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Security is primary concern for every one. There are many ways to provide security at homes or in industries. But what if the security is assured irrespective of the person is inside or outside the house. This Project describes a design of effective security alarm system that can monitor the house with different sensors using GSM modem. Home Security System is a security system using wireless concept that monitors the status of each sensor continuously. This project is mainly useful in homes, industries etc to continuously safeguard homes and industries. The main aim of this project is to provide security to the homes using GSM technology. The security system contains various sensors like reed switches which serve as door sensors, vibration sensor, temperature (LM35), IR transmitter and receiver, LDE-LDR pair, fire and gas sensors. The system continuously monitors the output of all these sensors and if any of the sensors trigger, the controlling unit immediately identifies the change in the output of the sensor and sends the predefined message to the user mobile through GSM modem and also alerts the buzzer.

Security has been an important issue in the smart home applications. Conventional security systems keep homeowners, and their property, safe from intruders. A smart home security system, however, offers many more benefits. A smart home or building is a home or building, usually a new one that is equipped with special structured wiring to enable occupants to remotely control or program an array of automated home electronic devices by entering single command. For example, a homeowner on vacation can use a Touchtone phone to arm a home security system, control temperature gauges, switch appliances on or off, control lighting, program a home theater or entertainment system, and perform many other tasks. The WSN data collecting node module is connected with Piezoelectric Infrared Detector, Temperature Sensor, Smoke Detector and Gas Sensor separately. When the PIR finds that some people intrudes into the house or when the temperature sensor detects too high indoor temperature or when the gas sensor detects leakage of gas, the data collecting node will send encoded alarm signal to the WSN center node through the wireless sensor network established in home. Once the WSN center node receives alarm signal, it will send alarm short message to the users through the GSM module and GSM network immediately. Similarly the user can also control the various devices connected with device control unit through SMS. Using Bio sensors to measure heart rate and blood pressure from human body this method is using especially for old people. Biosensor senses data and send to the owners or users mobile phone. It will send alarm short message to the users through the GSM module and GSM network immediate



LPG Gas Sensor


IR Sensor


Fire RS-232




Modular design is throughout the system. System is built on the embedded system, and it can monitor the important position through the CMOS camera. Home state SMS and images MMS are sent to specialized mobile phones. Besides, household appliances can be remotely controlled by SMS. ZigBee module connects household appliances, the system motherboard with smoke, temperature, gas sensors, forming a wireless networking. The alarm system adopts SMS data transmission and voice platform of GSM/GPRS network to archive transmitting and remotely control the alarm data when a signal is detected by detectors, the detectors will send alarm signal to host immediately, then the host sends alarm SMS to its pre-set mobile phone numbers, and meanwhile dials its pre-set telephone/mobile phone numbers automatically and drive wiretap. In addition, users can dial the system and set it in arm/disarm mode by any remote phones.


3.1 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK NODE MODULE The wireless sensor network in home of this system is composed of one center node module and several data collecting node modules, operating in point-to-multipoint communication node. A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity.

FIG. 3.1 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK NODE MODULE The WSN is built of "nodes" – from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting.

GSM is one of the latest mobile technologies using smart MODEM, which can easily interfaced to embedded microcontrollers. Now everything is going to be automated using this technology, using this technology we can access the devices remotely. Using GSM and GPS now we can identify the people, vehicles etc in anywhere of the world. MODEM is communicating with the microcontroller using AT commands, for example if we want to send an SMS to number 98xxxxxxxxx,the commands we have to send is AT+CMGS=”<98xxxxxxxxxx>”, <enter>, <message>, <ctrl-Z>. In this project it is used to send SMS to the owners mobile when somebody entered into house without permission or a fire is detected.


The system software, which is developed with C51 programming language , has WSN node communication, and one for the GSM communication.

In the indoor wireless sensor network, the communication protocol is divided into three layers. The first layer is physical layer whose function has been implemented by CC1100 hardware itself. The second layer is network layer. Which applies TEEN (Threshold sensitive energy efficient senor network) protocol. The data will be transmitted through the wireless sensor network only when the observed values changes suddenly. The third layer is application layer. In this layer, the system’s application software is divided into two modules, WSN data collecting node software module and WSN centre node software module. The former, running on the slave MCU of data collecting nodes, is responsible for collecting sensor data and wireless transmitting them. The latter, running on the master MCU of WSN center node, is responsible for wireless receiving data and judging whethe r it’s need to start the alarming process or not. If yes, it will drive TC35 GSM module to send alarm short message to user’s mobile phone. The software flow of center node module is illustrated. And the software flow of data collecting node module is illustrated.


