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International Journal of JOURNAL Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 6545(Print

), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)

ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 37-45 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJEET
©IAEME

MITIGATION OF SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGE BY APPLICATION OF SURGE ARRESTER ON CAPACITOR BANK
Dr. Mrs. Hina Chandwani1, C. D. Upadhyay2 , Akil Vahora3, Goutam Som4 Associate Professor, FTE, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India 2 Reseach Scholar, FTE, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India 3 Student of Master of Engineering L.D.College of Engineering, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India 4 Student of Master of Engineering L.D.College of Engineering, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
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ABSTRACT The paper presents the application of surge arresters as a switching overvoltage protection of capacitor bank circuit breakers. Based on an existing Medium Voltage-Capacitor bank MATLAB power simulink is performed to show the effectiveness of the surge arrester in reducing circuit breaker Transient Recovery Voltages and minimizing the probability of circuit breaker restrikes. The energy requirements of the surge arresters and the overvoltage protection levels of the capacitors for different surge arrester arrangements are calculated. KEYWORDS: TRVs, Capacitor Bank, Surge Arrestor, De-energisation 1. INTRODUCTION

Medium voltage capacitor banks are designed for industrial, utility and commercial power systems to improve power factor, increase system capacity, reduce harmonic distortion and improve voltage regulation.[1,2,3] Capacitor bank switching is one of the most demanding operations in MV networks, due to its associated transients. During the opening operation the TRVs across the circuit breaker can rise to very high values and that can initiate breaker restrikes which in turn generate even higher overvoltage [4, 8]. Consequently, any restrike implies additional stress to capacitor and circuit breaker, which reduces their lifetime. If multiple restrikes occur, which can damages the capacitor and circuit breaker immediately [6, 7]. A way to prevent these overvoltages for new switchgears is the installation of modern circuit breakers with a low probability of restrike [5]. For users, having old existing
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

switchgear not suitable for capacitor bank applications, the question is whether the inserting of surge arresters across the capacitor can minimize the probability of the circuit breaker restrikes [9, 10]. Based on a real existing installation of a MV-Capacitor bank a study using the MATLAB power simulink Software was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the surge arrester application in minimizing the probability of circuit breaker restrikes. 2. MODELLING

A case of substation of 220/33 KV, located at Versova, MUMBAI is taken here. Based on an existing installation of a 33kV, 14.7 MVAR capacitor bank (ungrounded double wye -connected), a 3-phase model of a MV-Capacitor bank including the network components (capacitors, reactor, circuit breaker, and transformer) has been developed to perform an MATLAB power simulink Simulation for the opening operation of the capacitor bank. A single-line diagram of the substation and capacitor bank is shown in with all the ratings marked therein

Fig.1. The modelling is based on the following conditions: •The sequence of a three-phase break of capacitive load followed by restrikes in two phases at t=10 ms (1/2cycle) after current interruption was identified as the decisive case. The network with isolated neutral and a power frequency of 50Hz was selected as the most severe case • The circuit breaker interrupts the high frequency current at the first current zero. According to figure 2 three arrester arrangements are investigated for phase to phase and phase to ground. The system neutral Rg was set to zero.

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME • As a surge arrester model a class 3 gap less surge arrester type with a fixed protection level of U res(lightning withstand voltage) /Uc(max residual discharge voltage) = 170/85=2.0 (at in(nominal discharge current) = 10ka) is used • The magnitude of overvoltages is given in p.u. (per unit) as a multiple of the peak peak value of the phase -to-phase voltage

Fig.2: Equivalent circuit with the arrester arrangements: phase to ground, phase to neutral, phase to phase 2.1 DE-ENERGISATION ENERGISATION OF CAPACITOR BANK In order to evaluate the severity of over voltages and to determine the effectiveness of a surge arrester application, the step by step procedure was simulated for the following cases 2.1.1 Three phase break of capacitive load Using the equivalent circuit according Fig.2 for a single stage capacitor bank (S=14.7 MVA) with no surge arrester connected on the network the Voltage and current characteristics shown in Fig.4 are obtained. The first pole to-clear to is phase b and the circuit uit breaker SW1 interrupts the current in Phase b. From the moment the current is interrupted, the charge of the capacitor is trapped and the voltage remains constant at the value it had at zero current. The recovery voltage across the circuit breaker for the first pole to clear rises up to 2.8 p.u. This overvoltage is the most severe voltage stress for the circuit breaker for all investigated cases. As an assumption the circuit breaker is able to withstand the voltage stress of 2 p.u. without a restrike. In FFT analysis tool of MATLAB we are getting total harmonic distortion of 71.01% which is very harmful for other system equipment

Fig. 3 modelling in MATLAB power simulink of capacitor bank system
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

Fig.4 capacitor bank voltage current without surge arrester 2.1.2 Capacitor bank switching with surge arrester

According to figure 5, Surge arrester is connected between phase to phase capacitor bank reduce the overvoltage same arrangement of surge arrester model in simulink as shown figure 9 which limit to 1.5 p.u. voltage which is in withstand limit of breaker unit

Figure 5. Modelling in MATLAB power simulink of capacitor bank with surge arrangement

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

Figure6. Capacitor bank voltage and current with surge arrester

2.1.3 Three phase break of capacitive load associated with multiple breaker restrikes

The same sequence is simulated as in case 1 but as an assumption the circuit breaker is not able to withstand the voltage stress of 2 p.u. and a two phase restrike occurs at the peak value of the recovery voltage in phase a and b (Fig.7). A transient current with an oscillation frequency starts to flow and the voltage across the capacitor swings up to 3 p.u. The circuit breaker interrupts the current again at the first of its current zeros, with the result that the voltage across the capacitor remains on the new constant value and voltage across the circuit breaker SW1 in Phase a and b rises up to 2.3 p.u. In case of further restrikes overvoltages will raise up to 3.0 p.u. across the capacitors and 4.15 p.u for further restrike. This process of voltage and current escalation can damage the capacitor and breaker units.

