INTRODUCTION Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. It is also called Pneumonitis or Bronchopneumonia.

Pneumonia can be a serious threat to our health. Although pneumonia is a special concern for older adults and those with chronic illnesses, it can also strike young, healthy people as well. It is a common illness that affects thousands of people each year in the Philippines, thus, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. There are many kinds of pneumonia that range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. In infectious pneumonia, bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms attack your lungs, leading to inflammation that makes it hard to breathe. Pneumonia can affect one or both lungs. In the young and healthy, early treatment with antibiotics can cure bacterial pneumonia. The drugs used to fight pneumonia are determined by the germ causing the pneumonia and the judgment of the doctor. It’s best to do everything we can to prevent pneumonia, but if one do get sick, recognizing and treating the disease early offers the best chance for a full recovery. A case with a diagnosis of Pneumonia may catch one’s attention, though the disease is just like an ordinary cough and fever, it can lead to death especially when no intervention or care is done. Since the case is a toddler, an appropriate care has to be done to make the patient’s recovery faster. Treating patients with pneumonia is necessary to prevent its spread to others and make them as another victim of this illness. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY The lungs constitute the largest organ in the respiratory system. They play an important role in respiration, or the process of providing the body with oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The lungs expand and contract up to 20 times per minute taking in and disposing of those gases. Air that is breathed in is filled with oxygen and goes to the trachea, which branches off into one of two bronchi. Each bronchus enters a lung. There are two lungs, one on each side of the breastbone and protected by the ribs. Each lung is made up of lobes, or sections. There are three lobes in the right lung and two lobes in the left one. The lungs are cone shaped and made of elastic, spongy tissue. Within the lungs, the bronchi branch out into minute pathways that go through the lung tissue. The pathways are called bronchioles, and they end at microscopic air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are surrounded by capillaries and provide oxygen for the blood in these vessels. The oxygenated blood is then pumped by the heart throughout the body. The alveoli also take in carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled from the body.

psittaci. pneumoniae and H. alcoholism. chronic obstructive airway disease. Typical symptoms include cough. The air sacs in the lungs fill with pus and other liquid. If there is too little oxygen in your blood. Coccidioides immitis. including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical strains. Haemophilus influenzae. Cryptococcus neoformans. and sputum production. Legionella pneumophila. and Pneumocystis carinii. Predisposing factors include upper respiratory viral infections. age extremes. Chlamydia pneumoniae. Oxygen has trouble reaching your blood. Klebsiella pneumoniae. primarily Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). usually developing over days and sometimes accompanied by pleurisy. your body cells can’t work properly. parainfluenza virus. Other means include hematogenous or lymphatic dissemination and direct spread from contiguous infections. very small amount of fluid between the layers. Bronchial pneumonia (or bronchopneumonia) affects patches throughout both lungs. and rickettsiae. influenzae. Bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia. Each lung is surrounded by a two-layered membrane. This syndrome is commonly caused by bacteria. dysphagia. and other gram-negative bacilli. trachomatis. compromised consciousness. institutionalization. . or the pleura. C. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Pneumonia is a serious infection or inflammation of your lungs. C. that under normal circumstances has a very. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common. fungi. Other pathogens include anaerobic bacteria. The fluid allows the membranes to easily slide over each other during breathing. Because of this and spreading infection through the body pneumonia can cause death.Inhaling is due to contractions of the diaphragm and of muscles between the ribs. Lobar pneumonia affects a section (lobe) of a lung. including Histoplasma capsulatum. debility. fever. heart failure. Aspergillus fumigatus. Major pulmonary pathogens in infants and children are viruses: respiratory syncytial virus. Blastomyces dermatitidis. cigarette smoking. such as crackles with bronchial breath sounds. mycobacteria. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. The usual mechanisms of spread are inhaling droplets small enough to reach the alveoli and aspirating secretions from the upper airways. Exhaling results from relaxation of those muscles. Pneumonia affects your lungs in two ways. Of these. and influenza A and B viruses. Physical examination may detect tachypnea and signs of consolidation. Staphylococcus aureus. such as S. immunocompromise (as in diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure). and exposure to transmissible agents. Among other agents are higher bacteria including Nocardia and Actinomyces sp.

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