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Civil Engineering; hydraulic jump; results/ discussion

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Height of flow downstream/ “ Height of flow upstream/ “ Start of hydraulic jump, L1/ m 0.48 0.42 0.39 0.388 End of hydraulic jump, L2/ m 0.55 0.555 0.55 0.637 Length of hydraulic jump, L/ m =L2-L1 0.07 0.135 0.16 0.249

1 2 3 4

8.03 10.62 11.70 12.30

7.44 7.26 7.31 7.34

Rate of flow data Volume of water measured= 300L = 0.3m3 Trial No. 1 2 Volume of water/ L 300 300 Time, t/ s 57.86 38.28 38.56 38.92 32.78 32.49 32.49 29.72 29.70 29.76 Treatment of results Trial No. Depth of flow Depth of flow H1, Height upstream, H2, height of downstream, of flow d1/m flow d2/ m upstream/m (H1-Datum) downstream/m (H2-Datum) 0.188976 0.022356 0.203962 0.037342 0.184404 0.017784 0.269748 0.103128 0.185674 0.019054 0.29718 0.13056 0.186436 0.019816 0.31242 0.1458 Actual discharge rate, Qa/m3/s 0.005185 0.007774 0.009205 0.010091 Discharge Critical per unit depth, dc/m width, q/ m3/s/m 0.04938 0.062875 0.074038 0.082366 0.087667 0.092186 0.096105 0.098011 Average time, t/ s 57.86 38.59 Actual discharge rate, Qa/ m3/s 0.005185 0.007774

3

300

32.59

0.009205

4

300

29.73

0.010091

1 2 3 4

Ec/ m ( ) ΔE/m= E2/ m 0.128954 0.898895 0.15354 0.882657 10.560982 12.094204 0. Trial No.600959 4.708465 9.363719 4.671467 10.4302 42.64194 0. M2/ (M+F)2 11.88624 1.932541 Momentu m at critical depth.882657 0.9947 0.205012 4.13828 0. Number downstream.64194 10. Force upstream . E1/ m 0.05987 6.950972 0.980554 Trial No.707706 0. Critical velocity. v2/ m/s upstream. 1 2 3 4 Specific Energy upstream.68931 14.6748 32.181093 0.Trial No. Steady jump Strong jump Strong jump Strong jump Loss of energy in % ((ΔE/E1)x100) 0.711829 9.320102 4.2678 42.186421 0.001008 0. 1 2 3 4 Froude number upstream.4506 13.461056 8.444139 4.593314 0. Energy loss. Velocity upstream.19822 . M1/kgm/s = 11.256633 0.089805 10.849857 1 2 3 4 Froude Velocity Froude Number downstream.78537 0.659155 10.83587 5.56445 6.99984 The classification of jumps for each trial no.91537 kgm/s = 6. F1/ N= ( ) 1 2 3 4 0.09116 14. Mc/kgm/ s 4.025275 3.551155 0.727438 9. F2/N= ( ) Momentum downstrea m.139328 0.27017 0. downstream.147016 0.4112 48. Fr 1 Fr2 vc/ m/s 1.79762 Classification of hydraulic jump for each of the trial no.162399 0.55188 11.631576 7.752734 10.0255 14.865081 (M+F)c 6.708465 2.79309 (M+F)1 Force downstream.716009 5.96707 8.21865 Specific Specific Energy Energy at critical depth.126163 0. Fc/N 2.167945 0.122849 0. v1/ m/s 2.097995 1.20163 Momentu m upstream.99984 0.22477 48.373054 9.16231 6.5470 Force at critical depth.41819 32.173027 Trial No.9150 17. Fr1 4.084733 0.127841 4.

L vs Froude number upstream.25 Length of hydraulic jump. Fr1 0. L/ m 0. Fr1 .3 0.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Froude number upstream.2 0.15 0.1 0.Length of hydraulic jump.

Loss of energy (%) vs Froude number upstream 20 18 16 14 Loss of energy (%) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Froude number upstream. Fr1 .