The software design is first wireless sensor node communication. After designing of WSN node communication next designing of GSM communication. In this GSM communication when the wireless sensor node module receives a abnormal data it will drive TC35 GSM Module. It supports Standard AT commands. The system software developed in Embedded C language has the ability of collecting, wireless receiving and transmitting data, and can send a piece of alarm short message to the user’s mobile phone when some dangerous condition has been detected. With the advantages of reliability, easy usage, complement wireless, and low power consumption, the system also has practical value in other fields. When the WSN center node module receives abnormal data, it will drive TC35 GSM module to send alarm short message through GSM network. TC35 GSM module supports standard AT command set. MCU control the operation of TC35 module by inputting different AT function commands through the serial port. Some GSM AT commands relevant to short message are listed. The sending mode of short message depends on the interface supported by the short message service center in the GSM network. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has defined three kinds of interface protocol for sending short message: Block mode, Text mode and PDU mode. Block mode requires the mobile phone manufacture to provide driving support. Text mode doesn’t support Chinese text [7]. So at present, PDU mode has become the core of most mobile phone for their short message communication. It can provide more powerful functions than the other modes. So, this system applies PDU mode to send alarming short message.



We set up a sample prototype system in our lab room. As mentioned above, choose C8051F310 MCU as the data processing unit of WSN center node module and data collecting node module. Here, C8051F310 has a temperature sensor imbedded that can detect the inroom temperature, after hardware connection, install the appropriate software developed with C51 on MCU based indoor wireless control center. Then, we can start the test with this prototype system by changing the preset temperature threshold. When the actual in room temperature exceeds this preset temperature threshold, the control center will immediately trigger TC35 GSM module to send an alarm short message to our mobile phone. Through the test process, this prototype system operated successfully and effectively with reliable and well communication. According to figure 1 and 2 set up a simple prototype system. First ARM7 is chosen as data processing unit of WSN center node module and data collecting node module. Temperature sensor embedded that can detect the in room temperature. After hardware connection, the appropriate software developed with embedded C on microcontroller based indoor wireless control center is installed. Then it can start test with this prototype system by changing the present temperature threshold. When the actual in room temperature exceeds this preset temperature threshold. When actual temperature sensor embedded that can detect the in room temperature. After hardware connection, install the appropriate software developed with Embedded C on Micro controller-based indoor wireless control center. The control center will immediately trigger TC35 GSM module to send an alarm and user send message to automatic control of devices in home.



For measuring and monitoring physical and non-physical activities in a remote area, various types of wireless sensors are generally grouped in a network [3, 4]. Apart from the sensors, the network may incorporate repeater hubs to extend the transmission range of the retrieved data. The network may also incorporate processing units to analyze the data. The sensor networks employ small, low power devices to do all the tasks. The sensors in the network capture the activity and the collected data is communicated to a remote monitoring centre using wireless data transfer techniques such as Radio Frequency (RF) communication. The size and cost constraints on these types of network result in corresponding constraints being exerted on the resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and bandwidth. Figure (6.1) shows a typical wireless sensor network. It consists of a Data Acquisition Network (DAN) and a Data Distribution Network (DDN). In the Data Acquisition Network, the data collected by the sensor nodes are transmitted, using RF channel, to the Base Station Controller (BSC), which in turn is connected to the Management Centre using wired or wireless connection. Some pre-processing of data is often done at the base station which, for a small and simple sensor network, is generally equipped with a microprocessor or microcontroller. The entire network is monitored and controlled by the Management Centre which is equipped with large storage capacity and computational resources to undertake data analysis and presentation. As shown in Fig. (6.1), the Base Station provides a gateway to the Data Distribution Network. For distribution of data within the DDN, various kinds of transmission techniques are used, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Cellular networks (CDMA/GSM). Data may be distributed to remote PCs/ Notebooks, handheld PDAs and cellular phones. Thus, to build and implement a sensor network, a designer needs to consider several aspects which are discussed in the following sub-sections.


