFORCES is used in the parameter RESULTS. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP BEAM DELETE EGROUP BEAM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[4]
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EGROUP ISOBEAM
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP ISOBEAM
NAME SUBTYPE DISPLACEMENTS MATERIAL RINT SINT TINT RESULTS INITIALSTRAIN CMASS RUPTURE TIMEOFFSET OPTION SECTION THICKNESS
Defines an element group consisting of isoparametric beam elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type ISOBEAM. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP ISOBEAM. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of ISOBEAM element. GENERAL PLSTRAIN PLSTRESS AXISYMMETRIC General threedimensional beam elements. Plane strain elements in the global YZ plane. Plane stress elements in the global YZ plane. Axisymmetric elements in the global YZ plane. Z is the axis of rotational symmetry and Y is the radial direction (Y ≥ 0). [GENERAL]
DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material as specified by an element data command, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type ISOBEAM can use materials of the following types:
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EGROUP ISOBEAM
ELASTIC THERMOISOTROPIC PLASTICBILINEAR PLASTICMULTILINEAR THERMOPLASTIC CREEP PLASTICCREEP MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP CREEPVARIABLE PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE RINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order along the centroidal axis of each element (the local element rdirection). Negative values imply the closed NewtonCotes integration method, and zero or positive values the Gauss integration method. Possible values/orders include: RINT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 DEFAULT Method NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes Gauss Gauss Gauss Gauss Gauss No. of integration points 3 3 3 5 5 7 7 DEFAULT (see below) 1 2 3 4
The Gauss integration order such that the element matrix obtained is equivalent to the mixed formulation for this element. With this integration order, the elements do not contain any spurious zero energy modes, do not lock and are efficient in general nonlinear analysis.
SINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the local sdirection of each element, which lies in the element plane defined by the element nodes (including the auxiliary node). The same input convention for RINT is assumed. (Note, however, that ADINA will currently employ the 4point Gauss or the 7point NewtonCotes method for general 3D isobeam elements, overriding your input value). For plane stress/strain beams or axisymmetric shell elements, we have: 2 7 ≤ SINT ≤ 4 ≤ SINT ≤ 3 Gauss method. NewtonCotes method.
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EGROUP ISOBEAM
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
DEFAULT =
4 2
for general 3D elements. for plane stress/strain, axisymmetric elements.
TINT [4] Numerical integration order for the local tdirection of each general 3D beam element, normal to the plane of the element. The same input convention for RINT, SINT is used, but note that ADINA employs either the 4point Gauss or the 7point NewtonCotes method, overriding the input value. RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES [STRESSES]
Element nodal forces are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not. [NONE]
STRESSES
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates initial strains applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group.
Only the nodal strains are accounted for; these can be input with the INITIALCONDITION or ELEMENTDATA commands. Only the element strains are accounted for; these can be input with the INITIALCONDITION or ELEMENTDATA commands. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
ELEMENT
BOTH
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} RUPTURE [ADINA] Indicates whether the program rupture criteria or usersupplied rupture criteria to be applied to the material used in this element group. ADINA Use the program criteria.
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EGROUP ISOBEAM
USER
User must provide fortrancoded subroutine CURUP5 to decide the element rupture.
Note that material models available for this option are: PLASTICBILINEAR, PLASTICMULTILINEAR, THERMOPLASTIC, CREEP, PLASTICCREEP, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP TIMEOFFSET [0.0] With this parameter, a creep law can be modified as follows (example given for creep law number 1) :
e c = a 0 ⋅ σ a1 ⋅ ( t − t 0 )
a2
where t is the absolute time and t0=TIMEOFFSET represents a shift in the time scale. Note: When TIMEOFFSET is used, the same shift is applied to all time dependent terms. The TIMEOFFSET value can be negative or positive and can be modified for a restart run. [NONE]
OPTION Indicates whether usersupplied code is used for this element group. {NONE / USERCODED}
If OPTION = USERCODED, then {SUBTYPE, INITIALSTRAIN, CMASS, RUPTURE} are not applicable SECTION [1] Specifies the default crosssection label for elements (excluding axisymmetric shell) in the group. THICKNESS Specifies the default thickness of axisymmetric shell elements in the group. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP ISOBEAM DELETE EGROUP ISOBEAM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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EGROUP PLATE
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP PLATE
NAME DISPLACEMENTS MATERIAL INT RESULTS INITIALSTRAIN CMASS THICKNESS
Defines an element group consisting of plate elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type PLATE. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP PLATE. DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type PLATE can use materials of the following types: ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC ILYUSHIN
INT [2] Integration scheme indicator. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for the triangular element integration schemes. {1 ≤ INT ≤ 4} 1 2 3 4 Note: 1point (centroid). 3point (interior). 3point (midside). 7point (interior). For linear analysis (small displacement, elastic material) ADINA uses the integration scheme given by INT = 2; the input value for parameter INT is thus ignored.
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Chap. 8 Finite element representation
EGROUP PLATE
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
[STRESSRESULTANTS]
Element nodal forces and moments are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces/moments are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stress resultants are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not. [NONE]
STRESSRESULTANTS
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates initial strains applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group.
Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via element data commands are accounted for. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
ELEMENT
BOTH
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} THICKNESS Defines the default element thickness. Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUPPLATE DELETE EGROUPPLATE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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EGROUP SHELL
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP SHELL
NAME DISPLACEMENTS MATERIAL RINT SINT TINT RESULTS STRESSREFERENCE PRINTVECTORS NLAYERS INITIALSTRAIN FAILURE SECTIONRESULT CMASS STRAINS RUPTURE TIMEOFFSET OPTION THICKNESS INCOMPATIBLEMODES
Defines an element group consisting of shell elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type SHELL. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP SHELL. DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for the element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type SHELL can use materials of the following types. Only elements marked with an asterisk (*) can be used with large strains, but are restricted to 3, 4, 9, or 16node single layer shell elements, in which the shell geometry is described in terms of midsurface nodes. ELASTIC *PLASTICMULTILINEAR ORTHOTROPIC CREEP THERMOISOTROPIC THERMOPLASTIC *PLASTICBILINEAR PLASTICCREEP *PLASTICORTHOTROPIC MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP CREEPVARIABLE PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE RINT Integration order for the local rdirection of the elements. {1 ≤ RINT ≤ 6} [DEFAULT]
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EGROUP SHELL
DEFAULT
Full Gauss integration order, the reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. [DEFAULT]
SINT Integration order for the local sdirection of the elements. {1 ≤ SINT ≤ 6} DEFAULT same as RINT.
Note: For a triangular shell element, the integration scheme uses the following number of sampling points. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. NRS = RINT × SINTNo. of integration points 1 1 < NRS ≤ 4 4 < NRS ≤ 9 9 < NRS ≤ 36 1 4 7 13 [2]
TINT Integration order for the local tdirection (through thickness) of the elements. 1 7 Note: ≤ TINT ≤ ≤ TINT ≤ 6 3 Gauss integration method. Closed NewtonCotes integration method.
For multilayer shell elements this integration order is applied to each layer. [STRESSES]
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
Element nodal forces and moments are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces/moments are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not.
STRESSES
STRESSREFERENCE [GLOBAL] Indicates the reference system for calculated stresses. {GLOBAL/LOCAL/MATERIAL/ MIDSURFACE } GLOBAL
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The global Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, Z).
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EGROUP SHELL
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
LOCAL MATERIAL MIDSURFACE
The local element system (r, s, t). The element material system, for orthotropic materials. The midsurface coordinate system ( r ˆ, s ˆ, tˆ ).See Theory and Modeling Guide.
PRINTVECTORS [0] Indicator for printing, by ADINA, of the direction cosines of the element midsurface vectors (at the nodal points). 0 1 2 No printing. Initial direction cosines printed. Initial and updated direction cosines printed. [1]
NLAYERS The number of layers for elements of the group. See LAYER. INITIALSTRAIN Indicates initial strains applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group. Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via element data commands are accounted for. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration.
[NONE]
ELEMENT
BOTH
FAILURE [0] Label number of the default failure criterion assigned to elements of this group. Elements within the group may use a different failure criterion, but each failure criterion specified must be of the same type as that of the failure criterion given by this parameter, see FAILURE. A 0 value indicates no failure criterion to be used. Note that material models available for this option are: ISOTROPIC ORTHOTROPIC THERMOISOTROPIC THERMOORTHOTROPIC
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EGROUP SHELL
SECTIONRESULT [0] Indicates which of the following are calculated at integration point midsurface locations: element force and moment resultants (per unit length), membrane strains and curvatures and positions of the neutral axes. Printing and saving of this data for each element may be specified by the element data commands. 2 Calculation of force/moment resultants, strains/curvatures, neutral axes. Calculation of force/moment resultants, strains/curvatures. No calculation. Calculation of force/moment resultants. Calculation of force/moment resultants, neutral axes. Parameter SECTIONRESULT takes effect only if parameter RESULTS = STRESSES, and if the calculated data refers to the local element (r, s, t) system.
1 0 1 2 Note:
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} STRAINS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large strains are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE Small strains only. Effects of large strains are included. For details of restrictions, please refer to the note under the parameter MATERIAL. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
DEFAULT
Note: DISPLACEMENTS = LARGE is automatically set if STRAINS = LARGE is input. RUPTURE [ADINA] Indicates whether the program rupture criteria or usersupplied rupture criteria to be applied to the material used in this element group. ADINA Use the program criteria.
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EGROUP SHELL
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
USER
User must provide fortrancoded subroutine CURUP7 to decide the element rupture.
Note that material models available for this option are: PLASTICBILINEAR, PLASTICMULTILINEAR, PLASTICORTHOTROPIC, THERMOPLASTIC, CREEP, PLASTICCREEP, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP TIMEOFFSET [0.0] With this parameter, a creep law can be modified as follows (example given for creep law number 1) :
e c = a 0 ⋅ σ a1 ⋅ ( t − t 0 )
a2
where t is the absolute time and t0=TIMEOFFSET represents a shift in the time scale. Note: When TIMEOFFSET is used, the same shift is applied to all time dependent terms. The TIMEOFFSET value can be negative or positive and can be modified for a restart run. [NONE]
OPTION Indicates whether usersupplied code is used for this element group. {NONE / USERCODED}
if OPTION = USERCODED, then {STRESSREFERENCE, PRINTVECTORS, NLAYERS, INITIALSTRAIN, FAILURE, SECTIONRESULT, CMASS, STRAINS, RUPTURE} are not applicable THICKNESS Specifies the default thickness of elements in the group. [1.0]
INCOMPATIBLEMODES [DEFAULT] Specifies whether incompatible modes are included in the formulation of 4node shell elements. {NO/YES/DEFAULT} NO YES DEFAULT Incompatible modes are not included Incompatible modes are included Choice of formulation is set by the KINEMATICS command
Incompatible modes are only applicable to quadrilateral MITC4 elements. They are not applicable to triangular collapsed MITC4 elements.
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EGROUP SHELL
Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP SHELL DELETE EGROUP SHELL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGROUP SHELL
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
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EGROUP PIPE
EGROUP PIPE
NAME DISPLACEMENTS MATERIAL RINT SINT TINT RESULTS OVALIZATION INITIALSTRAIN ICALRA RADTOL CMASS RUPTURE TIMEOFFSET OPTION BOLTTOL SECTION
Defines an element group consisting of pipe elements. See the Theory and Modeling Guide for a complete description of pipe elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can only be given if it is of type PIPE. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP PIPE. DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data command, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type PIPE can use materials of the following types: ELASTIC, THERMOISOTROPIC, PLASTIC, PLASTICMULTILINEAR, THERMOPLASTIC, CREEP, PLASTICCREEP, CREEPVARIABLE, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP, PLASTICCREEPVARIABLE, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEPVARIABLE
RINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order along the centroidal axis of each element (the local element rdirection). Negative values imply the closed NewtonCotes integration method, and zero or positive values the Gauss integration method. DEFAULT Full Gauss integration order – the reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the maximum number of nodes per element.
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EGROUP PIPE
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
RINT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4
Method NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes NewtonCotes Gauss Gauss Gauss Gauss Gauss
No. of integration points 3 3 3 5 5 7 7 DEFAULT (see above) 1 2 3 4
SINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the local sdirection of each element, which is the radial direction of the pipe). The same input convention for RINT is assumed. TINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order for the local tdirection or circumferential direction used in the composite trapezoidal rule. Only 4, 8, 12 or 24 integration points can be employed and the following default values are used by ADINA when other values of TINT are specified. 4 < TINT ≤ 8 < TINT ≤ 12 < TINT ≤ 7 11 24 8 12 24
If elements are allowed to ovalize then TINT ≥ 12 must be used for TINT = 24 must be used for DEFAULT = 8 = 12 = 24 when when when MASTER OVALIZATION = INPLANE. MASTER OVALIZATION = OUTOFPLANE or ALL. MASTER OVALIZATION = NO. MASTER OVALIZATION = INPLANE. MASTER OVALIZATION = OUTOFPLANE or ALL. [STRESSES]
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
Element nodal forces are calculated, stresses are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew).
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EGROUP PIPE
STRESSES
Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but no forces.
OVALIZATION [DEFAULT] Flag that indicates whether or not the pipe nodes in this element group have ovalization/ warping degrees of freedom. NO Pipe element nodes do not have ovalization/warping degrees of freedom. Pipe element nodes have ovalization/warping degrees of freedom. NO if MASTER OVALIZATION YES if MASTER OVALIZATION = NO = INPLANE, OUTOFPLANE or ALL. [NONE]
YES DEFAULT
INITIALSTRAIN Indicates initial strains applied to this element group. NONE NODAL No initial strains for elements of this group.
Only the nodal strains input via INITIALCONDITION are accounted for. Only the element strains input via element data commands are accounted for. Both nodal and element strains are taken into consideration. [0]
ELEMENT
BOTH
ICALRA Flag for the calculation of internal radii and internal areas at pipe nodes. 0 1 Internal radii and internal areas are not calculated.
Internal radii and internal areas are calculated and stored on the porthole file. Internal radii and internal areas are calculated, stored on the porthole file and printed out.
2
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EGROUP PIPE
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
RADTOL [0.001] For 4node, circular bend pipe elements, the nodes should lie on a circular arc with the auxiliary node at the center of that arc. RADTOL provides a relative tolerance for checking this. CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass.{YES/NO} RUPTURE [ADINA] Indicates whether the program rupture criteria or usersupplied rupture criteria to be applied to the material used in this element group. ADINA USER Use the program criteria. User must provide fortrancoded subroutine CURUP8 to decide the element rupture.
Note:
Material models available for this option are: PLASTICBILINEAR, PLASTICMULTILINEAR, THERMOPLASTIC, CREEP, PLASTICCREEP, MULTILINEARPLASTICCREEP
TIMEOFFSET [0.0] With this parameter, a creep law can be modified as follows (example given for creep law number 1) :
e c = a 0 ⋅ σ a1 ⋅ ( t − t 0 )
a2
where t is the absolute time and t0=TIMEOFFSET represents a shift in the time scale. Note: When TIMEOFFSET is used, the same shift is applied to all time dependent terms. The TIMEOFFSET value can be negative or positive and can be modified for a restart run. [NONE]
OPTION Option for the behaviour of pipe elements in this group. { NONE / BOLT } BOLTTOL Bolt force tolerance. SECTION Specifies the default crosssection label for elements in the group.
[0.01]
[1]
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EGROUP PIPE
Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP PIPE DELETE EGROUP PIPE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGROUP SPRING
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP SPRING
NAME PROPERTYSET RESULTS NONLINEAR SKEWSYSTEM BOLT OPTION
Defines an element group consisting of spring elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can be given only if it is of type SPRING. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP SPRING. PROPERTYSET [1] The label number of the default property set (giving the stiffness, mass, damping properties) for the element group, defined via command PROPERTYSET. Elements within the group may use a different property set, as specified, e.g., by SPRINGPOINTS. RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES [FORCES]
Element nodal forces are calculated. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stresses are calculated using the specified stress transformation (see command PROPERTYSET). [NO]
STRESSES
NONLINEAR Specifies whether springs in this group has nonlinear effects. {NO/MNO/GEOM} NO MNO Spring is linear
Spring properties may be nonlinear but geometric nonlinearities are not taken into account Spring properties may be nonlinear and geometric nonlinearities are taken into account [NO]
GEOM
SKEWSYSTEM Skewsystem usage, only applicable to linear elements. NO
All property sets are assumed to be with respect to the global Cartesian system. ADINA performs all necessary transformations for any skewsystems at spring element nodes.
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EGROUP SPRING
YES
Property sets are assumed to be with respect to the coordinate systems at the element nodes. Thus, in this case, ADINA does not perform any transformation between global and skew system. [NO]
BOLT This parameter is now obsolete. It is replaced by the parameter OPTION.
OPTION [NONE] Specifies special options for springs in this group. {NONE/TIED/TRANSVERSE} NONE TIED TRANSVERSE No special options Springs used to tie closely spaced shell surfaces Spring may act in the transverse direction (instead of axial). Only applicable when NONLINEAR=MNO
Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP SPRING DELETE EGROUP SPRING FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGROUP GENERAL
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP GENERAL
NAME MATRIXSET RESULTS SKEWSYSTEMS USERSUPPLIED
Defines an element group consisting of linear general elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can only be given if it is of type GENERAL. Hence to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP GENERAL. MATRIXSET [1] The label number of the default matrix set giving element stiffness, mass, damping and stress matrices for an element group, defined via command MATRIXSET. Elements within the group may use a different matrix set, as specified by element data commands. RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES [STRESSES]
Element nodal forces are calculated, but stresses are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element stresses. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element stresses and strains are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not calculated. [NO] All matrix sets are assumed to be with respect to the global Cartesian system. ADINA performs all necessary transformations for any skewsystems at general element nodes. Matrix sets are assumed to be with respect to the coordinate systems at the element nodes. Thus, in this case, ADINA does not perform any transformation between global and skewsystems.
STRESSES
SKEWSYSTEM NO
YES
USERSUPPLIED [NO] If USERSUUPLIED=YES, then use the MATRIX USERSUPPLIED command to input required constants/variables to be used in ADINA subroutine CUSERG to calculate element stiffnesses and nodal forces. The masses and dampings are still provided from the input of commands MATRIX MASS and MATRIX DAMP. Only one set of MATRIXSET is allowed in the usersupplied element group.
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EGROUP GENERAL
NO
Element stiffness is directly input through the commands MATRIX STIFFNESS and MATRIXSET. Element stiffness is to be provided by the user from ADINA subroutine CUSERG, and the element nodal forces is to be calculated too. The command MATRIX USERSUPPLIED must be input and the MATRIXSET command is used to combine the stiffness, mass and damping effects.
YES
Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP GENERAL DELETEEGROUPGENERAL FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGROUP FLUID2
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGROUP FLUID2
NAME SUBTYPE DISPLACEMENTS IPO MATERIAL INT RESULTS DEGEN FORMULATION CMASS
Defines an element group consisting of 2D planar or axisymmetric fluid elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can only be given if it is of type FLUID2. Hence to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP FLUID2. SUBTYPE Indicates the type of FLUID2 element. AXISYMMETRIC [AXISYMMETRIC]
Axisymmetric elements (which cannot be used in a cyclic symmetric analysis). 2D Planar elements.
PLANE
DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. Only applicable for FORMULATION = 0 or 1. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
IPO [0] Each fluid region may required one point at which a hydrostatic pressure degree of freedom is specified. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. If required, IPO specifies the appropriate geometry point. IPO = 0 indicates no such requirement. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type FLUID2 can only use a material of the type: FLUID.