16 0.18 0.06 0.08 0. Fr1 8 10 12 .2 0.02 0 0 2 4 6 Froude Number Upstream.1 0.Energy dissipation vs Froude Number upstream for the 4 trials 0.12 0. Δ E 0.14 Energy dissipation.04 0.

E Trial No.4 .8 1 1.2 1. E 0. d/m 0.2 Trial No.12 Depth of flow.14 0.2 0.08 0. d vs Specific Energy.4 0.06 0.1 Trial No.4 Specific Eneegy.3 Trial No.02 0 0 0.6 0.16 0.04 0.Depth.1 0.

2 .Depth. d/m 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 (M+F) 40 50 60 Trial No.4 Trial No.12 Depth of flow.14 0.08 0.06 0.16 0.3 Trial No.d vs (M+F) 0.1 Trial No.1 0.04 0.

5) The steps were repeated for the other three discharge values. This data is used to calculate the discharge. 3) The depth of flow in front.Procedure: 1) The flow rate was adjusted and the tailgate elevation set so that a stable acceptable hydraulic jump occurs midway through the channel. Q. the time taken for the needle on the gauge of the hydraulic jump machine to make three revolutions was recorded for each trial of the experiment. Each revolution of the gauge represents 100 litres of water. 2) Using a stopwatch. 4) Using a meter rule. . the length of the hydraulic jump was measured. behind the hydraulic jump was measured.

9%. This can be considered erroneous. There is also increased difficulty in measuring the start and end of the hydraulic jump for the other three trials due to the addition of the problem of increased turbulence and eddies. The theory suggests that both the Froude number and specific energy are functions of velocity of the stream hence the rate of discharge. This can be due to various sources of errors such as parallax error. there was more energy dissipated as the hydraulic jumps got more energetic.7. This is where the experimental results do not coincide with the theoretical values. The trend is that as Froude number upstream increases. This can be observed from the graph hence the experimental data supports the theory. The highest energy dissipation that was computed was for the 4th trial with a value of only 14. Human error can play a significant role in this case. This can be a very effective means of reducing unwanted energy in streams. ΔE vs Froude number upstream. The length of the hydraulic jump is the horizontal distance between the front of the jump and the point just downstream of the last roller. The rate of flow for the first trial. Each consecutive trial number for the experiment the flow rate was set to a higher value than it was before. ΔE of the hydraulic jump is a very low value for the first trial of the experiment with and approximate value of 0. The classification of the hydraulic jump for this first run is a steady jump.Discussion: The graph of Energy dissipation. From this trend it can be stated based on the graph that as the Froude number upstream falls below 4. Hence. Therefore. the second. And Q. the energy dissipation theoretically supposed to range between 45-70%.001m. the following assumptions must be made in order to reduce other potential errors and misconceptions: . the energy dissipation tends to 0 (a negligible value). after the hydraulic jump. For a steady hydraulic jump. poor human averaging of the measurement of the last roller of a hydraulic jump or good sense of where the jump actually begins in the channel for a specified flow rate needed for the determination of the length of the hydraulic jump. The other three jumps are classified as strong. For this graph. If water from a steep spillway is fed into a channel. With an increase in Froude number upstream. The graph shows that the hydraulic jump is a very effective dissipater of energy as the Froude number upstream is high. that is. The energy dissipation in percentage (%) is 0. Energy can be dissipated as sound or heat and therefore. The length of the hydraulic jump is usually in the order of 5 times its height. The graph also shows that the energy loss. This would affect the distance the water would travel since velocity is a function of displacement. The graph of Length of hydraulic jump vs Upstream Froude number showed that there was a linear increase of the jump length as the upstream Froude number increased. an application of hydraulic jumps is to dissipate much of the surplus energy and allow the stream to be safely discharge as tranquil flow. This small energy loss corresponds to an upstream Froude number of approximately 4. Q as can be seen in there equations Fr and Specific E. the water downstream may have a temperature higher than the one upstream. For this experiment. increased velocities caused both the Froude number and the specific energy to increase. From the graph this is clearly illustrated. Theoretically the increased velocity would cause the Froude number to increase making the flow more critical. that is. energy loss increases but at a non linear rate.373%.7. the velocity of the stream was relatively low compared to the other trials. an increase in specific energy upstream. severe scouring of the bed may occur if rapid flow is allowed to continue. third point and fourth point showed great deviation from the line of best fit than the first point. Fr1 shows an exponential relationship between the two.

