Semester B, 2012/2013

BST 22316 Construction Technology

Mr. WONG Wai Man Raymond

Individual Assignment

Student Name: Student I.D.: Hand-in date:

Cheung Chun Hin 52999911 April 2, 2013

Table of Content
1. Introductions / Assumptions / Overall View 2. Stage 1 - Ground Stabilization Provisions 3. Stage 2 - Cut-off Walling Provisions/Lateral Soil 4. Support Provisions 5. Stage 3 - Excavation Arrangement 6. Stage 4 - Dewatering Arrangement 7. Stage 5 - Spoil Removal Arrangement 8. Stage 6 - Basement Construction Arrangement 9. Conclusion 10.References


1. Introductions / Assumptions / Overall View
1.1 Abstract In building a deep and large-size basement, there are various elements and considerations such as labor, space, material, machineries, basement design requirement, etc. As for a successful project, a proper arrangement and control is important, therefore we will focus on situation analysis, make appropriate approach and problem solving methods in the each of the following parts.

In this report, there will be mainly focus on the basement construction with the 6-7 principle steps. By illustration of diagram and photos taken by me, it would be explained in detail about the actual steps of construction sites and material types. More than learning in text book through theories, it is learning in a more realistic method and manner.


Nature & Purposes Project Aims: This project is to build up a building with a deep and large basement 1.2 Master Flow Chat

1.3 Common managerial problems identified in the construction of deep basement: 1. Very expensive and time consuming in nature, often involved huge amount of work resources. 2. Inconsistent and sensitive to the quality of planning and management of individual projects. 3. Works are highly hazardous, both to human operatives working within and the life and properties of third parties that within the vicinity. 4. Works involved a lot of managerial challenges. Such as, in the preparation of a highly efficient working programme, monitoring and rectifying the progress of works in case problems arising, or in resources planning where materials, labours & plant equipment are involved.

2. Stage 1 - Ground Stabilization Provisions
2.1 Purpose There are mainly 3 functions for ground stabilization, including strengthens improvement (increase load-bearing capacity of soil), dust control (alleviate dust generated by machinery operations), and soil waterproofing (to increase waterproofing ability of soil from surface) 2.2 Situation Analysis Given that the site is large in size and the soil in weaker in nature, the main function for ground stabilization is to strengthen soil load bearing capacity so that the soil have sufficient stability to support the loading from the building (dead-load) and users (live load). 2.3 Possible Methods & Choice The method of soil stabilization is broadly divided into 2 approaches, chemical soil stabilization and mechanical soil stabilization. In Hong Kong, there is mainly using grouting which is under chemical soil stabilization approach

1. Add quicklime / hydrated lime Mechanism: absorb the water / moisture in soil Advantages: easy transportation, cheap Considerations: cannot reach deep underground, time-consuming


2. Fly ash Mechanism: reduce the air voids Advantages: easy transportation, cheap Considerations: cannot reach deep underground, time-consuming

3. Grouting Mechanism: reduce the air voids, control water fillings, prevent sand deification, reduce vibration, and reduce settlement. Advantages: numerous varieties of functions, stable, effective Considerations: comparatively expensive

Recommendation Among the above options, it is recommended to take “grouting ” as the way to stabilize the ground, because it is relatively efficient, reliably stable.


2.4 Sequence Cement grout is formed by mixing water, cement, sand in a proper ratio (typical proportion by weight is 1:0.5:3). It is intended that cement mortar is constructed by placing, packing, or pressure pouring. Owing to the relatively high water content, the mixing of cement with water produces a fluid suspension which can be poured under base plates or into holes. Then to wait some days for setting and hardening, this process is to create a good performance. After the grouting is finished, a substantial proportion of load is designed to be transferred by the bedding to other members. 2.5 Considerations of this Method 2.5.1 Rainy weather may lengthen the time-requirement for setting, weaken or even damage the grouting. 2.5.2 Strong sunlight may damage the grouting quality 2.5.3 It is necessary to control the voids in the soil, because excessive voids may affect the strength, stiffness and permeability of grout

2.6 Solutions 2.6.1 Ensure the soil quality by civil engineer 2.6.2 Prepare the project time properly in avoid construction within rainy seasons. Calculate the mixture ratio of grouting carefully based on the soil data, and add other chemicals whenever necessary.