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Chap. 8 Finite element representation
EGROUP FLUID2
INT Numerical integration order. {1 ≤ INT ≤ 4} DEFAULT
[DEFAULT]
Full Gauss integration order, the reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e., the number of nodes per element side. [PRESSURES]
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
Element nodal forces are calculated, but pressures are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element pressures. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element pressures are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not.
PRESSURES
Note:
RESULTS=FORCES can not be applied to the potential based fluids.
DEGEN [NO] Indicator for spatial isotropy correction for degenerate (triangular) 8node elements. When true tetrahedral elements are defined in this element group, DEGEN = UNUSED should be specified. {NO/YES/UNUSED} FORMULATION Indicates which fluid element to use: 0 1 2 3 4 Displacementbased element without rotation penalty. Displacementbased element with rotation penalty. Potentialbased element, acoustic formulation. Potentialbased infinite element Potentialbased element, subsonic formulation [DEFAULT]
Notes on the formulations: The potentialbased formulations can only be used in conjunction with small displacements (DISPLACEMENTS=SMALL). Formulation 3 is obsolete and is maintained only for backwards compatibility with ADINA 7.5 and lower.
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EGROUP FLUID2
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
Formulation 4 is allowed only when MASTER FLUIDPOTENTIAL=AUTOMATIC. DEFAULT = 2 = 1 (cyclic symmetric analysis)
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requires the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group: total mass, total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP FLUID2 DELETE EGROUP FLUID2 FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGROUP FLUID3
EGROUP FLUID3
NAME DISPLACEMENTS IPO MATERIAL RSINT TINT RESULTS DEGEN FORMULATION CMASS
Defines an element group consisting of threedimensional fluid elements. NAME [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of the element group to be defined. The label number of an existing element group can only be given if it is of type FLUID3. Hence, to redefine the type of a named element group, you must first delete that group using DELETE EGROUP FLUID3. DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Indicates whether large displacements are assumed for the kinematic formulation for the element group. Only applicable for FORMULATION = 0 or 1. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacements only. Effects of large displacements are included. Formulation for element group defaults to that specified by KINEMATICS.
IPO [0] Each fluid region may required one point at which a hydrostatic pressure degree of freedom is specified. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. If required, IPO specifies the appropriate geometry point. IPO = 0 indicates no such requirement. MATERIAL [1] The label number of the default material for an element group. Elements within the group may use a different material, as specified by element data commands, but each material specified must be of the same model type as that of the material given by this parameter. Note: Elements of type FLUID3 can only use a material of type: FLUID. [DEFAULT]
RSINT Numerical integration order for the element r, sdirections. {1 ≤ INT ≤ 6} DEFAULT
Full Gauss integration order, the reliable integration order, dependent on the polynomial order of the elements, i.e. the number of nodes per element side.
TINT [DEFAULT] Numerical integration order in the element tdirection. Same input convention as RSINT.
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EGROUP FLUID3
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
RESULTS The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis. FORCES
[PRESSURES]
Element nodal forces are calculated, but pressures are not. These forces are equivalent, in the virtual work sense, to the internal element pressures. The reference system is that of the degreeoffreedom system associated with the node (global or skew). Element pressures are calculated at all integration points, but forces are not.The calculated element response from the ADINA analysis.
PRESSURES
Note:
RESULTS=FORCES can not be applied to the potential based fluids.
DEGEN [NO] Indicator for spatial isotropy correction for degenerate (triangular) 8node elements. When true tetrahedral elements are defined in this element group, DEGEN = UNUSED should be specified. {NO/YES/UNUSED} FORMULATION Indicates which fluid element to use: 0 1 2 3 4 Displacementbased element without rotation penalty. Displacementbased element with rotation penalty. Potentialbased element, acoustic formulation. Potentialbased infinite element Potentialbased element, subsonic formulation [DEFAULT]
Notes on the formulations: The potentialbased formulations can only be used in conjunction with small displacements (DISPLACEMENTS=SMALL). Formulation 3 is obsolete and is maintained only for backwards compatibility with ADINA 7.5 and lower. Formulation 4 is allowed only when MASTER FLUIDPOTENTIAL=AUTOMATIC. DEFAULT = 2 = 1 (cyclic symmetric analysis)
CMASS [MASTER CMASS] Requests the calculation of the following mass properties for the element group; total mass,
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EGROUP FLUID3
total volume, moments and products of inertia, centroid, and center of mass. {YES/NO} Auxiliary commands LIST EGROUP FLUID3 DELETE EGROUP FLUID3 FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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EGCONTROL
Sec. 8.1 Element groups
EGCONTROL
MAXELG
EGCONTROL specifies general control data for element groups. MAXELG [999999] Maximum number of elements in a single element subgroup. If the number of elements in a group is greater than MAXELG it will be split into subgroups such that each subgroup has MAXELG or fewer elements. This parameter has no effect if PPROCESS NPROC is greater than 1, for which element group splitting is handled independently of MAXELG. Auxiliary commands LIST EGCONTROL
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TRANSITIONELEMENT
TRANSITIONELEMENT
BODY1 FACE1 EDGE GROUP1 BODY2 FACE2 GROUP2 SUBSTRUCTURE
Converts a set of shell elements along an edge of a face/surface into shell transition elements. BODY1 Label number of the body of FACE1 that has a shell mesh. FACE1 Label number of the face on BODY1. If BODY1 is 0, FACE1 is a surface label number. [0]
[1]
EDGE Label number of the edge where the shell transition elements are to be created. If BODY1 is 0, EDGE is a line label number. GROUP1 [Highest shell element group number of mesh on FACE1] Element group number of the shell mesh on FACE1. BODY2 Label number of the body that has a 3D solid mesh. [0]
FACE2 [1] Label number of face on BODY2 where the shell transition elements are to be created. If BODY2 is 0, FACE2 is a surface label number. GROUP2 [Highest 3D solid element group number of mesh on BODY2] Element group number of the 3D solid mesh on BODY2. SUBSTRUCTURE [Currently active substructure] Substructure number for the nodes created by this command.
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BLAYER
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
BLAYER
SUBSTRUC GROUP
bodyi facei edgei ptypei thick0i nlayeri thickti Command BLAYER generates boundary layers on specified body faces for the specified (substructure, group). In 3D, boundary layers are grown normal to body faces. In 2D, boundary layers are grown normal to body edges along body faces. Notes for 3D models: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BLAYER is active only if: number of bodies > 0 and number of volumes = 0 and all bodies have been meshed. BLAYER executes only if number of nodes per element is 4. In case of multiple bodies, "interface" body faces must be linked. Linked body faces cannot have boundary layers on both sides. Once boundary layers have been generated and in case of multiple bodies, do not delete body meshes unless you intend to delete all of them. There can be only one element group. As a rule of thumb, the total thickness should be less than the element size on the body face.
Notes for 2D models: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BLAYER is active only if number of body faces > 0 and number of surfaces = 0 and all body faces have been meshed. BLAYER executes only if number of nodes per element is 3. In case of multiple bodies, "interface" body edges must have same nodes. Interface body edges cannot have boundary layers on both sides. Once boundary layers have been generated and in case of multiple bodies, do not delete body meshes unless you intend to delete all of them. There can be only one element group. As a rule of thumb, the total thickness should be less than the element size on the body edge. [current substructure label number]
SUBSTRUC Element substructure. GROUP Element group. bodyi Label number of the body.
[current group label number]
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BLAYER
facei Label number of the face. edgei Label number of the edge. In 3D, this is a dummy argument. ptypei Progression type for boundary layers. {GEOMETRIC/ARITHMETIC} thick0i Thickness of first layer (off face). nlayeri Number of layers. thickti Total thickness.
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SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT
MODE PROGRESSION SIZE NDIV PSIZE MINCUR
Defines default mesh subdivision data for subsequent model geometry definitions. Model geometry created or imported will initially have the subdivision data given by this command. Note that this command does not update any current geometry subdivision data, it only specifies defaults for subsequent geometry definitions. SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT has a similar syntax, but quite distinct action, to SUBDIVIDE MODEL, which assigns a given subdivision data to all currently defined geometry. MODE Selects the method of model subdivision data specification. NONE [NONE]
no default mode. Subdivision mode will depend on the SUBDIVIDE commands for each individual geometry type An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. A geometry line or edge is assigned a number of equal subdivisions. A geometry line or edge is subdivided according to the desired element size at its endpoints.
LENGTH
DIVISIONS
POINTWISE
PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] Sets the method of element edge length distribution along a line or edge of the geometry model. ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant. The distribution of edge lengths is made such that a given ratio of endlengths is only approximately satisfied.
GEOMETRIC
APPROXIMATE
Note:
PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINAIN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used.
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means
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SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT
that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to a geometry line/edge. PSIZE Element size at geometry points. MINCUR Minimum number of subdivisions for curved lines and edges used when MODE=POINTWISE. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE DEFAULT Lists the current default subdivision data. [1]
[0.0]
[1]
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SUBDIVIDE MODEL
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE MODEL
MODE SIZE NDIV PROGRESSION MINCUR
Assigns mesh subdivision data to the entire current model geometry. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of subdivisions along each line. MODE Selects the method of model subdivision data specification. LENGTH [POINTWISE]
An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each model geometry line or edge is assigned the same number of equal subdivisions. Each model geometry line or edge is subdivided according to the element size at its endpoints.
DIVISIONS
POINTWISE
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to each geometry line or edge. [1]
PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] Sets the method of element edge length distribution along each line or edge of the geometry model . ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. GEOMETRIC The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant. The distribution of edge lengths is made such that a given ratio of endlengths is only approximately satisfied.
APPROXIMATE
Note:
PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINAIN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used.
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SUBDIVIDE MODEL
MINCUR Minimum number of subdivisions for curved lines and edges used when MODE=POINTWISE. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE MODEL
[1]
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SUBDIVIDE POINT
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE POINT pointi
NAME SIZE
Assigns mesh subdivision data (element sizes) to a set of geometry points. NAME Label number of a geometry point. Other points may be specified in subsequent accompanying data lines. SIZE Requested element size. The size of an element is defined to be the maximum length of an edge of that element. {≥ 0.0} Note: The element size at a geometry point may be used to determine the subdivision data of geometry entities: lines and edges, and thereby that of surfaces, volumes, faces and bodies.
pointi Label number of a geometry point. Note: A zero element size at a point indicates that any line or edge for which the point is a vertex (endpoint) will have only a single element edge if the mode of that line/ edge is POINTWISE.
Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE POINT FIRST LAST
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SUBDIVIDE LINE
SUBDIVIDE LINE
NAME MODE SIZE NDIV RATIO PROGRESSION CBIAS
linei Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of geometry lines. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of subdivisions along the line. P1 MODE = DIVISIONS Line length = L u P2
NDIV = 5 RATIO = 2 PROGRESSION = GEOMETRIC
MODE = LENGTH
SIZE = L/10
MODE = POINTWISE
SIZE @ P1 = 0.4L, @ P2 = 0.1L PROGRESSION = ARITHMETIC
NAME Label number of a geometry line. Other geometry lines to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying datalines. MODE [DIVISIONS] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS The geometry lines are assigned a number of subdivisions which can be graded in size according to the selected progression rule (NDIV, RATIO, PROGRESSION). An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge (SIZE). The number of subdivisions, and any necessary grading, for the geometry line is calculated from the element size specified at the end points of the geometry line. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINTSIZE (SIZE, PROGRESSION).
LENGTH
POINTWISE
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SUBDIVIDE LINE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
COMBINED
For lines of type COMBINED (COUPLED=YES), the subdivision data assigned to the parent lines (which are combined to define the line) are transferred to the combined line, overwriting any existing subdivision for the combined line. This mode guarantees that the ‘junctions’ where parent lines meet is assigned a subdivision location, i.e. a node will be generated at these positions during mesh generation.
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to the geometry lines. [1]
RATIO [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the geometry line. The grading of element lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. “Last” refers to the end of the line corresponding to parametric coordinate u = 1.0, whilst “first” refers to the end of the line corresponding to parametric coordinate u = 0.0. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded along a geometry line, i.e., when RATIO ≠ 1.0, the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant. The distribution of edge lengths is made such that RATIO is only approximately satisfied.
GEOMETRIC APPROXIMATE
Note:
PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINAIN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. [NO]
CBIAS Indicates if central bias is used. {NO/YES} linei Label number of a geometry line.
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SUBDIVIDE LINE
Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE LINE FIRST LAST
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SUBDIVIDE SURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE SURFACE
NAME MODE SIZE NDIV1 NDIV2 RATIO1 RATIO2 PROGRESSION CBIAS1 CBIAS2
surfacei Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of geometry surfaces. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry surface. The subdivision data is actually assigned to the geometry lines which comprise the edges of the geometry surfaces.
P2 P1
v P3 u NDIV1, RATIO1 P4
NDIV2, RATIO2
NAME Label number of a geometry surface. Other geometry surfaces to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying datalines. MODE [DIVISIONS] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry surfaces is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE (SIZE). Each parametric direction of the geometry surfaces is assigned a number of subdivisions which can be graded in size according to the selected progression rule (NDIV1, NDIV2, RATIO1, RATIO2, PROGRESSION).
DIVISIONS
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SUBDIVIDE SURFACE
POINTWISE
Each edge of the geometry surfaces is assigned a number of subdivisions which is calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINTSIZE (SIZE, PROGRES SION).
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV1 [1] Number of subdivisions assigned to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry surfaces. NDIV2 [1] Number of subdivisions assigned to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry surfaces RATIO1 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry surfaces. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. RATIO2 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry surfaces. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded, the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant. The distribution of edge lengths is made such that RATIO is only approximately satisfied.
GEOMETRIC APPROXIMATE Note:
PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINAIN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. [NO]
CBIAS1
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SUBDIVIDE SURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
Indicates if central bias is used along the parametric u direction. {NO/YES} CBIAS2 Indicates if central bias is used along the parametric v direction. {NO/YES} surfacei Label number of a geometry surface. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE SURFACE FIRST LAST [NO]
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SUBDIVIDE VOLUME
SUBDIVIDE VOLUME
NAME MODE SIZE NDIV1 NDIV2 NDIV3 RATIO1 RATIO2 RATIO3 PROGRESSION CBIAS1 CBIAS2 CBIAS3
volumei Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of geometry volumes. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry volume. The subdivision data is actually assigned to the geometry lines which comprise the edges of the geometry volumes.
P2 NDIV2, RATIO2 v P3 u P6 w
NDIV1, RATIO1 P1
P4
NDIV3, RATIO3
P5
P7
P8
NAME Label number of a geometry volume. Other volumes to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying datalines. MODE [DIVISIONS] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. LENGTH An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry volumes is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE (SIZE).
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SUBDIVIDE VOLUME
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
DIVISIONS
Each parametric direction of the geometry volumes is assigned a number of subdivisions, which can be graded in size according to the selected progression rule (NDIV1, NDIV2, NDIV3, RATIO1, RATIO2, RATIO3, PROGRESSION). Each edge of the geometry volumes is assigned a number of subdivisions, which is calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINTSIZE (SIZE, PROGRESSION).
POINTWISE
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV1 [1] Number of subdivisions assigned to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry volumes. NDIV2 [1] Number of subdivisions assigned to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry volumes. NDIV3 Number of subdivisions assigned to the third parametric direction, w, of the geometry volumes. [1]
RATIO1 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the first parametric direction, u, of the geometry volumes. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. RATIO2 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the second parametric direction, v, of the geometry volumes. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION. RATIO3 [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the edges corresponding to the third parametric direction, w, of the geometry volumes. The grading of element edge lengths is governed by PROGRESSION.
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SUBDIVIDE VOLUME
PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from: ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant. The distribution of edge lengths is made such that the ratio of first to last edge lengths (RATIO1, RATIO2, or RATIO3) is only approximately satisfied.
GEOMETRIC
APPROXIMATE
Note:
PROGRESSION = APPROXIMATE is only provided for compatibility with earlier versions of ADINAIN. It is recommended that ARITHMETIC or GEOMETRIC normally be used. [NO]
CBIAS1 Indicates if central bias is used along the parametric u direction. {NO/YES} CBIAS2 Indicates if central bias is used along the parametric v direction. {NO/YES} CBIAS3 Indicates if central bias is used along the parametric w direction. {NO/YES} volumei Label number of a geometry volume. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE VOLUME FIRST LAST
[NO]
[NO]
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SUBDIVIDE EDGE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE EDGE
NAME BODY MODE SIZE NDIV RATIO PROGRESSION
edgei Assigns mesh subdivision data to edges of a solid geometry body. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of subdivisions along the edge. NAME Label number of a geometry edge of BODY. Other edges (of BODY) to have the same subdivision data may be given in accompanying datalines. BODY Label number of the solid geometry body. [currently active body]
MODE [LENGTH] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS The geometry edge is assigned a number of subdivisions, which can be graded in size according to the selected progression rule (NDIV, RATIO, PROGRESSION). An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge (SIZE). The number of subdivisions, and any necessary grading, for the geometry edges is calculated from the element size specified at the end points of the geometry edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINTSIZE (SIZE, PROGRESSION).
LENGTH
POINTWISE
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to a geometry edges. [1]
RATIO [1.0] Ratio of lengths of the last to the first element edges along the geometry edges. The grading of element lengths is governed by PROGRESSION.
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SUBDIVIDE EDGE
PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded along the geometry edges (i.e., when RATIO ≠ 1.0), then the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from the following. ARITHMETIC The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.
GEOMETRIC
edgei Label number of a geometry edge (of BODY). Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE EDGE FIRST LAST
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SUBDIVIDE FACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE FACE facei
NAME BODY MODE SIZE NDIV PROGRESSION
Assigns mesh subdivision data to faces of a solid geometry body. The data can be in the form of a specified element size, or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry faces. NAME Label number of the geometry face (of BODY). Other faces (of BODY) to have the same subdivision data may be given on accompanying data lines. BODY Label number of the solid geometry body. [currently active body]
MODE [LENGTH] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS The edges of the geometry faces are assigned a number of subdivisions (NDIV). An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element face. Each edge of the geometry face is subdivided separately so as to give element edges approximately the length of SIZE (SIZE). The number of subdivisions, and any necessary grading, for the edges of geometry faces calculated from the element size specified at the end points of the geometry edges. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINTSIZE (SIZE, PROGRESSION).
LENGTH
POINTWISE
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to the edges of the geometry faces. [1]
PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded, the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from the following:
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SUBDIVIDE FACE
ARITHMETIC
The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.
GEOMETRIC
facei Label number of a geometry face (of BODY). Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE FACE FIRST LAST
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SUBDIVIDE BODY
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SUBDIVIDE BODY bodyi
NAME MODE SIZE NDIV PROGRESSION
Assigns mesh subdivision data to a set of solid geometry bodies. The data can be in the form of a specified element size or the number of divisions along the edges of the geometry bodies. The subdivision data is assigned to the edges of the geometry bodies. NAME Label number of a solid geometry body. Other geometry bodies to have the same subdivision data may be given in accompanying data lines. MODE [LENGTH] Selects the method of mesh subdivision data specification. This controls the actual parameters used, other parameters are ignored. DIVISIONS Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions (NDIV). An element size is input corresponding to the length of an element edge. Each edge of the geometry bodies is subdivided separately so as to give element edges which are approximately of length SIZE (SIZE). Each edge of the geometry bodies is assigned a number of subdivisions, which are calculated, along with any necessary grading, from the element size specified at the end points of the edge. See SUBDIVIDE POINT, POINTSIZE (SIZE, PROGRESSION).