Wi-Fi (also spelled Wi- fi or Wi- Fi) is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data wirelessly (using radio waves) over a computer network, including high-speed Internet connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards". The homes Wi-Fi network was implemented through a standard Wireless (802.11b and 802.11g) ADSL Modem Router, with a 4 port switch. The modem provides two primary functions. Firstly, the modem provides the connection between the Internet and local Wi-Fi network; hence extending access to the Wi-Fi enabled home gateway to any location with Internet access. Secondly, any local Wi-Fi enabled device within range of the home’s Wi-Fi network can directly access the home gateway. This provides a low cost communication method with the home network, reduced infrastructure costs where Wi-Fi devices are already in use. Moreover, homeowners can monitor and control the smart home network, using familiar technology and devices.


Bluetooth, is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. The vast network of Bluetooth devices includes billions of phones, tablets, PCs and TVs in use today worldwide. These devices can not only talk to each other, but also communicate with Bluetooth enabled appliances, heating and cooling systems, and other devices in the smart home. Companies that commercialize this emerging market by selling smart home devices with Bluetooth technology will be able to take advantage of the Bluetooth network effect, ensuring their products can work with the phones, tablets, PCs and TVs homeowners already own.


ZigBee is relatively new, wireless personal area network technology based on IEEE 802.15.4, with transmission range 100+ meters. ZigBee Home Automation offers a global standard for interoperable products enabling smart homes that can control appliances, lighting, environment, energy management and security, as well as the expandability to connect with other ZigBee networks. Smarter homes allow consumers to save money, be more environmentally aware, feel more secure and enjoy a variety of conveniences that make homes easier and less expensive to maintain. ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical radio bands 868MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and 2.4 GHz in most other countries in the rest of the world. ZigBee is a radio frequency (RF) communications standard based on IEEE 802.15.4. Fig2 depicts the general architecture of a Zigbee based home network. The Zigbee coordinator is responsible for formulating and maintain the network. The ZigBee home automation network consists of a coordinator, routers for the purpose of routing in communication and several end devices. The coordinator is responsible for starting the ZigBee network. During the network initialization phase, the coordinator scans the available radio channels to find the relevant one. Usually, this will be the channel with the least number of active channels, in order to reduce the level of interference. It is possible to limit the channels scanned, for example excluding that frequency ranges used by the Wi-Fi network included in the proposed architecture. The ZigBee devices developed for the home network, as mentioned, includes a light switch, safety sensor and ZigBee remote control. A ZigBee end node has been integrated with these devices. As the devices are started, during their respective initialization stage, the node scans for available channels to identify the network it wishes to join. There may be multiple networks in the same channel; these networks are normally distinguished by their PAN ID. The node selects which network to join based on the PANID. The node sends a request to the network coordinator to join the network. The request is sent to the coordinator directly or through a neighboring router on the desired network with which the node shares the best signal. On receipt of the request the coordinator judges whether the requesting device is permitted to connect to the smart home network.


In any communication network, the message should be transmitted with a prescribed throughput and reliability. This is usually termed as “Quality of Service” (QoS). It can be specified in terms of message delay, bit error rates, packet loss, economic cost of transmission, transmission power, etc. Depending on the QoS, the installation environment, eco- anomic considerations, and the application, one of several basic network topologies such as star, ring bus or tree connection may be used. A communication network consists of nodes, which in our case are sensors, each of which has computing power and can transmit and receive messages over communication links, wireless or cabled.

FIG.6.2 Quality of Service

In a wireless sensor network, one can implement different types of communication protocols and routing techniques. The protocol employed depends on the application in which the sensor is meant to be used. A basic communication protocol consists of packets of data which has a header for identification, data bits and also some special frames to identify and correct errors in transmission. When a sensor node desires to transmit a message, handshaking protocols are implemented with the destination node to improve reliability and ultimately the QoS of the wireless network. This hand shaking protocol makes the sensor node to retransmit messages that were not properly received. To use the extremely limited resources effectively and efficiently, a new technique called Code Blue is implemented in wireless networks in order to cope up with the sensor nodes which have limited communication and computation capabilities.