3. Stage 2 - Cut-off Walling Provisions/Lateral Soil Support Provisions
3.1 Purpose To withstand the lateral loading of the site, so that the site can be safe when constructing basement or other works. 3.2 Situation Analysis We assumed that the soil is bad graded and soil content is wet in nature. There are adjacent buildings nearby. We should consider the spacing and the sufficient support to the side force. 3.3 Possible Methods & Choice There are many ways to construct a cut-off wall. Despite of the methods are so many, there are commonly 6 types of practices in Hong Kong which are as follow:


Lateral Support 1. Steel pile

[Photo taken ME @ 1/4/2013 Wu Hu Street] Advantages: resist tension Considerations: rusting may occur


2. Soldier pile

[Drawn by Me] Advantages: reusable, reliable, relatively cheaper than steel pile Considerations: rusting may occur, require accuracy jointing 3. Hand-dug caisson

Advantages: cheaper cost Considerations: very dangerous to worker ’s life


4. Bore pile

Advantages: very stable Considerations: expensive, permanent 5. Mini-pile or pipe pile

Advantages: suitable for small or medium construction site Considerations: rusting may occur, limited to 12m depth 6. Diaphragm wall

Advantages: fully supported Considerations: require more complex procedure and more support system

Recommendation After the choosing the above choices, it is better to use diaphragm wall with steel struts and diagonal bracing in this situation (but not using anchor), because it support deep excavation without using other underground spacing. Elevation: [Photo taken by ME@1/4/2013 Intercontinental Hong Kong expansion work]

Illustration Drawings [Drawn by Me]:



NOT USING ANCHOR (because buildings nearby)

Anchors Increase the slope stability

[Photo taken ME @ 1/4/2013 Chatham Road North] 3.4 Case Example

Just like the basement work in Intercontinental Hong Kong expansion work

(香港洲際酒店擴建工程) which owned by the New World Development Company Limited. The basement used the diaphragm wall with lateral supported by the steel struts and diagonal bracing. It is a common and economic method which broadly adopted in large site construction. 3.5 Considerations of this Method 1. Require more complex procedure 2. Need more spacing 3. Preparations require more time 3.6 Solutions 1. Recruit more skilled labor 2. Carefully planning the site spacing and use more


4. Stage 3 - Excavation Arrangement
4.1 Purpose Before building a new structure at a specific site, excavation of the original spoil above or below the ground is needed so that the building works are process properly. There are several considering factors which are as follow: 1. Nature of subsoil – affect type of machine used and the necessity of soil protection. 2. Size of excavation – affect type of machine used and method to excavate. 3. Scale of work – large volume of excavation may involve complicated phasing arrangement and work planning 4. Ground water condition – affect degree of protection (watertight sheet piling or dewatering may require) 5. Surrounding condition – impose certain restrictions and precautions (e.g. diversion of a government drain, or underpinning work to the nearby building foundation) 6. Depth of excavation – affect use of spacing and working platform 4.2 Situation Analysis In this site, the subsoil is loosely compacted, not much rock and there is necessary to strengthen the soil. Since the site is large enough, large machines with higher efficiency are available in use. In building a deep basement, excavation machines are needed to work at the bottom of the designated site with different level at each of the time. So, when the basement is not deep, there would only need to use simple excavation machines; but when it is deep enough, it would necessary to use machines support long distance carrying.


