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A

JOURNAL

OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

May

1983

Volume 1 1 Number 2

139

Arlene W.

Saxonhouse

An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War

171

Mary

Pollingue

The Good Life, Slavery,

and

Acquisition:

Nichols Catherine Zuckert

Aristotle's Introduction to Politics

1 85

Aristotle

on

the Limits and

Satisfactions

of

Political Life

207

Timothy

Fuller

Temporal Royalties

and

Virtue's

Airy

Voice

in The Tempest The Pursuit Happiness in Jefferson,
and

225

Jeffrey

Barnouw

of

and

its Background in Bacon
Robert Sacks The Lion
on

Hobbes

249

and

the Ass: a

Commentary

the Book

of

Genesis (Chapters 35-37)

JL JL A

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JL \*^f

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Volume

J

number 2

Editor-in-Chief Editors

Hilail Gildin Seth G. Benardete

Hilail Gildin

Robert Horwitz

Howard B. White (d.1974)

Consulting

Editors

John Hallowell

Wilhelm Hennis

Erich Hula

Arnaldo Momigliano

Michael Oakeshott

Ellis

Leo Strauss (d.1973) Thompson
Associate Editors

Sandoz

Kenneth W.

Larry Arnhart
Jensen
Will

Patrick

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Morrisey Grey

Bradford Wilson

Assistant Editors
Design & Production

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Laurette G. Hupman

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Authors submitting Style Sheet
of and

manuscripts

for

publication

in

interpretation are requested to

follow the MLA

to send clear and readable copies

their work. All manuscripts and editorial correspon
should

dence

be

addressed to

interpretation,

Queens College, Flushing, N.Y. 11367, U.S.A.

Copyright 1983

Interpretation

An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War
Arlene W. Saxonhouse

University

of Michigan

The Gorgias has

since

Hellenistic times had the

subtitle

Peri Rhetorikes.

The dialogue has thus

stood as

the classic Platonic analysis of rhetoric, specif
and sometimes must similar to
philosophy.

ically
its

rhetoric

as

contrasted

with

My
call

argument

is that the

analysis of

the

dialogue

be

extended

to

what

I

unspoken

dialogue,
War
and

war.

theme, that which lies behind the action and the discourse of the In the background of this dialogue stands the Peloponnesian
Thucydides'

particularly

account

of

that

war.

Within the

dialogue,
to the

the central character,
assumptions

Callicles,
politics of

stands

for Athens, giving
at

expression

behind Athenian
of

politics and

inconsistencies
express
more.

her

revealing international expansion. Both
which

the same time the inherent
rhetoric and war

the search for domination
as practiced

comes

from the
an

erotic

longing

for

Philosophy
response

by

Socrates is

also
and

eros

driven

activity.

The dialogue Platonic
upon

contrasts

the search for fulfilment

in the

process offers the
reflect

Thucydides'

to

history

of

the war, as it forces us to
and philosophy.

the relationship between rhetoric,
of

war

The

following

analysis with

the Gorgias

will

thus of necessity interweave Socratic discourse

Thucydidean

narrative and speech.

"Of

war

and

of are

battle, they
the first

say,

so

Socrates."

These
and

words of

is it necessary to have Gorgias. They are spoken
as

a

share, O

by

Callicles
Gorgias'

to

Socrates

Socrates'

companion,

Chaerephon,
recognizes

they

arrive after

rhetorical

display

has

ended.

Socrates

the

adage and responds:
late"

"But

then,
The

as the

saying goes, we have

come after

the feast

and arrive

(447a).
us

sentiments

here expressed,
of

as numerous editors of the

Gorgias have let

know,
much

are

worthy

Shakespeare's

Falstaff,

who

in

the same thought: "The latter end of a

fray

and

Henry IV, Part I, expresses the beginning of a feast /
whose

Fits

a

dull fighter

and a
of

keen

guest."'

Unlike Falstaff, however,

trepi

dation in the face
An
ciation

battles
this

can provide much comic counterpoint

to the story
Science Asso

earlier version of

paper was presented

at

the 1980 American Political

Meetings in Washington, D.C. I am indebted to the reviewers for this journal for several helpful points and to a most thoughtful letter from Robert Eden. 1. Act IV, scene 3. While it may make sense to arrive late for a battle, it hardly makes sense
to
arrive

late for

a war.

Thus,

the appearance of this

word right at

the

beginning

of the

dialogue
of

in

a somewhat awkward usage should
and

immediately

alert us

to

its

significance.

Newhall Barker

The Dramatic
1891), p.
nature of

Mimetic Features of the of Plato (Baltimore: Isaac Friedenwald, 31, comments on the "artistic placing of the first word, polemou, which indicates the but does not proceed to tell us in what way it does so. the
dialogue"

"Gorgias"

the missed per a formance. 447a and the elaborate comparison of a rhetor with a cook and in Socrates' speech. be as well the promise of discourse with young men and of a Gorgias' Polus' Throughout the dialogue there is the leitmotif See Christopher Bruell. For this he will be able "to heal" the situation. Rather. for one. his addicted to anemia and reflect a man study.g. Dodds. and Callicles that Gorgias is staying while in Athens. d)2 and. Chaerephon's enthusiasm for interest in of an political things. As be later in the Gorgias. 483. But we his late arrival about has other connotations . for it is Callicles is gracious. 4. however. Alcibiades' medium of speech. if that of not and have Gorgias for friendship's then tomorrow. sparring and words. is Chaerephon. 5. and indeed it is he who seats Socrates in the dialogue next to the future tyrant Critias. tion." Socrates (447a).6 Gorgias. 1959). 3. that Chaerephon is given to great enthusiams. he invites Socrates and Chaerephon to visit him at "whenever" any time to talk with Gorgias. But we do not wait for (447b) for Socrates to talk with Gorgias. of Self-knowledge: An Interpretation "Introduction. not preclude an In the Charmides. 142. The reluctance to hasten to feasts Socrates' (174a. There novel torch race (328a). At the beginning of the Republic the promise of a must feast is not enough to bribe Socrates to stay in the Piraeus. also Apology 21a. his welcome to a Socrates just returning from the battle at Potideia is described In the comedies of the story told in the by Socrates as reaching almost manic proportions (153b). What Socrates does not explain is how Chaerephon eager to have forced Socrates to do would of Had Socrates been Chaerephon to hear Gorgias. P. 46^-4656). Socrates is Symposium.140 of Interpretation neither records kings. to spend time in the Socrates' agora.5 Socrates and overly for study does squeaky voice are intended to However. Socrates verbal battles." Interpretation.4 his time. if keep Chaerephon's trip to the oracle at Apology Delphi. with great enthusiasm. R. Philostratus. Plato's which "Gorgias" comedies in Chaerephon 6. Chaerephon describes himself reason as friendly (philos) Socrates with Gorgias (447b). In the Charmides. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. courage neither avoids which in battle..3 feasts Polus Gorgias are ready to The Socrates' ostensible cause of tardy arrival us friend. nor eagerly awaits the offer him.6. "Socratic Politics of and speeches as feasts Plato's (e. Lives of the Sophists. he forced anything. provides a list of the various appears. . he inquires indifferent Socrates the details surrounding the battle of Potideia. through the comes evident with fearful his of battles nor overanxious for feasts. sake give demonstra today. E." Charmides. Philostratus 483. his association does not equal Callicles. Socrates is eager to begin the questioning 2. We do know. "He is explains could responsible (aitios). Nor does Chaerephon's en thusiasm for Socrates preclude other friends or prospective teachers. 6 (1977). While Chaerephon is friendly with with Gorgias. it is unlikely he Chaerephon as the cause in mind have allowed restrain him. of Though in Philostratus the records the insolent questioning Gorgias by a Chaerephon.

487a. he is known in antiquity and the author of a work Techne. Less famous as and younger than entitled Gorgias. through Chaerephon's abbreviated initial man question and subsequent enthusiasm others before (485c). it is not the Callicles' beauty Gorgias' that attracts the not youth who follow him to house. Chaerephon. Thus the are told conversation 141 undefined space. The undefined locale Gorgias becomes the setting for the trial of Socrates. Yet. 10. to give his city immortality this. for its own sake. who begins the the was dialogue. 43. but for the power which it promises to one who possesses it. he attacks the values of Athens. as Dodds does. Helen 11. plicitly to Socrates' Socrates. (Thucydides 11. that which gives the and final lie to the politics. as in the Apology. it is the his on words who must do Gorgias. Callicles is the one Platonic char deme. One remains can speculate on who so elusive Callicles was. be magical potion capable of Speech properly controlling individuals and speech body."7 Delphi. promising to answer any questions Gorgias' put to him by those who are eager. is the recipient of somewhat scornful mention in the Phaedrus (267bc). after display.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War immediately. who remains elusive. Even Pericles historian Thucydides 9. It is a desire to learn his craft. its goals and the grounds on which led after the of the it bases its about actions. where. it is Callicles its conclusion. . It is within this indefinite space that the interlocutors will try. I myself have no doubt that Callicles person. Acharnia. p. to speak freely. to hear more and to test the apparent universal stand wisdom of this man who could in the theater As at at Athens and have the ex courage to say "Do you propose a this time at the prompting of subsequent theme. but from the most prosperous and fair city of Agrigentum. he achievements of will talk death. Philostratus 482. Polus is also from Sicily. researchers. could speech had more power over the than physical could force a or drugs have over the of employed cities. The other characters of the dialogue are known. takes place in an All we is that it is within (endon. is to ask the question which leads investigations. central. becomes in for the questioning of a pompous form the life which Socrates fateful questioning of the oracle of Apollo. Encomium See Dodds. who strives with 8.10 When Plato wants characters to remain unidentified they remain quite anonymous. a real whose name signals whose grand speech provides pivotal point in the dialogue. 447c). as in the Apology.9 As we shall see. unnoted in by any other ancient source. clearly identified dialogue. Thus the Gorgias. b) and it is within this space that Gorgias sits oracle-like. Gorgias is the famous orator and teacher from Leontini in Sicily who believed that soul because of the limits of human reason. 12. a world of bodies based on opinion. gives and us then why he some clues: to modern His deme 7. At the end of the dialogue. to exercise their parrhesia (46 ie.8 Among the participants in the acter. 2) cannot. not always successfully.

ties early death for this outspoken young man of the dialogue. Dover. to do. and similarly good life refuses and to engage in the dialogue Socrates false the the differences between real and Athens is Chrysis at at war. K. The war between the two great powers of Greece has begun. . Lives. I would like the to raise the question of right whether Callicles with grand speech defending of the stronger could indeed be words Athens. The next year. Aristophanic Comedy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. they as Thucydides has led us to believe. Clarendon Plato Series. Plato's "Gorgias". Terrence Irwin. invasion mined thickly populated area north of and Athens. The first year of the war is uneventful. The Athenians. In 431. suffered heavily in the first of the Peloponnesians the Acharnians "were for that conclusion. while the Spartans fight from a fear of the expansion of Athenian power. translated with notes (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 492d. 175 asks: "How claim many would be shocked by Callicles' that aggression points. p." reference to Thucydides. Pericles 13.12 Dodds suggests an expression of the ideas behind their actions in relation to other cities. the Lacedaemonians ravage the farms in the plains of Attica.C. six months after the Potideia. the forty-eighth year of the priestess-ship of battle after of Argos. Athens from 431 to 404."11 reason deter comes to fight a war of revenge which to a successful He thus from an area in the aggressive prosecution of the Peloponnesian war gives us other clues: of is approved. but his insignificance perhaps also underscores the inability of the Athenians themselves to accept openly the Callicles to the leaders Athens and to Plato. 13.142 Interpretation a Acharnia.14 He shows Athenians try to defend in their deeds the same indifference to Socrates' counter-arguments the Athenians showed to Socrates' questioning seeks on questions of pleasures. 79. in the works of exiled historians. speakers do not say and fine to do what they Cf. Plutarch. Pericles speaks words of praise for Athens as he commemorates the Athenian dead.13 Callicles may have been too ready to exercise his Athenian parrhesia publicly as well as privately. The Thebans attack Plataea. His beloved Demos. ex pressing in the values which the during the Peloponnesian which War. But perhaps Callicles is more than a real person who failed to become part of the standard discourse of the fifth and fourth his centuries B. are fighting to protect the empire acquired after the Persian Wars. he of makes two "(1) Thucydides may be what would reporting. in the councils of government leaders. The war will devastate much of Greece and signal the end of what we know as the glory of Hellas. in the Ephorate of Aenesias at Sparta." what the and Athenians actually say Thucydides' but only it is just 14. 1972). the 11. Such language could only be or part of conversations within houses. J. 1979). the son of Pyrilampos. by powerful states is all not With say. 12. the Lacedaemonians break their thirty-year treaty with Athens only fourteen years and invade Attica. be rational "(2) Even themselves. p.

16. F.* Peace Nicias.C. The Greeks in 17. Carthage Socrates guardian philosopher and Meton the astrologer did not good would come premonition not of to the city from this venture. His crowds. scorned by Callicles (485b).* He.16 Athenians."17 a the future from his familiar who But Alcibiades is uses among those die in the forests enchant or salt mines of Sicily.* back into office. 1962). fascinates the success. Woodhead.53. Alcibiades . may have spirit. begin to rebel. giving both in the war There follows shortly the several years of respite from battle. has son down a well Archelaus be (47ia-d) comes an and taken control of the kingdom. while the war still rages. V. secures for Athens alliances with the formerly pro-Spartan Argos. Diodorus Siculus. Archelaus. as the war continues man named in the both sides begin to feel war- weary.15 but scholars differ in their assessment of his north and In 422. on to persuades the Athenians to venture to even Sicily and presents them with visions of of great conquests and extending Libya. a young and Demos. murdered a slave to the his master and his master's son. urging them to send Sicily. the Olympic makes and Elis.* Athens for the first His mission is not to teach the art of rhetoric nor to display comes to Athens as an envoy for his city. "We are told that Socrates the believe that any received beyond the island Sicily itself. 223. Compare for example the assessments in F. help to Syracuse and thus ensure the Athenian debacle in Meanwhile in Macedonia. prose his talent before the Rather. thrown the king's king's brother. Lives. extending now to northern and western and some. requesting that the Athenians fulfill their treaty obligations and help the Ionian Leontines against the threatening Syracusans. Shortly afterwards. allies of Sparta. such as Greece. Adcock. Gorgias from Leontini visits time." The Cambridge Ancient the History 17. was of such an age beauty of to become the beloved of an older man. But the during of this time another young man who and had shown his courage in battles Delium He Potideia comes to dominate the Athenian political and social world. and A. he speech. 1927). He spends time with and is in the his awkward position of trying to seduce a at the same time as being beloved. He wins an unprecedented number of victories at games. praised by them as a good man who acted with *A11 the events marked with an asterisk are described as having happened recently or being contemporaneous with the dialogue. 431-421 B. xn. of an elegance unheard before in the assembly. 83. E. 15. Mantineia. He parades adorned luxuriously Socrates so through the city and he Eros with a thunderbolt his heraldic design. sides the son of Pyrilampos. West (New York: Praeger. He instead his artful speech to persuade and the Spartans. Pericles is fined (503c). p. "The Archidamian War.* Soon afterwards ally of the Athenians. p. Plutarch.. who speaks with lisp. (Cambridge: University Press. and while the Athenian subjects become restless the Mitylenians.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War war continues and 143 and then voted the plague strikes. 427. Pericles is dead around Some years later.

the year in which Socrates is to be executed by the citizens of Athens. are tried upon their return to Athens. they also the fictitious nature of the dialogue. Two years later. is already his of war On they debate a the advantages of each life. but to protests that the combined trial of all the generals against the law. The excuse which Socrates gave according to . clear. that is a close association with the war that dominates Athenian political and artistic life for these twenty-eight years. is.C. The Art of Rhetoric. to take place during the timespan of the entire Some have suggested that the anachronisms give the dialogue a certain timelessness. This to dialogue 18. Aristotle." I398a24. but of Thucydides: "On his on a refuses accession he cut straight roads. among them Aristocrates.* no avail. Zethus turns to of more and a shepherd and able to move stones with hunting and the care of what that own. Meanwhile. 19. he for the ship building on which their naval power is built.* democracy 406 to oligarchy and back the oligarchic Four Aristocrates. Amphion devotes himself to music. murdered at the hands of one of his countrymen. especially considering the events are made frequency with which references to precise political throughout. the is The dialogue thus war. government changing from Callicles. it is not 20. one of the prytanes in charge of the assembly on the day is that they are to be tried.20 In 411 and b. Minor with the war now extending Alcibiades back in favor in Athens. Alcibiades ii. could never have taken place and perhaps this has something do Dodds. heavy infantry. Perhaps they have the effect of giving the dialogue a certain timeliness.* The twin each turns to a Antiope and Zeus are brought up by different vocation.144 Interpretation to do whatever good enthusiasm and he was able to do. The generals.18 Poets such as Euripides the invita Agathon spend time at earns his court. war The generals. his beloved. fail to pluck the living and the dead from the ocean. friend of and a member of Hundred.* Socrates. By the year 399. is part of an expedition to Arguinusae in B. Perhaps just the opposite is true. again. An understanding of the characters in the dialogue and their arguments cannot be disassociated from the political circumstances surrounding the dialogue. p. kings that had wood had been done footing as regards by all the eight supplies the preceded (ii. The Athenians win. appears are executed. "hubris. to the acquisition stage to the tending his flocks. the political references tie the dialogue to the time period underscore At the of the same time war. tion. the Athens' continues. Aristotle was Whose.2). 100. over. his lyre. and otherwise put the kingdom and other material than him" better horses. Archelaus will be dead. sons of eastward to the coast of Asia per Euripides' play Antiope is formed. I4id. but the generals. including Aristocrates. hindered by a storm and the confusion following the battle.c.19 Archelaus the praise Socrates is invited. 241. For the Athenians.