LENGTH
POINTWISE
SIZE [0.0] If MODE=LENGTH, this parameter specifies the element edge length. Then SIZE=0.0 means that the element edge length is the length of the edge (i.e. every edge will have 1 subdivsion). If MODE=POINTWISE, this parameter specifies the maximum element edge length. NDIV Number of subdivisions assigned to the edges of the geometry bodies. [1]
PROGRESSION [GEOMETRIC] When element edges are to be graded the distribution of element edge lengths can be selected from the following
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SUBDIVIDE BODY
ARITHMETIC
The difference in length of each element edge from its adjacent edges is constant. The ratio of lengths of adjacent element edges is constant.
GEOMETRIC
bodyi Label number of a solid geometry body. Auxiliary commands LIST SUBDIVIDE BODY FIRST LAST
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POINTSIZE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
POINTSIZE
OPTION INPUT SIZEFUNCTION MAXSIZE MINSIZE BODY sizei
namei
Specifies the meshsize (element edge length) for a set of geometry points, either directly, or by a sizefunction, or by evaluation from the lengths of the lines/edges which meet at the points. The set of points can be given by label or by reference to other geometry entities in the model. OPTION Indicates how the meshsize is to be evaluated: DIRECT ATTACHED The meshsize is input in the data lines. The lengths of the lines/edges which meet at a point, together with input minimum, maximum values are used to determine the meshsize at that point. A predefined sizefunction is used to calculate the mesh size at a point, dependent on its location. [POINT] [DIRECT]
FUNCTION
INPUT Indicates how the set of points is defined: MODEL POINT LINE SURFACE VOLUME EDGE FACE BODY All geometry points.
The geometry points will be explicitly identified by label number. The endpoints of a set of geometry lines. The vertices of a set of geometry surfaces. The vertices of a set of geometry volumes. The endpoints of a set of solid geometry edges. The vertices of a set of solid geometry faces. The vertices of a set of solid geometry bodies. [1]
SIZEFUNCTION Label number of a sizefunction, input when OPTION = FUNCTION. See command SIZEFUNCTION.
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POINTSIZE
MAXSIZE The maximum meshsize for the input points. This is used in two cases: OPTION = DIRECT, INPUT = MODEL OPTION = ATTACHED
[0.0]
The meshsize at every geometry point in the model will be set to MAXSIZE. The meshsize computed from the attached lines/edges will be subject to a maximum value of MAXSIZE.
MINSIZE [0.0] The minimum meshsize for the input points, used to provide a lower bound on the computed meshsize when OPTION = ATTACHED. BODY [currently active body] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used when INPUT = EDGE or FACE. namei Entity label number. sizei Meshsize, (element edge length) for entity namei. (Used when OPTION = DIRECT). Note: If there is any ambiguity in the input, e.g. INPUT = LINE, OPTION = DIRECT with two different meshsizes assigned to two lines which meet at a point, the mesh size at the point is taken from the entity (line) with the higher label number.
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SIZEFUNCTION BOUNDS
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SIZEFUNCTION BOUNDS
NAME XMIN YMIN ZMIN XMAX YMAX ZMAX SIZE1 SIZE2 SIZE3 SIZE4 SIZE5 SIZE6 SIZE7 SIZE8
SIZEFUNCTION BOUNDS defines a meshsize function in terms of a bounding box with faces parallel to the global coordinate planes and the meshsizes at the vertices of the box. The meshsize at any other point is interpolated from this bounding box. A sizefunction may be used to set point meshsizes, via POINTSIZE, and may also be used directly by the freeform mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control the generated element sizes. NAME [(current highest sizefunction label number) + 1] Label number of the sizefunction to be defined. XMIN, YMIN, ZMIN [current minimum coordinates of model] Minimum coordinates of the bounding box. XMAX, YMAX, ZMAX [current maximum coordinates of model] Maximum coordinates of the bounding box. SIZE1 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMAX,ZMAX). SIZE2 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMAX,ZMAX). SIZE3 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMIN,ZMAX). SIZE4 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMIN,ZMAX). SIZE5 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMAX,ZMIN). SIZE6 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMAX,ZMIN). SIZE7 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMIN,YMIN,ZMIN).
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SIZEFUNCTION BOUNDS
SIZE8 Meshsize (element edge length) at (XMAX,YMIN,ZMIN). Auxiliary commands LIST SIZEFUNCTION DELETE SIZEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SIZEFUNCTION HEX
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SIZEFUNCTION HEX
NAME X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3 X4 Y4 Z4 X5 Y5 Z5 X6 Y6 Z6 X7 Y7 Z7 X8 Y8 Z8 SIZE1 SIZE2 SIZE3 SIZE4 SIZE5 SIZE6 SIZE7 SIZE8
SIZEFUNCTION HEX defines a meshsize function in terms of a bounding hexahedral volume, specified by its vertex coordinates, and the mesh size at those vertices. The meshsize at any other point is interpolated from this bounding box. A sizefunction may be used to set point meshsizes, via POINTSIZE, and may also be used directly by the freeform mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control the generated element sizes. NAME [(current highest sizefunction label number) + 1] Label number of the sizefunction to be defined. X1, Y1, Z1 Global Cartesian coordinates of vertex 1 of the bounding hexahedral volume. ... X8, Y8, Z8 Global Cartesian coordinates of vertex 8 of the bounding hexahedral volume. SIZE1 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 1. SIZE2 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 2. SIZE3 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 3. SIZE4 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 4. SIZE5 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 5. SIZE6 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 6.
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SIZEFUNCTION HEX
SIZE7 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 7. SIZE8 Meshsize (element edge length) at vertex 8. Auxiliary commands LIST SIZEFUNCTION DELETE SIZEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SIZEFUNCTION POINT
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SIZEFUNCTION POINT NAME MODE POINT X Y Z SIZE DISTANCE SCALE TYPE A1 A2 A3 Defines a meshsize function of source type where the element size is dependent on the distance from a given location. The sizefunction may be used to set point meshsizes, via command POINTSIZE, and also may be used directly by the freeform mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [(current highest sizefunction label) + 1] The identifying label number of the sizefunction. MODE Indicates how the source location is defined: POINT POSITION POINT Label number of a geometry point. X [0.0] Y [0.0] Z [0.0] Global Cartesian system components of the position vector giving the source location. SIZE Constant (minimum) element size. The size function will yield this value within the distance given by parameter DISTANCE from the specified location. Further away, the element size gradually increases as determined by this function. {> 0.0} DISTANCE Distance from location for which the size function is constant, giving element size SIZE. {> SIZE} SCALE Scaling factor for the distance from the source location. [1.0] The source location is given by a geometry point. The source location is given by a position vector (X,Y,Z).
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SIZEFUNCTION POINT
TYPE [LINEAR] Indicates the type of growth function for the element size away from the source location. Let d=distance from source location, R = MAX[ 0.0, ((dDISTANCE)/SCALE)], δ= element size, then the following function types are available:
LINEAR QUADRATIC CUBIC POWER EXPONENTIAL
δ = SIZE × [1.0 + A1 × R ]
[ ] δ = SIZE × [1.0 + A1 × R + A2 × R + A3 × R ] δ = SIZE × [1.0 + R ]
δ = SIZE × 1.0 + A1 × R + A2 × R 2
2 3 A1
δ = SIZE × e ( A1× R )
[
]
A1 A2 A3 Function coefficients. {≥ 0.0 for TYPE = LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC} Auxiliary commands LIST SIZEFUNCTION DELETE SIZEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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SIZEFUNCTION AXIS
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SIZEFUNCTION AXIS
NAME MODE SYSTEM AXIS LINE P1 P2 X0 Y0 Z0 XA YA ZA SIZE DISTANCE SCALE TYPE A1 A2 A3
Defines a meshsize function of source type where the element size is dependent on the distance from a given axis (an unbounded straight line). The sizefunction may be used to set point meshsizes, via command POINTSIZE, and also may be used directly by the freeform mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [(current highest sizefunction label) + 1] The identifying label number of the sizefunction. MODE Selects the method of defining the axis. This controls which parameters actually define the axis  other parameters are ignored. AXIS LINE  The axis is taken as a coordinate axis of a given coordinate system.  The axis is taken as the straight line passing through the end points of a given geometry line (which is not necessarily straight, but must be open  i.e. have noncoincident end points).  The axis is taken as the straight line between two given (noncoincident) geometry points.  The axis is defined by a position and a direction vector.
POINTS VECTORS
SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. One of the axes of this coordinate system may be used to define the axis, via parameter AXIS, when MODE=AXIS. AXIS [XL] Selects which of the basic axes (XL,YL,ZL) of the local coordinate system, given by parameter SYSTEM, is used to define the axis. {XL/YL/ZL} LINE Label number of a geometry line defining the axis. P1, P2 Label numbers of geometry points used to define the axis. X0 [0.0] Y0 [0.0] Z0 [0.0] Global coordinates of the position vector defining the axis when MODE=VECTORS.
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SIZEFUNCTION AXIS
XA [1.0] Y A [0.0] ZA [0.0] Components (with respect to the global coordinate system) of the axis direction when MODE=VECTORS. SIZE Constant (minimum) element size. The size function will yield this value within the distance given by parameter DISTANCE from the specified axis. Further away, the element size gradually increases as determined by this function. {> 0.0} DISTANCE Distance from the axis for which the size function is constant, giving element size SIZE. {> SIZE} SCALE Scaling factor for the distance from the source axis. [1.0]
TYPE [LINEAR] Indicates the type of growth function for the element size away from the source axis. Let d=distance from axis, R = MAX[ 0.0, ((dDISTANCE)/SCALE)], δ = element size, then the following function types are available: A1 A2 A3 Function coefficients. {≥ 0.0 for TYPE = LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC}
LINEAR QUADRATIC CUBIC POWER EXPONENTIAL δ = SIZE × [1.0 + A1 × R ]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[ ] δ = SIZE × [1.0 + A1 × R + A 2 × R + A3 × R ] δ = SIZE × [1.0 + R ]
δ = SIZE × 1.0 + A1 × R + A 2 × R 2
2 3 A1
δ = SIZE × e ( A1× R )
[
]
Auxiliary commands LIST SIZEFUNCTION DELETE SIZEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SIZEFUNCTION PLANE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SIZEFUNCTION PLANE
NAME MODE X Y Z NX NY NZ P1 P2 P3 SYSTEM COORDINATE SIZE DISTANCE SCALE TYPE A1 A2 A3
Defines a meshsize function of source type where the element size is dependent on the distance from a given plane. The sizefunction may be used to set point meshsizes, via command POINTSIZE, and also may be used directly by the freeform mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [(current highest sizefunction label) + 1] The identifying label number of the sizefunction. MODE This controls the origin and direction of the sizefunction source plane as follows: POSITIONNORMAL The origin is given by a position vector (X,Y,Z), and the plane normal by a direction vector (NX,NY,NZ). The origin is given by a geometry point P1, and the plane normal by a direction vector (NX,NY,NZ). The origin is given by a geometry point P1, and the plane normal is determined from two other points, P2, P3, lying in the plane. The points cannot be collinear. The sizefunction source plane passes through the specified coordinate value (COORDINATE) for a given coordinate system (SYSTEM).
POINTNORMAL
THREEPOINT
XPLANE YPLANE ZPLANE
X [0.0] Y [0.0] Z [0.0] The position vector of a point lying in the source plane. Used when MODE=POSITIONNORMAL. NX [1.0] NY [0.0] NZ [0.0] The direction vector of the normal to the source plane. Used when MODE=POSITIONNORMAL or POINTNORMAL.
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SIZEFUNCTION PLANE
P1 P2 P3 Label numbers of three noncollinear geometry points lying in the source plane. P1 is used when MODE=POINTNORMAL or THREEPOINT, and P2, P3 are only used when MODE=THREEPOINT. SYSTEM [current active coordinate system] Label number of a coordinate system. The source plane passes through the base Cartesian coordinate value as determined by parameters MODE and COORDINATE. Used when MODE=XPLANE, YPLANE, or ZPLANE. COORDINATE [0.0] The position of the sizefunction sourc plane along the specified coordinate direction of coordinate system SYSTEM. Used when MODE=XPLANE, YPLANE, or ZPLANE. SIZE Constant (minimum) element size. The size function will yield this value within the distance given by parameter DISTANCE from the specified plane. Further away, the element size gradually increases as determined by this function. {> 0.0} DISTANCE Distance from the plane for which the size function is constant, giving element size SIZE. {> SIZE} SCALE Scaling factor for the distance from the source plane. [1.0]
TYPE [LINEAR] Indicates the type of growth function for the element size away from the source plane. Let d=distance from plane, R = MAX[ 0.0, ((dDISTANCE)/SCALE)], δ = element size, then the following function types are available:
LINEAR QUADRATIC CUBIC POWER EXPONENTIAL
δ = SIZE × [1.0 + A1 × R ]
[ ] δ = SIZE × [1.0 + A1 × R + A 2 × R + A3 × R ] δ = SIZE × [1.0 + R ]
δ = SIZE × 1.0 + A1 × R + A 2 × R 2
2 3 A1
δ = SIZE × e ( A1× R )
[
]
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SIZEFUNCTION PLANE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
A1 A2 A3 Function coefficients. {≥ 0.0 for TYPE = LINEAR, QUADRATIC, CUBIC} Auxiliary commands LIST SIZEFUNCTION DELETE SIZEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
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SIZEFUNCTION COMBINED
SIZEFUNCTION COMBINED szfunci
NAME
Defines a meshsize function as a combination of other sizefunctions. The element size at any given location is taken as the minimum of all the sizefunctions which contribute to this combination. The sizefunction may be used to set point meshsizes, via command POINTSIZE, and also may be used directly by the freeform mesh generation commands GFACE, GBODY to control element sizes during the meshing process. NAME [(current highest sizefunction label) + 1] The identifying label number of the sizefunction. szfunci Label number of an existing sizefunction. This function cannot be the same as NAME, or of type COMBINED  i.e. recursive combinations are not allowed. Auxiliary commands LIST SIZEFUNCTION DELETE SIZEFUNCTION FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SIZELOCATIONS
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
SIZELOCATIONS loci xi yi zi sizei
BODY FACE
Specifies the meshsize (element edge length) at coordinate locations (i.e. independent of any geometry point positions). These sizelocations may be utilized by the freemeshing commands GFACE, GBODY to locally set element sizes within the bounds of a solid geometry face or body. BODY [currently active body] Label number of a solid geometry body to which the sizelocations are to be associated. FACE [0] Label number of a the solid geometry face (of BODY) to which the sizelocations are to be associated. If FACE = 0, the sizelocations are to be associated with the solid geometry body interior and not with any particular one of its faces. Conversely, if FACE > 0, then the sizelocations are only associated with that face alone, and not with the interior of the body or any other of its faces. loci Location identifier. xi, yi, zi Global Cartesian coordinates of the sizelocation loci. sizei Meshsize, element edge length at (xi, yi, zi). Auxiliary commands LIST SIZELOCATIONS BODY FACE DELETE SIZELOCATIONS BODY FACE
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NLTABLE
NLTABLE gtypei ent1i ent2i nlayeri
NAME BODY
Creates a table which specifies the minimum number of layers across thin setions in a body or on a face. Each thin section is specified by 2 opposing faces or edges. Tables can be used by commands GBODY and GFACE. NAME Label number of a table  NLTABLE. BODY Geometry body label. gtypei Specifies the entity type for entries ent1i and ent2i. EDGE FACE ent1i and ent2i are edges on face. ent1i and ent2i are faces.
ent1i First face or edge label. ent2i Second face or edge label. nlayeri Minimum number of elements across the 2 faces or edges. Note: This command allows the user to control where the thin sections should be considered at the face/face level and also at the edge/edge level for a given face.
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GPOINT
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
GPOINT
NAME NODE NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE
Creates a node at a geometry point. NAME The label number of a geometry point at which a node is to be created. NODE The label number of node to be created. [(highest node label number) + 1]
NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL
[NO]
The global coordinates of the generated node is compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure. If there is coincidence to within NCTOLERANCE × (max. difference in global coordinates between all current nodes of the substructure) then no new node is created at that location.
NO
No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence.
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] Label number of the substructure in which the node is created.
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GLINE
GLINE
NAME NODES AUXPOINT NCOINCIDE NCENDS NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NCDOMAIN MIDNODES
linei Generates elements along a set of geometry lines. Elements can be created within element groups of type: TRUSS, BEAM, ISOBEAM, PIPE, GENERAL, or FLUID2 (interface). The number of elements, and the distribution of their lengths, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry lines, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE LINE. Note that either a single line or multiple lines may be specified for generation of elements, using the same control parameters.
AUXPOINT NODES = 2
NODES = 3
NODES = 4
NAME The label number of a geometry line along which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. 2, 3, 4 2 2, 4 2, 3 for TRUSS, ISOBEAM and GENERAL elements. for BEAM elements. for PIPE elements. for FLUID2 (interface) elements. [2]
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GLINE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
AUXPOINT The label number of the auxiliary geometry point used to orient BEAM, ISOBEAM, and PIPE elements. A node is generated at this point, unless one already exists at that location, which becomes the auxiliary node for each element generated on the geometry line. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL [ALL]
The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure. If there is coincidence to within NTOLERANCE × (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes of the substructure) then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed. Coincidence checking is carried out only for the nodes generated at the end points of the geometry lines. The end point(s) participating in this checking process may be selected via NCENDS. Coincidence checking is carried out for all generated nodes, but comparison is made only against those nodes already generated on the line under consideration. Coincidence checking is carried out at the end points of the geometry lines, but comparison is made only against the nodes generated for the input set of lines for the current command execution and those already generated for the geometry domain indicated by NCDOMAIN. No nodal coincidence checking is carried out.
ENDS
LINE
SELECTED
NO
NCENDS [12] Selects which end points of the geometry lines participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCENDS is an integer of up to two distinct digits, either 1 or 2, indicating which end points of the geometry line are subject to nodal coincidence checking. NCENDS is only used when NCOINCIDE = ENDS. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are generated.
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GLINE
GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. The group type must be one of those listed above. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED/STRAIGHT} linei Label number of a geometry line. Note: Elements are generated in order, in the direction from the starting point P1 to the ending point P2 of the geometry line.
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GSURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
GSURFACE
NAME NODES PATTERN NCOINCIDE NCEDGE NCVERTEX NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP PREFSHAPE MESHING SMOOTHING DEGENERATE CRACKTYPE TIPPOINT TIPOPTION RADIUS QPOINT CPOINT1 CPOINT2 COLLAPSED NCDOMAIN MIDNODES METHOD FLIP
surfacei Generates elements on a set of geometry surfaces. Elements can be created within element groups of type: TWODSOLID, PLATE, SHELL, GENERAL, FLUID2, or FLUID3 (interface). The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of the geometry surfaces, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE SURFACE. Note that either a single surface or multiple surfaces may be specified for generation of elements, with the same control parameters.
Quadrilateral surface
Regular subdivision
Irregular subdivision
Triangular surface
DEGENERATE = YES
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DEGENERATE = NO
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GSURFACE
NAME The label number of a geometry surface on which elements are to be generated. NODES [8 (3 for plate elements)] The number of nodes per element. {3/4/6/7/8/9/16} PATTERN [AUTOMATIC] Selects the type of pattern used to further subdivide quadrilateral surface cell subdivisions. Allowable values for PATTERN are integer numbers 0 through 11, or the string value AUTOMATIC. PATTERN=1 to 9 is allowed for triangular elements (NODES=3, 6, 7) and PATTERN=10, 11 is allowed only for NODES=4. See Figure. PATTERN OPTIONS:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
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GSURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking.