to aerate water for city supplies and to remove air pockets from water that goes into supply lines thus preventing air locking. friction at the boundaries of the channel and position of the sluice gate. such as the existence of supercritical flow or the presence of a control section on that a gaging station may be located. however was comparable to theoritical calcs. The turbulence in a jump may be sufficient to induce large quantities of air into the liquid and as a result the depth immediately after the jump may be greater than that predicted by equation 10. phenomenon was not without errors and difficulties. Energy losses. reaction time error when obtaining time for flow.25.j. weirs and other hydraulic structures and prevent scouring downstream from the structure. Factors that affect the stability of the jumps are flow rate. To increase discharge of a sluice gate by holding back tailwater since the effective head will be reduced if the tailwater is allowed to drown the jump. .1) The bed of the stream is horizontal so that the component of weight in the direction of flow may be neglected in calculations. additional energy losses due to friction. it was assumed that the density of the water was 997kg/m^3 although the water wasn’t pure since it was brown indicating that it contained other substances which may cause errors in the experiment such as different values of momentum and energy readings. The value of the depth downstream is determined by the conditions downstream of the jump and the rapid flow continues until the depth upstream has reached the value which fits the equation 10. Hydraulic jumps are applied to dissipate energy in water flowing over dams. that is. the width hydraulic jump is constant. downstream of the hydraulic jump) are uniform and are used without significant error. It was obs. To indicate special flow conditions. The delta E equation tells that a hydraulic jump is possible only from rapid to tranquil flow and not vice versa.25. The position at which the hydraulic jump occurs is dependent on if the momentum relation is satisfied. There were problems in obtaining the hydraulic jump at the centre of the channel since slight adjustments of the flow rate would cause the jump to move to the end of the channel but careful alterations of the conditions created hydraulic jumps which was generally produced in the middle of the channel. the flow may not have been fully stabilized when the reading were taken. inclusive of stabilizing the jump ina fixed fume length. To mix two chemicals together or to mix chemicals for water purification. 4) The depth is uniform across the width. inserting the depth gauge into the channel may have affected the position of the hydraulic jump. the method of obtaining the jump parameters and not being able to account for the add. 3) The velocities of each of the cross section (upstream. 2) The rectangular cross section is uniform. Some other sources of errors include parallax error when reading flow gauge and vernier scale. Conclusion: Within the limits of the experimental errors it was found that the experimental approach to the h. To recover and raise the water level on the downstream side of a measuring flume and maintain high water level in the side of a measuring flume thus maintaining high water level in a channel for irrigation and other water distribution methods. That the depth decrease upstream and the froude number increased and more energy was dissipated.

.

2) Massey. Chadwich..“Development of drop number performance for estimate hydraulic jump on vertical and sloped drop structure. Accessed November 2. Nay Pyi Taw State: Myanmar. 2004.most. http://www. Mechanics of Fluids. Taylor & Francis. 2006.” International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol.2012.pdf 4) Technological University Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). Accessed November 2. pp.pdf .academicjournals. Mohammad.2010. Morfett. J.and Shatirah Akib.gov. 1678-1687. Technological University Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). Taylor & Francis.(date unavailable). http://www.2012.The hydraulic pump. A..References: 1) Borthwick. M.mm/techuni/media/CE_04016_chap8. 3) Sholichin. Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Bernard. 5(11).org/ijps/pdf/pdf2010/18%20Sept/Sholichin%20and%20Akib.

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