The Code Blue integrates sensor nodes and other tasks, such as device discovery naming, routing, prioritization of critical data, security and tracking device locations. The inventors designed Code Blue for rapidly changing, critical care environments. It acts as an “Information Plane”, letting various devices detect each other, report events, and establish communication channels. For medical applications, Code Blue is designed to scale across a wide range of network densities, ranging from sparse clinic and hospital deployments to very dense, ad hoc deployments at a mass casualty site. Code Blue must also operate on a range of wireless devices, from resource-constrained motes to more powerful PDA and PC-class systems. The main advantage of this kind of structure is, it incorporates a flexible naming scheme, robust publish and subscribe routing framework; authentication and encryption provisions and handoff. The other services the Code Blue provides to the network are location tracking, in-network filtering and aggregation. wireless devices in the network, thus performing various

Since the wireless sensors are geographically distributed, often in remote sites, the lifetime of the sensor nodes is important. Power generation, power conservation and power management play very important roles in extending the lifetime of the motes. Most of the power is consumed in the process of RF communication since the required transmission power increases as the square of the distance between source and destination. While software power management techniques can greatly decrease the power consumed by RF sensor nodes, TDMA is especially useful for power conservation, since a node can power down between its assigned time slots, waking up in time to receive and transmit messages.

The coverage area of the sensor is defined as the effective range of the sensor connected to its sensor node. In a network, high coverage makes it robust system and this can be exploited to extend the network lifetime by switching redundant nodes to power-saving and sleep modes.


The reported inventions on home monitoring are based on different sensors, collection of sensors data by a central processor, comparison of activities with a standard pattern and detection of unusual or abnormal event. In many situations, the cameras are used for security surveillance which may be appropriate but in home monitoring applications the privacy is not protected. The cost of the complete system may be a critical factor for its universal use. In future, the research should be targeted to develop a low-cost system with the sensors essential to monitor the elder people at home. The time to detect any abnormal or unusual incident should be detected as fast as possible and the message to the caregiver should reach as quickly as practicable In future the system will be small box combining the PC and GSM modem. This hardware can be imported from Taiwan and Singapore. The hardware will be self contained and cannot be prone to electric failure. This appliance will have its own encapsulated UPS and charging system. For middle income homes, the cost benefit becomes less clear. These communities also may be gated, therefore already deterring man of the unwanted visitors. We may also want to look at the patterns in crime. For this community, a central security system may be used. Lower income families who currently use bars on the windows may by not have the financial ability nor the technical education to use the home automation electronics effectively.


   In this project automation of an entire building is controlled using zigbee. This is new standard designed for automation and control network. The standard is aiming to be low cost, low power solutions for systems consisting of device in house, factories and offices. The transmitter section has three sensors namely gas sensor, temperature sensor and PIR sensor. These are connected for sensing the gas leakage, excess temperature and human presence. The sensors connected detect the changes occurring in the environment. When any changes are detected the microcontroller transmits the signal through zigbee which could be analyzed through the pc with help of a camera and also a message is sent to the user through GSM.

LM35 series sensors are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. Thus, it has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. It does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1Ú4°C at room temperature and ±3Ú4°C over a full −55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. Its low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 µA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air.


Passive Infra-Red (PIR) sensors detect changes in IR radiation, in the form of heat emitted by a number of bodies including people, cars and, to a lesser extent, dogs or other small animals. The bigger the body, the more IR radiation is emitted and the easier it is for a PIR sensor to detect. The field of view is the area in which changes in IR radiation can be detected. The field of view can alter with changes in temperature and the size of the heat source. PIR sensors are passive devices and therefore they do not emit or radiate any energy or beams. It is an electronic ON. OFF switch designed specifically for switching lighting loads. Figure 5 PIR Sensor The construction of the PIR and the Fresnel Lens divide the field of view into a number of zones, as shown in fig. 5, both vertically and horizontally. Each zone is constantly monitored by the sensor. When a person or other heat source enters any zone, the level of IR radiation in that zone increases. This change is detected and processed by the sensor, switching on the connected lighting and starting the in-built time process. Time period begins after the last movement is detected. Providing the heat source (person) continues to move in the field of view, the PIR sensor will keep processing the changes in IR radiation and the lighting will stay on. If a person stands still in the field of view or moves out of the detection area, the sensor will not detect any changes in IR radiation between the zones and the lights will go out after the time period is complete. In order for the sensor to effectively detect changes in heat between zones, it is advisable to walk across the zones not up or along a zone.