[ALL]
Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if XB  XA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN YB  YA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN ZB  ZA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the surface before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise, parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used insted, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command none Which nodes to check against all all
SELECTED
those within the geometry domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none
GROUP
NO
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GSURFACE
NCEDGE [1234] Selects which edges of the geometry surfaces participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCEDGE is an integer of up to four distinct digits in the range 1 through 4. NCEDGE is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. NCVERTEX [1234] Selects which vertices of the geometry surfaces participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCVERTEX is an integer of up to four distinct digits in the range 1 through 4. NCVERTEX is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are generated. GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the generated elements are generated. PREFSHAPE [AUTOMATIC] This specifies the preferred shape of the cells created when the surface subdivision is irregular. If MESHING=MAPPED, AUTOMATIC  The command selects the appropriate cell shape depending on the surface geometry and element (group) type. QUADRILATERAL  A quadrilateral cell shape is preferred. TRIANGULAR  A triangular cell shape is preferred. If MESHING=FREEFORM, AUTOMATIC  QUADRILATERAL if METHOD=ADVFRONT, TRIANGULAR if METHOD=DELAUNAY. QUADRILATERAL  A quadrilateral cell shape is preferred. TRIANGULAR  A triangular cell shape is preferred. QUADDIRECT  Quadrilateral only meshing. MESHING Selects the type of mesh generation to be employed. MAPPED Rulebased mapping of surface edge subdivisions. FREEFORM [MAPPED]
Freeform mesh generation based on advancing front or Delaunay scheme. [NO]
SMOOTHING Indicates whether or not Laplacian smoothing is employed to improve mesh quality.
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GSURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
CRACKTYPE = LINE
CPOINT1
CPOINT2
CPOINT1
CPOINT2
CRACKTYPE = POINT
TIPPOINT
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GSURFACE
TIPOPTION = SINGULAR
TIPOPTION = CIRCULARARC
RADIU S
TIPPOINT
CPOINT1
CPOINT2 TIPPOINT
TIPOPTION = LEFTARC
RA DI US
TIPOPTION = RIGHTARC
DI US
CPOINT1
CPOINT2 TIPPOINT
CPOINT1 TIPPOINT
RA
CPOINT2
QPOINT = QUARTER
midside node
{YES/NO} DEGENERATE [NO] Indicates whether triangular surfaces (with coincident vertices) are to be treated as degenerate quadrilaterals or triangles (with a special consideration for the degenerate edge, see Figure) for irregular rulebased mapped meshing. {YES/NO} CRACKTYPE [NONE] Selects the type of crack propagation on surfaces, which controls mesh generation. See Figures.
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GSURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
NONE LINE POINT
No crack propagation. Crack propagation along line. Crack is stationary at a point.
Note: When CRACKTYPE ≠ NONE, GSURFACE will adjust the mesh generated for a set of input surfaces (i.e., more than one surface is typically required) for use in fracture mechanics problems, as shown in the Figures. TIPPOINT The label number of the crack tip point. [1]
TIPOPTION [SINGULAR] Allows the crack tip region to be represented as a single point or a circular arc. SINGULAR RIGHTARC LEFTARC CIRCULARARC The tip region is a single point. The tip region is a 90° arc quadrant to the right of the tip. The tip region is a 90° arc quadrant to the left of the tip. The tip region is semicircular. [0.0]
RADIUS The radius of the circular arc generated about the crack tip.
QPOINT [QUARTER] Controls the placement of midside nodes in elements adjacent to the cracktip. MID QUARTER The nodes are generated without any special placement. Midside nodes are generated at the “¼” point adjacent to crack tip.
CPOINT1 [0] CPOINT2 [0] Allows for the specification of the points that are to be generated at key positions. This provides the ability to subsequently refer to these locations and any lines they belong to. Note that the point label numbers CPOINT1 and CPOINT2 must not have been defined prior to this command. See Figures.
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GSURFACE
COLLAPSED [NO] Selects whether triangular TWODSOLID, FLUID2 or FLUID3 (interface) elements are to be treated as collapsed quadrilateral elements by ADINA. {YES/NO} NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED/STRAIGHT} METHOD Indicates the type of freeform meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: ADVFRONT  Based upon advancing front methodology. DELAUNAY  Based upon Delaunay insertion methodology. [ADVFRONT]
FLIP [NO] Reverses the orientation of shell elements on the surface. This parameter is only used when the element type is SHELL for ADINA or SHELL CONDUCTION for ADINAT. {NO/YES} surfacei Label numbers of geometry surfaces.
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GVOLUME
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
GVOLUME
NAME NODES PATTERN NCOINCIDE NCFACE NCEDGE NCVERTEX NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP MESHING PREFSHAPE DEGENERATE NCDOMAIN MIDNODES METHOD BOUNDARYMETHOD
volumei Generates elements on a set of geometry volumes. Elements can be created within element groups of type THREEDSOLID or FLUID3. The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of the geometry volumes, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE VOLUME. NAME The label number of a geometry volume on which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. {4/8/10/11/20/27} [20]
PATTERN [0] Selects the pattern used to subdivide hexahedral volume into tetrahedral elements (used when NODES=4, 10 or 11)  see Figures. PATTERN=0 indicates that one of the patterns 1 through 4 is to be automatically selected so as to match the patterns already used for adjacent volumes. If no pattern is suitable, for PATTERN=0, then a warning message is given and no elements are generated  in this case existing pattern usage must be examined carefully to avoid pattern mismatches which would result in incompatible meshes. (This parameter is only used when MESHING=MAPPED) NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [BOUNDARIES]
Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if XB  XA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN YB  YA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN ZB  ZA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the volume before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0).
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GVOLUME
V2
V1
V2
V1
V3 V6
V4
V3 V5 V6
V4
V5
V7
V8
V7
V8
PATTERN = 1
V2 V1
PATTERN = 2
V2 V1
V3 V6
V4
V3 V5 V6
V4
V5
V7
V8
V7
V8
PATTERN = 3
V2 V1
PATTERN = 4
V3 V6
V4
PATTERN = 5
V5
V7
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GVOLUME
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all Which nodes to check against all
those on the selected all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command. Vertices, edges and faces are selected by parameters NCVERTEX, NCEDGE and NCFACE all those on all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command those on all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command those on all vertices, edges and faces of the volume or volumes meshed by the current command none those already in the volume those within the geometry domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN all, except for nodes on geometry surfaces in the domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none
VOLUME SELECTED
BOUNDEXSEL
GROUP
NO
NCFACE [123456] Selects which faces of the geometry volumes participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCFACE is an integer of up to six distinct digits in the range 1 through 6. NCFACE is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. Refer to the follwoing figure for numbering (F1, F2, etc.)
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GVOLUME
NCEDGE [123456789ABC] Selects which edges of the geometry volumes participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCEDGE is an alphanumeric string which can include the digits 19 and the characters A, B, C. NCEDGE is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. Refer to the follwoing figure for numbering (E1, E2, etc.) NCVERTEX [12345678] Selects which vertices of the geometry volumes participate in nodal coincidence checking. NCVERTEX is an integer of up to eight distinct digits in the range 1 through 8. NCVERTEX is only used when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDARIES. Refer to the follwoing figure for numbering (V1, V2, etc.)
F2 E6 F3 V3 V6 E7 E10 V7 F4 E11 E8 E12
V8
V2
E1
V1 E4 F3 E5 V3 V5 E9 E7 E2 E3 F4
E6 V2
F2 E1 E4 V1
E2 E3
F1
V4
F5
F1
V4
E5 V5
F5
E8 E9
F6
V6
F2 F3 V3 V2 E2 E3 E1 V1 F2 E4 E5 F3 V3 V2 E2 E1 P4 E4 V1
F1
E3 F4
F1
E6
F4
E7 E6
E5 E8 V4
F5
V4
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GVOLUME
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence.
[TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are generated. GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group in which the generated elements are created. MESHING Selects the type of mesh generation to be employed. MAPPED FREEFORM [MAPPED]
Rulebased mapping based on volume edge subdivisions. Freeform mesh generation.
When MESHING = MAPPED, and the volume subdivision is regular, the resulting mesh will consist entirely of hexahedral (brick) cells. If the subvision is irregular, the resulting mesh will be a mix of hexahedra and prisms, and the parameter PREFSHAPE (following) can be used. If the subdivision is neither regular nor irregular, an error message will be given. Example: In the case of the rectangular volume shown in the figure accompanying the command NCVERTEX (see preceding page), if we define Ni as the number of subdivisions on edge Ei (i = 1, 2, ...12), and set N2 = N4 = N12 = N10; N1 = N3 = N11 = N9; and N5 = N6 = N7 = N8, we have the volume set up with regular subdivisions, and the resulting mesh will be allhexahedral. If, however, we set N5 = N6 = N7 = N8; N1 = N9; N2 = N10; N3 = N11; and N4 = N12, the volume is set up with irregular subdivisions. PREFSHAPE [AUTOMATIC] Specifies the preferred shape of the cells created when the volume subdivision is irregular, whereby the command employs a rulebased scheme for mapped meshing. AUTOMATIC The appropriate cell shape is determined by the program, depending on the volume geometry and element group type. A brick cell shape is preferred.
HEXAHEDRAL
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PRISMATIC
A prism cell shape is preferred.
DEGENERATE [YES] Indicates whether or not volumes of shape PRISM, TETRA or PYRAMID are to be treated as degenerate hexahedra with special consideration of the degenerate edges. {YES/NO} NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED or NCOINCIDE = BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED/STRAIGHT} METHOD [DELAUNAY] Indicates the type of freeform meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. This parameter is used only when MESHING=FREEFORM. {ADVFRONT/DELAUNAY} BOUNDARYMETHOD [ADVFRONT] Indicates the type of freeform meshing algorithm to be used for triangular elements on volume’s boundary. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. This parameter is only used when MESHING=FREEFORM. {ADVFRONT / DELAUNAY} volumei Label number of a geometry volume.
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GEDGE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
GEDGE
NAME NODES AUXPOINT NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP BODY NCDOMAIN MIDNODES
edgei Generates elements along a set of solid geometry edges. Elements can be created within element groups of types TRUSS, BEAM, ISOBEAM, PIPE, GENERAL or FLUID2 interface. The number of elements, and the distribution of their lengths, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry edges, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE EDGE. Note that either a single edge or multiple edges may be specified for generation of elements. NAME
3node isobeam elements
The label number of a geometry edge along which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. 2, 3, 4 2 2, 4 2, 3 for TRUSS, ISOBEAM and GENERAL elements. for BEAM elements. for PIPE elements. for FLUID2 (interface) elements. [2]
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GEDGE
AUXPOINT The label number of the auxiliary geometry point used to orient BEAM, ISOBEAM, and PIPE elements. A node is generated at this point, unless one already exists at that location, which becomes the auxiliary node for each element generated on the geometry edge. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. ALL [ENDS]
The global coordinates of all generated nodes are compared against those of existing nodes of the substructure. If there is coincidence to within NTOLERANCE × (max. difference in global coordinates between all previous nodes of the substructure) then no new node is created at that location, i.e., the previous node label number is assumed. Coincidence checking is carried out only for the nodes generated at the end points of the geometry edges. Coincidence checking is carried out at the end points of the geometry edges, but comparison is made only against those nodes generated for the input set of edges for the current command execution and those already generated for the geometry domain indicated by NCDOMAIN. No nodal coincidence checking is carried out. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
ENDS
SELECTED
NO
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence.
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are generated. GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. The group type must be one of those listed above. BODY The solid geometry part (body) label number. [currently active body]
NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used.
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GEDGE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED/STRAIGHT} edgei Label number of a geometry edge.
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GFACE
GFACE
NAME NODES NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP PREFSHAPE BODY COLLAPSED SIZEFUNCTION NCDOMAIN MIDNODES METHOD NLAYER NLTABLE
facei Generates elements on a set of solid geometry faces. Elements can be created within element groups of type TWODSOLID, PLATE, SHELL, FLUID2, FLUID3interface or GENERAL. There are two methods for quadrilateral mesh generation (controlled by PREFSHAPE parameter). If PREFSHAPE=QUADREFINE a combine/refine method is used which combine triangles of a triangular mesh to create quadrilaterals. Any of remaining triangle is then subdivided into four or three quads, respectively. This methodology requires an even number of subdivisions for each bounding edge (enforced automatically) and a relatively fine mesh density to work well. If PREFSHAPE=QUADRILATERAL, an advancing front method is used which may leave some triangles in the mesh. Two triangular freeform meshing methods (controlled by METHOD parameter) are available: advancing front and Delaunay. The distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the edges of geometry faces, e.g. via SUBDIVIDE FACE. NAME
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GFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
The label number of a solid geometry face on which elements are to be generated. NODES [8 (3 for PLATE elements)] The number of nodes per element. {3/4/6/7/8/9/16} NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [BOUNDARIES]
Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if XB  XA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN YB  YA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN ZB  ZA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the body before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise, parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used insted, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command those on all vertices and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command those on all vertices Which nodes to check against all all
SELECTED
those within the geometry domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in
GROUP
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GFACE
and edges of the face or faces meshed by the current command NO none
the same element group none [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence.
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are generated. GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. PREFSHAPE Specifies the shape or preferred shape of the elements generated. QUADRILATERAL TRIANGULAR QUADREFINE Quadrilateral elements are preferred. Triangular elements are generated. Quadrilateral elements are generated. This algorithm combines triangles to form quads. Quadrilateral elements are generated. This algorithm creates quads directly and generally produces better results than QUADREFINE. [currently active solid body] [TRIANGULAR]
QUADDIRECT
BODY The solid geometry body label number.
COLLAPSED [NO] Selects whether triangular TWODSOLID, FLUID2 or FLUID3interface elements are to be treated as collapsed quadrilateral elements by ADINA. {YES/NO} SIZEFUNCTION [0] Label number of a meshsize function (see command SIZEFUNCTION) which may be used to control the element sizes away from the boundary edges of the face. SIZEFUNCTION = 0 implies a size function is not to be used. Note, that this parameter is ignored if METHOD=DELAUNAY. NCDOMAIN [0]
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GFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED/STRAIGHT} METHOD [ADVFRONT] Indicates the type of freeform meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. {ADVFRONT/DELAUNAY} NLAYER [1] Specifies a minimum number of elements across. By default, this option is off. To be turned on, NLAYER must be greater than 1. If NLAYER > 1 the distribution of elements, including their size, is also governed by the presence of thin sections on the face. NLAYER > 1 and NLTABLE = 0 NLAYER > 1 and NLTABLE > 0 NLAYER is taken as the minimum number of elements across anywhere in the body. the minimum number of elements across is taken from the table NLTABLE (see command NLTABLE).
Note: Note:
Only the first face (if more than one) will be affected by NLTABLE. This option works best if a given bounding edge is NOT close to more than one other bounding edges within a small area, e.g., case of a small sphere close to the corner of a square. The number of requested thin layers will be present in the thin sections but there is no guarantee near side boundaries. [0]
Note:
NLTABLE Table which indicates the thin sections of face. facei Label number of a geometry face (of BODY).
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GBODY
GBODY
NAME NODES NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP PREFSHAPE SIZEFUNCTION DELETESLIVER ANGLEMIN DNODES METHOD PATTERN MESHING DEGENERATE BOUNDARYMETHOD DEGEDGE GEOERROR SAMPLING MINSIZE NLAYER NLTABLE AUTOGRADING NCDOMAIN PYRAMIDS DANGMAXB DANGMAXC DANGMAXD HEXALAYER SIMULATE
bodyi degedgei Command GBODY creates elements for a solid geometry body. Elements can be created within element groups of type THREEDSOLID or FLUID3. There are two tetrahedral freeform meshing METHODs available: advancing front and Delaunay. There are two triangular freeform meshing BOUNDARYMETHODs available: advancing front and Delaunay. Mapped meshing is available only when the body type is a Parasolid® body and the geometry of the body is either tetrahedron, hexahedron, prism or pyramid.
NAME The label number of a solid geometry body for which elements are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per element. {4/8/10/11/20/27} [4]
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GBODY
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking.
[BOUNDARIES]
Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if XB  XA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN YB  YA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN ZB  ZA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the body before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on all vertices, edges and faces of the geometry body or bodies meshed by the current those on all vertices, edges and faces of the geometry body or bodies meshed by the current command those on all vertices, edges and faces of the geometry body or bodies meshed by the current command none Which nodes to check against all all
BOUNDEXSEL
all, except for nodes on geometry faces in the domain selected by parameter NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group
GROUP
NO
none
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GBODY
NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence.
[TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are created. GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group into which the elements are generated. PREFSHAPE [AUTOMATIC] Specifies the preferred shape of the cells created when the body subdivision is irregular, whereby the command employs a rulebased scheme for mapped meshing. AUTOMATIC The appropriate cell shape is determined by the program, depending on the body geometry and element group type. A brick cell shape is preferred. A prism cell shape is preferred.
HEXAHEDRAL PRISMATIC
This parameter is used only when MESHING=MAPPED. SIZEFUNCTION [0] Selects an auxiliary meshsize function which controls the element sizes within the body. See command SIZEFUNCTION. SIZEFUNCTION = 0 indicates that a sizefunction is not to be used. Note: This parameter is ignored if METHOD=DELAUNAY.
DELETESLIVER [NO] Controls whether triangular “sliver” element faces are to be removed from the body boundary before generating volume elements. Such slivers can arise from small geometry features such as fillets or rounds with small curvature, or by inappropriate edge subdivision data. The presence of such slivers can result in poor quality elements and a degradation of the meshing process. Enabling the prior removal of such slivers may result in a mesh which smoothest over small geometric features  if these features are important then the local subdivision data should be refined about them. {YES/NO} Note: This parameter is ignored if METHOD=DELAUNAY.
ANGLEMIN [5.0] Provides an angletolerance for detecting boundary slivers. A triangular element face is considered a sliver if one of its internal angles is less than ANGLEMIN (in degrees). {0.0
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GBODY
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
≤ ANGLEMIN ≤ 10.0} (The upper bound precludes unrealistic sliver definitions). MIDNODES [CURVED] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes, or on the underlying curved geometry. {CURVED/STRAIGHT} METHOD [DELAUNAY] Indicates the type of freeform meshing algorithm to be used. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. This parameter is only used when MESHING=FREEFORM. {ADVFRONT/DELAUNAY} PATTERN [0] Selects the pattern used to subdivide the hexahedral body cells into tetrahedral elements (used when NODES=4, 10 or 11)  see figures  GVOLUME command. PATTERN=0 indicates that one of the patterns 1 through 5 is to be automatically selected so as to match the patterns already used for adjacent volumes. If no pattern is suitable, for PATTERN=0, then a warning message is given and no elements are generated  in this case existing pattern usage must be examined carefully to avoid pattern mismatches which would result in incompatible meshes. This parameter is only used when MESHING=MAPPED. MESHING Selects the type of mesh generation to be employed: MAPPED [FREEFORM]
A rule based mapping of body edge subdivisions. Mapped meshing is available only when the body is a Parasolid body and the topology of the body is similar to a hexahedron, prism, pyramid, or tetrahedron. when NODES=4,10,11 freeform mesh generation based on advancing front or Delaunay scheme creates tetrahedral elements. when NODES=8,27 freeform mesh generation based on advancing front creates a mix of hexahedral and tetrahedral elements, with hexahedral elements occupying most of the volume space. [NO]
FREEFORM
DEGENERATE Indicates how bodies with triangular faces are to be handled: NO
The triangular face is not given any special consideration for its degenerate edge. The volume is treated as a degenerate hexahedral shape.
YES
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GBODY
d Mesh L
Geometry
d/L = geometrical discretization error
Note:
This parameter is only used when MESHING=MAPPED.
BOUNDARYMETHOD [ADVFRONT] Indicates the type of freeform meshing algorithm to be used for triangular elements on body’s boundary. There are two available methods: advancing front and Delaunay. {ADVFRONT/DELAUNAY} ADVFRONT distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry bodies, e.g. via command SUBDIVIDE BODY, and by any auxiliary sizefunction. the distribution of elements, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry bodies, e.g. via command SUBDIVIDE BODY and by the rules of smooth gradation. This means subdivisions on body edges may be overwritten to allow for smooth gradation of element sizes.