offers a fictional dialogue to The the explain the to reveal its premises and underscore its vanity. it accomplishes the most divine erga. and of such everyday household articles are beauty that Pindar describes it as his mission "glorious".23 not acknowledge freedom 21. His city is glories of campaign. the dialogue because which is impossible. 23. Kathleen Freeman. Cf. when Sicily. but the freedom that the rule over others in the city. of those who know how to use it. Gorgias tries to define rhetoric for a Socrates eager to what pre says cisely is its power. war the philosopher. for the power which rhetoric gives. that keeps him It is rhetoric. p. Polus comes from a city of such wealth that fashioned out of gold and a silver. the details out of which an that war could emerge. The for power which runs through the capacity half of the dialogue.2. and Frag. Gorgias in the Encomium and comments Helen (paragraph 8) where he describes logos Cp. and in. Is he is he not real? the dialogue is important in itself. 64. 6-10. we do know why he follows Gorgias. that he may some day he may do more than indeed exercise the discover power which rhetoric promises. Pindar. 2. this power which Polus so earnestly seeks. 45. Diodotus' as the greatest dunastes. ahistorical dialogue. And while we do not known why Polus comes to Athens. of so that one day perhaps simply the role rhetoric. he is eager for power. Plato." eye not told. not an understanding of historian. W. certainly because of timing but to perhaps also of the characters involved. word Norton. His city stands as one of the of the few cities able to remain neutral during the Sicilian when But that day Athenian with ships enter Syracuse's waters is far off Polus tagging along. Thucydides' history of tied to the events and speeches of the war. in. 1963). Olympian Odes 22. that though logos has the smallest body is least visible. It is good. Gorgias is the greatest good (megiston agathon) for human beings (anthropois. it is beyond my and rhetoric are conjoined in the first on Only reading of the dialogue with attention to this point would reveal intensity and of the usage of this term."21 "lofty city lavish above all in Why Polus has joined Gorgias not one the gifts to the on "the very to Athens we are gods. . facts of suggests the necessity diverge from lies more what we would today of call the history than to that truth which fully in the fictions Platonic dialogues in the researches of any history. pleading for Athenian aid. because it is the cause (aition) freedom (eleutheria) for humans. it 452d). Presumably we must he means only some humans. and he is assured by arrives Gorgias in Athens Gorgias that the way to get power in the city is to learn the art of urge for power that drives him to follow Gorgias. 6.An Unspoken Theme in Callicles' Plato' s Gorgias: War or 145 But the ahistoricity the war was of with own elusiveness. 11. Again because the freedom for not mean interpolate "some next phrase humans. speech in Thucydides. the at this point even to count how many times a dunamis dialogue is he dunamis. of Sicily. 1922. Greek City-States (New York: W.22 Polus' in close attendance articulate to Gorgias." some as it is developed in the to by Gorgias does Gorgias does for all.

concerning relations between states. he committed many crimes to acquire this freedom. Gorgias. Yes. but now he must be truly happy. The power a power he and indeed Gorgias for is a that remains within the city. he is simply being obstreperous. by others. who turns of rhetoric to artisans. he can can take away his all without who makes property. When Gorgias had talked about the greatest power. wants he is free to do but the he wants. deal with mastery over other states. He has moved from a slave himself to one slaves of others. a sign that those scholars who assess his mission as a See pre 16. a than a slave. the trainer into a slave (doulon)" (542e). Polus' vision is limited in many ways one which concerns us most is as that well it is limited search by the walls of the city. he kill them. when how he wants. Archelaus did not acheive this status through the art of rhetoric. will benefit from the his her master. Polus for he very different. now. or an of Athenians to listen to the advice of a Pericles Themistocles. but the effective use of speech can accomplish as much. 466b). whoever he or she may be. the fear of punishment. deceived others. which accord cities ing to him has the power in the (megiston dunatai enslaving the to model en tais polesin. Gorgias envisions that such a power to enslave others will persuade a sick man be used for benign purposes.146 Interpretation rhetorician which for the he and Polus so praise means in turn slavery for someone else. control of that the slave. into Gorgias. rhetoric.24 The mastery they Gorgias' mastery over fellow citizens. yearns answer a ing Gorgias' for him no when Gorgias is tired. The after whom he wishes himself. to assembly or to listen to medical ad or a vice. but the one who rules over others. Polus is questions when no more than a servant to Gorgias. in this realm the most elegant speeches have no effect. . Surely. Polus wishes to follow life Archelaus' example. does he envies. shows how you can slaves "With this dunamis. failure are correct? Could this be ceding n. killed many people. Once he was the mere son of a slave to a king. Despite the fact that Gorgias is power of speech on a mission ignores the to influence cities as a whole. he had talked about and envision is do not Pericles' 24. be able to make the doctor into a slave (doulon). Archelaus is indeed free and powerful now. Now he as king has achieved complete liberty to do as he wishes. he can send them into exile. confirming the will rhetorician the power make (dunamis) of other Socrates. a mastery possible through words. nor the They mastery which Thucydides' mission is intended to avert from Leontini. not talk about artisan to do good deeds. over The free person in Greece is not only the one who others is not ruled slaves. As history so vividly shows. that is and he longer when answers questions addressed to other what people. having exchanged slavery for freedom. If Socrates does not admit that he too envies Archelaus. Polus is not so benign in his greatest unlike man visions of the power of rhetoric. He. when he has power. Archelaus subjects' can do whatever he wishes in the city. master is the tyrant rather of Macdeonia. he He sees only parts within a city.

26 Gorgias and Polus both become ashamed.25 which is exercised exclusively within the Polus ignores those activities of Archelaus which strengthened the status of Macadeonia vis-a-vis the cities of Greece. in Hellenizing the barbarian state. Gorgias cannot take responsibility if rhetoric according to is which used the city unjustly.g.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War Themistocles' 147 feats: they role persuaded the Athenians to build walls and to build the harbor. .. of of course. it is only of the once he leaves the city. He functions envies call and the city and his values are those of men within the city. b. b. Because in in expanding Macedonian trade. he by nature and what exists can by convention. enslave the the of freedom Athenians the exercised after the Persian Wars to islands Aegean. or to take their resources in order to tyrannos of the dunastes power Aegean. as Callicles points out so well. Saxonhouse. his and Polus' success Macedonia's allies. d. but he cannot call them good the conflict make (kalon). Because he is limited by the perspective of the cannot separate what exists city. as Callicles claims. he between an as must them (aischron). "Nature 461-487- Convention in Thucydides' Polity 10 (1978). E. Within the city nomos is the once he city that physis.27 Callicles as above the conflict between nature and convention so much so that can unite the two concepts 25. increasing relationships understanding of power and political events is confined to within the city. same as the laws of justice and injustice are The praise of the person who easily disregarded or dismissed (474cd). He can envision a new can uphold a vision of can inequality and the taking himself he of meaning for justice. their in the incredible expansion of Athenian hegemony. The use of the phrase en tais polesi is strikingly frequent in Polus' speech: 466a. History. the which Polus envies is rather a city. d. He the actions of shameful Archelaus. from to physis and nomos again. what is not one's own. of their rejection of the traditional values of justice virtue on which and function. who is willing to disregard the traditional of totally to look to a nature unlimited by the the political community. disregards the nomoi flounders under not Socrates' questioning nomos which does indeed back to shift back and forth." See Arlene W. he can be. but would not call Callicles is the demands he Callicles one who is willing values to look and outside the city. Also Gorgias at 452d. look to the human relationships between sees cities for the rising unconditioned motivations of beings. arguing that actions him individual the city. 27. but admitting that by convention. of aischron and 26. would use rhetoric to achieve unjust ends. happy. Polus the ends good. by the traditional values of they are not good. 467a (two times). 474c and the introduction (shameful) and 478a. He is trapped Archelaus' by nature convention. the city is built as indeed they should when talking must before and men who are citizens. manipu confusion over what lated by Socrates into within is natural and what is conventional. The power build up the free Athens. What Gorgias leaves out in reference to both of these men is. he can break away from the laws distinguish between the two.

" serious. This does not necessarily mean that Chaerephon is correct. the sense of lack. The relations between cities right (dike) is only to spoken war and the inclination to among he would like to take states become the model which Callicles will use justify the actions within within the city if he the structure of the dialogue must expand This is why Callicles the limited perspective of the could. as seen among animals and most significantly among nations where the question of of. upside down (anatetrammenos 481c). "Is Socrates eager he (447b). He envies agreed the skittish young colt.29 Callicles' advice to. if people a certain suffering for some men and another suffering (pathos). Callicles or Chaerephon as one knows Socrates well: "Is Socrates serious is he playing?" (481b). but the pain which will At the beginning of the dialogue. and yet has just or she that rhetoric must be used to bring the malefactor." to Socrates earlier in the dialogue (447c).28 Chaerephon who may be an enthusiastic follower of Socrates. power. repeating exactly deed very yourself. Socrates does suffering the question posed to him. of needfulness. 483c). but who is not known for his wit. . earlier interlocutors beyond the city walls and why as his own person he must cast aspersions on those who have succumbed to the verbal power of the Socratic dialectic . I am said and most eager has talks agreed he does. from a companionship in basis for the dialogue between Socrates and Callicles a is not Their keep surfacing in the subsequent dialogue. believes (emoi men dokei) that Socrates is in necessarily "Ask him he urges Callicles. Instead. whether he be friend or family. Polus. but not followed. Callicles appears to have 29. you the demos of [Demos] suffering. I and and son of Clinias Philosophy. the son of Pyrilampos" (48icd). suffering The Symposium is the locus classicus for the relationship between suffering common pain or 28. Callicles had (ephithumei) to hear also turned Gorgias?" to Chaerephon asks to learn Socrates' state of mind. but there for others. had not the same "O Callicles. One further consideration of the attempt by Euthyphro to cannot answer Callicles' question without bring his father to justice. and one of us suf fered (espaschen) a private suffering (idion ti pathos) different from others it would not be easy to demonstrate (epideixasthai) to another one's own suf fering (pathema). difficulty confronting Socrates directly. has arrogantly Archelaus' praised the life of the tyrant. adding that if to is true. to justice and punishment and help asks the enemy who has committed an who injustice escape punishment. life would be turned and so not at once answer Socrates has Polus . The discourse between Callicles Socrates is to begin from The epistemic similarity of experiences. is love. reason. I fering (peponthotes) Alcibiades the say this knowing and that I and you now happen to be Athens suf the same thing. both being in love with two beloveds. he was of and of love. what "By the gods. a law inequality supported by nature herself. assumes that Socrates must too.148 Interpretation new in a startling of phrase "the law nature" of (nomos tes physeos.

not before. from body. The suffering. often his life before the Athenian demos is relationship between fruitlessly. "The Philosophy and Literature 3 (1979). can only be reached by of the body. language pain no the Demos of Pryilampos. 30. which seems longing by of the body. are To be human is to Socrates by these human have eros." Speech Alcibiades: A reading Plato's by Martha Nussbaum. be it the demos of Athens. unchanging truth. The ceases to satisfaction of true love occur only when the be bounded bodies by the needs of the body. from the vision which Diotima held before arguments makes him of an eternal. from one with that which she loves. Eros and or the true beauty capable of perception only through the mind. desire. the words. bodies fed. article However. a lack of what is outside it. Cf.369-374d.31 which must be housed. for their other ques tioned. Eros is disruptive. unchanging beauty. He makes arguments from politics. Both speeches Aristophanes Alcibiades emphasize the Aristophanes' and suffering. While Socrates talks. Only creates and the pain so evident in the offers a Diotima at way out of that in the longer human. by the soul's ascent to of the soul final satisfaction. to attain a physical immortality and or at least a physical completion. no unity longer distinct from that with the beautiful. the lover is she which and longs after. made to seem lacking by the presence. 31. desires. love half. appearing to be the convinced by Diotima. the music of his Socrates. from philosophy. it forces her to seek to possess what is outside her. refuse from body as Socrates. The ot analysis in this section owes of a great deal to the Symposium. there the speeches of Ari person of stophanes and Alcibiades. the pains willing to do.30 149 are Surrounding Socrates' famed speech. It does not let the lover live in happy self-satisfac tion. also of pain and of a longing to be satisfied. he envisions a the separation of which. both Aristophanes and Alcibiades refuse to deny the to accept a solution which abstracts the body. But that point. They emphasize dominate the body as it tries to fulfill itself. of Aristophanes state of longing Alcibiades. clothed and The suffering words. has become Callicles and a god. 131-172. lack. an eternal. they both love and to Socrates' they both for the suffer.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War and love. political life focused human beings in their cities is centered on the to one another organized in varied units activity of bodies in relation in the city. Callicles must respond to the consistency of philos he cannot. through the Diotima. It is philosophy political which will stand at the end of speech as the test Callicles. The lover in driven a sense has died become to her beloved. bodies which fight to preserve the existence of the city. Republic u. in needs other The of speeches of only cease when the human being becomes divine. from the which exists a vision of true beauty independently being on the body and provides the lover can with a nonphysical immor human tality (212a). can of the body which can only cease with the abstraction feels love. while Socrates but ophy (482a). needs however. . Alcibiades' satisfaction with halves search.

Political men. "until you become is intended to make Athens for her. 7). . in Greek homosexuality. of not wealth and other stay by Socrates. "Feast her lovers" her day. to completion. the citizens and leaders of Athens. does drawn stay satisfied with power over She pursues more. They and want to be able through their power in the city to satisfy the varied wants of their physical longings Thucydides' History and traces the effects of cities. The desire for Athenians on to invade Sicily. is what that they will memories which will be their (11. it continues others its for to the hemisphere of appropriate sex. mate If one of Aristophanes' halves does next find its in one person. for the unattainable But the wholeness Pericles offers. not Aegean. J. bodies. exhorts her citizens to become lovers (erastes) of your eyes on 1). the consumately political to politics. She effectively applies here the analysis of K. Athens. is a completion which out of "human flesh and color and other mortal nonsense to a divine have her cease her endless search rises beauty" (21 1 e). as an unmoving object to be desired. Athens. the city the beautiful is tie her to that for Diotima. on the role of the eromenos. power over men's and women's They that that they may have being. reaching forever to not an unattainable completion. Pericles. she does herself rest. 34. 11. their beloved. Dover. 43. praising Athens he commemorates her dead. nor does she give rest to Pericles tried during the war to make her whole. he is drawn bodies. the power over the opinions of others. but by the immortal sepulchres immortality. See Nussbaum. Thus. 33. power want Neither Callicles Polus the to persuade power so in speech alone. Their activities men. Aristophanes Alcibiades. a passion which will beautiful. Pericles' beautiful speech them. They being continue engaging in of the city as each searches for a physical completion which can never be achieved. the tyrant of the her empire.150 Interpretation which the solution thus rejects each Diotima offers takes humans away from their bodies and and the political. 3). as we shall see. make capable of creating a longing. search the polis and the political not strike out on new ventures.34 It be is through her that they will reach a condition of defined not by their bodies which die. to the study of Platonic thought." each he says to (11. For Pericles. 1978).43. by the wealth and challenge of others. Eros is there as well. 65. human passions on the relation the war ships between within The fear of Athens is what starts (whatever the prophases.70. a passion the Athenians forget themselves and think only of her. Greek Homosexuality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. in their own way are tied to the body and thus tied yearnings can never be satisfied. may be). Alcibiades does by the love of praise.9. excuses. 156. do nor not desire the wants satisfaction of nonphysical wants alone. 32.33 for more. the beloved.32 Sicily. fully motivating the actors in this greatest of upheavals. p. They both lift the individual out of her body and Thucydides Thucydides 1. not always yet as more drives the articulated.