4.3 Recommendation It is recommended to take excavation in a way of “bench arrangement for open site”. Firstly, it excavate the central part of soil and make it similar to open-cut method. Then it forms slopes at the surroundings and excavate the soil at the side after the central part is clear. This is a pattern that the site would be excavating into a shape like bench when we looking at the top of the site. This has an advantage that the remaining soil can act as a support at the corners while there is sufficient spacing provided for operation of work. About the edge of the remaining soil, it would be good enough to have cut edge with step or edge of cut, because these 2 shapes are safety enough. Even there is a heavy rain, it would not easily collapse or slide down.


5. Stage 4 - Dewatering Arrangement
5.1 Purpose It is a process to remove the over-saturated water in ground and keep the subsoil within a non-saturated condition. 5.2 Situation Analysis We assume that there is no underground river crossing the expected working space, high water table and there is a need of dewatering. In this case, we are going to build a deep and large size basement, therefore we should dewatering as a way to lower pore pressure in soil and avoid causing any damages by base heave. 5.3 Possible Methods & Choice In total there are 3 methods in dewatering, including: [Active drainage method] “Dewatering by deep wells” “Dewatering by wellpoints” & [Passive drainage method] “Dewatering by horizontal drainage”. 1. Dewatering by deep wells

Advantages: drain large amount of water at a time Disadvantages: uneven drainage over the whole construction site

2. Dewatering by wellpoints

Advantages: very flexible arrangement, occupied less area Disadvantages: not as efficient as the above method 3. Dewatering by horizontal drainage (e.g. sump pit)

Advantages: no need to exclusively excavate Disadvantages: working condition is poorer, passive Recommendation After analysis the above methods, we will choose to take dewatering method by well points. Because the site condition is assumed to have no underground river which no need to drain large amount of water, but needed to drain evenly over the whole site. Whenever necessary, we should also use dewatering by horizontal drainage. 5.4 Precautions 5.4.1 It has to be ensure the depth, number, distribution of wellpoints are appropriate 5.4.2 The use of horizontal drainage should be ready when site level reached the original water table level

6. Stage 5 - Spoil Removal Arrangement
6.1 Purpose There are always spoils created by excavation, ground displacement work, in-suit materials, etc. In order to protect the adjacent environment and to cope with the regulations, it is necessary to remove the spoils in a proper method. In addition, there are some special materials requires special treatment before discharge (e.g. Asbestos). Therefore, it is undoubtedly that even removal requires a plan. 6.2 Situation Analysis In the construction of a basement, there would probably have the following spoils: 1. Soil 2. Concrete materials 3. Sewage 4. Temporary non-reusable structures 5. Dust But in the above, we will focus on soil removal arrangement. Because soil takes the largest portion of spoil in nearly every site. When in considering soil removal method, we would make decision on using what types of excavator and why to use them. 6.3 Possible Methods & Choice There are many types of excavator, including: 1. Compact excavator [Photos taken by ME @1/4/2013 Chatham Road North]

Advantages: higher mobility Disadvantages: lower weight can be carried (0.7-0.8 tones)


2. Dragline excavator [Photo taken by ME@1/4/2013 Intercontinental Hong Kong expansion work]

Advantages: Able to transport 168 meters and 450 tones material Disadvantages: extremely high capital cost 3. Long reach excavator

Advantages: support distance away carriage Disadvantages: (same with Compact excavator) 4. Steam shovel


Advantages: allow to install on the train Disadvantages: Uncommon to be use 5. Power shovel

Advantages: very powerful in harrying weight Disadvantages: not applicable in all types of construction Recommendation From the analysis of the above excavators, we decided that Compact excavator and Dragline excavator will be used in the construction work. There will be around 10 compact excavator working at the basement site and cooperatively work with dragline excavator at the upper level of the site. 6.4 Considerations of this Method 6.4.1 Accidents maybe happen during lifting the soil upwards 6.4.2 Spacing is important for accessing 6.4.3 Air pollution is serious in the site 6.4.4 Air pollution and noise pollution may affects the surroundings 6.5 Solutions 6.5.1 All workers should equipped with safety protective equipment and supervise by experienced manager 6.5.2 Keep area tidy 6.5.3 Improve air ventilation of te site 6.5.4 Cover the working site area with plastic curtain