DELAUNAY
Note:
This parameter is only used when MESHING=FREEFORM.
DEGEDGE [0] The degenerate edge of the body. This parameter is only used if the body is a prism body, MESHING=MAPPED, and DEGENERATE = YES. GEOERROR [0.0] Relative geometric discretization error (see picture). If GEOERROR > 0.0 the distribution of elements, including their size, is also governed by the curvature of the geometry body's bounding edges and faces. SAMPLING Number of sampling points on edge Meaningful only if GEOERROR option turned on. For edges: number of sampling points = SAMPLING
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GBODY
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
For faces:
number of sampling points = SAMPLINGxSAMPLING
MINSIZE Minimum size allowed. Meaningful only if GEOERROR option turned on. It is important to give a meaningful value to MINSIZE to avoid overrefinement and, as a consequence, high CPU times for this command. NLAYER [1] When NODES = 4,10,11 and MESHING = FREEFORM, specifies a minimum number of elements across. By default, this option is off. To be turned on, NLAYER must be greater than 1. If BOUNDARYMETHOD = DELAUNAY, this option also applies to any bounding face (of the body). If no NLTABLE is specified, NLAYER is used as the minimum number of elements across anywhere in body. NLTABLE Table which indicates the thin sections of body and/or body faces. [0]
AUTOGRADING [NO] Mesh densities required to satisfy smooth gradation. {NO/YES} If AUTOGRADING=YES the distribution of elements, including their size, is also governed by the requirement for smoothly graded mesh densities. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE=SELECTED or NCOINCIDE=BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN=0 indicates that no domain is to be used. PYRAMIDS [NO] When NODES = 8,20,27 and MESHING = FREEFORM, indicates whether pyramid elements should be used to transition from hexahedra to tetrahedra. If PYRAMIDS = ONLY, no hexahedra are created and pyramids are created for each boundary quadrilateral cell. {NO/YES/ONLY} DANGMAXB Max angular deviation (from 90 degrees) for the angle at corners of hex side faces. [80]
DANGMAXC [60/20] Max angular deviation (from 180 degrees) for the dihedral angle at diagonals of hex side faces Default = 60 degrees (20 degrees if PYRAMIDS = YES). DANGMAXD Max angular deviation (from 90 degrees) for the dihedral angle at hex edges. [80]
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GBODY
HEXALAYER [NO] When NODES = 8,20,27 and MESHING = FREEFORM, specifies the number of hexahedral element layers to be grown from body’s boundary faces (0 or 1).By default, this number is set to 0. To be turned on, HEXALAYER must be equal to YES. SIMULATE [NO] This parameter can be used (SIMULATE=YES) to see the effect on the body edge subdivisions of the GBODY command without actually meshing. It is relevant for the following cases:  MESHING= FREEFORM and GEOERROR>0.0 and NODES=4,10,11  MESHING=FREEFORM and AUTOGRADING=YES and NODES=4,10,11  MESHING=FREEFORM and NODES=8,20,27 (will modify body edge subdivisions so that all body faces have an even number of subdivisions, necessary condition for quadrilateral meshing on body faces) bodyi Label numbers of geometry bodies. The data line input allows for more than one body to be meshed via a single GBODY command call. degedgei The degenerate edge of bodyi . This data is only used if the body is a prism body, MESHING=MAPPED, and DEGENERATE=YES.
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GHEXA
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
GHEXA
NAME NODES NCOINCIDE NCDOMAIN NCTOLERANCE GROUP MIDNODES SIZE MINSIZE PROJECT SMOOTH DANGMAXA OPTIONA
Generates brick element (hexahedron) dominant freeform meshes for a given body. Note that this command  meshes the boundary as well as the inside of the given body  does not take into account edge subdivisions (see SIZE parameter)  does not update edge subdivisions  should only be used on nearprimitive bodies Any body connected (typically via a face) to a body meshed with GHEXA must be meshed with GBODY in order to produce compatible meshes (at the interface). However, because GHEXA does not guarantee that nodes classified on the body's boundary are actually on the body's boundary, it is not always possible to mesh connected bodies. This is due to the fact that GBODY (unlike GHEXA) always assumes that nodes classified on the body's boundary are actually on the body's boundary. Because GHEXA does not guarantee the creation of an allquad surface mesh, it may be necessary to mesh connected bodies with tetrahedral elements only.
cover (cutaway)
gear (cutaway) pulley
NAME Label number of geometry body. NODES The number of nodes per element. {8/20/27} [8]
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GHEXA
NCOINCIDE [BOUNDARIES] Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking.{ALL/BOUNDARIES/BOUNDEXSEL/ GROUP/NO} Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if XB  XA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*XLEN YB  YA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*YLEN ZB  ZA ≤ NCTOLERANCE*ZLEN where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0). If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table:
NCOINCIDE
Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence
Which nodes to check against
ALL BOUNDARIES
all those on all boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets none
all all
BOUNDEXSEL
all, except for nodes on boundary cell sets in domain defined by NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none
GROUP
NO
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GHEXA
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group in which the generated elements are created. MIDNODES [STRAIGHT] Indicates whether the midside nodes for higher order elements are to be placed on the straight line between the relevant vertex nodes (STRAIGHT), or on the underlying curved geometry using either mapping from parameter space to real space (CURVED), or projection (PROJECT). {CURVED/STRAIGHT/PROJECT} SIZE Desired (uniform) mesh density for elements to be created. The generated element size will only approximately be equal to SIZE. MINSIZE [0.05] MINSIZE x 2.0 x SIZE represents the minimum edge length in the body’s polyhedral representation whose mesh density is 2 x SIZE. The body’s polyhedral representation is obtained by intersecting the body with a regular grid (with cell size equal to 2 x SIZE). This polyhedral representation is then subdivided (once) to obtain the final mesh topology. {0.0 ≤ MINSIZE ≤ 0.1} PROJECT [YES] Mesh vertices on the body’s boundary are projected onto the corresponding body’s entities. It refers to the mesh obtained after subdividing the body’s polyhedral representation. It does not relate to MIDNODES. {YES/NO} SMOOTH [NO] Mesh vertices on the body’s boundary are smoothed. It refers to the mesh obtained after subdividing the body’s polyhedral representation. {YES/NO} DANGMAXA [20.0] Maximum angle allowed for face normals before and after collapsing of edges, considering the body’s polyhedral representation. The polyhedral representation is obtained by intersecting the body with a regular grid (with cell size equal to 2 x SIZE), which is then subdivided (once) to obtain the final mesh topology. {0.0 ≤ DANGMAXA ≤ 180.0}
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Note: The closer DANGMAXA is to 180.0, the more likely MINSIZE will be respected, but the body may not be successfully meshed. The closer DANGMAXA is to 0.0, the less likely MINSIZE will be respected, but successful meshing of the body is more probable. OPTIONA [YES] Option to allow faces to share more than one edge during the collapsing of edges considering the body’s polyhedral representation (see DANGMAXA). {YES/NO} NO Allows faces to share more than one edge during collapsing of edges. MINSIZE will more likely be respected, but the body may not be successfully meshed. Does not allow faces to share more than one edge during collapsing of edges. MINSIZE is less likely to be respected, but successful meshing of the body is more probable.
YES
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GBCELL
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
GBCELL
SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NODES NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE NCDOMAIN COLLAPSED PYRAMIDS BCELL
bcelli Creates 3D elements from boundary cells. Boundary cells are grouped into sets using the BCELL command. The boundary cells must form a watertight domain and must be oriented towards the domain. This command creates node sets and element face sets corresponding to each boundary cell set. SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure label number] Label number of the substructure in which the elements and nodes are created. The default value is defined by the last preceding SUBSTRUCTURE command. GROUP [current element group number] The label number of the element group in which the generated elements are created. The default value is determined by the last preceding SET EGROUP command. The group type must be one of those listed above. NODES The number of nodes per element. Allowable values for each analysis program are ADINA ADINAT ADINAF  4, 8, 10, 11, 20, 27  4, 8, 10, 11, 20, 27  4, 8, 27 [4]
Note that if NODES=8, 20, or 27, boundary cells must be made up of all 4node quadrilateral cells. NCOINCIDE Selects the method of nodal coincidence checking. [BOUNDARIES]
Coincidence checking is used to determine whether to place a new node at a geometric location when there is already at least one node close to that geometric location. A node at (XB,YB,ZB) is close to a geometric location (XA,YA,ZA) if XB  XA YB  YA ZB  ZA ≤ NCTOLERANCE * XLEN ≤ NCTOLERANCE * YLEN ≤ NCTOLERANCE * ZLEN
where NCTOLERANCE is a parameter of this command and (XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN) are the lengths of the bounding box for the model before generation. If there is no bounding box, then XLEN,YLEN,ZLEN are taken as (1.0,1.0,1.0).
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GBCELL
If there are no nodes close to that geometric location, a new node is placed at that geometric location. Otherwise parameter NCOINCIDE governs whether a new node is placed at that geometric location, or whether a close node is used instead, as shown in the following table: NCOINCIDE ALL BOUNDARIES Which geometric locations to consider for coincidence all those on all boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets those on boundaries as defined by the input boundary cell sets none Which nodes to check against all all
BOUNDEXSEL
all, except for nodes on boundary cell sets in domain defined by NCDOMAIN those that are in the same element group none
GROUP
NO NCTOLERANCE
[value set by parameter COINCIDENCE of command TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC] Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. NCDOMAIN [0] Label number of a geometry domain for which nodal coincidence is checked. See DOMAIN. Used only when NCOINCIDE = SELECTED or NCOINCIDE = BOUNDEXSEL. NCDOMAIN = 0 indicates that no domain is to be used. COLLAPSED [NO] Selects whether tetrahedral THREEDSOLID, or FLUID3 elements are to be treated as collapsed hexahedral elements by ADINA. NO YES  Tetrahedral elements are not collapsed  Tetrahedral elements are treated as collapsed hexahedra
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GBCELL
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
PYRAMIDS [NO] When NODES = 8,20,27, this parameter indicates whether pyramid elements should be used to transition from hexahedral to tetrahedral elements. If PYRAMIDS = ONLY, no hexahedral elements are created and pyramid elements are created for each boundary quadrilateral cell. {NO/YES/ONLY} BCELL [ALL] Indicates whether all boundary cells are used to create the 3D mesh. {ALL/SELECT} ALL SELECT All boundary cells are used. Selected boundary cells as specified by bcelli are used.
bcelli Label number of boundary cell. Boundary cells specified in the list are used to create the 3D mesh.
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ELDELETE
ELDELETE LINE
NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODEDELETE
ELDELETE SURFACE
NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODEDELETE
ELDELETE VOLUME
NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODEDELETE
ELDELETE EDGE
NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODEDELETE BODY
ELDELETE FACE
NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODEDELETE BODY
ELDELETE BODY
NAME GROUP SUBSTRUCTURE NODEDELETE
ELDELETE deletes elements generated on a given geometry entity for a specific element group. The nodes connected to the deleted elements may also be optionally deleted (provided they are not connected to other elements or define other model features). NAME Label number of the geometry entity for which generated elements are to be deleted. GROUP Element group label number. SUBSTRUCTURE Substructure label number. NODEDELETE Node deletion option. {YES/NO} [current group number]
[current substructure number]
[YES]
BODY [currently active body] Label number of a solid geometry body. Used for edge/face references in ELDELETE EDGE/ FACE
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CSURFACE
Sec. 8.2 Mesh generation
CSURFACE
NAME NODES PATTERN NCOINCIDE NCTOLERANCE SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP
Generates a set of contact segments on a contactsurface, see CONTACTSURFACE. Contact segments are normally created by default from associated finite elements defined on the geometry of the contactsurface. However, a target contactsurface which is rigid (or has a completely known displacement), may be defined to consist of contact segments with no associated finite elements. The distribution of segments, including their size, is governed by the subdivision data assigned to the geometry components of the contactsurface, e.g., via SUBDIVIDE LINE, SUBDIVIDE SURFACE. NAME The label number of a contactsurface on which contact segments are to be generated. NODES The number of nodes per contact segment. The default value is indicated by the superscripts 1 or 2 as follows: 1. 2. CONTACTCONTROL CSTYPE=OLD CONTACTCONTROL CSTYPE=NEW [2 (2D); 4 (3D)]1 [3 (2D); 9 (3D)]2
The permitted values depend on whether the contactsurface is 2D or 3D: 2D contactsurface – {2/3}. 3D contactsurface – {3/4/6/9}. PATTERN [1] Selects the type of triangulation pattern used to further subdivide the quadrilateral surface subdivisions into triangular segments, only used when NODES = 3, i.e., for 3D contact segments. (See GSURFACE for PATTERN options). NCOINCIDE [SURFACE] Controls nodal coincidence checking. If SURFACE is selected, nodal coincidence is carried out, but comparison is made against only those nodes already generated on the contactsurface. {YES/NO/SURFACE} NCTOLERANCE Tolerance used to determine nodal coincidence. [TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC]
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure number] Label number of the substructure in which the contact segments and nodes are generated. GROUP [current contact group number] The label number of the contact group into which the contact segments are generated.
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CSDELETE
CSDELETE LINE
NAME GROUP CONTACTSURFACE NODEDELETE
CSDELETE SURFACE
NAME GROUP CONTACTSURFACE NODEDELETE
CSDELETE EDGE
NAME GROUP CONTACTSURFACE NODEDELETE BODY
CSDELETE FACE
NAME GROUP CONTACTSURFACE NODEDELETE BODY
Deletes contact segments generated on a given geometry entity for a specified contact group. Nodes connected to the contact segments may be optionally deleted (provided they do not connect to other elements or define other model features). NAME Label number of the geometry entity for which generated elements are to be deleted. GROUP [current active contact group number] Contact group label number. Contact segments should have already been generated on geometry entity "NAME". CONTACTSURFACE Contact surface label number. NODEDELETE Node deletion option: NO YES No nodes are deleted as a result of this command Nodes which are only connected to elements in the deleted set (i.e. those generated on the line for the particular element group) will be deleted. [1]
[YES]
BODY The body label number.
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Sec. 8.3 Elements
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GLUEMESH
GLUEMESH
NAME sidei
stypei namei bodyi
Glues two dissimilar meshes together. The mesh on each side (master or slave) may span over several sites. NAME Label number of GLUEMESH. stypei Type of site the gluing is applied to. Sites must be either all 2D types (line, edge, elementedge) or all 3D types (surface, face, elementface). {LINE/SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/ELEMENTEDGE/ELEMENTFACE} namei Site label number. bodyi Body label number when stypei = EDGE or FACE. sidei Indicates whether site is on the master or slave side. {SLAVE/MASTER}
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TRUSSPOINTS
Sec. 8.3 Elements
TRUSSPOINTS namei pointi materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi epsini Defines axisymmetric truss elements at geometry points. Coincidence checking is used when generating nodes at the geometry points, with tolerance adjusted by the command TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC. Note: The current element group must be of type TRUSS, with axisymmetric subtype, for this command to be active. namei Label number of an axisymmetric truss element. pointi Label number of the geometry point associated with the axisymmetric truss element. materiali [0] Label number for the material to be used with element “namei”. A zero value indicates that the element group default material is to be used. areai The crosssectional area of the element. [1.0]
printi [DEFAULT] Printing flag for the element. If DEFAULT is specified, printout is controlled by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} savei [DEFAULT] Saving (to the porthole file) flag for the element. If DEFAULT is specified, saving is controlled by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} tbirthi Time of element birth. tdeathi Time of element death. epsini Element initial strain. Auxiliary commands LIST TRUSSPOINTS DELETE TRUSSPOINTS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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SPRING POINTS
SPRING POINTS namei p1i dof1i p2i dof2i pseti printi savei axi ayi azi tbirthi tdeathi Defines spring elements either between two degrees of freedom at distinct geometry points, or a “grounded” degree of freedom at a single geometry point. Coincidence checking is used when generating nodes at the geometry points, with tolerance adjusted by the command TOLERANCES GEOMETRIC. Note: The current element group must be of type SPRING for this command to be active.
namei Label number of a spring element. p1i Label number of the first (or only) geometry point at one end of the spring element. dof1i The degree of freedom selected for the spring element at the first point “p1i”. 1 2 3 4 5 6 X translation. Y translation. Z translation. X rotation. Y rotation. Z rotation.
p2i Label number of the second geometry point at the opposite end of the spring element from point “p1i”. Input of p2i = 0 implies that the degree of freedom “dof1i” at point “p1i” is connected to ground. dof2i The degree of freedom for the spring element at point “p2i”. The choice of input values is the same as for entry “dof1i”. If p2i = 0, then input for dof2i is ignored. pseti Label number of the spring property set for element springi. See PROPERTYSET. [1]
printi [DEFAULT] Printing flag for the element. If DEFAULT is specified, printout is controlled by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT}
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SPRING POINTS
Sec. 8.3 Elements
savei [DEFAULT] Saving (to the porthole file) flag for the element. If DEFAULT is specified, saving is controlled by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} axi, ayi, azi [0.0] Global coordinate system components of the spring element direction, used if the spring connects two coincident points, or one point to ground. Note that this vector is only used for nonlinear spring elements. tbirthi Element birth time. tdeathi Element death time. Note: tbirthi < tdeathi, or tbirthi = tdeathi = 0.0 [0.0]
[0.0]
Auxiliary commands LIST SPRING POINTS DELETE SPRING POINTS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SPRING LINES
SPRING LINES namei line1i dof1i line2i dof2i pseti printi savei axi ayi azi tbirthi tdeathi option Defines “springlines”, i.e. a set of spring elements either between two degrees of freedom along distinct geometry lines, or a “grounded” degree of freedom along a single geometry line. namei Label number of a springline. line1i Label number of the first (or only) geometry line at one end of the springline. dof1i The degree of freedom selected for the spring elements along the first line “line1i”. 1 2 3 4 5 6 X translation. Y translation. Z translation. X rotation. Y rotation. Z rotation.
line2i Label number of the second geometry line at the opposite end of the springline from “line1i”. Input of line2i = 0 implies that the degree of freedom “dof1i” at line “line1i” is connected to ground. dof2i The degree of freedom selected for the spring elements along the second line “line2i”. If line2i = 0, then input for dof2i is ignored. pseti Label number of the spring property set for springline “namei”. See PROPERTYSET. [1]
printi [DEFAULT] Printing flag for the element. If DEFAULT is specified, printout is controlled by PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} savei [DEFAULT] Saving (to the porthole file) flag for the element. If DEFAULT is specified, saving is controlled by PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT}
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SPRING LINES
Sec. 8.3 Elements
axi, ayi, azi [0.0] Global coordinate system components of the springline direction, used if the springline connects two coincident nodes, or one node to ground. tbirthi Element birth time. tdeathi Element death time. Note: tbirthi < tdeathi, or tbirthi = tdeathi = 0.0 [0.0]
[0.0]
option [SAME] {SAME / REVERSE} When multiple nodes exist on the line1 and line2, this flags how the truss element between nodes on each entity is defined. SAME A spring is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each line. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines.