Barker. These fade quickly before the physical illness. used context.) 36. eros body more. the indeed. Eros for verbal and physical efforts Athens the city. e..g. the home of Polus and Gorgias. one previously through the political devotion of the citizen. . it stand Book VI. love of of Athens. 68-71. For the above analysis. That is. it leads eros Sicily. the eros for bodies. both for the Athenians. However. p. Corinthians' 37. asked for by Pericles did to lead anywhere. until Sicily longer and Alcibiades there to be desired. become allow others in their ways. Rather. what makes their defeat worthy of the attention of the greatest eunomia his torian as the greatest event ever. is skeptical. The static condition of contemplation. They stand in opposition and in their struggle for the same goal. Sicily that and It is interesting to note it is in the book decision to go to Thucydides includes. 1. 3. can desire something tangible. of Alcibiades.37 When Callicles 35.24. Sicily]" to become the eromenos. and passivity of the Spartans leaves them as still as stones or as speaks dead and as corpses (49e). because her welfare the individual's welfare would be sacrificed. violently that of forcefully same in the as the middle of the Gorgias. they both defy the limitations of the body. totally out shows how eros here influenced through these passages. The Spartans. they their quiet.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War which will 151 last forever.3). The citizens. something alone: relates to their bodies and not to their minds the the wealth of Sicily and. She is to be loved because of the she protects and satisfies traumas of war and the needs of the without bodies individuals who comprise the city. 196. despite fails to provide the Thucydides' Pericles' to beautify her. suffering. 2) complete balancing hazardously between the domination of others and all of the po tential subjection to others. or not satisfied. Individual good fortune is of meaningless without the ful Athens the funeral oration city to protect that fortune.36 It is precisely the characterized for particulars that moves polities along. The Athenian The abstract Socrates show this love to be ultimately erastes does not survive long beyond Pericles' speech.^ "And eros fell on all alike to set sail [for (vi. for does. stay within. (Words derivative from eros recur by 450b The relationship between Gorgias and Sicily is underscored in the dialogue by the Sicilisms Gorgias. see the speech in Thucydides. the of her beauty. both Thucydides impossible. their moderation. Pericles must make clear in his her next speech politeia and the why Athens is to be loved. is hard to sustain once the plague strikes the bodies men and women in Athens. p. they both give human beings an immortality which was for the gods. the wanting of more which drives the Athenians to become The an empire is what leads to their greatness. 55-59). The beauti becomes no more than a tyranny (11. freedom and by their hesuchia. Dodds. who cites as an example pointed to by the scholiast Olympiodorus. disappears until and eros disappears from motivating force history. It is no longer for the beauty of life she creates. their mired from longing.63. I must rely here on the interpretation of others. the other through the inquiries of reserved the philosopher. no pressed to love and desire some which thing so abstract as a politeia. lack The pain or adventure to grow while remain still. the love story of Harmodius and events Aristogeiton political (vi.

most whereas serious. Socrates of speeches to appeal to the many. the views he expresses remind us the relationships between such relationships which have gone unnoted in the discourse the of the earlier speakers and which now rise to the surface as city is seen not only from within its walls. Callicles does not mention Sicily or Athens.152 Interpretation he but speaks not of Athens. Three in the next few lines Callicles is to call Socrates a demagogue. times coherent or consistent. of nature and the natural which can drive for more. divided into two parts. or not. according to is pained by the disharmony within himself. from a shame derived from what Callicles sees between nature and convention. the variability of the beloved (that is. he speaks not of Potideia nor Corcyra. willing to perform demogogue asks of it. seeks by the constantly to please. but as part of a larger world where the possibilities of wholeness and completion are even more limited. not all except philosophy) place on and the consequent variety and often irreconcilable demands beloveds ask their lovers. Only philosophy. does himself (482c). task the who Socrates. what particularly from a sense of upside is lacking. he paints the demagogue . Callicles Callicles does when not respond directly. but really accusation: "O a Socrates. Perhaps here he thinks that Socrates is playing. for more than what one has. indeed elsewhere in this speech. Callicles ignores the speech love. The dema gogue strokes whatever the beast so as to make it satisfied. just as Socrates did not respond to directly Callicles had asked whether Socrates about was serious in his arguments with Polus. to the demos is the beloved Callicles. in the middle of the dialogue bears a careful exami and not at all It is complex. with him to be discordant (asymphonon) Socrates claims. but four he accuses seems Socrates as Callicles here. since and until we in fact. those who do not have the strength of character to acquire to seek constantly to satisfy never-ending needs and desires. we shall never know whether our lives are to be turned of down Callicles instead focuses from the physical on two different kinds suffering. happy. which you act like an insolent makes you are not more than demagogue" (482c). the passive. but states. a drive restrained by the enchanting words of the weak. times times Socrates is trying to subvert Callicles and transfer the demos to himself. These are the many of who for their Sparta own preservation or must praise temperance. It comes in Socrates' response to speech about love. not those that as a men. disharmony caused by he the variability of the many. those that come come lack of what one yearns for. and the enslaving of free with an false Callicles begins youth. of more. it may be here that Socrates is indeed understand the nature of our loves and passions as of our sufferings which come human beings. Socrates has talked about the suffering of the lover. of being the cause for pain. of making others suffer. confused. but dichotomy from shame. But Callicles sees changing whims of those it otherwise. Callicles" grand speech nation. It is the demagogue. only be nor of Sparta.

has led to an 1 . 497bc. questioning the value of Athenians actively of Greece. public to the many for his power would dare to say that justice is good? noble. Spartan hesuchia. while shame may lead to and withdrawal. Does Callicles know he is talking of about? Is his grand speech demagoguery and the flawed. but opinions of others. from refusal to allow to distinguish between nature and convention. 1). a removal of the self suffering which comes from public view both Gorgias which comes Callicles try to do (458b. Many more are to come. the Spartans are the true enslavers. The history of the Persian Wars where Athens was the argue: saviour of Greece by providing the three honor and the most important elements in the de feat of the Persians (troops. and the most unhesitating enthusiasm. by how he appears by how the many view him. makes them responsible for the slavery on. The Corinthians had turned traditional into deal words of condemnation. the pride they Thrasymachus' 38. as suggested by this initial equation of the listeners. to stand where 1. the suffering Socrates causes comes from to others. Because they do not leave their stop the act to movements the enslaving Athenians. to confuse the two and thus force others to say what example. for needing to not that justice and equality noble. on Callicles' account. 1 ). gives them the prestige. from the from as To be of ashamed in front of others leads to suffering because it suggests a denial a esteem. They after sit back. Republic 350d. time find it impossible to isolate their actions from traditional Rather they we must have" "Not unreasonably (oute apeikotos) do we possess what (1. . the public man is driven on by shame. so of that virtue is not What public man in a democracy would dare to fend the many by openly acknowledging a doctrine of injustice and inequality? The Athenians. 1). that this speech is. Sophrosune. punched of friends and allies (1. The political. the suffering from eros. speaking to the Spartans before the war started. 505d). 1). leadership. leads to action of power or the action of pursuit causes others the beautiful. danger. appeal they do are not believe What and cannot man defend.73.69. the Athenian is talking about relation happen to be in Sparta at the values.74. But even of traditional virtues and suggesting the danger these virtues when one envoys who ships between cities. The suffering Socrates' which Socrates to others comes. exo moderation. soothing to phrases the only problem in his grand and central speech. The Spartans are trampled friends unaided of in situations of in the face. could not do it. which Socrates and Callicles share. in their activity. which According shame. His value comes not from himself.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War Socrates as 153 what the one who makes others suffer. inability and to with affairs outside (ta pragmata. Callicles. harm for Sparta's allies and for all by the Corinthians.68. nursing their traditional values while the pursue more. blush. Cf. The Corinthians had against come to speak before the Spartans to urge them into war words of commendation Athens. rather than demagoguery and suffering Gorgias teaches? This is not the pleasing.38 However.

just and unjust. are .154 Interpretation to the empire do with regard they have.76. the Athenians do speak as public men concerned with the effect of their words on others or with the shame that may come to them for their praise of self- injustice. despite the opening given them by the Corinthians. but more likely they were were unable to articulate the assumptions which leaders could not. the desire for domination others. (1.75. The demands is not starkly only necessary. but approved by the gods (v. for their exclusive concern with interest. And this not what Polus are like the Athenians and at Sparta. O not to deserve so much (epiphthonos)" hostility of their strength (i . values cited in the earlier sections of the dialogue belong to the real man. suffer to be free men who enslave to be than injustice. the one who . over who sees their reasons for studying rhetoric the same aims which the Athenians had as they expanded their empire. because of the enthusiasm shown then. "We 1 ). position and indeed more eager to show subjects than the Spartans In this public speech the Athenians. they do not have to hide their ambition for power and domination with fancy phrases of worth and recollections of noble stated: deeds of the past. he Athenian leaders at Meios do.2) worthy (axioi) of their justice and equality in their dealings with their would be. Thus. monians. and others. evil of equality and goodness. virtue and nature. but what physis demands. for their praise of inequality. Don't talk to us of right and wrong. the aner. In the confines of the meeting room in Meios. perhaps restrained they because they underlay their statements con cerning These traditional not good and bad. within the walls of some undefined space. justice. Right is appeals to the many. unable to give up noble are sounding phrases of justice virtue. They in trapped by a Socrates words" "working with (483a). Lacedae worthy (axioi). They before the public to say what is true by This they can do only in the privacy of a meeting with the leaders of Meios. There the necessity of nature dominates and the and the weak the Athen strength of ians alone justifies her not conquest. You know as well as we that right "in human speech is judged from an equal submi necessity while the strong do what they can (v. Rather the blame allies while lie on the shoulders of the Spartans who and let the And fall under Athenian domination forced the Athenians to are controlled rule.105. the freedom to speak by the Socrates and which of the Athenians took upon themselves as they talked to Meios. He openly declares what others held back because of fear. the one who can take more (483b). Both Gorgias and of nature are the strong rule over the weak. Callicles shakes off and the chains of traditional values which limit speaks as the given the perspectives of Gorgias Polus.1). They did not act from the view that because must they should rule over Greece. show their deference to the are ashamed conventional values of good and bad. There the language of values is discarded. 88). lesser (hesso) are by the more it may be a necessity that the the Athenians powerful (dunatoterou) . to become unjust rather dunastai.

5o6e. his passion as a for truth it beauty end do not come to an end either. w is death life which both Callicles Socrates know of as eternal searching. real man is the eternal consumer. The as could and to the philosophic eros. he establish says longer knows. as indeed the Athenians did in Greece. which never anyone quire of it" away from getting more (pleon echein) who had the strength to ac (1. he begins to hesitate. the weakling. passionate Only of death. strong men are hikanoi ontes ha an noesosin epitelein. Cf. Life for Callicles is the it is the Hobbesian life life. a completion. living. a finis ultimus. (483b).2). for whom it is better to die than to live unjust greediness (to pleonektein) (483c). only passions briefly The and met and then instantly about reignited. to own passionate satisfy their desires at the expense of others. the one They belong must call to the slave (andrapodos. in other words. be fully satisfied. is the discourse The weak those who are weak. 483c). as Diotima a describes it (and indeed to the be inferred from the Republic). For Socrates death may be a resolution. gndsin.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War according to Callicles is (491b). though his possibly comic vision in the Apology (4oe-4ic) suggests that his life of eternal questioning would not of defeat. The language of justice. such a loves. the traditions and the values which limit and enslave the who stand your actions of position now you strong make men. the strikingly Callicles' similar language in the Corinthians' speech: epitelesai ergoi ha an 1. he begins to speculate. vn. to satisfy his passions constantly end to is unconcerned the absence an those passions. not Not to be able to control and dominate the activities of others. self or those one cannot to be able to defend one mud. of to allow oneself to be trampled in the life be worth The importance freedom domination for human happiness. He no Oimai. Not to have seeks of is to be dead.2. Socrates the and philosopher does not stop searching. When Callicles analyzes the conditions and causes of and slavery. The slave seeks death because he seeks cessation from passions which can never be satisfied and thus never afford him any pleasures. And so the weak.533a. who cannot act whatever and who he "may think. a final resting place. this Callicles knows.39 155 able to bring to completion whatever he thinks about 483b). this he asserts declaratively. for example 39. vi. . so long as he lives human being. a slave Callicles ap would crave pears certain that it is better to live than to die. fear the stronger (erromenesterous kai dunatous. they fear that the strong will take more than their fair share. We love must not forget that this speech was prefaced by Socrates' speech on and the suffering of the lover. a life where one's desires He can never constantly seeking more. necessarily end with death. turned to the language justice. 40. The Athenians declare to the Spartans Athens: in a of weakness vis-a-vis reference "Calculating of what is in has interest.76.70. I believe. For Callicles death can only be a sign of benefit only to those who do not know how to live well. The weak are the ones who the nomoi.

stronger without the intervention of morals virtues. 1-5). that they are unjust and not in accordance with the nomoi.156 the Interpretation Spartans (1. the city stands in unequal deficient. affirm a condition of part of early his speech the inequality rather than equality. Words. Athens does the beloved principles. vi. their passions and who and envy the truly strong man or worthless. are crucial. but by encouraging by of the vision of comprising the citizenry When Callicles describes the enslaving as itself of the super-city. to whom the and dictates and of nature speak directly. but to let it go would be dangerous (11. to make demos' egalitarian which Pericles conjures rather when trying whole and beautiful (11. can and make Polus or an Alcibiades even a master of such as to affect actions. by the slaves who cannot the strong city. moments before. Socrates had described how Callicles the Athenian must alter dual love. To break away from the (en wis allois Callicles turns is no first to animals and zoiois. the city stands as more. we must love Callicles Just appears here as no friend to democracy. the chains to which and words of he refers serve as a metaphor Socrates' for language. But Callicles' be careful. strong feel shame. say that the Athenian actions are evil. Within. not by approving up of their democratic. Words have the capacity powerful. He appeals to the as demos. its unity derives from this equality binding all citizens together into a coherent whole. Callicles reveals incompatibility between the ground rules of of in the action within the city and the ground rules which apply outside. the demo demands equality among its citizens. them. It is the power of of from which and yet to reassert Callicles tries to break away in the first half in the second half when he turns to relations his speech within the city. Cf. to enslave the words Gorgias flustered. 483d) tor whom there language of justice injustice. who enslaved the rest of Greece and rejected the enchanting language of dike as they enlarged their empire. the two please "demoses".41 of the real man the many. words words of praise make the blame. desirous to of relationship to her neighbors. Gorgias is right. the restrain a the many. Pericles admits to the disheartened Athenians: the taking of the empire which they hold like a tyrant may have been unjust (adikon). rejection of states rather and his views and his language to to hear Certainly demos could not be Callicles' gratified equality or could they? If we focus on the relationships beween do Callicles' than the relationships within states. eager to take what is not its own. To want more than one's fair (equal) share is condemned by those who are weak.86. Without.37. 483c). 2). or so Callicles believes (oimai. demand that the 41. 18. pleon echein. where a common language and the common values associated with a common power of words language to nature. 63. . It who satisfy is the weak equality.3-7. then arguments indeed please the Athenians. Alcibiades' speech to the Athenians. esp. isonomia. The city cratic politeia must be viewed from two perspectives. 1-2). ones Socrates. can language words.

An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War have his more 157 than the weaker. also suggest are santioned by the gods (v. (or so Callicles which believes. to swearing (traditionally the distributor justice) which he believes. they satisfy Callicles their desire for They are acting on the principles which suggests are endorsed by the gods. 484a). as the war recorded by Thucydides progresses. He 484a). of course. given not are punished by the gods whose jealousy (phthonos) not can never Callicles' be escaped? Callicles him Plato avoids the issue but has Plato played with speech. his father against the Scythians? Or able to mention myriad other cases of the sort" (483de). point? a set of false examples to prove purpose of his central but dubious Has Callicles' undercut Callicles ignores the issue by making him appear foolish? the defeats faced by Darius and Xerxes by Zeus by of turning next to the gods. saying only bar-bar-bar. who those who for the Greeks uncivilized. of those who tried to take more than their share. the our the strong (katadouloumetha. animals. that the lion in all suggesting that this is true as well in whole cities and races. would stand of mata) and laws oppose (para physin. that those who invade right. man. Athens. but he the actions of the Athenians. there the justice in their chooses to talk about a who man. like the barbarians like the Concern as are not restrained as they more. which the Athenians themselves. subdue one state after with one's fair share does not matter as they another. us as forth revealing himself as our ruler and nature would shine forth. 483c) a nomos tes physeos the Persian tyrants followed in their invasions of weaker lands. within a where city men the language us are justice and in justice is used. nature oimai. not But Callicles turns quickly from nations to men. since did Zeus smile on the adventures of the invaders. Is it because he has of whom were realized the inappropriate- ness of his two examples. assert their dominion over others. oimai. both and of defeated by the weak native remembers the inhabitants in Scythia historian with no Greece? Or is it because he suddenly who often makes clear those wars. But this that there so is (or nomos tes physeos in neither case may be quite different from what Callicles envisions. 105. 1-3). He does stay long in the realm of relationships between states where his examples raised have of doubts about the validity of his beliefs. relations with other . about the future expansion caught within Athenian hegemony. and our words (gram 484a). what right have be not language justice and virtue. After Callicles turns for represent the to barbarians. Herodotus. examples his generosity takes all. The Athenians. those who take more than their share and overstep their bounds. Callicles here describes again his slaves. flee charms. Rather. or "With (poioi dikaidi) did Xerxes one would march against Greece. The unmentioned example behind this and out burst is. The would having strong enough nature hikanen. to individuals. he of considers where the fate of one of the structure the city. 483c) real man by a our among saying that equality is (physin charmed good and enslaved and just. who animal-like no beings of do not speak Greek. But Callicles does provide us with more examples.

the king and and of gods. Taylor. 1956). He had the called of Socrates "in (482c) a demagogue at the begin of ning of first half his speech. or as another character phrased it. may surmise. without payment and without sale pointed However. In the first part. supports the actions of Heracles (484b).158 cities of Interpretation Greece have shown this independence of the old values. he admits (484b). though. his truth. this unless we were to see him as equating philosophy and argument demogoguery. His is that the philosopher does how function before the masses. does Platonic does not not catch this He does the alternative reading which would suggest that the strong only declare interest what of is just. neither the the stronger. Again he claims he is going to turn to the truth (484c). that Pindar the poem controversy. to Socrates as he starts this truth" half. he had 42.338c. and who stand forth revealing the true justice Callicles next adds to the evidence from the pious poet of nature. 69 (1965). attempts he steals the cattle of as Geryon. . See also the references in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Nor is it likely unto to support the view that heroic morality is law Diomedes. turns tes physeos which as into justice. we know the poem the words. in A. not consistent Callicles' understanding he does to not of what is true is from one moment to the next.43 Callicles nor. the effete. 117. Plato: The Man and His Work (Cleveland and New p. p. that nomos. "Pindar. to control the many rather than be controlled by them. 270-272. He does not spend his time memorizing poems. the "interpretation nomos-physis bears the stamp of the decades after Pindar's death. he Callicles is inconsistent precisely because he makes a fundamental shift as moves from one part of his speech to the next. but not understand do. [Pindar] and of makes a special point of of emphasizing opponent not see unheroic qualities in Heracles stressing the arete subtlety. One truth. Republic. nature (animals) that words of of men nomos from Thebes. 43. 1. who have rejected the idea that equality is good and just in relationships between states. hardly conincides with the second truth that Socrates the word as a philosopher will be unable to defend himself before the many. that Socrates is a demagogue. his Callicles. and Dodds. E. but he did not understand the meaning demagogue. pp. n. which did not flourish until several s poem and it is hazardous to retroject into . Nomos."42 itself ." York: World Publishing. 2. and 123. Callicles is second eager reveal the truth. He knows as little about poetry at this point as he does about philosophy. Martin Ostwald has out in but one of several to discover the meaning of this cited passage. those who do not act. Heracles. Pindar' views which were articulated wrote only by a later generation. justice is well. He must thus turn to paraphrasing. much less the truth. presumably the Callicles had just proclaimed. which he now urges Socrates to abandon as he moves to the second half of his to speech. violence who proclaimed history the Nomos. but his two truths are irreconcilable. the meaning of the poem. the activity for the affected.

