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Whenever there is an unbalance in circuit, the unbalanced currents will have a negative phase sequence component. A negative phase sequence (or phase unbalance) relay is essentially provided for the protection of generators and motors against unbalanced loading that may arise due to phase-to-phase faults. Such relay has a filter circuit, which is responsive only to the negative sequence components. Since small magnitude over-current can cause dangerous conditions, it becomes necessary to have low setting of such relays. An earth relay can also provide the desired protection but only in case when there is a fault between any phase and earth. For phase-to-phase faults an earth relay cannot provide necessary protection and hence negative phase sequence relay is required.

Fig. 19 a. illustrates the scheme used for negative phase sequence relay. A network consisting of four impedances Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 equal magnitude connected in a bridge of formation, which is energized from three CTs. A single pole relay having an inverse-time characteristic connected across the circuit, as illustrated in be figure. Z1 and Z3 are non-inductive resistors while Z2 and Z4 are composed of both resistance and inductance. The values of Z2 and Z4 are so adjusted that currents flowing through them lag behind those in impedances Z3 and Z1, by 60º. The relay is assumed to have negligible impedance. The current from phase R at junction A is equally divided into two branches, as I1 and I4 but I4 will lag behind I1 by 60°. From fig 19 b, I 1= I4 = I R /⌡3

Similarly the current from phase B divide at junction C into two equal components I3 and I2; I2 lagging behind l3 by 60º. I 2= I3 = I B/⌡3 Note that I 1 lead I R by 30º while I4 lags behind I whereas I3 leads I B by 30°. The current through relay operating coil at junction B will be equal to phasor sum of I 1, I 2 and I Y. i.e. IRELAY = I 1 + I 2 + I Y = I R /⌡3 leading I R by 30º + I B/⌡3 lagging behind I B by 30º + I Y

by 30º. Similarly I 2 lag behind I


by 30º

Flow of + ve Sequence Currents – Fig 19 c, represents the phasor diagram when the load is balanced or when there is no negative sequence current. Since the current through the relay I 1 + I

I Y= 0 because I 1 + I 2 = – I Y

So, the relay remains in operative for a balanced system. Flow of – ve Sequence Currents – Fig 19 d, represents the phasor diagram for negative sequence currents. It is noted that at junction B current I 1 and current I 2 are equal but opposite to each

other, so they cancel each other and current I Y flows through the relay operating coil. Thus the relay operates due to flow of current I Y through it. A low setting value well below the normal full-load rating of the machine is provided since comparatively small values of unbalance currents produce a great danger.

Flow of Zero Sequence Currents – The current at junction B of the relay is represented in phasor diagram fig 19 e, from which it is observed that the currents I 1 and I 2 are displaced from each other by 60º, so that the resultant of these currents is in phase with the current in phase Y. Thus a total current of twice the zero sequence current would flow through the relay and would therefore cause its operation.

To make the relay inoperative under the influence of zero sequence current, the CTs are connected in delta as shown in fig 19 f, because then no zero sequence current can flow in the network circuit