REVERSE  A spring is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each line, but for line2 the parametric order is reversed. Auxiliary commands LIST SPRING LINES DELETE SPRING LINES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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REBARLINE
REBARLINE linei
NAME
Defines a rebar using lines. The rebar defined is then referenced in the EGROUP TRUSS command to model rebar elements. NAME [(current highest rebarline label number) + 1] Label number of the rebarline to be defined. This label is referenced in the EGROUP TRUSS command. linei List of geometry line label numbers used for defining the rebar. Auxiliary commands LIST REBARLINE DELETE REBARLINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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TRUSSLINE
Sec. 8.3 Elements
TRUSSLINE name line1 line2 material area print save tbirth tdeath gapwidth intloc epsin option Defines TRUSS elements between lines. name Label number of a trussline line1 Line1 label number line2 Line2 label number material [0] Material label number. A zero input value indicates that elements generated on the line will take the default material for the host element group. area Crosssectional area for each TRUSS element on the line. print {YES/NO/DEFAULT} Print option setting. YES NO DEFAULT [1.0]
[DEFAULT]
Print element results as requested by parameter RESULTS of the relevant EGROUP command. No results are printed for TRUSS elements on the line. Element printing is governed by parameter PRINTDEFAULT of the PRINTOUT command. [DEFAULT]
save {YES/NO/DEFAULT} Save option setting. YES NO 
Save, on the porthole file, element results as requested by parameter RESULTS of the relevant EGROUP command. No saving of results for TRUSS elements on the line.
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TRUSSLINE
DEFAULT Saving of element results is governed by parameter SAVEDEFAULT of the PORTHOLE command. tbirth The time of element birth. tdeath The time of element death. Note: tbirth < tdeath, or tbirth = tdeath = 0.0 gapwidth Gap width for each TRUSS element on the line. intloc [NO] {YES/NO} Option to print the location of the integration point. YES NO Print the element integration point (global) coordinates, in the undeformed configuration. No printing of integration point data for TRUSS elements on the line. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0]
epsin Initial strain for each TRUSS element on the line. option {SAME/REVERSE}
[SAME]
When multiple nodes exist on the line1 and line2, this flags how the truss element between nodes on each entity is defined. SAME A truss is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each line. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines. A truss is constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each line. For line2 the parametric order is reversed.
REVERSE
Auxiliary commands LIST TRUSSLINE DELETE TRUSSLINE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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ELTHICKNESS
Sec. 8.3 Elements
ELTHICKNESS namei thick1i thick2i thick3i ... thick16i Defines thickness for 3D shell elements and axisymmetric shell elements (EGROUP ISOBEAM SUBTYPE =AXISYMMETRIC). namei The element label number, in the current element group. thick1i Thickness of shell element “i” at local node number 1. thick2i Thickness of shell element “i” at local node number 2. . . . thick16i Thickness of shell element “i” at local node number 16. Note: Note: [thick1i] [0.0]
[thick1i]
Thickness is measured in the direction of the director/normal vector at the node. The thicknesses “thickni” are defined for midsurface nodes, ignoring top/bottom nodes of transition elements.
Auxiliary commands LIST ELTHICKNESS DELETE ELTHICKNESS FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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BEAMSET
BEAMSET
NAME TYPE1 NAME1 TYPE2 NAME2 AUXPOINT OPTION BODY1 BODY2 GROUP BOLTENDS BCOINCIDE BTOLER
Generates sets of Hermitian beam elements (element group BEAM) between two geometry entities, e.g., pointpoint, lineline, pointline, etc. It must be noted that this is an element generation command, which requires an existing element group of type BEAM with OPTION=TIED assigned. Furthermore, each of the geometry entities must have been meshed (i.e., have nodes attached) prior to using this command. Note that this command only generates elements for the main structure, not any substructure. NAME [(current highest beamset label number) + 1] The label number of the beamset. {≥ 1} TYPE1 [POINT] Indicates the type of the first geometry entity. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/ NODESET} NAME1 The label number of the first geometry entity. TYPE2 [POINT] Indicates the type of the second geometry entity. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE/EDGE/FACE /NODESET} NAME2 The label number of the second geometry entity. AUXPOINT The label number of the auxiliary geometry point used to orient the beam elements. A node is generated at this point (unless one already exists at that location) which becomes the auxiliary node for each element generated between the geometry entity pair. OPTION [0] When multiple nodes exist on both the geometry entities, this parameter indicates how the beams between nodes on each entity are defined. Beam elements are constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on each of the geometry entities must be the same. 0
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BEAMSET
Sec. 8.3 Elements
1
Beam elements are constructed for each node on geometry entity NAME1 to the closest node on geometry entity NAME2. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the geometry entities. If either entity type is set to NODESET, then OPTION=1 will be used, ignoring any input value. [currently active body]
Note:
BODY1 Label number of the first geometry body, if any. BODY2 Label number of the second geometry body, if any.
[currently active body]
GROUP [current element group] The label number of the element group in which the generated beam elements are created. The group type must be of type BEAM, with the group defined with BOLT=YES (see EGROUP BEAM). BOLTENDS [BOTH] Indicates whether the bolt condition (constraining the shell normal rotation to adjacent translations) is to be applied to shell midsurface nodes which intersect at the beam end nodes on geometry entity 1, 2, or both.{ONE/TWO/BOTH} BCOINCIDE [RELATIVE] This command will not generate beam elements with end nodes which are coincident. This parameter indicates whether the tolerance parameter BTOLER is a relative tolerance (i.e., proportional to the dimensions of the model) or is an absolute distance value. Should the command find node pairs between the two geometry entities which are deemed coincident by this tolerance, no beam element will be generated between those nodes. Instead a warning message will be issued, advising the use of command SPRINGSET to define spring elements of type ‘bolt’. {RELATIVE/ABSOLUTE} BTOLER [1.0E5] Coincidence tolerance for end nodes of beam elements. See the description of parameter BCOINCIDE above. Auxiliary commands LIST BEAMSET FIRST LAST DELETE BEAMSET FIRST LAST
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SPRINGSET
SPRINGSET
NAME TYPE1 NAME1 TYPE2 NAME2 OPTION BODY1 BODY2 GROUP BOLTENDS BCOINCIDE BTOLER
Generates sets of linear spring elements (element group SPRING) between two geometry entities, e.g. pointpoint, lineline, pointline, etc. It must be noted that this is an element generation command, which requires an existing element group of type SPRING with OPTION=TIED assigned. Furthermore, each of the geometry entities must have been meshed (i.e. have nodes attached) prior to using this command. Note that this command only generates elements for the main structure, not any substructure. NAME [(current highest springset label number) + 1] The label number of the springset. TYPE1 [POINT] Indicates the type of the first geometry entity. {POINT/LINE/SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/ NODESET} NAME1 The label number of the first geometry entity. TYPE2 [POINT] Indicates the type of the second geometry entity. Includes the special type GROUND which indicates that only one entity is actually specified, resulting in all springs generated for nodes on geometry entity 1 being grounded and having the bolt condition. {POINT/LINE/ SURFACE/EDGE/FACE/NODESET/GROUND} NAME2 The label number of the second geometry entity. Not used for TYPE2 = GROUND. OPTION [0] When multiple nodes exist on both the geometry entities, this indicates how the springs between nodes on each entity are defined. This option is not used for TYPE2 = GROUND. 0 Spring elements are constructed between nodes at the corresponding parametric order on each entity. Parametric order is in the increasing uparameter direction for lines, increasing u then vparameter for surfaces. In this case the number of nodes on each of the geometry entities must be the same. Spring elements are constructed for each node on geometry entity NAME1 to the closest node on geometry entity NAME2. In this case, the number of nodes need not be the same for the geometry entities.
1
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SPRINGSET
Sec. 8.3 Elements
Note: If the type of either geometry entity is NODESET, OPTION is assumed to be 1. BODY1 The label number of the first geometry body, if any. BODY2 The label number of the second geometry body, if any. [currently active body]
[currently active body]
GROUP [currently active element group] The label number of the element group in which the generated spring elements are created. The group type must be of type SPRING, with the group defined with BOLT=YES (see EGROUP SPRING). BOLTENDS [BOTH] Indicates whether the bolt condition (constraining the shell normal rotation to adjacent translations) is to be applied to shell midsurface nodes which intersect at the spring end nodes on the first or second geometry entity, or both.{ONE/TWO/BOTH} BCOINCIDE [RELATIVE] This command will only generate spring elements with end nodes which are coincident (except for the case TYPE2 = GROUND). This parameter indicates whether the coincidence tolerance parameter BTOLER is a relative tolerance (i.e. proportional to the dimensions of the model) or is an absolute distance value. Should the command find node pairs between the two geometry entities which are deemed noncoincident by this tolerance, no spring element will be generated between those nodes. Instead a warning message will be issued, advising the use of command BEAMSET to define beam elements of type ‘bolt’. {RELATIVE/ ABSOLUTE} BTOLER [1.0E5] Coincidence tolerance for end nodes of spring elements. See the description of parameter BCOINCIDE above. Auxiliary commands LIST SPRINGSET DELETE SPRINGSET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chapter 9 Direct finite element data input
COORDINATES NODE
Sec. 9.1 Nodal data
COORDINATES NODE (ENTRIES (ENTRIES (ENTRIES (ENTRIES NAME NAME NAME NAME
SYSTEM X Y Z SYSTEM) XL YL ZL SYSTEM) R THETA XL SYSTEM) R THETA PHI SYSTEM) (SYSTEM = global Cartesian (0)) (SYSTEM = Cartesian) (SYSTEM = cylindrical) (SYSTEM = spherical)
ni xi yi zi sysi Defines coordinates for current substructure nodes. The coordinates given refer to the local system specified by parameter SYSTEM. SYSTEM [currently active system] Label number of the required local coordinate system. This specifies the coordinate system to which any appended data line coordinates refer and determines which column heading names are allowed by any ENTRIES data line. ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. The heading names depend on the type of local coordinate system specified by SYSTEM. Note: Less than five entry column headings may be given e.g., to specify nodes in a coordinate plane, but the column heading NAME must always be specified.
ni Label number for the desired current substructure node, input under the column heading NAME. xi yi zi Coordinate values in local coordinate system “sysi”. [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
sysi [SYSTEM] Local coordinate system label number. Note “sysi” defaults to the system specified by SYSTEM, which in turn defaults to the currently active coordinate system. Auxiliary commands LIST COORDINATES NODE FIRST LAST SYSTEM GLOBAL DELETE COORDINATES NODE FIRST LAST If GLOBAL = YES the coordinates are listed in terms of the global Cartesian system.
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SKEWSYSTEM NODES
SKEWSYSTEMS NODES ni node1i node2i node3i Defines “skew” Cartesian coordinate systems in terms of nodes. Skew systems can be referenced via DOFSYSTEM to indicate the local orientation of nodal degrees of freedom. ni Label number for the skew system to be defined. node1i node2i node3i Node label numbers. The vector from node1i to node2i defines the direction of the local Xaxis of the skew system. The vector from node1i to node3i is taken to lie in the local XYplane of the skew system. Note that the three nodes must not be collinear. Auxiliary commands LIST SKEWSYSTEM DELETE SKEWSYSTEM FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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DOFSYSTEM NODES
Sec. 9.1 Nodal data
DOFSYSTEM NODES nodei skewsystemi
SUBSTRUCTURE
Assigns skew coordinate systems to the degrees of freedom associated with a set of nodes in the current substructure. SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure] Label number of the substructure for the nodes referenced in the accompanying data lines. nodei Label number of a node in the current substructure given by SUBSTRUCTURE. skewsystemi Label number of a skew coordinate system, as defined by SKEWSYSTEM. Setting skewsystemi = 0 assigns the global Cartesian system to the nodal degrees of freedom. Auxiliary commands LIST DOFSYSTEM NODES DELETE DOFSYSTEM NODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE
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MASSES NODES
MASSES NODES nodei mass1i mass2i mass3i mass4i mass5i mass6i Assigns concentrated masses to a set of nodes in the current substructure. nodei Label number of a node. mass1i [0.0] The mass assigned to nodei for the xtranslational degree of freedom (global or skew). mass2i [0.0] The mass assigned to nodei for the ytranslational degree of freedom (global or skew). mass3i [0.0] The mass assigned to nodei for the ztranslational degree of freedom (global or skew). mass4i The mass assigned to nodei for the xrotational degree of freedom (global or skew). mass5i The mass assigned to nodei for the yrotational degree of freedom (global or skew). mass6i The mass assigned to nodei for the zrotational degree of freedom (global or skew). Auxiliary commands LIST MASSES NODES DELETE MASSES NODES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [0.0]
[0.0]
[0.0]
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DAMPERS NODES
Sec. 9.1 Nodal data
DAMPERS NODES nodei damp1i damp2i damp3i damp4i damp5i damp6i Assigns concentrated dampers to a set of nodes in the current substructure. nodei Label number of a node. damp1i [0.0] The damper assigned to nodei for the xtranslational degree of freedom (global or skew). damp2i [0.0] The damper assigned to nodei for the ytranslational degree of freedom (global or skew). damp3i [0.0] The damper assigned to nodei for the ztranslational degree of freedom (global or skew). damp4i [0.0] The damper assigned to nodei for the xrotational degree of freedom (global or skew). damp5i [0.0] The damper assigned to nodei for the yrotational degree of freedom (global or skew). damp6i [0.0] The damper assigned to nodei for the zrotational degree of freedom (global or skew). Auxiliary commands LIST DAMPERS NODES DELETE DAMPERS NODES FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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SHELLNODESDOF NODES
SHELLNODESDOF NODES nodei nsdofi ndirvi
SUBSTRUCTURE
Specifies the number of degrees of freedom and the director vector number, if applicable, for midsurface shell element nodes. This specification overrides the global default set by MASTER SHELLNDOF. SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure] The substructure for each node specified in this command. nodei The node number. nsdofi [MASTER SHELLNDOF] Number of degrees of freedom for nodei, if the node is a shell node. FIVE SIX AUTOMATIC Shell midsurface rotational degrees of freedom are used. Global or skew degrees of freedom are used. The program chooses the number of degrees of freedom to be used based on certain modeling considerations. See Theory and Modeling Guide.
ndirvi Number of a director vector defined by the SHELLDIRECTORVECTOR. Auxiliary commands LIST SHELLNODESDOF NODES DELETE SHELLNODESDOF NODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE FIRST LAST
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SHELLDIRECTORVECTOR
Sec. 9.1 Nodal data
SHELLDIRECTORVECTOR ni vxi vyi vzi or ni phii thetai
OPTION SUBSTRUCTURE
(OPTION = COMPONENTS)
(OPTION = EULERANGLES)
Defines director vectors that can be applied to shell element nodes in the model via command SHELLNODESDOF. Director vectors are used in shell analysis to define the shell director vectors for those nodes with five (5) degrees of freedom. It is not necessary to specify director vectors for these nodes, however, as the program will automatically compute director vectors for those nodes for which you do not assign director vectors. OPTION COMPONENTS [COMPONENTS] Director vectors are input in the form of vector components in the global coordinate system. Input vx, vy and vz in the data lines. Director vectors are input in the form of Euler rotation angles in the global coordinate system. Input phi and theta in the data lines.
EULERANGLES
SUBSTRUCTURE [current substructure] The substructure for the director vector specified by this command. ni Director vector number. vxi vyi vzi Components of the director vector. This vector need not be normalized. phii thetai Euler rotation angles measured in degrees. Auxiliary commands LIST SHELLDIRECTORVECTOR FIRST LAST OPTION SUBSTRUCTURE DELETE SHELLDIRECTORVECTOR FIRST LAST OPTION SUBSTRUCTURE [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0]
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NODESET
NODESET nodei substructurei reusei
NAME ALLEXT
Defines a collection of nodes by label number. The NODESET may be referenced by other commands such as CONSTRAINT, RIGIDLINK, BEAMSET, and SPRINGSET. NAME [(current highest nodeset label number) + 1] Label number of NODESET. nodei Node label number. substructurei Substructure label number for nodei. reusei Reuse label number for nodei. [current substructure]
[current reuse]
ALLEXT [NO] Indicates whether this node set includes all nodes on the external boundary of the model. If ALLEXT=YES, then "nodei" is a list of nodes which will be excluded in this node set. {YES /NO}
Auxiliary commands LIST NODESET DELETE NODESET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RIGIDNODES SHELL
Sec. 9.1 Nodal data
RIGIDNODES SHELL nodei Specifies shell midsurface nodes for which the rotation normal to the shell is constrained to the perpendicular translations of neighboring shell midsurface nodes. This effectively removes the usual singularity associated with the lack of stiffness for the shell normal rotation degree of freedom. This condition may be used, for example, in conjunction with beam or spring elements to connect two or more offset shell surfaces. Note that any node specified cannot have 5 or 6 degreesoffreedom explicitly assigned (either directly or to any attached geometry); i.e. they must have an “automatic” number of degreesoffreedom assignment. Thereafter, if the automatic calculation otherwise results in 5 degreesoffreedom, the actual number of degreeoffreedom will be output as 6 and the required constraint will be applied. nodei The label number of a shell midsurface node. The node must belong to the main structure (not any substructure). Auxiliary commands LIST RIGIDNODES SHELL
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Chap. 9 Direct finite element data input
AXESNODES
AXESNODES
NAME NODE1 NODE2 NODE3
Defines an “axessystem” via three model nodes. Axessystems can be referenced by element data commands (e.g., EDATA) to indicate the local orientation of the orthotropic material properties and/or initial strain. NAME Label number for the desired axessystem. This is numbered independently for each element group. NODE1 Label number of the first node defining the axessystem. NODE2 Label number of the second node defining the axessystem. NODE3 Label number of the third node defining the axessystem. Note: The local xdirection of the axessystem is determined by the vector from NODE1 to NODE2. The local zdirection of the axessystem is determined as the normal to the plane defined by the three nodes NODE1, NODE2, and NODE3. The local ydirection of the axessystem is then given by the righthand rule.