484c) are hoi politikoi when they spend time in the activities of the philosophers. XIII). the Athens of Greece. the set of political of relationships survival. of Athenian. this time he turns to a more contem porary author. the in which force and fraud are virtues. . affairs. They are thus rather laughable. good and bad. the law of power and of force. worthy of such scorn as Polus heaps on Socrates (462e). 484d). one know the pleasures and passions of others. Callicles quotes more lines an of poetry. attention to the opinions of we the many. Themistocles. the weak subsequently he encourages who have enslaved the super- heroes. is to be inequality killed by one his own men. he turns to 44. even It cannot the superhero and the praise of first part.44 The second half of the speech deals with relationships within the city a denied in the first half. before Callicles does rather immediately must to politics as he downgrades philosophy. of seeming. do that Callicles is distinguishing. as indeed Callicles end of becomes by the this dialogue. is the topic the second Callicles' part of What is neces sary between states is different from what is needed within states. their Callicles the total disregard of the opinions of the many. p. Philosophers to remain not only (inexperienced in the laws) but unable manipulate the opinions of the many. so only if we between relation ships within and relationships without the city. that of reputation. so admired by Polus.45 who stands over survive all. He had talked there the relationship of one city to another. justice. eudokimos One aner have the reputation of being and kalos kagathos must being an (a respected man. The Archelaus. makes a point later in the dialogue Michael Oakeshott (Oxford: Blackwell. there is a conflict between philosophy which inequality between better and worse individuals. and politics the law.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War dealt about realm with 159 the superman or supercity. Within cities. not leadership. what appeals nomon aperioi to them and what will repel them. First. of emphasizing how the great 83 (Ch. of or appearance. in private or than esteem. not refer equality of all citizens. as it assumes an worse is deny equality. who ever. The opposi tion in the first half of the speech was between dike. how by Callicles. and those who are strong. within states. The city the cannot endure easily the the of of the individual Pericles. The inconsistency encourages is transparent and has been frequently pointed out. political leaders Athens badly treated by the demos (515c and 5l6e). How recognize can reconcile these two views? We can albeit not clearly. Socrates were all ed. i960). Now that he talks about relationships a poet from his own city rather than to a poet who Hobbes. They as are laughable whether they participate in public just or so Callicles believes (oimai. the Alcibiades. Euripides. Leviathan. of the phrases he uses suggest the level politics. between better and posed which assumes an pleasures. The within second city based on an equality which had been half deals with the survival of individuals among equal citizens speech. the battle cry of the weaker. their enslaving nomoi. 45. and enchanting phrases.

to continue to him to be illiberal.46 "liberal" is judged his peers as noble. with He aloof. the Euripides' 485a) is to partake of two ways of life and then choose one over chosen one always being politics. the help. We all praise that which we a plea for individuality. the one like Socrates shows whose pursuit of well educated philosophy Such an man. as at the He appears liberal. like a slave such a man deserves a boxing is too stupid the ears. the one who old. He speech to 46. This is the free want. independent stood at in the opinions of the whole. when an old man practices it. is threatening speech freedom of the With the there shift city on which Callicles depends. Socrates not in the Repub lic. . the one who no longer engages in the pursuits of a child when when he is to longer engages in philosophizing he is of an age enter politics. 485b-d) does a slave who individual is unmanly (anandron). of and uninterested earlier section of The individual. the slave in the second section is the does to the opinions of the many. Callicles makes appears gen a his friends. varied meetings of the He is not a part of whole and does not care about the opinions and values of the whole. who is a comparable shift slavery and freedom. He does not encourage the diversity philosophy. See Dodds. dom Polus around and Callicles second concept of freedom is man who one centered the man who submits to his chains. in focus from the first half of the in the meanings of to the second half. who now seen as the center of the the survival and Callicles' speech. that the true city is built. not many.160 speaks Interpretation for all of Greece. who possesses the when requisite social graces and who can by help one his friends held back one who they need of his The slave in the first section is by the opinions not attend the many. philosophy is fine scorns when one is a youth. Athens subdues other cities threatens those who do not submit. It is from The such natural difference. Yes. around unfree (aneleutheron. (douloprepes). But Callicles does correct agree with his compa triot Euripides. a recognition of the different assures abilities which have. off in a corner whispering. eager to beginning of help the dialogue. 274. the two or three other men. just man as to understand directions. once again. The free But erous. He quotes from a passage most likely spoken by do Zethus the herdsman in best. the one trained to participate in the activities of the city. most approach or so Callicles believes (oimai. At first the or the free man is the one who and breaks the The chains of the nomoi. The philosopher is different from the stands He their opinions and their uniformity. Zethus praises and he does not encourage the pursuit of The eudokimos aner is the one who appears no to have followed the proper pattern of growth. but it is a thing most laughable many. the other. joining in the the center of activities. It is we all Euripides' Antiope. to lack the graces of a lisp and to be unable to help his friends or harm his enemies. p. (eleutheros) is the one trained to earn respect in battle and in speech.

him to break away and stand above the other slaves. to recognize that dike does from the for opinion of the many? Does not this knowledge. not 486a) trust with warm brotherly offer feelings. to shift most facilely not in his discussion come between and physis. subject to the to harm you. The philosopher is threaten ing. 461c). does this He Callicles' questions (489c). but those for (486cd). Be persuaded by me. Don't shamefully. It is Euripides' one filled with good feeling (eunoia. as does recog Callicles points out in one word significantly.. he had 486a). free from the nomos chains of opinion. for to help is yourself." music what encourages Callicles. The Zethus conceit is "I happen to (peponthenai) words Euripides' does before Amphion. nature Philosophy distinction between quotes and convention. allowing yourself killed. Don't lose your give power you (as. again quoting Zethus (486c). Is not Socrates able to rise above. there is in p.47 Give up philosophy. 485a) to be accused and pursue philosophy for too long. which Socrates part explain does of not not Does this in Callicles' the shift in the two halves of Callicles' speech? Is speech who a cover for his fear Socrates? Is Socrates the superman does see the dependence of the weak on the to shake nomoil clearly the fallibility of the nomoi. as Become mature or so learn to function in the who city. not this awareness indeed enable poor him to become a demagogue? Does he then pose serious threats Callicles. Socrates. 147. ed. the original gunaikomimoi. (Boston: Ginn. up the private life. we might note. Why take does Callicles seriously? sincerity and suggests that it is ironic Socrates this friendly advice. Plato. "Practice the affairs. Socrates. Yet Callicles practicing his "Don't imitate those men who by in debates about petty things. 47. a noninvolvement in the affairs an of the There is of music irony in this point. threatening nize the to the power and stature of a Callicles. the second half of the philosopher to subdue the philosopher. Zethus extensive. Don't allow others to be rude to example. his speech to his dear Socrates (o phile Socrates. 1980). to anger a speech modeled again on that of the restless and active Zethus in rejected moments what Antiope.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War 161 not meant Socrates. When Callicles of meirakiodei the passage from Euripides. him. childish) in "Gorgias" version. was Polus. to fit the into the city rather than allow philosopher is not useless. speech the one who because of his eros wishes to appease the many? of Callicles is frightened is an attempt of the power Socrates. and Don't like a youth. Cf. of called city. whose advice suffer before. Avoid who by the Athenians apragmosune . . given whom there is life and opinion goods" many other Callicles has and spoken speech. he Callicles' changes Instead (youthful. . It is he urges: helps the city. as There come to me to speak to you such act he [Zethus] act spoke before his brother" (485c). it is Amphion build the walls of through his knowledge is able to Thebes. whose lyre moves private caught and the stones out of which the wall music most is built. . though. appearing power of dizzy any with your mouth who might wish gaping open in the courtroom. The he is not simply foolish. do those I believe (oimai. Gonzalez Lodge.

p. two or three at a time. But Socrates' because this assumption about is clearly incorrect. Kerferd sides with those who and in notes 2 and as a 3. this 49. B. he each with or must try to disarm Callicles' and subdue speech Socrates. p. vision. the the enchant those tied They are able. the philosopher's response and justified. to enslave. an appeal reputation Socrates' to fit him into the model what of the city. the Cam bridge Philological Society. should up by the nomoi of the in corners. Kerferd.' This only under questioning. depend on which half one reads. but pretends also freedom from subjection Callicles that pursuit of philosophy is a mistake rather than motives a conscious choice. in the assembly and on the battle- Freedom is not being a slave tinguish between slave and free. for Callicles. It to make him value and the city values. individuals. Socrates' under come manipulation. Zethus the herdsman. Callicles has proclaimed that the better man must have more. as Socrates has informed us right at the beginning The philosophers thus threaten the survival of the city for they are privy to the secrets of Callicles. "Plato's Treatment of Callicles in the Gorgias. Callicles. Superiority does indeed from the many. his beloved demos. What. Indeed. pending speech on whether is divided into two halves. though. in 514c or women. the stronger are the many. Those men in supposedly whispering chains and paralyze corners care not a whit about ments. into a democrat (458d). but Socrates does not in his discourse dis he does not speak differently to men is a significant attack on Callicles' Considering Callicles emphasis on manliness. They speak out in the open out in the of the dialogue (447a)agora." Proceedings of democrat. 5l4d and 515a. Let tions aside and see leave debates concerning particular political orienta Callicles as the political man. describes the various arguments see Callicles . 52.48 life. the superman the supercity who scorn the opinions of the many. the opinions of the many. Socrates recognizes. The appeal to give up to philosophy. that this is the law of man? nature. the unity of large numbers of 48. on the other the political man who is dependent on the opinions of the many. turns Suddenly. It is an appeal meant disarm is Socrates. describes the better Callicles clarifies What is this justice that Socrates' Pindar are praise'. Socrates they want. many. like us city. subdue. 48 on either side. which must thus suggest the inadequacy thus appears to of such an analysis. the man of action. Cf. one looks at the city from oligarch?49 its own truth de The within from outside. G. he and must show the deficiencies both visions the one hand. The better the stronger. is not sincere. the equality of the city. Socrates you and ask. 20 (1974). most of all to another. they do not even whisper in isolation is Callicles' enemy. have contradictory goals. philosopher must do this in of to both parts of on Callicles' speech. that this is just must by nature.162 Interpretation attack against his initial Socrates. like Athens the he is the The stone against which Whether he be democrat life is to be tested or oligarch. or is he an must. Scholars have debated: is The answer to such a question Callicles a democrat.

50 The natural justice he had spoken relates to the rulers within the city and the masters of empires. It is this which them and which makes attention. being miserable finding death. one's desires leads build up see one's strength. 488c. Archelaus Callicles' and man of affairs.An Unspoken Theme in field. and there are those who know if they were many on the battlefields (for clarifies. the Athens they both in represent and which both interlocutors worthy Pericles extolls worthy of of 51 .52 vividly shown The urge to the power satisfy 50. We must Callicles here encountering the with references makes problems as Thrasymachus: for both superiority directed to the Socrates Socrates' be defined to the mind. Forms We of ou dunaton appear three times point 492a. Callicles' a new nor level of interaction or which had not been raised within speech. Socrates. he blurts You offensively. cf. my ruled?" friend. could the happy human being (eudaimon) be a slave (douleuon) to anything?" (49id) even. (491b. the Greeks against the Persians). But Socrates introduces before in oneself. work should not forget Hobbes' at this that first currently acknowledged published is a translation of Thucydides. these desires Hobbes these insatiable desires one to must war. satisfy his desires. they it as shameful intemperance. "Come now. This or so Callicles believes (oimai. and constantly fill himself up (apopimplanai). Callicles has difficulty out last he understands. what of themselves? Are with they ruling something When at or being call (49 id). No. that who is. the demagogues how to use small numbers of men as language well. sweet?). d) those are able to accomplish in deed what of which they have in their minds. The foreshadowings us. edge Socrates' problem. again the obverse side of mastery. The better is the ruler. (anandrian). that (ou dunatonf for freedom is with not mastery over oneself. of is offering "How a new or different form slavery. "You are cute (hedus. of is it those who are stronger only in terms Polus' bodily strength. Socrates. to himself. example. There are those who use know how to manipulate assem blies. 492a) is not possible of manliness they along see the many and thus. develop same See preceding footnote satisfaction of 39. are startling. the one who is to live correctly (orthos) must release his passions. because of their lack find fault with the satisfying of one's desires. one devoted to the music of pragmata. thus unable to find that and elusive missing half in worse Aristophanes' model. . Slavery life is being than unable to fill what is empty. by Polus Gorgias namely ruling this notion. is that he does not acknowl for happiness and for life (492c). those who rule over others. according to Callicles. Callicles The better is 489d) nor not simply the many political "the litter slaves" of (doulon. The truth (492bc) is. 52. Callicles asks. But Callicles superiority and Plato' s Gorgias: War 163 will not admit such a simple equation who between numerical the best. according to epithumia the importance of the Callicles. but the total release of one's passions the power (dunamis) and to satisfy those passions. To As Hobbes has lead to to so be without desires is to be dead of a stone or a corpse. albeit the mind desires. fools (sophronas)" moderate (49ie).

the one with lives desires to be satisfied. it is the power of conquest. The Corinthian's advice to Sparta parallels advice to Socrates. XV). Note Hobbes' way out of the is not the equal state of nature of of nature with its emphasis on the acceptance of equality as the (Levithan Chap. military strength.2-4). causing Callicles to who will protect him in a But because he is not not time of need should others threaten him (cf. The Sparta that tried to is still.164 to Interpretation whether satisfy those desires. he nevertheless tries to control and professions of friendship. these men. It is an irony of history for his 53. There is for Athens city a final resting place. The city the one Pericles urges in his funeral oration is only are temporary resting outside who point.53 one who by having power over or as a others. We must. inequality is private desires by domination over others. pursuit of Athens the tyrant pursuit of the Aegean has been will active in her inequality. unlike Callicles. sincere as 487cd). are weak. Thucydides. remember that Socrates those whom he guides in his discourse with them. which (cp. to its traditional hesuchia. wiles.72. Political life pursuit the realm of one city to another a life of the constant of more. summarized the evidence on the background and character of of a He concludes: "The general picture which the evidence suggests group of ambitious young men. p. What Callicles cannot understand nature because of his failure to states study geometry is that the disharmonious cannot of relations between be transferred to built relations within states. The tension in Callicles is between and for power over others.'" . The self-satisfied city and the self-satisfied individual. the desire graciously in his so as to build up a store of friends for friends. in her with even of the power enable as a her to fill herself no the wealth of cities outside. 282. (pragmata. Equality is a realm which emphasizes friendship. Callicles. their equality. drawn from the jeunesse doree of Athens description of as 'the typical Athenian Callicles' It certainly does not support Lamb's Democrat. cannot with other cities happy with city interacting equality is to die. pay denies power attention to over others and geometry (508a). to be moved beyond once the exigencies of war subside. Sparta had allowed others to trample her accept To as an individual in the mud. within could not. the vision of the world as comprised of masters and slaves. that power comes in the form of rhetoric. While he pretends that Socrates is his friend and that he cares for Socrates. that the tyrannical city pursuing more outside must ensure an (koinonia) eagerness act are within equality upon which friendships and community (5070-5083). not for the fear is is that sake of satisfaction of Callicles' not justified. However. of course. of or manipulative the denial equality. "Be practiced in the music of affairs 1. Dodds. that Callicles survival becomes dependent Socrates' on pupil and friend alone minds of subsequent generations. because he does treat others Socrates becomes irate in the ninth and withdrawn when he cannot. to Callicles' 486c)" punch her in the face. Socrates He does accuses not Callicles: he does sufficient not understand the importance of equality. On this level 54. the accept equality. must always be in a condition of movement sit because there practice those threaten it. his friends do not protect him. On this level fear is Callicles' Socrates' law justified.S4 really his equals.

