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Auckland Mathematical Olympiad 2002

Division 1 Questions
1. Nine identical books cost less than $10 in total and ten such books cost more than $11. How much does one book cost? 2. Two squares, whose areas are A and B , are placed in a semicircle as shown below. Find the ratio A/B .

A B

3. The Land of Oz is blessed by many things but not efficient structure of their military forces. Their armored brigade consists of two armored batallions and one infantry batallion. Their infantry brigade consists of two infantry batallions and one armored batallion. Any armored batallion consists of two armored squadrons and one infantry squadron and any infantry batallion consists of two infantry squadrons and one armored squadron. Any armored squadron consists of two armored squads and one infantry squad and any infantry squadron consists of two infantry squads and one armored squad. Any armored squad consists of two armored soldiers and one infantry soldier and any infantry squad consists of two infantry soldiers and one armored soldier. What is the least number of soldiers that must be retrained in order to transform an infantry brigade into an armored brigade? 4. Find all integer solutions of the equation xy + 3x − 5y = +1. 5. Given that there exists a triangle with lengths of its sides a, b, c. prove √ √ √ that there exists a triangle with lengths of its sides a, b, c.

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Let A be a point on c1 lying outside c2 and c3 as shown in the picture below.5 × 4 into two pieces with which it is possible to cover the surface of a unit cube.Auckland Mathematical Olympiad 2002 Division 2 Questions 6. c3 and c1 . Cut a rectangle 1. . C be the point of intersection of BQ with c3 . respectively. . C Q c3 B I R c1 c2 P A Let B be the point of intersection of AP with c2 . 1 is divisible by 37. 2 . 9. c2 . Q. Solve the system of equations  2 x + y2 + z2    2 x + y 2 + t2 x2 + t2 + z 2    2 t + y2 + z2 = = = = 14 21 26 29 7. 8. Let P . Prove that CR will pass through A. The number 11 . Prove that the number of units m m is divisible by 3. c3 pass through the common point I . c2 and c3 . different from I . How many negative roots does the following equation have −2x5 + x4 − 5x3 + 4x2 − 13x + 4 = 0? 10. R be the points of intersection of c1 and c2 . Three circles c1 .

Let x be the price of one book. gives us the existence of a which. −2). 3. 4). −5)..Solutions 1. ±2. Answer: one soldier. (3. i. Since we cannot have any solutions with y = −3. i. Then 9x < 10 and 10x > 11 from which we have 1. ±7. Then. b. ±14. N M a O b We have (a/2)2 + a2 = ON 2 = OM 2 = (a/2 + b)2 + b2 from which for the ratio x = a/b we find x2 − x − 2 = 0. −1). (19.1111. Indeed. y+3 y+3 A solution is possible only when y + 3 is a divisor of 14. since a + b = ( a) + ( b)2 ≤ √equivalent √ √ √ 2 ( a + b) . 3 . Let us denote the lengths of the sides of these squares as a and b.e. Respectively. (4. hence one soldier should be retrained to convert an infantru squadron into an armored squadron and an infantry batallion into an armored batallion. we have eight solutions: (−9. 2.e y + 3 = ±1. −17). c is to a √ + b ≥ c. one soldier should be retrained to transform an infantry squad into an armored squad. −10). we obtain a + b ≤ a + b √ √ √ √ c ≤ a + b ≤ a + b. −4). c.. 5. one dollar and 11 cents. Hence a/b = 2 and A/B = 4. 4. respectively. together with √ √ √ triangle with sides a. we can write our equation as x= 5y + 1 14 =5− .11. (7. (12. 11). and finally an infantry brigade into an armored brigade. (−2. Then the existence of a triangle with √ sides √ 2 a. b. Suppose that a ≤ b ≤ c. √ √ √ a ≤ b ≤ c. The only possibility is x = 1.1 < x < 1. (6.

1 00 must be divisible by 37. y 2 = 4. which is 3k 3k impossible. 9. Similarly ∠IRC = ∠BQI . The equation −2x5 + x4 − 5x3 + 4x2 − 13x + 4 = 0. we get x2 = 1. the right-hand-side is negative whereas the lefthand-side is always positive. Hence ∠ARC = ∠ARI + ∠IRC = ∠BP I + ∠BQI = 180◦ . Adding all equations together we get 3(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 ) = 90 or (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 ) = 30. . This equation cannot have negative roots because when x is negative. . IR. we obtain that ∠ARI = 180◦ − ∠AP I and therefore ∠ARI = ∠BP I . . we will draw the segments CR and AR and prove that ∠CRA = 180◦ . 8. Similarly we consider the case m = 3k + 1. . . z 2 = 9.6. may be written as x4 + 4x2 + 4 = 2x5 + 5x3 + 13x or (x2 + 2)2 = 2x5 + 5x3 + 13x. We cut it as shown below on the left picture and join the two parts as shown on the right one. But ∠BP I + ∠BQI = 180◦ . But then 11 = N − 11 . . 4 . t = ±4 7. IQ. 1 be a multiple of 37. Suppose m = 3k + 2. 10. Thus x = ±1. 1 = 11 . Since the quadrilateral AP IR is cyclic. t2 = 16. Instead of proving that CR passes through A. . . we see that 11 . Let us draw the segments IP. Subtracting each equation in turn from this total. Let N = 11 . then m N = 11 . 1 00 is divisible by 111 and hence by 37. . 1 00 + 11 m 3k Since 111 = 37 × 3. z = ±9. . y = ±2.