Auxiliary commands LIST AXESNODES DELETEAXESNODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP
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AXESINITIALSTRAIN
Sec. 9.2 Element data
AXESINITIALSTRAIN elei
NAME LINE ALFA GROUP
This command defines sets of axes to be used with the definition of the directions of the initial strains in each element. Elements are input in the data lines. A geometry line labeled LINE and an angle ALFA (in degrees) are used to define the initial strain axes orientations. The elements can belong to the current element group or an element group input through the GROUP parameter. Axes initial strain system can be referenced by commands INITIAL STRAINS and INITIAL SGRADIENTS to specify initial strains or initial strain gradients. This command is applicable for 2D, plate and shell elements. NAME [(current highest defined label) + 1] Label number for the desired axesinitial strain system to apply to the specified elements.. LINE Label number of the defined geometry line. The geometry line must either be a straight line or an arc line. ALFA An angle (in degrees) is used together with the geometry line. [0.0]
GROUP [current element group] Element group number which this axesinitial strain system is applied to. elei Element number which this axesinitial strain system is applied to. Auxiliary commands LISTAXESINITIALSTRAIN DELETEAXESINITIALSTRAIN FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 9 Direct finite element data input
AXESORTHOTROPIC
AXESORTHOTROPIC elei
NAME LINE ALFA GROUP
This command defines sets of principal material axes orientations for the elements used with the orthotropic material model. Elements are input in the data input lines. A geometry line labeled LINE and an angle ALFA (in degrees) are used to define the principal material axes orientations. The elements can belong to the current element group or an element group input through the GROUP parameter. This command is applicable for 2D, plate and shell elements. NAME [(highest axesorthotropic system) + 1] Label number for the desired axesorthotropic system. LINE Label number of the defined geometry line. The geometry line must be a straight line or an arc line. ALFA An angle (in degrees) is used together with the geometry line. [0.0]
GROUP [current element group] Element group number which this axesorthotropic system is applied to. elei Element number which this axesorthotropic system is applied to. Auxiliary commands LIST AXESORTHOTROPIC DELETE AXESORTHOTROPIC FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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ELEDGESET
Sec. 9.2 Element data
ELEDGESET edgei eli groupi
NAME ALLEXT
Defines an element edge set containing edges of 2D elements. An element edge set can be used for load application (APPLYLOAD command) such as pressure, normal traction and heat flux. It can also be used in the definition of a 2D contact surface (see command CONTACTELEMSET ). NAME [(current highest eledgeset label number + 1)] Label number of the element edge set. ALLEXT [NO] Indicates whether this element edge set includes all external boundary element edges. If ALLEXT=YES, then edgei is a list of element edges which will be excluded in this element edge set. {YES/NO} edgei Edge number of the element. eli Label number of the element. groupi Label number of the element group. Auxiliary commands LIST ELEDGESET DELETE ELEDGESET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 9 Direct finite element data input
ELEMENTSET
ELEMENTSET eli groupi
NAME GROUP
Defines an element set containing elements specified in the parameter GROUP and in the table entries. Element sets containing beam or truss elements can be referenced in the SWEEP and REVOLVE commands to generate reinforcement beam or truss elements. Element sets containing 3D solid, 2D solid, and shell elements can be referenced in the SETAXESMATERIAL and SETAXESSTRAIN commands to specify the orientation of orthotropic material properties or initial strains for the elements. NAME Label number of ELEMENTSET. GROUP [0] Specifies an element group to be included in this element set. If GROUP > 0 is specified, all elements in the group will be included in this element set. eli Label number of the element. groupi Label number of the element group for element eli. Auxiliary commands LIST ELEMENTSET DELETE ELEMENTSET Example ELEMENTSET NAME=2 GROUP=5 3 2 TO 10 2 @ The above command will create an element set 2 which contains all elements in element group 5 and elements 3 to 10 in element group 2. FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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ELFACESET
Sec. 9.2 Element data
ELFACESET facei eli groupi
NAME ALLEXT
Defines an element face set containing faces of 3D and shell elements. An element face set can be used for load application ( APPLYLOAD command) such as pressure, normal traction and heat flux. It can also be used in the definition of a 3D contact surface (see command CONTACTELEMSET ). NAME [(current highest elfaceset label number + 1)] Label number of the element face set. ALLEXT [NO] Indicates whether this element face set includes all external boundary element faces. If ALLEXT=YES, then facei is a list of element faces which will be excluded in this element face set. {YES/NO} facei Face number of the element. eli Label number of the element. groupi Label number of the element group. Auxiliary commands LIST ELFACESET DELETE ELFACESET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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Chap. 9 Direct finite element data input
ENODES
ENODES
SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NNODES
(ENTRIES EL AUX N1 N2 ... NK) eli auxi n1i n2i n3i n4i ... nki ENODES defines element nodal connectivity for the substructure and element group specified. The defaults are the currently active substructure and element group. NNODES is only used for specifying maximum number of nodes allowed for ADINA GENERAL elements SUBSTRUCTURE [currently active substructure] Label number for the substructure to which subsequent nodal and element data refer. GROUP Element group label number. [currently active element group]
NNODES [32] Maximum number of nodes allowed for ADINA GENERAL elements. (command line input only). ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. Specifies the element nodes for which the global node numbers shall be input. The column heading EL must always be specified first, and the essential and optional nodal headings for each type of element are: eli eli eli eli eli eli eli eli eli eli eli eli n1i n1i n1i n1i n1i auxi auxi auxi n1i n1i n1i n1i ... ... ... ... ... n1i n1i n1i ... ... ... id1i n4i n9i n9i n27i n27i n2i ... ... n3i n32i n32i n2i TRUSS elements. TWODSOLID elements. FLUID2 elements. THREEDSOLID elements. FLUID3 elements. BEAM elements. ISOBEAM elements. PIPE elements. PLATE elements. SHELL elements. GENERAL elements. SPRING elements.
n4i n4i
id2i
eli Element number within the current substructure and element group.
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Sec. 9.2 Element data
auxi n1i , n2i , n3i ,... , nki The global node numbers defining the element in the order given by ENTRIES. Note: Note: Node auxi is required by the BEAM, ISOBEAM and PIPE elements. The spring element is defined by n1i, id1i, n2i and id2i, where id1i and id2i are the global degrees of freedom. Parameter id2i is ignored when n2i=0
Node numbering The node numbering convention and other pertinent information for the truss, beam, isobeam, pipe, plate and general elements are described in the corresponding sections in the Theory and Modeling Guide, Volume I: ADINA, as follows: Element TRUSS BEAM ISOBEAM PIPE PLATE GENERAL Section 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.9.1
The node numbering for the TWODSOLID/FLUID2, THREEDSOLID/FLUID3, SHELL and SPRING elements is explained in the following sections. 1. TWODSOLID/FLUID2 elements The TWODSOLID/FLUID2 elements are triangles and quadrilaterals. Their nodes are numbered as shown in Fig. ENODES1. 2. THREEDSOLID/FLUID3 elements The THREEDSOLID/FLUID3 elements fall into two categories based on node numbering: (a) (b) the brick elements (4, 8, 20, 21 and 27node) and degenerate elements formed by collapsing the 8, 20 and 27node brick elements, and the tetrahedral elements (4, 10 and 11node).
Fig. ENODES2 shows the node numbering convention of the 27node brick element. Note that node 21 is in the center of the element. The elements that are based on the 27node brick must be numbered according to the convention shown in the figure, e.g., a node number that is reserved for a vertex cannot be used to number a node on an edge. Fig. ENODES3 shows the node numbering for elements based on the 27node brick.
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•
The 21, 20, and 8node bricks (Fig. ENODES3(f), (d) and (a) respectively) result when the nodes on the element faces, the node at the element center, and the nodes on the element edges are progressively left out. The 6node prism (Fig. ENODES3(b)) and its corresponding numbering are obtained by collapsing one face (1485) of the 8node brick. The 15node prism (Fig. ENODES3(c)) and its corresponding numbering are obtained by collapsing one face (1485) of the 20node brick. The 13node pyramid (Fig. ENODES3(e)) and its corresponding numbering are obtained from the 20node brick by collapsing one face (1234), and then collapsing the edge so formed into the apex of the pyramid. The 14node pyramid (Fig. ENODES3(g)) and its corresponding numbering are obtained from the 27node brick by collapsing one face (1234), and then collapsing the edge so formed into the apex of the pyramid; nodes 21 – 26 are not used, leaving only the last node (27) on the base of the pyramid.
• • •
•
The 4, 10 and 11node tetrahedral elements are numbered as shown in Fig. ENODES4. 3. SHELL elements Fig. ENODES5 shows the node numbering conventions for SHELL elements. • In midsurface nodes representation (Fig. ENODES5(a)), node numbers 13 – 16 are always reserved for element interior nodes. Therefore, in the case of a 9node shell element defined using midsurface nodes, the nodes defined are the 1 – 4 at the vertices, 5 – 8 on the edges and 13 in the center of the element. The center node is defined by nodes 13 and 29 if the 9node shell element is defined using topbottom nodes representation. In topbottom nodes representation (Fig. ENODES5(b)), the element interior nodes are numbered 13 – 16 on the top surface and 29 – 32 on the bottom surface. Each top surface node has a dual bottom surface node. Nodes 1 – 16 are on the top surface, or on the middle surface if the dual node on the bottom surface is not present. Nodes 17 – 32 are on the bottom surface. Triangular shell elements are obtained by degeneration of these quadrilateral shell elements, that is, by assigning nodes 1 and 4 (also nodes 17 and 20 if applicable) to the same global number. Note that for triangular shell elements, nodes 8 and 12 (also nodes 24 and 28 if applicable) are not used. Further, interior nodes are not allowed. Some examples of triangular shell elements using midsurface node representation are shown in Fig. ENODES6.
•
•
4. Nonlinear SPRING elements For nonlinear springs, the stiffness of the spring can change as functions of the displacement
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Sec. 9.2 Element data
between 2 nodes (or node to ground). The 2 categories of nonlinear spring are material nonlinear only (MNO) spring (specify NONLINEAR=MNO in EGROUP SPRING command) geometric nonlinear spring (specify NONLINEAR=GEOM in EGROUP SPRING command)
Option 1 (MNO): The 2 nodes of the spring are initially coincident. The spring action is assumed to act always in the global directions regardless of the current relative positions of the 2 nodes. Figure ENODES7 illustrates the use, where n1 and n2 have moved apart but the spring stiffness continues to act into the global directions. To use this spring option, specify ENODES el n1 id1 n2 where id1 = 1, 2 and 3 indicates global X, Y and Z directions respectively. id1 = 4, 5, and 6 for torsional springs. If n2 = 0, then a grounded spring is defined. Option 2 (MNO): The 2 nodes of the spring are initially coincident. The spring action is assumed to act always in an arbitrary direction specified by the user. Figure ENODES8 illustrates the use of this option. To use this spring option, the EDATA command is used to specify the spring action direction. ENODES el n1 id1 n2 id2 EDATA el ax ay az ax, ay, az are vector components in the global X, Y, Z directions. If n2 = 0, then a grounded spring is defined. For translational spring, id1 = 0 and id2 = 0. For torsional spring, specify id1 = 1 and id2 = 0 for nodetonode spring, and specify id1 = 0 and id2 = 1 for nodetoground spring.
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Option 3 (MNO): The 2 nodes of the spring are initially not coincident. The spring action is assumed to act always in the direction connecting the original positions of the two nodes. Figure ENODES9 illustrates the use of this option. To use this spring option, specify ENODES el n1 id1 n2 id1 = 1 for translational spring and id1 = 4 for torsional spring. If OPTION=TRANSVERSE is specified in EGROUP SPRING command, id1 = 2 or 3 (5 or 6 for torsional) indicates that the spring action acts in the transverse directions to n1 to n2 direction. Option 4 (Geometric Nonlinear): The 2 nodes of the spring are initially not coincident. The spring action is assumed to act in the direction connecting the current positions of the two nodes. Hence, the spring direction changes as the position of the two nodes changes. Figure ENODES10 illustrates the use of this option. To use this spring option, specify ENODES el n1 id1 n2 id1 = 1 for translational spring and id1 = 4 for torsional spring. Examples of input for options 1 to 3 are given in the following tables. Table ENODES1 covers the translational spring elements, and the Table ENODES2 covers the torsional spring elements. Auxiliary commands LIST ENODES DELETE ENODES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP NODEDELETE
NODEDELETE {YES/NO} allows for the deletion of unattached nodes along with the element deletion.
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Sec. 9.2 Element data
l
3
6l
l
3
l l
l
3
l
5
l
6l 7 l5 l 2 1
l l l
1l
l
2
1l
l
4
4
2
(a) 3, 6 & 7node triangles
l
7
l
5
7
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
3
4
3
l
l
8
4
3
8
(b) 4, 8 & 9node quadrilaterals
Figure ENODES1: Node numbering of 2D elements
3l 11l
l l l
l
10
l
26 23
l
l
l
9
l
l
2l
l
l
l
l
1
2
l
6
1
2
6
1
5
4
4l
24 l 20 l
19l 12 7 25
l
2
9l 1
l l
21l
14
l
18
15l
22
l l
l
8
l l
27
17l
l l
6
16
13
Nodes 1 to 8 are at element vertices. Nodes 9 to 20 are on element edges. Node 21 is at the center of the element. Nodes 22 to 27 are on the element faces.
5
Figure ENODES2: Node numbering convention for the 27node brick element
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3
l
l
2
3l
l
l
2
4l
1
l
1, 4
l
l l
7
l
l
6
7l 5, 8 (b) 6node prism
10
l l
6
8
5
l
(a) 8node brick
3l
l
10
l
l
2 18 6
3 11 l
l
11
l
9l
l
19 l 7l
4l
19l 20
l
12
1
9l
l
l
2
l
1,2,3,4, 9,10,11,12
18
19 l
l
1, 4, 12 17, 20l l 14 l 15
18
20 l 15
l
l
7l
l l
13
8
15
l
l
7
l
14
l
17l
l6
l
17
l
14
l l l
6
l
5, 8, 16
l
l
13
8l
16
5
16
l l
13
5
(c) 15node prism
3 11 l
l
l
(d) 20node brick
10
l
(e) 13node pyramid
l
4l
19l 20 l 15
l
12
1
9l
l
l
2
1,2,3,4, 9,10,11,12
18
19 l
l
21 l 14
l l
18 6
8l
20 l 15
l
l l
7l
17
l
7
17l
l
l
l
14
l l
6
27
16
l
l
8
l
l
13
13
16
5
l
5
(f) 21node brick
(g) 14node pyramid (collapsed 27node brick)
Figure ENODES3: Node numbering of the elements derived from the 27node brick
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Sec. 9.2 Element data
4
l
4
l
l
l
4
l
9 10l
l l
9
l
l
l
3 1l
10l 7l
l
l
8
l
11
3 1l
l
l
l
8 6
1l
l
6 5
7l
l
3
2
5
2
2
(a) 4node tetrahedron
(b) 10node tetrahedron
(c) 11node tetrahedron
Figure ENODES4: Node numbering of tetrahedral elements
2 6 10 15 3 7 11 a) Midsurface nodes 6 10 26 3 19 7 32 23 11 27 b) Topbottom nodes 4 20 8 24 15 31 16 22 4 2 18 14 30 9 25 13 29 5 21 12 28 For the 9node shell, the topbottom center nodes are local node numbers 13 and 29. 1 17 16 8 14 13 12 9 5 1 For the 9node shell, the midsurface center node is local node number 13.
Figure ENODES5: Node numbering conventions for the shell element
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2
2 6l
l
l l l
5 1, 4
l
10 3l
6l
l
l
2
l
9
l
l
5
l
3
l l
1, 4
3l
7
7
(a) 3node triangular shell
(b) 6node triangular shell
1, 4 (c) 9node triangular shell
11
l
Figure ENODES6: Node numbering for some triangular shell elements, midsurface nodes
Z, w
kz n1(0) n2(0) n1 kx ky
n1 and n2 initially coincident kx = f1(u), ky = f2(v), kz = f3(w) and always acting in global directions X, Y, Z. Here, 3 spring elements are defined for spring action in X, Y and Z directions.
n2
Y, v X, u Figure ENODES7: Nonlinear Spring, Option 1
Z, w ax, ay, az direction k n1 n1(0) n2(0) X, u Figure ENODES8: Nonlinear Spring, Option 2
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d
n2 Y, v
n1 and n2 initially coincident k = f(d) spring stiffness between nodes always act in the specified direction ax, ay, az.
Sec. 9.2 Element data
Z, w
n2(0) n1(0) n2(p) n1 X, u k n2
n1(0) and n2(0) indicate the original positions of the two spring nodes. spring stiffness always acts in direction n1(0) to n2(0). line joining n1 to n2(p) is parallel to line joining n1(0) to n2(0).
Y, v
Figure ENODES9: Nonlinear Spring, Option 3
Z, w
n2(0)
n1(0) n2 n1 X, u Figure ENODES10: Nonlinear Spring, Option 4 k Y, v
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Different node numbers and noncoincident coordinates
Different node numbers and initially coincident coordinates Z Y X
1
Grounded node Z
Global direction X
Y
Global direction
n2 U
2
n1,n2
2
U U n2
n1
id1 = 1
U
1
id1 = 1 n1 U1
n1,n2 n1 U
1
U1
U
2
id1 = 2
n1 n2 U2 1 U n2 n1 id1 = 3
n1 U1 n1
id1 = 2
ENODES el n1 1 n2 (id2 not used)
id1 = 3
n1,n2
ENODES el n1 id1 n2 (id2 not used) Arbitrary direction a n2 U2 n1,n2 n1 U
1
ENODES el n1 id1 (id2 not used)
0
Arbitrary direction n1 a U 0
1
ENODES el n1 0 n2 EDATA el ax ay az
ENODES el n1 0 0 0 EDATA el ax ay az
Table ENODES1: Input cases for translational nonlinear spring elements
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Sec. 9.2 Element data
Different node numbers and noncoincident coordinates
Different node numbers and initially coincident coordinates Z Y X n1,n2 Global direction X U n2 n1,n2 U
2
Grounded node Z Y Global direction
n2 U
2
U1 n1
id1 = 4
U
1
n1 U1
id1 = 4
1
U2
n1
id1 = 5
U
1
n1 n2 U2 1 U n2 n1 id1 = 6
n1 U1 n1
id1 = 5
ENODES el n1 4 n2 (id2 not used)
id1 = 6
n1,n2
ENODES el n1 id1 n2 (id2 not used) Arbitrary direction a n2 U2 n1,n2 n1 U
1
ENODES el n1 id1 (id2 not used)
0
Arbitrary direction n1 a U 0
1
ENODES el n1 1 n2 EDATA el ax ay az
ENODES el n1 0 0 1 EDATA el ax ay az
Table ENODES2: Input cases for torsional nonlinear spring elements
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MESHCONVERT
MESHCONVERT
IN OUT ELEMENTTYPE GROUP SKEW LOADINIT NCOINCIDE
Converts 2D solid, 3D solid or shell elements by changing the number of nodes of the element.
Element Type 2D Solid Shell 3D Solid Original Element 8node quadrilateral 6node triangular 8node quadrilateral 20node brick 10node tetrahedral Converted Element 9node quadrilateral 7node triangular 9node quadrilateral 27node brick 11node tetrahedral
IN
OUT
These parameters are currently not used. ELEMENTTYPE [TWODSOLID] Selects the type of element to be converted. {TWODSOLID/THREEDSOLID/SHELL/ ALL} GROUP [ALL] Selects the element group to be converted. GROUP = ALL means all element groups will be converted. {ALL/>0} SKEW [NO] Indicates whether skew system is assigned to newly created nodes if all other nodes on the element face are assigned a skew system.{NO/YES} LOADINIT [NO] Indicates whether existing nodalbased prescribed loads (e.g., displacement, temperature, velocity) and initial conditions are applied on the newly created nodes.{NO/YES} Note:  Load or initial condition will only be applied on a created midsurface node if all the eight nodes on the element face have the load or initial condition applied.  If a load or initial condition is applied after this command, it will not be applied on the newly created nodes. Hence, this command should normally be used at the end of model creation.
NCOINCIDE [NEW] Indicates whether nodal coincidence is checked with newly generated nodes or all existing nodes. When a node already exists at a location, no new node will be created. {NEW/ALL} NEW ALL Check only with newly generated nodes. Check with all existing nodes.
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ENODESINTERFACE
Sec. 9.2 Element data
ENODESINTERFACE (ENTRIES EL N1 N2 N3 ... NK) eli n1i n2i n3i ... nki
SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP
Defines fluidstructure interface elements when potentialbased fluid elements are connected to solid elements. SUBSTRUCTURE [currently active substructure] Label number for the substructure to which subsequent nodal and element data refer. GROUP Element group label number. [currently active element group]
ENTRIES Defines, as column headings, the input for the subsequent tabular entries. Specifies the element nodes for which the global node numbers shall be input. The column heading EL must always be specified first, and the essential and optional nodal headings for each type of element are: eli n1i ... eli n1i ... n3i n9i FLUID2interface elements FLUID3interface elements
eli Element number within the current substructure and element group. n1i n2i n3i... nki The global node numbers defining the element in the order given by ENTRIES. Auxiliary commands LIST ENODESINTERFACE DELETE ENODESINTERFACE FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP
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EDATA
EDATA
SUBSTRUCTURE GROUP UNDEFINED
eli materiali areai printi savei tbirthi tdeathi epsini gapwidthi intloci (for TRUSS elements) eli materiali thicki beti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci betii itrii (for TWODSOLID elements) eli materiali ielxi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci maxesi maxesii itrii (for THREEDSOLID elements) eli materiali sectioni endreleasei printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epsini rigid1i rigid2i (for BEAM elements) eli materiali sectioni printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epaxli ephoopi (for ISOBEAM elements) eli materiali thicki beti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci betii meps11i meps22i meps12i flex11i flex22i flex12i (for PLATE elements) eli materiali beti printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci betii ithsi eps11i eps22i eps12i eps13i eps23i geps11i geps22i geps12i geps13i geps23i failurei (for SHELL elements) eli materiali sectioni printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci epsini (for PIPE elements) eli matrixseti printi savei (for GENERAL elements) eli propertyseti printi savei axi ayi azi tbirthi tdeathi (for SPRING elements) eli materiali printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci ifrei itrii (for FLUID2 elements) eli materiali ielxi printi savei tbirthi tdeathi intloci ifrei itrii (for FLUID3 elements) Specifies property data associated with individual elements in a group.