Polus and Callicles give expression twentieth century formulation of politics who how.g.. Pericles. and a supposition that domination will lead to the fulfilment to what those desires. will fill her (empepleand all kasi. Socrates finds fault with the politicians for not making citizens But we may ask why should nor they? To make them better human beings does not help make the politicians. filth (phluarion). Lodge. The should the Athenian demos be deprived Socrates tries listeners of that which form of dialogue which to encourage not profess to fill the participants and silent not reach with anything. (cf. from the passions which once filled are quickly better. What lack they do feel comes from a desire for more of what has already given them pleasure. pp. The conception of in this dialogue is not the power to fill another any gratify them. from the perspective of the city. e. while those such as Callicles and Alcibiades seized and held responsible should this hegemony fills does not or garbage and satisfies be lost. It does (457a). over simply about rhetoric different kinds of power. not what one lacks not making one the dockyards or and imports vs. They are not pricked by the Socratic sium 2 1 irony into Alcibiades' a sense of needfulness experience. The politicians.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War Later in the dialogue Socrates is to describe famous political 165 most powerful and Athens' leaders with as ones who gorge the city. Scholars have had difficulty understanding how Pericles made the citizens worse. It is of a conception only be understood in terms better consists in making one aware of which can making one better. To and them better would be to alert them to what they truly lack. The Gorgias of Plato (London. The problem here is that all these not analyses look at the question from a political perspective. Thompson. walls. politics and the conception of power implicit in it. will the politicians who are praised for they give to the hegemony be over other Greeks. Cf. George Bell. war to the domination comes the bodies and wealth of others. that is a 55.. they do not make the citizens better.55 reignited. . They turn to such points as payment for attendance at the assembly and for military service. The desire for domination from a dissatisfaction with what one of some of has. or other such filth but virtue. all try to make Athens a master over her neighbors so as to fill the with such city garbage so that the citizens do not are feel a lack or the need to pursue the what truly beautiful. 226. The Gorgias is philosophy as a way of life. They offer them the satisfaction of ports. W. where. Thus there is no mastery or power which and It does Socrates satisfy her desires. inequality proposes nor conclusions or victory point among the interlocutors. Cimon. It is also about Rhetoric leads to domination over the opinions of others. with walls and imports. 5i8e-5i9a) such harbors and dockyards. Sympo 6a). These city. when. and Dodds. p. from the perspective of the philosopher. Themistocles. makes but the citizens therefore are not made to the feel the lack of what them better their lack of what is truly beautiful. and imports. the city in its drive for mastery and domination. H. 1905). 335-356. of power to make another serve one's own interests. Socrates is to question that formulation of is to become the classic and gets what. 237. rather than better. as Socrates claims. with Because the politicians fill the city harbors and walls. it.

the harbors. The subsequent discussion carried on by Socrates in a comedy of his own never resolves these questions. passionate being. a man whose first thought and display mastery of words is of war on seeing Socrates arrive late for a battle. external conquests. movement toward the complete lack. those and which will have a final even a if humanly or goal those which only lead to Callicles' desire for more. or full human being. can never provide Filling nor the city is like filling the leaky for the city a state of completion. Socrates cannot and does not encourage the cessation of desire. power over others as master and slave relationships of power and power over oneself to distinguish between good and bad passions and to choose the former. He is not one to accept the notion of an completion. of quiet. of ends. It is the constant need for more. only to be gracious. though. He is not a slave. man of eager to please both demoses. He Callicles continues refuses to participate seriously in the subsequent conversation. The politicians. Anytus in the Meno and Socrates' description of his life of questioning in the Apology. . And yet. guest concerning worse and better relationship between pleasure and pain and cessation of desire. He is a free man. Without that lack. the Aristophanes feel the pain as does any growth. refuses to accept any with deadening of a the desires as a necessary result of the dialogue he has Socrates. however. can satisfied. 56. hateful and ad All this is the result of her refusal to be content little. The walls are never enough. is no to improve the self no because no of a sense of there change.166 Interpretation be satisfied lack which could never by the city nor by the politicians who give them walls and the harbors into which the goods of the world flow. like the human body. So is Socrates. The Athenians do limit or question the nature of their desires for Callicles They refuse to engage in the questioning Socrates urges upon Gorgias. more. and the ambivalence surrounding her position in over others Athens' Greece at the end of the fifth century. The lover is thus to pursue beautiful. desires. to deaden her desires. not she tries to get too much power. of course.56 during the second half of the Callicles. more. and model to be envied. and thus there is the need for for domination because Athens herself. to please his honored Socrates' He refuses to engage in discussions and Gorgias (497c. Do pain and pleasure cease at the making moment of fulfilment? The lovers spoken of by Diotima and Alcibiades and 50 1 c). This difference in the a must also stem from different conceptions of power. Nor is Socrates. en politicians such as couraged by Alcibiades to desire too much. that never be completely leads to stature. subject to the of another. as far as he understands himself. an ambivalence captured the speech of brilliantly by is Thucydides. unlimited in his actions. jar (493ab). vision. she loses the war. Cf. with the Corinthians at Sparta. Athens enslaver as she acquires shameful and glorious. nor the ships. especially in both mired. The dif ference between the two is and willingness to distinguish between inaccessible good aim bad desires. Callicles is Socrates' Athenian. He is action.

then about the city. It as would almost war which were not be possible to read dialogue. like Athens and her leaders. The background to this war. sees and over other peoples. a power over other cities But that . The two perspec cares. It is Callicles. War. influence our under standing of the conditions which existed within the city and within the indi The city states of Greece could not exist without an awareness of the external threats which faced them. of the a surface is only on the existence of a city striving for its raises own wholeness within an ordered cosmos whether (508a). continuation must if the dominated Greece going on. a greater depth. Callicles cannot fully understand and refuses to try to understand as he withdraws from the speech conversation and the search for true pleasures. The Peleponnesian War dominated Athens at the end of the fifth century b.c . whether for individual into for city equality (507d) which and its transformation from what leads to making some men or cities an masters and free. and about of concerning what type of life is to lead. he and because he in a distinguish between the good pleasures and on bad. The moral choices in their turn depend its concern activity of the city. 167 or He urges the tempering of eros. both from other Greeks and from the bar vidual. barians on the north and to the east.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War or eros. Socrates tells Callicles that Callicles does on power over others and cannot not understand equality. Aristophanes. where rhetoric a model with war for victory and in the background. gives dialogue. The Gorgias is generally moral choices Socrates' place in the city cannot recognized as a dialogue one about rhetoric. Euripides. however. the unspoken theme of the dialogue. a city populated by others about whom one in which one survives on the esteem of others. during the twenty-eight-year span of the dialogue war's But it was. some tyrants and some subjects and slaves. And the and indeed many have. conquest. irrespective of dike. that he focuses and thus cannot understand power over himself. based friendship pursues truly beautiful. city tives clashed. and life was touched by the Plato's understanding of Socrates be disassociated from that war. a city by friendships. The Polus Gorgias deriving from rhetoric is a limited power though limited to a power within the city. Socrates' and Thucydides suggest some of the responses war and to this war. The inequality of the first half clashed with the equality of the second half. a greater power. is tale is a the question of that the wholeness ever possible prior parable to death whether leaky and for city or for individual jar of the Sicilian or Italian as that must apply to the city as power which well to the see as individual as long as she/he/it lives. on Callicles' had been fraught about with inconsistencies because and the one hand he had talked bound together a free men and slaves. The topic of war does the not surface frequently in the Gorgias. as to cities themselves. cannot exist searching for a whole as community it such as Socrates envisions. they may call it the greatest good.

is alive. "What . The Gorgias records. The philosopher is not self-sufficient.168 power Interpretation passions ness also limited by its never-ending nature. as cities are comprised of Pericles' bodies bodiless warriors and memories of funeral oration. the time-bound events which events exist are history Nevertheless. The city of the Republic does not. would as the be a complete not a ruler over best city neither would be a complete whole and not need to have hegemony complete over other cities. 626a. The city of Athens cannot. The answer which philosophy in the person of Socrates gives to Athens and through the to Callicles is not a wars of wholeness nor a completion never accessible the city. awareness of other Wholeness would exclude reveals an The chaos of the Peloponnesian War definitively for the Greeks walls. Philosophy whole. a state of unproclaimed war city." Cf. Likewise the city does cities. To live is to want. Political philosophy cannot be disassociated from wars. The whole war is understood by comprehending avoids in detail the of specific events which mark its progress. just of the true politician. to kill the is to be dead. person the best person nor the best city is possible. that is. the values and nomoi of those surrounding them. of masters and slaves. in the to the various political leaders who turn Athens into an empire and a threat to the freedom of most men call peace is only a word. at least.57 their participation in a world that goes beyond the confines of the city Thucydides' presentation of war comes from a careful articulation of para digmatic events. the philosopher cannot exist without the city. from the topic of history. whole. 57. The in Callicles' actions and the motivations of the assorted Athenians reflected speech. so that the world becomes divided into and slaves and masters. in fact there exists by nature between every city and every other The city of the Laws tries to escape this fact. the details the war. for Plato references those in the background. neither the without needs. but so that she can dominate herself. is very much a part of the city. Philosophers. This is not so that the individual not so will be able to dominate others. not exist as a self-sufficient It exists within a set of relationships with other cities. quest (457d). The completion sought through power over is oneself which city's characterizes the philosopher's life may come war closer than the continual search through of for power over others. Laws. but that there abhors made is the no such concept concept of con the master over others disappears. as Socrates so vividly demonstrates in both the Apology and the Crito. but a transformation of political activity one of from one of domina but tion to which will making citizens better. The best person. best by the activities others. to lead them into a condition in they will not be dependent on others either as master or as slaves be wholes in themselves and not controlled by the opinions. Neither the city nor the individual can ever find whole while alive in the human body. ever so War becomes the symbol of the inability the city to be complete and not the long. at least so long as she nor the complete city existing in isolation from other cities can come into being. But.

Athens was part of the Athens' Greek system of states and Socrates similarly is a part of activities. The unspoken theme of this dialogue helps to neither reveal this which can never recognize whose be escaped. who make 169 Athens itself serves to alert us society greater than herself. strates.." I would argue on human achievement the "omnipresence of imposes. The part of a over political eros for power. Aristotle rpt. a search of which this discourse is but one 58. and Man (1964. as Sparta demon that is in motion. Phoenix Ed. in Greece to imitate. to raise her above the activities of But he in could not.An Unspoken Theme in Plato's Gorgias: War others. cannot survive a world The city at rest. Plato is very much aware of the limits political War" admitted. it presupposes. Leo Strauss. including the philosopher. the omni the highest aspirations of any city toward The city is neither self- War puts a much lower ceiling justice that than classical from the which evidence of philosophy might seem to have the Gorgias. But the war to the limitations of both politics and philosophy. p. . for domination others. life by politicians underlying dependence like Callicles who fail to nor that the entails as master is also the life as slave. The lack of the cities or. 1978). in its turn.58 for what one lacks. comprised of human bodies. in other words. the philosopher life the continual search example. suggests the limits and deficiencies whole. of work of self- renders questionable a presupposition of classical political excludes the sufficiency of the sufficient nor city is it essentially necessarily which classical political a part of a good or "society" of order which presence of and virtue characterized the on philosophy just order comprising many or all cities. a of the city. has and written at the end of his essay on Thucydides: "The dependence kind Thucydides' sufficiency a of the city as Plato presuppose excludes the city's on such society of cities or its being essentially a member of it The lesson philosophy. Classical political philosophy does not ignore the polemos with which the dialogue Peri Rhetorikes begins. The City Press. Pericles had wanted for an instant to treat Athens as a all else beautiful form for every city. is deficient and lacking completion. and London: University of Chicago self- 239. can survive awareness of the deficiencies which make one a part of a larger unit. without an which Neither city nor individual. Chicago it .

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however. Ross finds commercial "too much a reflexion the ordinary Greek illiberal p. G. R. advocated the abolition of Consequently. everyday Greek life as slavery Aristotle's condemnation of the prejudice against trade as an was. 368." should but about why there should be Hence there to slavery is natural. 1953). the just. which allows construct a politics wherein man's dependence i.The Good Life. and Acquisition: Aristotle's Introduction to Politics Mary P. should on nature is not slavish and commerce serves political not Sir David Ross. but because masters are naturally men not needy. of 241. is writing within a not society make which took the existence of entire granted and though they did up the responsible for the marginal surplus of wealth and leisure which made slavery for labour force.1 I shall argue. writes. See also Emest Barker. Masters enslave other those who rule benefit from being because they deserve to ruled. Aristotle's Political Theory. commerce removes the neces makes possible men over sity of slavery. and perplexed by demnation of commerce. inhibits his or actualizing his distinctive sharing in speech about the that commerce effects thus of nature capacity advantageous and his capacity for politics. that Aristotle inten slavery. By satisfying which some of man's basic needs. and therewith its justification. "It is. 243. also for while it helps to free man from his initial dependence natural nature. More recently. 375-76. 43~44- . for example. condemns commerce. and that this failure mankind's tionally fails points to demonstrate the of existence of natural of to the deeper issue Book I the Politics dependence on or slavery to nature. in the slavery. the rule of free also inhibits rule political life to the extent that politics is by freedom from Aristotle by on the bodily it pleasures which commerce provide. Mulgan explains Aristotle's argument for natural slavery in the following way: "We must not forget where that he slaves. This complexity in nature makes possible Aristotle's choice of a politics that subordinates living him to to living well. characterized and wealth is characterized by political rule. Dover. Commerce thus political free men." Mulgan finds that "no one. They often attribute his seemingly unqualified these features of Aristotle's tics to the prejudices of his time." ancient world. the openness of nature. regard as belonging to the nature of things an arrangement that was so surprising that Aristotle familiar a part of p. 1959). life. though regrettable. An Introduction for Students only two slavery is alternatives: "unthinkable" of Political Theory (Oxford: Clarendon Press. as it seems to us. were largely Greek culture and civilization possible. in contrast. as far as we know. was the debate be about slaves whether not. or might makes right. The Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle (New York. and 389. The freedom from bad aspect for nature com has both a good and a due to the plexity itself. Aristotle is left with the former. pp. were about whether there slaves. Slavery." Aristotle (London: class Methuen. Since the latter justification of Aristotle. Aristotle discovered life. Nichols Catholic University of America Modern argument readers of Aristotle's Politics are often embarrassed by Aristotle's con poli for natural slavery. Commerce. "[ajgainst slavery was natural the background of a general acceptance of slavery. 1977). pp.

New York: Cornell University Press. Aristotle speaks of common understanding one Aristotle's even of artificial things as having itself. ed. are to Aristotle's Politics. are mine. The end of the city also can be modified in the course of its development. trans. but for the sake of the good (i252b30- Commentators have this statement. The trans lations 3. because we practice the moral virtues.4 its existence. he ends can it serve a variety of ends. for example.172 Interpretation I Near the beginning sake of of the Politics. Ends other than those implied in the origins can control development. The acorn. p." ends peculiar to themselves. be so benevolent nature as incline men to come together for the living well. however. but Aristotle ends his dis slavery by observing that slavery allows the master to turn to politics philosophy (1255D3). exchanges shoes for other items. not contrary to nature.5 All references in parentheses. On the other hand. in Medieval Political Philosophy. come Aristotle into accounts neither for moral virtue nature nor in a similar way in the Nicomachean Ethics: "the 1103824-25. Barker. Thomas Aquinas. We can train ourselves to . as seeing is the virtues. 268. 1972). actualization of sight. educa Aristotle tion of that the highest concern of the head of household is the its members in virtue (i259bi8-22). Ernest O'Neill. in their origins. includes Man that are higher than the end peculiar And that variety of ends to the artifact. 308. but is flexible enough to allow men to do so. we see. virtues being by nature" contrary to we The virtues are not the actualization of a whereas potential. since we can acquire the moral they are because we have sight. comes into being for the to understand how something can have both sake of the oak tree. the household satisfies man's "merely daily says needs" (1252^4-17). labor. although the shoe "did not come into being for for the sake exchange" (1257313). something comes into being for the sake of its natural end. While make man produces an artifact an end peculiar to itself. and that exchange frees him from associations. become morally virtuous. p. Commentary on the Politics. But see Aristotle's account of two in De Anima. the first by choice (1252326-27). Aristotle exists says that "the city comes life" into being 31). not since development to can be modified by human choice. "peculiar to the other as an exchange. come to having which pur to provide those items by his own take place naturally rather than poses Similarly.3 not given sufficient attention to the problematic char acter of genesis and the end of What is the relationship between the end of a thing's its existence? According to Aristotle. unless otherwise noted. The shoe's end peculiar end as an article of exchange is in fact higher than the to the shoe. have higher than those contained The and association of man and woman is for the sake of generation (1252326-27).2 for the life. p. Nature may sake of 2. It is difficult an end of of its genesis and an end teleology. 4i2a-b. the realization of its perfection. Fortin and Peter D. given the Moreover. Ralph Lerner and Muhsin Mahdi (Ithaca. L. 4. 328. Ross. So too do the "security" master and slave come together cussion of and for the sake of (1252331). The shoe article of of has two uses. By the end of Book a I. "actualities" 5.

even necessary. to If there are no natural slaves. The barbarians are not fully aware of nature's abundance. For justice injustice consist harmful p." things. Animals do because their pleasure is their good. This and Acquisition 173 conclusion might seem to run counter to Aristotle's argument that man is a political animal. unjust. argues. Aristotle pain. Nature does nothing in vain. I I03ai4-H03b7. Aristotle reveals that slaves nature are advantageous. Before arguing that been provident. that some from this that it people signifies just and the unjust. Aristotle maint3ins that what attracts animals as pleasant not need speech benefits them (1256326-27). 310.6 The city is the association in which men use faculty of speech indicate these things to one another (1253310- Later in Book I. slavery. Early his "can foresee body" in the Politics. for if every tool could to do in advance. pp." moral virtues "acquired through human 6. Slavery. although it has allowed him reason in order to discover it. "Rational Animal The Review of Politics 38 (April 1976). For msn. and man possesses speech. exist. but Aquinas cities also notes the we cannot train a stone to move upwards NE. how does the just Thomas comments: follow from the advantageous and the harmful? "Human the speech signifies what useful and what and is harmful. Only speech. See also unequally as regards useful and equally Political Animal: Nature and Convention in Human Speech Laurence Berns. human industry. however. It follows in this. speech about the advsntsgeous is necessary because the be guided simply by the but needs instead speech for perfection. to Nature does not act pose]. Speech is unlike mere voice. Nature's limited The question of providence becomes man's opportunity. It is a mistake. has not The beneficence of nature therefore turns on the exist ence of natural slaves. 311." . the providence of nature underlies Aristotle's discussion of natural slaves man. in contrast. Aristotle argues. so that each may be perfected (125232-4). one niggardly way". 177-78. if become courageous. like they shuttles wove and of the statues of Daedalus the tripods of Hephaestus. The teaching his naturally pleasant. it work makes "one thing for [pur Each being has one rather than many. Moreover. Thomas and exercis "founded by similarity between the p. Aristotle served that the head of a family needs tools to accomplish his work: Every say assistant is as it were a tool that serves for several what perform its own work when ordered. Aristotle describes the natural with his and the natural slave as the mind" ruler as one who the one who with "can do what the ruler foresees with his mind (1252332-33). ob However." identify "in a the slave with the female. Man thus to provide man with his good. that man is a rational (and hence political) animal implies that nature has failed pleasant can cannot be harmful.The Good Life. By the advantageous Aristotle might mean pleasure through restraint and reflection rather than and the unjust in an immediate is sense. Aristotle's distinction between between the obtained pleasant speech and voice does not depend on a complete disjunction and the advantageous. and are treated or Politics. ss the barbarians do. or and by seeing tools. and therefore the just and the their unique 18). can indicate the to advantageous and the harmful. which indicates pleasure and Other animals make one another aware of these sensations through voice. in the beginning of his discussion of nstursl slavery.