Gas detectors are usually battery operated. They transmit warnings via a series of audible and visible signals such as alarms and flashing lights, when dangerous levels of gas vapors are detected. As detectors measure a gas concentration, the sensor responds to a calibration gas, which serves as the reference point or scale. As a sensor’s detection exceeds a preset alarm level, the alarm or signal will be activated. As units, A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases within an area, usually as part of a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can also sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave the area. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals. Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases, and oxygen depletion. This type of device is used widely in industry and can be found in a variety of locations such as on oil rigs, to monitor manufacture processes and emerging technologies such as photovoltaic. They may also be used in firefighting. Gas detectors are produced as portable or stationary devices. Originally, detectors were produced to detect a single gas, but modern units may detect several toxic or combustible gases, or even a combination of both types.[1] The European Community has supported a research called the MINIGAS project that was coordinated by VTT Technical Research Center of Finland.[2] This research project aims to develop new types of photonics-based gas sensors, and to support the creation of smaller instruments with equal or higher speed and sensitivity than conventional laboratory-grade gas detectors.


When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the machine capability we are using, and we can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices architecture), and also to know about the size, number and the size of the registers. A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers. The following picture describes a general block diagram of microcontroller In this project we interfaced 8051 microcontroller with Motorola’s C168 GSM mobile phone to decode the received message and do the required action. The protocol used for the communication between the two is AT command. The microcontroller pulls the SMS received by phone, decode it, recognizes the Mobile no. and then switches on the relays attached to its port to control the appliances. After successful operation, controller sends back the acknowledgement to the user’s mobile through SMS.


Cameras may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A camera generally consists of an enclosed hollow with an opening (aperture) at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. \ A majority of cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image on the recording surface. The diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm mechanism, but some cameras have a fixedsize aperture. Most cameras use an electronic image sensor to store photographs on flash memory. A security camera system or CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) provides access to information otherwise unavailable to you and to law enforcement officials when your home or business has been invaded. Most people do not consider CCTV necessary to a good home security system. But your normal magnetic sensors and motion detectors only alert you and others at the moment of invasion. When considering a CCTV, you must remember that the primary purpose of a security camera system is documentation. Because of what it is used for, you want to consider what the camera has to offer in order of sensitivity, resolution, and features.



Wireless sensors are being used in a vast number of fields which include, machine manufacturing, process automation, automotive, aerospace/military/homeland security, and speciality markets which includes Medical monitoring devices, engineering/architectural, R&D, wholesale/retail utilities, and many more.

Recent advances in embedded computing systems have led to the emergence of wireless sensor networks, consisting of small, battery-powered "motes" with limited computation and radio communication capabilities. Sensor networks permit data gathering and computation to be deeply embedded in the physical environment.

GSM technology capable solution has proved to be controlled remotely, provide home security and is cost-effective as compared to the previously existing systems. Hence we can conclude that the required goals and objectives of HACS have been achieved.

This technology has the potential to impact the delivery and study of resuscitative care by allowing vital signs of a person to be automatically collected and fully integrated into the patient care record and used for real-time triage, correlation with hospital records, and long-term observation. The basic level of home appliance control and remote monitoring has been implemented. The system is extensible and more levels can be further developed using automatic motion/glass breaking detectors so the solution can be integrated with these and other detection systems. In case of remote monitoring other appliances can also be monitored such that if the level of temperature rises above certain level then it should generate SMS or sensors can also be applied that can detect gas, smoke or fire in case of emergency the system will automatically generate SMS. System allowed the provision of security such that system took no action against the instructions received from unauthorized number. The required task was performed only when the pre-configured number instructed the system. System sent breach alert when the intrusion was detected. Remote Controlling capability of the system allowed user to switch on/off through simulating the appliance as directed by the incoming SMS. The system automatically performed tests and checked support for available features and SMS sending and receiving capability and configured system accordingly

This paper presents one solution for establishing a low power consumption remote home security alarm system. The system, based on WSN and GSM technology, can detect the theft, leaking of raw gas and fire, and send alarm massage remotely. The hardware of this system includes the single chip C5081F310, wireless receiving and sending chip CC1100as well as the SIMENS TC35 GSM module. The system software developed in Embedded C language has the ability of collecting, wireless receiving and transmitting data, and can send a piece of alarm short message to the user’s mobile phone when some dangerous condition has been detected and users automatically stop the devices with messages. With the advantages of reliability, easy usage, complement wireless, and low power consumption, the system also has practical value in other fields

At present, the system can also be hardware and software upgrades and integration of new functional modules to meet the intelligent home security on the future development needs. Tested showed that the stable operation of the system to achieve the design requirement. The system also can be used in banks, libraries and museums, such as required security and remote monitoring of the place.

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