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EDATA
Sec. 9.2 Element data
SUBSTRUCTURE [currently active substructure] Label number for the substructure to which subsequent element data refer. GROUP Element group label number. [currently active group]
UNDEFINED Indicates what action is taken if element specified in data line is not defined. {IGNORE/ERROR} IGNORE ERROR 
[IGNORE]
Program ignores any undefined element specified. Program issues input error for undefined element and continues.
eli Element label number. materiali [element group default] Material number. The material type must be the same as the default material type for the element group. printi [DEFAULT] Controls printout of element results. The value DEFAULT corresponds to that given for PRINTOUT PRINTDEFAULT. {YES/NO/DEFAULT} savei [DEFAULT] Controls saving of element results to porthole file. The value DEFAULT corresponds to that given for PORTHOLE SAVEDEFAULT. tbirthi tdeathi Element birth and death times, respectively. intloci Integration point coordinates printout flag. 0 1 No printing of integration point coordinates. Print integration point global coordinates. [0.0] [0.0]
[0]
areai [0.0] Crosssectional area. A 0.0 value indicates the element has the same crosssectional area as the element with the lowest label number in the group.
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EDATA
thicki [0.0] Element thickness. A 0.0 value indicates the element has the same thickness as the element with the lowest label number in the group. ielxi [0] Number of nodes used to describe the element geometry. A 0 value indicates that all nodes are used in the element geometry. [0] ithsi Indicates whether the transverse shear adjustment feature is used (1) or not (0). This feature is only available for elastic shells. {0/1} maxesi Material axes label number. See AXESNODES. beti Material angle for orthotropic materials. sectioni Crosssection label number. See CROSSSECTION. endreleasei End release label number. See ENDRELEASE. propertyseti Propertyset label number. See PROPERTYSET. matrixseti Matrix set label number. See MATRIXSET. maxesii Initial strain axes label number. See AXESNODES. betii Initial strain angle. [0]
[0.0]
[0]
[0]
[element group default]
[element group default]
[0]
[0.0]
epsini [0.0] Initial axial strain (TRUSS, BEAM, PIPE elements), or initial force if BEAM OPTION=BOLT is used. epaxli Initial axial strain (ISOBEAM elements). [0.0]
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EDATA
Sec. 9.2 Element data
ephoopi Initial hoop strain. meps11i meps22i meps12i Initial membrane strains. flex11i flex22i flex12i Initial flexural strains. eps11i eps22i eps12i eps13i eps23i Initial strains. geps11i geps22i geps12i geps13i geps23i Initial strain gradients.
[0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
gapwidthi [0.0] Initial gap width of element. The gap option is used only for the 2node TRUSS element with a PLASTICBILINEAR or PLASTICMULTILINEAR material model. failurei Label number of failure model. ifrei This option is not supported from Version 8.0 onwards. itrii Collapsed element indicator. 0 1 Collapsed quadrilateral or hexahedral element. True triangular or tetrahedral element. [0]
[0]
[0]
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EDATA
axi ayi azi Direction of grounded spring element.
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
rigid1i [0.0] rigid2i [0.0] Length of rigid end zones at the start (rigid1) and/or end (rigid2) of a BEAM element. See EGROUP BEAM. Note: To define shell element thickness command ELTHICKNESS should be used.
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COPYELEMENTNODES
Sec. 9.2 Element data
COPYELEMENTNODES
FROM TO
Copies over all elements and nodes from one finite element analysis program to another finite element analysis program, creating new element groups for the destination program. If, for a particular element group type, there is no equivalent group type available in the destination program the source group will not be copied. FROM The source finite element analysis program. {ADINA/ADINAT/ADINAF} TO The destination finite element analysis program. {ADINA/ADINAT/ADINAF} The following table indicates the sourcedestination element type mapping used by this command: SOURCE ADINA TRUSS TWODSOLID THREEDSOLID BEAM ISOBEAM PLATE SHELL PIPE SPRING GENERAL FLUID2 FLUID3 ADINAT ONEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION SHELLCONDUCTION DESTINATION ADINAT ONEDCONDUCTION TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION ONEDCONDUCTION ONEDCONDUCTION SHELLDCONDUCTION SHELLCONDUCTION ONEDCONDUCTION <not copied> <not copied> TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION ADINA TRUSS TWODSOLID THREEDSOLID <not copied> <not copied> SHELL ADINAF <not copied> TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> <not copied> TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID ADINAF <not copied> TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID CONVECTION RADIATION <not copied> [ADINA]
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COPYELEMENTNODES
ADINAF TWODFLUID THREEDFLUID CONVECTION RADIATION
ADINA TWODSOLID THREEDSOLID <not copied> <not copied>
ADINAT TWODCONDUCTION THREEDCONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION
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DELETEFEMODEL
Sec. 9.2 Element data
DELETEFEMODEL
PROGRAM
Deletes all finite element data associated with a particular analysis program from the model database  including element groups, elements, nodes, contact groups, contactsurfaces, and contact segments. PROGRAM The finite element analysis program for which all data is to be deleted. ADINAT/ADINAF} [ADINA] {ADINA/
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REVOLVE
REVOLVE
NAME EGROUP XA YA ZA X0 Y0 Z0 ANGLE NEREV NODES NFIRST EFIRST NCOINCIDE NTOLERANCE DELETEEGROUP LOADSELEMENT AXESORTHOTROPIC AXESINITIAL BCFIXITY RBARNODESET RBARELEMSET RBAREGROUP RBARTYPE RBARSECTION RBARMATERIAL CGROUP CNAME DELETECGROUP RBARAREA
Generates THREEDSOLID or FLUID3 elements by revolving 2D elements about an axis. The rule for generating a new element group type is TWODSOLID FLUID2 > > THREEDSOLID FLUID3
NAME [current highest element group label + 1] Element group label number of the volume elements. If NAME already exists, it must be a THREEDSOLID or FLUID3 element group. EGROUP Previously defined 2D element group label. XA Y A ZA Components of the rotation axis direction. X0 Y0 Z0 Global coordinates of the origin of the axis of rotation. ANGLE Angle of rotation (in degrees). Note: ANGLE must be in the range <360,360>. The sign of the angle is given by considering the right hand rule. NEREV The number of elements in the direction of rotation. NODES Number of nodes for the revolved 3D elements. {0/8/20/27} [1] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[0]
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REVOLVE
Sec. 9.2 Element data
If NODES=0, then the following rule applies: Max. number of nodes in 2D element group 4 8 9 NFIRST The starting node label for the generated nodes. EFIRST The starting element label for the generated elements. Number of nodes in 3D element group 8 20 27 [1]
[1]
NCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether the locations of new nodes generated are compared with existing nodes. If NCOINCIDE=YES, then the location of generated generated nodes will be checked against existing nodes. For each generated node, if it lies within the tolerance (specified by NTOLERANCE) of an existing node, no new node will be created. {YES/NO} NTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If NCOINCIDE=YES parameter provides a tolerance for checking the global coordinates of a location againts existing nodes. DELETEEGROUP [YES] Allows to preserve or delete original 2D element group, after the volume element group is generated. {YES/NO} LOADSELEMENT [NO] Indicates whether element loading acting on the edges of the 2D elements will be converted to element loadings on the faces of the 3D elements. {NO/YES} AXESORTHOTROPIC [NO] Indicates whether the material axis systems of the 2D elements will be converted to initial strain axis systems for 3D elements. {NO/YES} AXESINITIALSTRAIN [NO] Indicates whether the initial strain axis systems of the 2D elements to 3D elements will be converted to initial strain axis systems for the 3D elements. {NO/YES} BCFIXITY [NO] Indicates whether fixity boundary conditions will be assigned to the generated nodes corresponding to the fixity conditions on the original nodes. {NO/YES}
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REVOLVE
RBARNODESET [0] Label number of a node set defined by the command NODESET. If this parameter references a node set that is defined, truss or beam elements (as specified by parameter RBARTYPE) will be generated by connecting the nodes along the revolved direction. RBARELEMSET [0] Label number of an element set defined by the command ELEMENTSET. If this parameter references an element set that is defined, the elements in the element set will be duplicated in the revolved direction. RBAREGROUP [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of an element group for the elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET. Note that elements generated from parameter RBARELEMSET are appended to the existing element group. RBARTYPE Specifies the type of element to be generated from parameter RBARNODESET. BEAM} [TRUSS] {TRUSS/
RBARSECTION [1] Label number of a cross section to be assigned to beam elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET. Note that cross sections can be defined by the command CROSSSECTION. RBARMATERIAL [1] Label number of a material to be assigned to elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET. CGROUP Specifies a 2D contact group to be used for generating 3D contact surfaces. Note that only 2D contact surface elements which are attached to the mesh to be revolved will be used for generating 3D contact surface elements. CNAME [(current highest contact group label number) + 1] Label number of 3D contact group that will contain the generated 3D contact surface elements. If CNAME already exists (it must be a 3D contact group), the generated contact surface elements will be added to the existing contact group. DELETECGROUP [NO] Indicates whether the 2D contact group will be deleted after the 3D contact surface elements are generated. When all the contact surfaces in the 2D contact group has been used to generate the necessary 3D contact surfaces, the parameter should be set to YES. {YES/ NO}
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REVOLVE
Sec. 9.2 Element data
RBARAREA [1.0] Specifies the crosssection area for truss elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET.
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SWEEP
SWEEP
NAME EGROUP DX DY DZ NESWP NODES NFIRST EFIRST NCOINCIDE NTOLERANCE DELETEEGROUP LOADSELEMENT AXESORTHOTROPIC AXESINITIAL BCFIXITY RBARNODESET RBARELEMSET RBAREGROUP RBARTYPE RBARSECTION RBARMATERIAL CGROUP CNAME DELETECGROUP RBARAREA LINE ALIGNMENT
Generates a volume of 3D elements by extruding 2D elements along a vector or a line. The rule for generating a new element group type is TWODSOLID FLUID2 > > THREEDSOLID FLUID3
NAME [current highest element group label + 1] Element group label number of the volume elements. If NAME already exists, it must be a THREEDSOLID or FLUID3 element group. EGROUP Previously defined 2D element group label. DX DY DZ Vector components defining the direction of extrusion. NESWP The number of elements in the direction of extrusion. NODES Number of nodes for the extruded 3D elements. {0/8/20/27} If NODES=0, then the following rule applies Max. number of nodes in 2D element group 4 8 9 NFIRST The starting node label for the generated nodes. Number of nodes in 3D element group 8 20 27 [1] [0.0] [0.0] [0.0]
[1]
[0]
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SWEEP
Sec. 9.2 Element data
EFIRST The starting element label for the generated elements.
[1]
NCOINCIDE [NO] Indicates whether the locations of new nodes generated are compared with existing nodes. If NCOINCIDE=YES, then the location of generated generated nodes will be checked against existing nodes. For each generated node, if it lies within the tolerance (specified by NTOLERANCE) of an existing node, no new node will be created. {YES/NO} NTOLERANCE [1.0E5] If NCOINCIDE=YES parameter provides a tolerance for checking the global coordinates of a location againts existing nodes. DELETEEGROUP [YES] Allows to preserve or delete original 2D element group, after the volume element group is generated. {YES/NO} LOADSELEMENT [NO] Indicates whether element loading acting on the edges of the 2D elements will be converted to element loadings on the faces of the 3D elements. {NO/YES} AXESORTHOTROPIC [NO] Indicates whether the material axis systems of the 2D elements will be converted to initial strain axis systems for 3D elements. {NO/YES} AXESINITIALSTRAIN [NO] Indicates whether the initial strain axis systems of the 2D elements to 3D elements will be converted to initial strain axis systems for the 3D elements. {NO/YES} Note: We use the command SWEEP to be consistent with BODY SWEEP command for extrusion along a vector or sweeping along a line. Using the more general term SWEEP allows this command to be extended for sweeping 2D elements along a line to form 3D elements.
BCFIXITY [NO] Indicates whether fixity boundary conditions will be assigned to the generated nodes corresponding to the fixity conditions on the original nodes. {NO/YES} RBARNODESET [0] Label number of a node set defined by the command NODESET. If this parameter references a node set that is defined, truss or beam elements (as specified by parameter RBARTYPE) will be generated by connecting the nodes along the swept direction.
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SWEEP
RBARELEMSET [0] Label number of an element set defined by the command ELEMENTSET. If this parameter references an element set that is defined, the elements in the element set will be duplicated in the swept direction. RBAREGROUP [(current highest element group label number) + 1] Label number of an element group for the elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET. Note that elements generated from parameter RBARELEMSET are appended to the existing element group. RBARTYPE [TRUSS] Specifies the type of element to be generated from parameter RBARNODESET. {TRUSS/ BEAM} RBARSECTION [1] Label number of a cross section to be assigned to beam elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET. Note that cross sections can be defined by the command CROSSSECTION. RBARMATERIAL [1] Label number of a material to be assigned to elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET. CGROUP Specifies a 2D contact group to be used for generating 3D contact surfaces. Note that only 2D contact surface elements which are attached to the mesh to be swept will be used for generating 3D contact surface elements. CNAME [(current highest contact group label number) + 1] Label number of 3D contact group that will contain the generated 3D contact surface elements. If CNAME already exists (it must be a 3D contact group), the generated contact surface elements will be added to the existing contact group. DELETECGROUP [NO] Indicates whether the 2D contact group will be deleted after the 3D contact surface elements are generated. When all the contact surfaces in the 2D contact group has been used to generate the necessary 3D contact surfaces, the parameter should be set to YES. {NO/ YES} RBARAREA [1.0] Specifies the crosssection area for truss elements generated from parameter RBARNODESET.
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SWEEP
Sec. 9.3 Boundary conditions
LINE Line label of the line used for sweeping. ALIGNMENT Specifies the alignment of the 2D meshed face during sweeping. NORMAL PARALLEL : 2D face normal is at fixed angle to line tangent. : 2D face normal always points to the same direction. [NORMAL]
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BOUNDARIES
BOUNDARIES
SUBSTRUCTURE
nodei uxi uyi uzi rxi ryi rzi phii ovalizationi warpingi Assigns fixed/free boundary conditions to nodes. All of the nodes belong to the specified substructure. SUBSTRUCTURE Substructure label number. nodei Node label number. uxi [FREE] uyi [FREE] uzi [FREE] Boundary conditions applied to displacement degrees of freedom. {FIXED/FREE} rxi ryi rzi Boundary conditions applied to rotation degrees of freedom. {FIXED/FREE} [FREE] [FREE] [FREE] [current substructure]
phii [FREE] Boundary conditions applied to the fluid potential degree of freedom. {FIXED/FREE} ovalizationi [FREE] warpingi [FREE] Boundary conditions applied to the pipe ovalization and warping degrees of freedom. {FIXED/FREE} Auxiliary commands LIST BOUNDARIES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE OPTION Option defines listing nodes: input nodes or all model nodes. {INPUT/MODEL} DELETE BOUNDARIES FIRST LAST SUBSTRUCTURE
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CONSTRAINTNODE
Sec. 9.3 Boundary conditions
CONSTRAINTNODE
NAME SLAVENODE SLAVEDOF
masternodei masterdofi betai slavenodei slavedofi Specifies a constraint equation which expresses a slave (dependent) degree of freedom as a linear combination of a set of master (independent) degrees of freedom. A constraint equation can only reference nodes in the main structure. NAME [(highest constraint equation label number) + 1] The label number of the constraint equation. SLAVENODE The label number of the slave node. SLAVEDOF The degree of freedom associated with the slave node. {XTRANSLATION/YROTATION/YTRANSLATION/ZROTATION /ZTRANSLATION/FLUIDPOTENTIAL/XROTATION} masternodei The label number of the master node for the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. masterdofi The degree of freedom of the master node for the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. Allowable values are the same as for SLAVEDOF. betai The coefficient of the “i”th independent term of the constraint equation. slavenodei The label number of the slave node. slavedofi The degree of freedom associated with the slave node. Auxiliary commands LIST CONSTRAINTNODE DELETE CONSTRAINTNODE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST [1.0]
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FIXBOUNDARY NODESET
FIXBOUNDARY NODESET namei fixityi Assigns fixity conditions to node sets. NODESET Label number of the node set.
FIXITY
FIXITY [ALL] Default fixity condition to be assigned to the node sets. Fixity conditions are defined by the command FIXITY. namei Label number of additional node set. Nodes in this node set will be assigned the fixity condition "fixityi". fixityi Fixity condition to be assigned to node set "namei". If this field is not specified, then the fixity condition specified in parameter FIXITY will be assigned to node set "namei". shellnodei Indicates where the fixity condition will be assigned to for midsurface nodes of shell conduction elements. TOP BOTTOM Assign to top location of shell midsurface node. Assign to bottom location of shell midsurface node.
Auxiliary commands LIST FIXBOUNDARY NODESET DELETE FIXBOUNDARY NODESET FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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RIGIDLINKNODE
Sec. 9.3 Boundary conditions
RIGIDLINKNODE
NAME SLAVENODE MASTERNODE DISPLACEMENTS
slavenodei masternodei displacementsi Specifies a rigid link between two nodes. A rigid link can only be specified between nodes in the main structure. NAME [(highest rigid link label number) + 1] The label number of the rigid link. SLAVENODE The label number of the slave node. MASTERNODE The label number of the master node. DISPLACEMENTS [DEFAULT] Selects kinematic formulation for rigid link. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. SMALL LARGE DEFAULT Small displacement formulation. Large displacement formulation. As set by KINEMATICS.
slavenodei The label number of the slave node. masternodei The label number of the master node. displacementsi Selects kinematic formulation for rigid link. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. {DEFAULT/SMALL/LARGE} Auxiliary commands LIST RIGIDLINKNODE DELETE RIGIDLINKNODE FIRST LAST FIRST LAST
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OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT NODE
OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT NODE nodei elementi
TYPE GROUP
Enforces the zeroslopeofpipeskin condition in the longitudinal direction for pipe element nodes. This condition is applicable in the case of a rigid flange (TYPE = FLANGE) or when symmetry is to be enforced (TYPE = SYMMETRY). These conditions apply to pipe element nodes for the element group specified. See the Theory and Modeling Guide. TYPE FLANGE [FLANGE] The flange condition is applied at the specified nodes. Both ovalization and warping at these nodes are suppressed. The symmetry condition is applied at the specified nodes. The ovalization at these nodes is left free but the warping is suppressed.
SYMMETRY
GROUP [currently active group] The element group for each pipe element node specified in this command. nodei Label number of a node. elementi Label number of the element that contains the node. Auxiliary commands LIST OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT NODE DELETE OVALIZATIONCONSTRAINT NODE FIRST LAST TYPE GROUP FIRST LAST TYPE GROUP
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FSIFACE
Sec. 9.3 Boundary conditions
FSIFACE celli n1i n2i …
NAME DIMENSION n16i
Defines fsi boundary using element face node for ADINA. NAME [(current highest fsi boundary label number) + 1] Label number of the fluidstructureboundary to be defined. DIMENSION Dimension of FSI boundary. {3/2} celli Label of a cell on FSI boundary. n1i…n16i Cell