and masters no need of slaves [I253b33-i254ai]. cannot Moverover.174 Interpretation harps of quills played themselves. he proceeds to assert that a slave is a tool for action than for production (125438). master craftsmen would have no need of assistants. Aristotle does not is the master of the slave. if he is to be made a good one one. Slsve is the opposite of both. weaving. has complexity. the mind the psssions. acts a good slave foresees what should be done he exercises in the situation. Aristotle brings up the issue of the msster's depen dence. 3S Aristotle indicstes in the slsve. Aristotle whst pursues "by looking srgume lesrning from hsppens" "by (1254321-22). rather for example. To the extent natural slave. . Tools for action are articles of property. he is condition of able to accomplish more than one task. But since the msster needs the slsve. the msle the femsle. Aristotle identifies the n3tursl msster with the free msn (for ex3mple. Although Aristotle implies that slaves are useful is truly useful. he is less a in production. The just for him to be his question 3nswer to the former question would to imply the snswer to the htter: if there is a s nstursl slsve. and foresight. since he nsturslly belongs to snd to snother. he belong to the slave in the way that the slave belongs to the master would anyone suppose (125439-13). restricted would even by nature job alone. In spite of Aristotle's suggestions his productive concerning the independence of the slave his foresight as well as capacity Aristotle refers us to his complete dependence on his next says that although the master master. masters need slaves. By implication. Nature more is acting "in a niggardly perfectly if they were man's and certain tasks be peformed sole occupation. by definition it is sdvsntageous and slave. Nevertheless man has become a flexible. where msny things combine to mske 3 common there is something ruling something ruled." observes that there snd being ruled throughout "sll nsture composite thing. is ruling snd Aristotle "In every one. i254b28-29). But thst the msster belongs to the slsve? In ssserting the contrary. Aristotle gives exsmples: snd msn the soul rules the body. he is way. and articles of property belong to another (125439-11). From time to time in Book I. foresight is what flexibility. He performs different tasks when that a useful slave foresees what should be done without depending defines the on his master." course of defining the nsture of the slsve. Because tools foresee to do in advance." not to one job. The if he has been slave. or that he possesses some of the competence that that a slave master. Aristotle lets us see accordingly. Aristotle states here that for a slave must perform a certain a variety of functions. could the msster Hsving snyone to seem defined "the is s nsture of the be simply independent or free? Aristotle ssks "whether there is it is advsntsgeous 3nd snyone who by nsture 3 slave and whether just for be slave" (1254318-19).

"msny free men. but not nature does free "often" not of (literally. snd the bessts from msn. is like all false theories: "a false fall into inconsistency. that many of Aristotle's statements about natural slavery vitiate his theory of natural slavery. hsving no body." of the question contains implicitly the refutation of his slave as p. however. hss it no needs a us slave could satisfy? Aristotle immediately underlines the difficulty by telling rather that the slave does "share in possess resson. In natural slaves while times") fulfill its intention." At lsst turning to "whst Aristotle ssserts thst nature intends to make the bodies of free men different from those of slaves." political Unfortunately. 242.The Good Life. readily 8. Ross comes to a similar conclusion: theory. according to Barker. p. the latter "strong for necessary the former "erect and unserviceable for such things. he has done it in a way that makes refuted. Mulgan observes "If [Aristotle] has given one or racial classic defences of genetic supremacy. the and Acquisition 175 The observstion about issue." but only so ss to perceive thsn it (i254b23-25). It is surprising thst Aristotle now body" 7. and Barker finds that Aristotle Barker cannot maintain that he possesses "the semi-rational part of the 365. cannot decide any two men form such a composite. emphasis mine). his granting that "the slave has even the emotional and desiring See also p." he divides the occupations of political useful life into service in war and in peace. theory must always His theory. do. Mulgan the inconsistency between Aristotle's "seeing the animal-like" wholly of the physical and part of the human p. the lower animsls. ststes thst "sll men. . If we hsd be useful to his msster. he not be strong to perform the tasks of a slave ? . for whom it is best to be (i 254b 1 6-20). the master would have to be completely the slsve completely body. and others by slave" (125531-2. how could the master differ from the slave as much as the soul from the body? Strictly the speaking. Slsves free men often often hsve the bodies of men have souls bodies other not words. our useless thsn s resson to suspect that the natural slave would not suspicion s msster is now confirmed: whst could be more desd slsve for who. But has the the concept of a natural slave all the more problematic. if it deals with all the facts and data of its subject. argues consistently both that "the slave is a mere and is able to listen to the voice soul" of reason. (i254b33~34). Aristotle differ ss grestly as the body from the soul." p. 41. but he is further ruled" elsborating the definition. if we consider only the type of often make good body required. What exactly is the difference between the bodies of free men Aristotle says that the bodies of free men are "useful for political refutation easy.7 hsppens. but service. composites. 43. If the definition is making master has a body as well as a soul and the slave a soul as well as a body. and must contradict some of these facts the assumptions on which it goes. not all such are so doctrines and those of slaves? When life. for the soul and master and the slave to reproduce the difference between soul and the body. 368. Aristotle's are conclusion over "It is clear therefore that some by nature not free men. 43. Aristotle still does not demonstrate the existence of nstursl slsves. are by nsture slsves." p. subdues Is the body of the warrior not must for ploughing the fields? If the enough master (free man) the slave in war. I254b29~34. Slavery." useful for life." "Aristotle's treatment also notes and soul. which is whether who .8 do is slaves. while free men often In light stated: nature of the development of the argument.

Nature Aristotle makes mentioned men with hsppens to be perfectly loysl. Slavery. masters a and benefit from master: man and being ruled. there is no common good.9 by convention only 3nd not by nsture We hsve C3p3city excellent of resched the S3me result needed when 3nd the body by the slsve. however. and he cannot satisfy his needs without violence injustice to others. When Aristotle nsture maintains that be justly not employed "by convention snd by discussing acquisition. i26ob2-3). Man is not must he provide the necessities do so must by enslaving His others do not deserve to be good enslaved. the question implicitly can relieve msn of his unnatural slsvery arises whether to nature. are useless because they run the souls of slaves." attack." .).. The friendship be pro between moted msster snd slsve therefore seems tenuous. On the the master-slave relationship. Since slavery makes politics and politics and philosophy philosophy possible.176 concedes Interpretation to the conventionslists thst some slsves 3re so (I25533ff. bodies might unservicesble for necesssry work. but he who necesssrily the just. therefore cannot lead him simply toward his good. nature has failed to provide for Nature is harsh is needy by nature. violating the one or the other. that doctrine. distance toward freeing man simply from merely necessary existence. Barker it is notes diminish the slavery: number of slaves. 9. he also advises masters to treat their slaves in a wsy thst prepsres them for freedom. When slsvery is only there can be no friendship war csn (I255bi5-i6). of Aristotle slave when force. 369. naturally ends. The advantsgeous is not simply free to pursue the good life: not only that nature does not provide for him. ss Aristotle Aristotle recommends (i255b25ff. Aristotle mentions how greatly advantageous slavery is: the possession of slaves frees a man so that he can engage in politics and philosophy (i255b37). quite Aristotle's distinction between natural and conventional slaves would "Aristotle's Barker writes. His recalls dependence natural on nature Aristotle's description of unnatural slavery. s master would not While such s msn benefit from level of being spesks benefit from ruling him. who both benefit their msn. for the existence of natural slavery. except thst ss the slsve be comes more competent snd virtuous not he is more only fails to give a conclusive argument obviously not s nstursl slsve. who slso Dsedslus. The most considering both the intellectual useful sl3ve is the msn in mind snd which body. "may seem to us to defend possible that it struck his contemporaries as also an p. goes some The is not the good. but ssid. The ststues earlier. "sgsinst men who sre by fit to be ruled but willing" who sre (i256b25). without He cannot pursue the advantageous and nature the just. At the end of his discussion of slavery. It might sppesr to the slsve in useful skills snd by the s educstion of in virtue. Aristotle ruled. If indeed there sre no nstural slaves." the friendship thst csn exist between s msster snd a the slavery is natural. with "often" away.

now becomes explicit. is of msn's mesns for use relationship sction or life (125432-8). 1964). It is difficult to see how piracy could be a just mode of acquisition. Aristotle discusses the house within holds. also sees not only that there are rulers and ruled throughout nature but that there are "many different kinds of being ruled" (1254325). msn for himself his Aristotle now mesns of living. their lives differ greatly. Aristotle gives sn srgument for nature's providence. as an job of the hesd the family is to his job to scquire property? or Aristotle thus Does s raises the question of the source or origin of msn's provide life sctivity.10 nature" (i267b69). the beneficence of nature. farmers. or through their men. The issue underlying the discussion of slavery. Or perhaps piracy refers to the enslaving of I have argued. others meat. While the property. In discussing of the scquisition of provides food. Some grass. p. then piracy in this sense also is unjust. whether through nature's providence. Leo Strauss. and Acquisition 111 II The lsrgest part of Book I is on scquisition. Aristotle turns directly to the question raised by thst suggestion. with men. the question of the goodness of nsture. Slavery. text of "the whole of mathematics who also tried to place politics within the con applied principles nature. the smallest associations in the city. He discusses the article of property. But is there some order or discussion of unity slsvery there hsve appeared no that pervsdes the diversity? Thus far in the men who enslave and others who are enslaved. So too ways. or is he dependent brings up the possibility that a beneficent natures provides man with what he needs.The Good Life. because are nomadic they food in different and There herdsmen. Nature the wsys life of many different kinds of food. who. and has differentisted the animals by giving them different faculties for obtaining eat different foods. in contrast. vsrious pursuits. and of what of man's speaks pertains "throughout nsture" sll relationship to nature. Is piracy the others what violent taking from own efforts? they have acquired. But if there are no natural slaves. as . The City and Man (Chicago: Rand McNally. "supplementing the more deficient life when it 11." sometimes "live He tells us that men of acquisition by ner of life itself results "piracy" pleass combining the 10. but sssursnce. (1254333). Aristotle includes injustice: And need leads to among the natural modes (1256336). This argument for nature's providence indicates man's neediness: man's man from the way in which he acquires the necessities. on something external? Book I Aristotle raises the question of nature. Hippodamus apparently neglected to politics. thst those who sre enslsved sre nsturslly inferior to their enslsvers. and the heterogeneity ruling and of Aristotle. some are nomadic. hunters of various kinds. Hsving suggested that there is no common good between master and slsve. and the relationships master's the households. is it slso to his slsve. others obtain solitary. 19. or even likelihood. In this Aristotle imitstes Hippodamus.

376. fsrming. slong bonds smong 12. and Barker takes Aristotle's p. He concluded his discussion into association with one another. Leo Strauss and Joseph 1963). statement that nature provides all things for man out of context. obviously brings men into contact with one another. 39. but also designed by nature for subjection refuse to submit to (T256b25-27). in esses where it" Not only is "those of hunting msnkind s nstursl mode of acquisition. These do essarily bring alone. 126. the center of unnatural acquisition "Aristotle. 13. for the of sake emphasis mine). the invention of money." . p. however. Cropsey and the (Chicago: Rand McNally. hunting (i256bi-2). 1977). moreover. in which man is the end of other things. nomos (i257bio. The their common sctivity. 1133329-32). see Nicomachean Ethics. a species of war. They now hsve sgreements or conventions thst regulste with stamping of coins which determine their for money. p. War and trade are alternative History of Political Philosophy. ed. Exchange.178 Interpretation short hsppens to fall how to as provide in being self-sufficing" (I265b3~5).). The invention of money therefore strengthens the bond between trsders. Exchange is natural. Man must choose for himself. the final aim towards the production of which nature moves See also Ross. Along with the sn money word came associstions of men which men sgreed to 3bide value word by suthoritstive Greek for convention. is trade. of what nature provides and more of whst observes he scquires on his thst nsture bestows food all. 80. sppesrs theless concludes that nature provides nature mesn mature animal as man" provides "all things for the (I256b22). for he immedistely indicates that man's natural provision might resist being acquired. nomisma. culminating in usury. the mercenary "the transfor quest for increase gain. men piracy.12 wsr. fishing. naivete. See also Joseph Cropsey." Barker nevertheless notes conception of early thought should indulge itself in the distinction between this "external teleology" Aristotle's "fine as their p. Political Philosophy on mation and Issues of Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. for it is s more convenient means of exchanging goods. But the invention in of money grows out of chsnge. Aristotle and both his independence and pleasure increase through he takes less own efforts. Aristotle says. of the predation of war into the salutary predation of peace. nstursl modes of scquisition other snd Aristotle hss discussed the thsn trade not nec herding. just as animals bring forth for with their young enough sustenance themselves" able to provide (I256bn-I2. sppesrs instruments! in forming Trade. or kw." modes of acquisition. such and not then tries to excuse it: "it was only natural that 376. while they exchange what ex- they have in use of surplus (1257328). for them "until they are But he never well. and internal 'destined eater' but as teleology. for men must obtain from others what they happen to lack. of They may be undertaken these natural modes of acquisition by in cluding war among them (i256b25-27). and at Harry Jaffa observes that at the center of natural acquisition is hunting. is derived from the (1 2573358". p. He whst to that there is no natural barrier to man's scquiring he is sble to subdue.

who came of hunger due to his insatiable desire for money (1257^5-17). came into sake of which money amount of being for an end peculisr to of exchange itself. Moreover. by even more everything that naturally comes into being does so from some particular . because it removes from the natural necessity. than money since removes man from the limits imposed radically Usury nature's heterogeneity. it reduces a variety of goods to a a universal Men have invented much ss nsture thst sppesrs of to remove them from nsture. inss- is composed of s vsriety why entities. irreducible to one snother. men desire limit the life means life (i257b24-30). But now Aristotle seek argues thst men seek to scquire unlimited smounts of money becsuse they life rather than the good without life. And to deny one's mortality is to deny one's corporeality. then. just as any tool is limited by its end or function (i256b28-39). snd conse quently The life seek sn unlimited smount of the mesns to these plessures (125832-8). however. snd hss no origin in nature. Aristotle refers to those who think that money useless of close is "entirely a convention. with identify of the enjoyment of bodily plessures living well. Aristotle explained that natural acquisition is limited by its end. It is therefore unnstursl in to bodily plessures. but before well the advent of money original it was used for the sake as as for its but end (1257313). We should not suppose. Aristotle Men gives s second resson men desire unlimited smounts of money. But is Aristotle first indicated? unlimited moneymaking. The into came shoe. And there is the story of Midas.The Good Life. Slavery. particular items such as shoes are no longer needed as articles of exchange. msn does not rise to the politics st its best. msn moneymaking thus blinds sll sense ss well: 3 skve to his nstural neediness st the ssme time thst it binds him this further the more to his body. And the being city too comes does not take his bearings entirely from one end. living and eventuslly living well. s desire for unlimited for Unlimited moneymaking is premised on the denial of mortality. the advent of money. Usury srtificisl s psrsdigm for the unnstural evidently becsuse through usury the therefore comes from the artificisl. life. for an end other than the end for the usury is unnstural because it uses money being. and death. the desire for life not limited by its end. Aristotle the origins. an unnatural mode of world of acquisition. And to as since the desire for life is unlimited. because it is for the necessities. and Acquisition 179 as sn unnstursl mode Why does Aristotle nevertheless describe moneymsking of scquisition? In concluding his discussion of nstural acquisition. and in no way by nature. sought through Money can take the place of all the particular goods single measure. exchange. we remember. usury is "the most contrary to but interest increases the "came into being for the sake of nature Money thst money itself (125805-6). msnly independence of politicsl rule th3t chsrscterizes Of the forms of moneymsking. accounts Appsrently. into for exists for a higher is one. corporeality. subsistence" dying Moneymaking is to man with snd a man rich in money may lack the necessities (1257b 10-14).

in which Aristotle Barker from word nothing. to usury on the ground that it makes something come But Barker believes that this is a false inference from the peculiarity of the Greek 385-387. not felling activity that and does an mining. Then. I believe that do the violence peak of we should be reminded of Aristotle's political science. see pp. But usury makes origins from nothing. Whst divorces msn from scquiring nsture 's heterogeneity is now recommended if it csn be subordinsted to politicsl need such mesns of ends. of Aristotle 15. The second part of Book I is about man's provides a admits that transition to the last part objects of Book I. out of Aristotle his fifty. it for human purposes. which must to man's nature. The nstural slaves by definition (1252334) for are men now working for hire. One such method is monopoly. natural inclinations in thst he order to raise him to his place at Aristotle says will lesve s detsiled account of these modes of acquisi collect tion to others. is to the abolition of those p.14 While for Aristotle the the do not necessarily completely control development. gives the example of a man who made one hundred talents Far from condemning this making of money out of money. the head of the more money than is necessary for the purchase to pay other men family of of needed money permits him to employ others to do necessary tasks therewith to free himself for other occupations. While he shows that a private use of monopoly is harmful to a tyrant's affairs (1259330-32). for interest. The convention of services. there is exchsnge. as it is revealed in sep arating himself from nature through unnatural modes of acquisition. Aristotle now tells us there His extra is a third mode of acquisition. he concludes that "to know [how to secure a monopoly] is useful for statesmen slso. He divides the nstursl mode slone" (i258b28). which concludes his discussion of scquisition. "who sre useful by mesns of their bodies n).15 Hsving "sufficiently distinguished them. for necessary goods. The lstter includes the workers without srts. of the mode involving commerce. "Perhaps the limits than is trade. for msny cities money" (1259335-37). usury. usury denies of origins sltogether. of He recommends that "someone the scattered accounts moneym the successful methods used by which "will benefit those moneymaking" honoring (125933-6). and course must possess money has made it possible In order to pay other men. . Aristotle's suggestion for the politicsl use of commerce. snd lsbor for hire. He to gives the examples of nature in order to use timber." [the forms scquisition] to their in order to understsnd Aristotle will discuss them "in use" regsrd (i258b9- into its branches. Jaffa suggests that Aristotle's praise root of just war and his censure of trade are due to the extreme fact that the of injustice is the abolition of the limits upon more akin bodily desires. activity that takes from nature what it does readily provide.180 Interpretation something come thing. For his discussion. 80. The first the psrt of Book I is sbout msn's natural neediness. 14. Aristotle emphasizes that the method can be used politically. culminating in usury. with elements of both the natural and an the com mercial violence kind. human institution of slavery.