7. Stage 6 - Basement Construction Arrangement
7.1 Purpose Illustrate basement construction method within the common choice of “Open-cut arrangement ”, ”Bottom-up arrangement ”, ”Top-up arrangement ” with considerations of efficiency and economy. 7.2 Situation Analysis As information given, the proposed basement site is large in size and deep. Therefore 4 points can be deduced as follows: 1. Numerous large machineries are supported to work at the same time 2. The lateral support is heavy 3. Basement works’ working time requirement proportionally larger than normal site, as in accounting the whole project time requirement 4. The basement can support complex construction environment 5. System formwork may be used if the spacing can appropriately handled 7.3 Possible Methods & Choice Considering using which of the methods in basement construction, factors like construction environment, machineries, spacing and spoiling removal methods are important and the following table shows the major comparison with each of the methods. Open- Cut Top-down Bottom-up

Size of site Site environment Lateral Protection Machineries Support Space provision Spoil removal method

Very large Unobstructed Minimum All size machinery Not much Most

Large Adaptable to most environment Limited shoring support Only small size machinery Not much Limited

Medium to small Adaptable to most complex environment Complex lateral support All size machinery Temporary vertical support is needed Limited, but more choice

Recommendation After comparing 3 common practices in Hong Kong, it is affirmative that “ Top-down method” is the most appropriate one among the choices. The reasons are as follow: 1. Support above ground construction carried out simultaneously 2. Save the cost of formwork 3. Settlement can be reduced 4. Less time requirement

[Drawn by ME] 7.4 Considerations of this Method 1. Accurate cost analysis or work study is difficult to carry out for there is limited commonality to make comparisons. 2. A great number of random and uncontrollable variances are likely to arise during the courses of work. This makes planning and scheduling almost cannot be exact. 3. The actual effectiveness of works is highly depended on the as-constructed site environments. 4. Quality of the management and the executing parties, as well as the problems solving ability of the frontline personnel, also seriously affects the performance and effectiveness of works. 7.5 Problem Solutions 1. Collecting the material data from the market and make use of bulk purchase when prices are low, properly manage use of material and avoid wastage. 2. Make thoughtful building plan before the start of work 3. Keep area tidy by place unnecessary equipment away the working area 4. Recruit skilled managers and workers

8. Conclusion

After the above “6-7 involvement principle”, we can conclude that the considerations are broadly classified as cost, materials, working method, time, design, structural properties and management. It is the utmost consideration of construction in Hong Kong that, time and conveniences are more an essential factors in the whole working process because the income on sales or rental of the building is a large amount of pays, compared to the cost of constructing it.

Another point is that, compared to the past years, safety concerns are arising its importance to any of the constructions in Hong Kong. In the past, building basement is a difficult and dangerous job as accidents may frequently appeared, particularly the cut-off method called Hand-dug Caisson1. This kind of method is extremely dangerous as anything dropped into the hole almost killed the man as there are no where he can escape. Therefore, I have check online and discovered that, it has been strictly discourage and even prohibited to be applied in Hong Kong, unless it is proved that no other way to construct without using this method and have a convincing evidence about the safety in applying this method.

Refer to Reference No. 6 23

9. References
WEB SITE 1. Basement Construction in Bottom-Up Method d=340&lang=en 2. Construction of basement in Top-Down method ng-ham-theo-phuong-phap-top-down&catid=72%3Acong-ngh-mi-ang-ap-dng&Ite mid=339&lang=en 3. Essential Health and Safe Tips in Basement Construction 4. Goodwood Residence Basement Construction Sequence by Steve R. Nebres struction-sequence/ 5. Deep Underground Basements for Major Urban Building Construction 0Underground%20Basements%20Final%20with%20edits%20-%2010-14-03.pdf 6. Hand-dug Caisson 7. Introduction to Soil Stabilization 9.pdf

BOOK 1. Puller, M., (1996), Deep Excavations: A Practical Manual, London: Thomas Telford Ltd.


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