Figure 7: Three phase break of capacitive load associated with multiple breaker restrikes

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

2.1.4 Three phase break of capacitive load associated with multiple breaker restrikes and using surge arresters

FIG.8A Capacitor voltage

Fig.8B Breaker current Figure 8 Capacitor bank voltage and current when surge arrester connected to phase to ground

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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

The same sequence is simulated as in case 2 but using a surge arrester arrangement phase to ground. The obtained voltage and current characteristics are shown in Fig.8. The surge arrester limits the overvoltage across the capacitors at 1.55p.u. In the case of multiple restrikes this overvoltage level remains constant. A voltage escalation across the capacitor and thus a capacitor failure is prevented. The transient recovery circuit breaker voltage across the first pole-to-clear is limited at 2.0p.u. After the first restrike and that mitigates the risk of further breaker restrikes. A surge arrester arrangement phase to phase also reduce the over voltage to 1.2 p.u The surge arrester not only protects the capacitor from dangerous overvoltages but decreases the probability of multiple restrikes of the breaker, too .
2.1.5 Comparison of breaker TRVs and capacitor voltages for the first pole-to-clear phase

A detailed one-to-one comparison of the cases 2 and 3 for the first pole-to-clear (Phase c) characteristic shows the effectiveness of a surge arrester application (Fig.6 & 8). The effect of the TRV-limitation across the capacitor and the circuit breaker starts with the first restrike. There is no voltage limitation during the opening operation without a restrike. Therefore, the surge arrester can only reduce the over voltages if a restrike occurs. There is no benefit for the circuit breaker to reduce the risk of a first restrike, but it mitigates the risk of multiple restrikes
3. ENERGY STRESS ON SURGE ARRESTER

The energy stresses on the surge arresters were calculated for different arrester arrangements (Fig.2) and different circuit parameters. The following results are obtained
3.1

Energy stress as a function of the three phase capacitor bank size

A single-stage capacitor bank is used to vary the three-phase bank size in order to evaluate the effect on the surge arrester energy stress. The grounding conditions of the system neutral don`t affect the energy stress on the surge arrester. Only In case of a directlygrounded neutral (Rg = 0) and an arrester arrangement phase to ground a slightly higher energy of 7% has to take into account.

Fig. 9 Energy stress as a function of capacitor bank size (based on 3 successive restrikes)

In case of a directly-grounded neutral (Rg = 0) and an arrester arrangement phase to ground a slightly higher energy of 7% has to take into account.
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

3.2 PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS

The voltage across the capacitor bank for a single stage capacitor bank is determined as a function of the three phase capacitor size. The resulting voltages depending on the arrester Positioning are shown in Figure 10.The same capacitor voltage is obtained for systems with directly-grounded (Rg = 0) as well as ungrounded neutral (Rg = ∞). The effect of the number of parallel capacitor stages and the number of repeated restrikes on the capacitor voltage is negligible.

Fig.10 Resulting capacitor voltages as a function of capacitor size 4. CONCLUSION

Based on the computer simulation of the capacitor bank Deenergisation the following application considerations and conclusions can be drawn: In the simulation of the capacitor switching, the mal-effect of over voltage on Circuit Breaker can be reduced by implementing surge arresters at an instant. Not only the reduction of C.B failure is done but also the risk of multiple restrikes is controlled by limiting the TRVs of the C.B
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

For the technical & data support we are thankful to Schneider electrical infrastructure ltd. Vadodara, India.
REFERENCES Books

[1] Ramasamy Natrajan, Power system capacitors ( Taylor & Francis Group, LLC,2005) [2] L. Van Der Sluis, Transients in Power Systems (John Wiley & Sons, 2001) [3] A. Greenwood, Electrical Transients in Power Systems ( New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Ed., 1991)
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International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME

Journal Papers

[4] Grebe, T.E., Application of Distribution System Capacitor Banks and Their Impact on Power Quality (IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 1996,.32(3): P. 714-719) [5] Das J. C., Analysis And Control Of Large Shunt Capacitor Bank Switching Transient (IEEE Transactions On Industry Application, 2005. 41(6): P.1444-1451) [6] D. Rodriguez Sanabria, C. Ramos-Robles, L. Orama Exclusa, Lightning And Lightning Arrester Simulation In Electrical Power Distribution Systems (IEEE Transaction 2004) [7] Sahib Abdoolwadood Ali, Capacitor Banks Switching Transient In Power System (Cscanada Energy Science And Technology 2011, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, Pp. 62-73) [8] Mehdi Nafar, Gevork B Gharehpetian And Taher Niknam , A Novel Parameter Estimation Method For Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Models (Indian Academy of Sciences Part 6, pp. 941–961. Dec 2011) [9] Nilesh S. Mahajan and A. A. Bhole, “Black Box ARC Modeling of High Voltage Circuit Breaker Using MATLAB/SIMULINK” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 69 - 78, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553
Proceedings Papers

[10] Braun. D., Koeppl G, Transient Recovery Voltages during the Switching Under OutOf-Phase Conditions (International Conference on Power Systems Transients IPST 2003 in New Orleans, USA)

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