and that of a free woman man. Aristotle of the returns to the relation between the concerned master and slave. It that the slave is capable of moral virtue.) Nevertheless both kinds of rule are defined as the rule superior over the naturally the naturally inferior. although Aristotle from undermining his earlier argument altogether by maintaining that the slave is capable of moral virtue only in a sense. Aristotle's into question the unity life? Book I with inability to speak of the virtue of women and children without considering the particular regime political in which they live ( 1 260b 1 0-18). it is only by looking beyond the life. Virtue varies from regime to regime. within Before discussing about the other relations the family. The male's preeminence over the female. integral part of the city. The good life st Aristotle ssid cities simed must slwsys be lived within the context of s particular regime. although the male's rule is permanent and rule is the rulers rule of equals who take turns ruling.The Good Life. 16 the concept ends But does of the diversity call humanity. but the city exists for the sake man the good life. Since the head family is more the virtue or excellence of its humsn members thsn of its insnimste property. 173 of this paper. Slavery. There is the virtue of a slave. snd that of a (i26oa2-28). than the female. just as there not is the virtue of a within msn. can and moderation virtuous (i259b2i-26)? Aristotle has this dilemma: if the slave in the latter sense. returns and Acquisition 181 to the family. . but Aristotle has had to describe him as less than human in order to justify slavery. political life itself A assumes a forms. Aristotle says. of have seen. There are different kinds refrains of courage and moderation. since it fails to provide men with inferior Amasis' and obedient wives. Aristotle observes. consideration of politics irreducible which nstursl diversity Aristotle's thst commerce evidently recslls to msn the tended to deny. Again nature is improvident. or also such virtues as courage. of address or titles of respect. the question of the virtue of the slsve arises. emphasis Aristotle classifies the rule of male over female as political rule. such as modes Amasis' in his a way reminiscent of footpan (I258b-I259a). master over slave. justice. He now claims that family The family the of can understood remains an properly only in the context of political life. be s reminder of one's natural origins. 16. of According situation: a to Herodotus. ii. had become king eminence of (Herodotus. If nature's practical improvidence demands of again could be seen as man's opportunity. argument suggests by the end of Book I that there is a variety As we of good lives. it appears. Amasis utensil made golden footpan into just a god in imitation his own former had become an object of reverence. Aristotle distinguishes the rule of male over female from the rule of CSee p. political except where there is some departure from nature" (I259b2. After calling of our attention be to the advantages of commerce and of the statesman's use commerce. Does the slsve hsve only the virtue of s tool or a servant.172). from multiplicity of the same applies to the virtue of a man. "The male is naturally fitter to command mine). he would be a human being. While virtue appears inseparable life. Presumably. formerly a subject. Politicsl life therefore frees from his dependence on brute nature without uprooting him from the natural world. Where equals take turns ruling. and therewith within of the good human excellence. Aristotle thus now appears returns to the question of the slave's humanity. resembles the pre footpan. just as it fails to provide slaves. try to indicate some sign of their superiority. as Amasis.

in this sense least. For it is in Aristotle's ss opposed msnkind's scquisition of speech Aristotle's the city's thst the end of existence. It is commonly understood that Aristotle. The be life at which the Aristotelian city aims. not because it distsnces him from his nstursl world time it further binds him to his injustice of body snd its plessures.182 Interpretation Sophocles' Aristotle finds poet support for the diversity to of virtues from observes. then. after all. The stories the gods thus support rather kingly must than political rule: and they indicate good man's dependence and bondage than his self-suf at ficiency go freedom. the following suggestion. From Aristotle's might exist. centers on political to the end of msnkind. men Aristotle were associates veneration of the gods with the village stage of human development." also believe that there is rule. the good life. they the gods to their own (1252b). The said. But for to despotic rule. is science." gives grace said Aristotle Yet it is the maddened Ajax a tivities. household management. Aristotle might be saying. or wealth. Aristotle's politics. is in order. slsvery justices may be simply at the relief ssme the disjunction between the for sdvsntsgeous In unavoidable advantageous man in establishing civil societies. When themselves ruled of by a king they worshipped gods also ruled of likened the lives rather by a king. Aristotle tells s snd therefore when speech becomes the political community is the the advantageous and hsrmful. snd ss revesled of by speech. When would silence of be At the beginning Book I. kingly rule. first on appeared in ancient cities that made piety the bond of their union. 18.17 Ajax. shsring in speech. "Silence woman. the advantageous and the just for man appear to conflict. It is this.18 17. is essential to the city's aiming at the good no point of view. then. Could Aristotle have thought that cities truly deserving such cities the name had not yet existed? And was it his chosen task to bring into existence through his political science? The grestest scquisition st politicsl issue in the Politics. based on of are those the who same. as opposed (125238-14). when his wife Tecmessa questioned his ac madman. and despotic rule These men distinguishing Aristotle's political science from Plato's scope of this paper. But Aristotle's discussion the just. for speech re the just and the unjust (1253314-16). mskes its first sppesrsnce A silence smong womsnly msy be sppropriate. especially if un like Tecmessa's. first appeared not in Aristotle's speech but in Plato's. They are not ciites that deserve the name of cities (see i28ob7-8). It might 293. existence of makes from the gross slavery possible. Such an objection depends the ends served by religion. business of defending his honor. political life. And past cities have probably existed for the sake of survival. sppesrs Yet Aristotle sppropriste? sppropriste: veals to endorse Ajsx's ststement. Until the cities. Ajax. And commerce. be objected that the end of the city's existence. attacks a man's pride as he goes about the womanly speech. The conjunction of of the advsntsgeous and the just. who does not listen to who the good advice of a womsn. is the bssis revesled the politicsl community. the good life. beyond It piety. Plato did not understand the good life for which cities . objected also that might the end of the city's existence. Although philosophizing about politics is beyond the a passage in Book I. its genesis. difference between a small city and a large household Aristotle is referring to Socrates and Plato. Aristotle begins the politics with a criticism believe that "political rule. Sophocles.

20 commits suicide. insight than Tecmessa. No time to sit. Perhaps it is this detachment try to overcome nstursl necessity.19 When she is unsuccessful. she laments his thereby affirms the goodness of Suicide presupposes a distsnce from life. if 20. 891-903. Slavery. Awareness degree of mankind's dependence on Aristotle for these things nondespotic political may life. to save a man is die. . or sufficient detschment from life to discern that it is thst allows men to not worth living were at all costs. suicide might simply unsstisfying." eager to Ajax. When Tecmessa discovers the danger to his life. let's hurry. if it provided msn be s proper response to the into existence humsn condition. Aristotle intends to bring cities. Yet if politicsl life no sccess bsck to s nstursl world. rule and and Acquisition is that of 183 men over freedom. or communities that provide some although with degree of good more considerably living. 19. his death. and with a large degree of manly assertion. "Come. snd to found cities. for of the political rule free free men (I277bi6). He is sgsin playing the woman's part. 81 Ajax.The Good Life. we wish she asks the chorus who to help her find him: 1-12. not promote the manly independence necessary for Tecmessa tries to rashness and prevent Ajax life. to enslsve others.

.

2.Aristotle on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life Catherine H. as Arendt claims. And in the Politics. is sn inherently dis tinction between sction snd reason or 1. In the Nicho- politics to philosophy is in the works of machean Ethics. simply by the desire for fame. these ancient philosophers establish tradition which subordinates practice to contemplation or philosophy. 1958). and On the contrary. political life depicted or by Aristotle is as "immortality" "distinction" clsims. and contemplation. 17-18. as a life worth choosing for its own sake or essentially a The picture Aristotle action gives of political self-satisfying one. Hannah Arendt notion attempts to revive the ancient that the distinctively human lies in political action. Plato does as a life by both the viability showing the limits of not so clear and the politics. which is a question not merely justice. Politics essentislly of recognition rule. The City and Man (Chicago: Rand McNally. especially family as through totalitarian controls. moreover. life differs. Since this question politics concerns the question. who should or honor but ultimately The simple of can be answered only through complex snd con rationsl activity. he suggests three different peaks of human excellence mag nanimity. theory does fit: cpgovnoig includes of Hannah Arendt. of course. com- there is enduring problem both of providing the requirements and of penssting those who do. 50-138. and this it is hierarchy way of that she wishes to establish challenge. not tinuing deliberstion. begins by showing that the are provided does not emerge until sities of the polis characterized by by the oikos. pp. Zuckert Carleton College In The Human Condition. in important Although it is true that the Politics or unless the neces respects from the life is Arendt polis praises. The Human Condition (Chicago: 155-56. pp. Becsuse humsn life is characterized an Arendt by several incommensurable needs. Unlike explicitly the Latin commentators who reveal their misunderstanding by reducing political politicsl animal to social. but opinion.1 As Leo Strauss has brilliantly shown. she recognizes. 10. . rather by praise and blame expressed either in legisla not tion or mere animated Second. Aristotle shows that the regime (jioXixeia) not shapes so infuses all aspects of private life. justice. he presents the life of the statesman or jzofarixog more or less in its own terms. She thus reminds her readers of Aristotle's famous dictum (Politics 125333-5) that man is s and its essentially controversial character at the same time she dissociates herself from the ancient philosophic understanding. Leo Strauss.2 superiority of philosophy But the subordination of Aristotle. Nevertheless. that public sharp distinction between the and private. Plato and Aristotle public retain a sense of the distinctively the life of the polis. 1963). University Chicago Press. it a is not true.

labor) limit the scope of political economic relations Aristotle shows. moreover. voting with the negotiations of We do. And in showing why political activity reveals is both necessary and desirable. however. not that all govern is necessarily difficult to construct oppressive It does mean that and maintain a regime which recognizes it is extremely and gives due . humsn life can sbove the level subsistence. Only by means of a vast abstraction and simplification can we equate secretary better appreciation as political participation. but considerations slone suffice of to explsin sny psrticulsr regime. need politics a a s of "the political. and these sre the men most apt most of be fulfilled only through being elevsted sbove to engage in politics. The nature of any of exis specific very out depends on the character and wisdom of the men who snd enforce the lsws. in the community is not honor rather thsn weslth. because the distribution of goods as to who rules be altered by force. Aristotle ical association constitutes or involves a the reasons why every polit "regime" (jzoXltelcx) . Since most humsn their beings hsve to devote tence. Through his discussion of regime Aristotle thus enables us to understand why political con flict endures. why neither purely social nor satisfy human beings. their more does politicsl sctivity srises only humsn beings fundsmental procreative and economic needs. Man explained meaning to be fully with ss a species may be political but individual distinctions are products of of chance (birth) of state and plsce (the division lsbor). every human own being values own existence. The fsct thst sll human of self-love beings mean and so rulers in particular act ment (1267330-35) does or unjust. own existence. Since the members of a and new generations as well as to feed polity defend themselves.186 Interpretation both. their desires csn others. why there is neces never complete consensus or sgreement. Finslly. according to Aristotle. is both more noble snd s more limited humsn "search" endeavor thsn we generally recognize. the (the division of must continue to produce requirements of both family snd economic organization action. All human beings act from an attachment to their way. thus why force is slwsys sary to maintain order. the fundsmentsl pluralism of humsn life thst Arendt herself stresses mskes it impossible for sll members of s community to psrticipste fully a in public or politicsl yet decisions. On the contrary. but they to do not all define their own of existence in the same Msn's bssic in concern preserve his life mskes economic considerations powerful determining economic the wsy of life individusls never or communities (i 256329. very few regime thus mske will ever psrticipate much lives to scquiring the necessities fully in politics. that is. as Arendt urges. Some everyone men seek spt to sgree sbout who should rule. an order ing of disparate groups and activities in which some rule others. tends to overestimate his importance. thst is. nor Politics is not it chsrscterize merely a sll humsn sfter relstions or sssocistions. why all political activity and association snd is partisl." As Aristotle shows.I256b9). The decision since is his s decision ss to whst even is most importsnt. meet for power.

Self-preservstion Joseph Cropsey. modern sense.. The fact that there are necessary that politics economic conditions for the emergence of political order also means is not universal.3 sepsrate and one of the in some ways subordinate to socialistic least liberal democ of pri racies ought vate to tesch us thst the lsw reaches into virtually all realms even when example. to deliberate sbout the best way of circumstsnces. endesvor. ed. 65-68. it msy life until their vitsl Under unfavorable require sll their time and effort merely to survive. male-female or procreative relation as well as the master-slave. Our tendency (stemming from Locke) to associate govern ment political primarily with legislstion lesds us not only to underestimate the extent of influence but also to conceive of political action primarily in terms snd enforcement. Aristotle's very first claim that the polis constitutes the highest and most comprehensive form of human association surely flies in the face of the modern liberal tendency to view the stste ss Yet our own experience in society. narrower. of so the existence of political order also requires the intelligent organization labor to describes the intelligent tion. Aristotle insists that the first form of human sssociation. Jaffa. And Aristotle's man" second sweeping claim is that politicsl rule differs essentislly from both despo tism and patriarchal authority. becsuse the sistence organizstion of provide the necessary goods. . "power" the contrary. so is politics politics. all intellectusl it is snd srtistic endesvor. the rule of s politikos (literally "political but usually translated statesman) is essentially different from that of a master and that of a father. consists in the merger of two different natural relations: the erotic. it is fairly clear that primarily directly coercive. Politi relation. that understanding a primarily in terms of involves fundamental misconception of the nature of political order. or economic operates in the 3. however. there will be no people. Aristotle Isbor in terms of the msster-slave relaat production of goods level requires s division of anything more than individual sub lsbor. division of lsbor. the family. Aristotle suggests. sary kinds cal If there are no people. V. men are not able needs are met. order thus includes the male-femsle If there is no food. the object of the lsw is to protect of freedom. It requires emerges deliberation." to for Even before the emergence the welfsre state. Unlike Marx. "Aristotle. the "right privscy. reli and even the gion." Harry in Leo Strauss 1972). of command Since command on and force are universal. Politicsl order represents s compound of several of association. If not political or influence is pervasive. so individual's also conception of himself. Alexis de Tocqueville extend showed thst the effects of of government Americsn democracy far beyond the institutions forms of into economic enterprise. there will procrestive different but equally neces be no polis. the fsmily. we conclude. and such necessary to main deliberative skill only in the context and on the bssis of political experience.Aristotle weight on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life or activities 187 to all the different kinds of contributions tain a political 3ssociation. PP- and History of Political Philosophy (Chicago: Rand McNally.

the association affects both the constituent needs and beings form desires. because each . several. Aristotle suggests. and so give birth to future generations. Although human beings cally. is s central to compound of the The "regime" concept of politicsl psrts. be in humsn beings thsn it is in other 3nimsls. that is. was first invented and instituted political order (1253331-34). human beings one another. "Barbarians" on a species as well as an make the mistake of women confusing the two distinct relations. the oikos. meet so all parts of the political order are by the particular way of life the members of the polis seek to preserve. They to order their lives by of their rational argued. Aristotle's approach fundamentally pluralistic and fundamentally hierarchical. Although men sre nsturslly inclined to sssociste politically. their needs. no completely individual capacity for self-rule. Aristotle observes. when they trest ss slsves. also choose a instinct is so much wesker order snd way of life. which srises snd They do out of the combinstion of instinct snd need. own are Humsn beings hsve to direct their lives becsuse able of the indeter minacy virtue or openness of human nature. sex be restricted both with regsrd to partner and the number of progeny. Aristotle argues.188 Interpretation individual level. they form politicsl sssocistions. In con trast to the formstion of the household order or fsmily. Aristotle thus good the importance and indeterminacy difficulty of making a choice. order his or political science. slmost of necessity. strictly speaking. of developing can and man's practical reason. But as Jean-Jscques Rousseau develop their speech and resson only in sssocistion later with There is. politicsl order is instituted inten tionally. Procrestion is not simply snother form of production. political associations do not way families do. and its political foundation. there is slwsys s positive sttrsction to life itself ss well as to other human beings st the root of every humsn society. The the man who spontaneously emerge the benefactor to mankind. On the con trary. seeking the good life. Human develop merely from necessity but also from desire. Aristotle observes. more complex politicsl order. they wsnt s good life. their Once humsn beings psnd. Once formed. greatest At more csuse a subsistence level. the does not fsmily solely from the requirements of survivsl or need. the best life pos in sible. however. or different As sll parts household sffected shaped irreducibly by the requirements of affected raising future generations. srticulstion sre of because he under- stsnds ss several. as a matter of conscious choice. To uality while must family groups not maintain the family. human life is they ruled by necessity. Rather than emphasize the openness or of stresses human life. desires ex- not merely wsnt life. Aristotle declares that the polis clearly do exist without associating politi is prior to the individual. choice or faculty or logos. to politics is thus both irreducibly different parts or relations. Once men produce than they need. the need to produce snd provide two roots of the most the nsture of the consist of bssic form of grestly expsnds. The interplsy of the humsn sssocistion is thus instructive ss to All humsn associations higher.

music or painting. Rule of the soul or mind is analogy. they thus seek to defend them their nstursl asso- selves incursions. The master-slave relation represents the simplest and most extreme esse. On the contrary. All social organization would rest ultimately on arbi trary preferences and coercive control." ruler and ruled. if there is no intelligent direc of physical motion. By 2nd ed. Men thus exercise and express their full rational potential only in politicsl association. Human speech and reason extend beyond the is mere animal expres or sion of pleasure and pain to calculations as of what useful harmful. Humsn beings develop potentisl to order or direct their own lives. Aristotle beneficial. and political associations are right or founded on an sgreement about what is just. Since human sbove subsistence except beings csnnot sny level in cooperation with others. If there were no such differences in potential. If tion soul division is necesssry. "The German York: Norton. reprinted in Robert Tucker. compare and rank various desires. neither differentiation nor hierarchy of any kind would be just. (New Karl Marx. their logos. 1978). Like Marx. only in politicsl cistions. The quslities which most distinguish one from snother develop only through specislizstion snd s division of lsbor. But can men logos is not calculate what merely instrumental. that is. to determine what is right. The Marx-Engels Reader. it is the existence of such differences that the division labor rational. beneficial for both Ideology. Aristotle thus necessary 4. (2) the need to use force to maintain order. p. is useful without a standard Aristotle understands it. Aristotle suggests that the most fundamental division of labor is that between body. Aristotle argues. or ss one man uses all So long is not apt to develop live at a his energy to provide for himself and a family. does not rule body. ss well ss the cspscity to deter mine whst is conducive to achieving these ends. in products of the natural are not merely or completely labor. productive. 159.4 mind or soul and Through an snslysis of the compound constitution of the argues that such a individusl humsn and being. Men should who trust esch do not deliberate together from possible sbout whst they do. Although individuals acquire both their distinctive talents and traits along of ability dividual differences with their to choose a way of life only in a political association. he talent for geometry. and generally beneficial. Aristotle's discussion characteristics of all and of the master-slave relation reveals association: two fundamental of human (1) the utility of a division labor. . there are division differences in indi makes vidual of potential. How "X" of measure of what is useful or hsrmful to? Logos thus includes the ability to articulate.Aristotle develops his qualities msn on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life 189 "individuality" particularity as well as his distinctly human only in political association. no man will and long survive. the choice of s wsy of life csn be msde only through sssocistion. natural. however. snd men sssociste with esch other sn sgreement sbout whst only on the bssis of the friendship do not thst arises from other is right or just. Specialization would merely constitute a restriction and contor natural tion of human potential.

indeed. than choiceworthy and in and of itself. Although msstery is be msy certsinly both psrties benefit. associate with each other not The only benefit Aristotle enslsve csuse reason human beings is for their mutual or pleasure. orders The but his nstursl slsve s humsn being with enough resson to follow not to direct his life. Mastery can be just does even when it rests on force rule.190 Interpretation has a right to control the actions of another com are related to each other as soul therefore argues. if the two is thus own is to body. All tence. not for the benefit mon of the mssters. to own him. Computer Power Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation (San Francisco: Freeman. deliberation ment and judgment by rigidly restricting serve. one man pletely. Aristotle argues. Joseph Weizenbaum. common serve. which the slsves. Cf. mean equal benefit. It could only replace politics. It could not becsuse the nstursl or justly enslsved man precisely becsuse he is not sble to determine or to do whst is best for himself. . rather again the crease our power or msstery intelligent direction of physical force. The masters have to determine which men ought to be slaves and is enslsved force them to than consent. not as a means the work of slsves might be performed snd by "divine machines" msy mske the dif ference he sees between Technology. men certsinly not quixotic others in order to preserve wsnt or unobservsnt enough to or believe thst benefit the They tske slsves be they to use them to obtsin or to do what the masters want. a kind of activity thst the psrticipsnts find satisto some other good. just so preservstion when sre nsturslly sttached to their own exis regsrded ss good. is supposed to in ability to realize our desires. Rule by s msster is good for the slsve ss well ss the msster. Aristotle's suggestion that fying in itself. it life. and There are. some who fear that it will. it is essentially instrumental or valuable politics clesrer to the modern reader. and Jacques 1964). Despite a common opinion to the con trary. Ellul. careful examination of the situation shows that command snd control of volved the sctions of other humsn commsnd sre not good or a reliable steward beings his snd the division of lsbor in in thst desirable in themselves.5 the mental develop de the variety of life it is supposed to Both the pend upon emergence and continued existence of a politicsl sssocistion the intelligent use of force to msintsin order snd a division of labor 5. 1976). rather but forceful conquest not suffice to establish just Only benefit establishes justice. Aristotle slsves does not emphssize the com benefit for the is mere preservation so much as the essen tially instrumental character of mastery. A fortunate slaves master will find to manage for him so that he will be free to or virtue consists engage in politics or philosophy (i255b30-37). He lscks enough foresight snd control to order own sffsirs sufficiently to survive without direction. wss but mutual benefit does necessarily slsves. the justice of msstery does not rest on the humsn beings consent of the slsve. Technological Society (New York: Knopf. Human excellence does in a not consist way of merely in the recognition of superiority by others. becsuse the slsve left slone is unsble to preserve himself.

On the contrary. both of these necessary elements constitute limitations of the extent politics all. emphssizes. and. But the fact that political order can completely duplicate the naturally indicated abandon order only approximate and never does not lead Aristotle to the natural as the standard of right. outstanding public men do always excellent also not not only because sons often neglect their own families but excellence and because the do not have the same potential. just beneficial to when Aristotle indicates the extent of such two respects in which nature that masters and slaves limitations only falls short of her briefly he observes "intends" "intention. XIII. that it are parts or elements of which makes every political it distinctly and political. both but neither constitutes necessary its essence.Aristotle on the Limits free and Satisfactions of Political Life from the press of necessity. perversion. Leviathan VI. to the household. . Rather than money and goods 6. Social political simply inherited. intellectual potential has to be actualized. Aristotle insists.6 One man can support himself alone with only Unfortunstely. ss Aristotle observes. op. cit. to which can be free. In order to be identified. "intends" Human is it. does not and never will snd perfectly reflect the differences in individual potentisl clearly talent. becsuse the primsry difference is one of intellectual potential rather than physi cal strength. it is impossible to tell who is s nstursl slsve snd who s msster. In fsct. and the actualization depends upon a child's social more (family) his later. Aristotle an ox. suggests that the division of labor arises not so from need as from the desire to live well. the requirements of a Although acquisition ought to be defined and limited the utility of sny by "mesns" fully its sstisfying life. 7. pp. so human beings ss possible never know exsctly whst they they in a much to take csre of ss msny this unlimited use future acqui possible.. Contrary much to Marx. it is much essier. As Aristotle sons. very men family have A good family not suffice to produce excellence. the division of labor. not moreover. political position. reasonable. because they are ultimately their mere preservation than they sre with living will well (I257b4i-i258&2). to the utility of goods men and money thsn it is to find s fully thus devote themselves to acquiring as more concerned with satisfying way of life. becsuse the development of potential into excellence presupposes and social order. Most much as they can. she difficult if not be visibly distinguishable (I254b27~34). Marx." First. Thomas Hobbes. most the same tendency ever to amass more than they need also prevents human beings from realizing their desires. the development of a child's intelligence depends circumstances. desire for sition results fundamental 156-58. and intellectual potential cannot be seen. -191 to produce enough to coercion and a some Both the need for division of labor inherent in the master-slave relation belong order. or since must be determined see by "end" purpose. although nature again order. amsss ss As Hobbes lster need.7 contingencies as But. As the Coleman life does report has recently much on reminded us. observes (i255bi-5).

more goods. Aristotle asserts that but Aristotle function for criticizes snd Politicsl deliberation of which consists pre activities to encourage how to reward them with goods or praise. they look only for the (external) of most rewards. Since scarcity does as result so much from the limits of goods the unlimited technology would not Book II. so long division of labor is necessary. Second. "factions. This most communism ever proposed is radically defective. Men need courage in order to live con is. that uses most The is indicative. own for They in their activity. how will they remain able to perform their different functions? . not to live quest. As Aristotle argues in range give rise to conflict which cannot be solved by to abolish self-interested conflict or poor. according to Aristotle. If the farmers and guardians receive the same education. cisely in determining the difficult question smong which groups of citizens Like Plato. A If that is true. attempted rich and human desire. end. few can achieve full not satisfaction in philosophy and always or government.192 to Interpretation of activity. never they find make courage satisfaction in fear. The use of force is therefore necesssry in instituting politicsl order not only to provide necessities in the form of the msster-slsve relstion but slso to desl with the conflict thst results from the of expsnsion of desire thst follows the not of productive success of a division natural labor. if is conflict. First. Aristotle describes fesr of a positive attachment to life rather than the negstive death or the unknown. consist human life does ceases necessarily only in death. acquisitive desires solely Plato economic means. improve the quality of their lives by raising their level men exercise and improve their faculties in order to acquire first illustration Aristotle well. in both means and end. must there be used to estsblish order." between by and making the citizens of his politeia as much especially like radical each other as possible having them share everything. So long as some merely in striving that human beings have to devote their lives a to providing the goods. naive or natural view maintains is that life is good. produce political unity. The there are two important differences. Nevertheless. Aristotle asks. Hobbes does not reveal life. force men seek without is bound to be And where competition and conflict on what we call economic grounds. that one will not is. If a political society necesssrily comprehends several different conflict csnnot be reduced by functions. something to account be desired. the productivity of modern fundamentally alter the situation. Aristotle solely that there are some few who are not moved by the desire for acquisition or mere only of the majority. Although Aristotle's men view of the primary driving forces in the lives is thus quite similar to Hobbes'. In taking the full human truth. education not is the way to Plato for recognizing the significance of economic education. every there be able to devote his or most her life to good politics or philosophy. but in mercenary armies or wars merely into a means of acquiring more wealth. destroying differentistion without destroying the possibility of politics ss well.

It is politically necessary to regime make most men act to preserve the by taking csre to psss on their own wsy of life to their children. family life as well a public ss more . Plato does much as dissolve it. On the contrary. The family structure is thus necessary. The specific chsrscter snd regulstion of regime fsmily life will therefore slso vary according to the If education (1260b 12-18). it is the desire to foster activities way of life that holds together different which necessarily constitute a polity. he actually depends more on the communistic institutions. but thst is only reason. as an extension of themselves or. of psrents conjugal relstion is not merely animal. be only if their needs sre met. is. sccording relstions. as opposed to the despotic rule of slaves or the monarchical guidance of children (1259b!). Aristotle's critique of core of these institutions thus points to his understanding of the origin or self-love. "belongs" to any one else. Aristotle observes.Aristotle on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life unify the city? 193 means If they don't. the politicsl conflict thst Plsto tried to svoid Humsn beings sre all nsturslly first attached to their own existence. human beings learn their way of and largely by doing. to Aristotle. By having all citizens own property in common. the educationsl educsted Third and most important. Aristotle argues. One is the function. No one any longer The foundation of the on tie. Plato insures that no one will take any of care of it. at least. structure traditional family is not solely economic or primarily bssed the general difference between the sexes in physicsl strength snd reproductive function. protect an their education is virtually or inseparable from life. or ought to be. is children csn relstion to children. how does the more educational scheme Education than the acquisition of skills and common so beliefs. because men will care for their children the trouble identifisble ss theirs. therefore. not extend a close By making so the city into one big family. both as an extension of themselves and because others hold them responsible. snd The ssme observstion spplies even more strongly fsmily the raising of children. Although Plato purports to rely on education to unify his politeia. the or procreative. Since it involves choice. Men care for their own. and it will be possible identify no one the failure of any specific individual to contribute his share because hss sny psrticulsr responsi bility to the for any specified psrt. Rsther than unity itself accepted in the abstract. Each will not tend to leave the to "commons" msnagement of the to others. Like sdults. the relation Women are not and between husband properly slaves. the family is economically necessary to produce future generations of human beings. erotic. but most sdults will care enough to take only for their own children. the first concern of system will be provided and the laws will regulate any government. however. As Aristotle only when these are publicly and privately between politicsl snd subpolitical differences indicstes in his discussion of the associations in Book I. the msster-slsve or economic fsmily can comprises three different one. because they wife is a one of "political" equals. as a duty for which they are publicly and individually held responsible.

the basis who rule snd sre ruled in turn. that (except is. plsce fsmily however. undeveloped not the child Aristotle does ception give the reason why she does not rule or justify the ex equality in political relations. Indeed. Aristotle is segregated. Unlike Plato. rule or decisiveness (the alternative meanings of xvgioc. To ssy that the womsn deliberates authority. but the different. Political Aristotle cannot be by destroying itself man's attachment to his own. that the Spartan system of public and equal. the three different kinds of rule or relations in the Aristotle explains that the parts are or not participste and children and in is council do. without authority. Since he insists thst the conjugal associstion is recognizes inferior) (1259b 1-5). as a matter of justice than efficiency. that thus is. Aristotle admits that his discussion of the family and the proper excellence and functions of its varied psrts in Book I is not complete (i26ob8-20). in the law. although education for both males and females.194 Interpretation studies. without as (dasXeg). Aristotle limitation states his full view of the political function the of the family a critique of Plato. so the man the union is against nature. If educstion is truly deemed to be important. moreover. but becsuse it is such a clesr indicstion of whst is vslued. when a woman marries her implicitly possibility explicitly discussed in the Republic (4550-4563) thst s womsn inferior to 3 few men will still be superior to most. Plato suggested "community their of wives and children" only in order to overcome man's attachment to his own but also opportunity" to offer both sexes an "equal to rather develop individual leads the poten tial. In Book I. aware of rather than what is Like Plato. Citi educstion remains almost will If labor zens will common. because privste weslth snd family certainly determine future occupations rather than individual potential. but also as it specifically concerns their own sons. be unjust. Aristotle woman claims that as when the master rules the slave by nature. because politics grows out of this self-same attachment. He the politicsl 3nd reflects occur in the immediste sequel thst political relstions generally see between equsls. suggests. The question must be reconsidered in the context of the discussion of the different regimes to the ordinary becsuse it is s question of the respective excellences of ruled and . achieved concern for the existence and men future in of their own families unity constitutes one of the strongest bonds uniting a polity. both women woman's participation is axvgov. of formsl the division position will entirely within the private family. it is difficult to why he nevertheless concludes of that the man should alwsys rule (i259b5-io). he suggests men will not be educated unless their mothers are also (1260a). In describing household. Like Plato. Aristotle srgues that public efforts cannot entirely reties. Where the slave does deliberation (fiovXevtixov) at all.) is much as to say that her reason does not rule because she does not rule. fathers will concern themselves with it not only in general. be encouraged to care for their own. Personsl sttention is importsnt not merely becsuse humsn beings desire it. because the political family structure involves another only as fundamental on not justice.

9 difference among from poli or part of a greater whole. in use. in Book VII (1330326-33) he indicates that naturally slaves will even in the best regime some who are not be forced to best serve others proposing to free cause he is incapable by some of of them." paper Community of 8. "Aristotle's Critique of April 19-21. that is. the man is to acquire where that of the woman he uses to describe the (Is Aristotle guilty of an ironic pun here? The verb female function. is the taking just. and the woman's silence or is a product more of place than intellectual deficiency. 235.) The excel definition lence of the functionsl difference underlying sexusl differences in to refer seems bsck to the srt of war. Press. If so. Perhaps for thst resson Aristotle includes the srt of wsr or the hunting of slsves statesman. See also Arlene Saxonhouse. described ss s form of the art of acquisition and so oikonomia in Book I (i256b24-28). 195 The fsmily is. moreover. understanding. hss the ssme root ss Plsto uses the noun. is cbgovrjoig or practicsl resson which is and can be developed only in the process of governing. tbvkaxr). (A natural slave could not be csre of freed. but the ruled are the same. prepared for presentation at the Midwest Political Science Association meetings. of women is the perpetual debarment Some must provide the necessities so that others csn Socrates' be free. Aristotle does not srgue thst there be a sufficient number of natural slaves to serve the needs of each oikos or polis. with will Only only conditionally in the true if nature provides for man's needs of slaves oikonomia and art of the as she does for the chick the yolk. not as exceptions . admits that Aristotle treats women in accord with his general to the rule for men. p. When Aristotle returns to the question of the relative excellences of ruler and ruled cusses the different virtues of in Book III (1277^4-30).) Even uneven the politicsl order does not snd cannot correspond exsctly to the distribution potential among individuals. thst to describe the rulers in the Republic. Illinois. of According to the true laws of household (olxovoLiia). 9. according to Aristotle. Chicago. on the contrary. all. not because others) differences in natural potential for deliberation. Even Susan Okin. Women in Western Political Thought (Princeton: Princeton University teleological 1979). but and the excellence of the part is relstive to the whole. Aristotle's discussion of slavery makes it clear. he also dis the two sexes. be of nstural taking himself. 1979. the reflects sexual divi more sion of labor in the household differences in physical strength than deliberative potential. on the Limits sfter and Satisfactions of Political Life a part of the polis. that he does not regard physical strength as a legiti mate ground "modesty" for rule. a natural Just as slavery is finally justified not merely by individuals in talent but also as a necessary means the political association. cbvXctTTEtv. he concludes." of others Defense is usually considered to be just while tsking the property and lives is not.Aristotle rulers. So Aristotle Wives. so tics. the business is to secure. The only virtue peculiar to rulers. the ruler because the of their different household functions. Otherwise the virtues of the ruler and and of must know how to obey (himself before he can rule. The virtues of the two sexes differ.

be based on self-interest. Aristotle suggests. are not He simply insists that as forms of human do the expressions and demsnds of self-interest. but own that appears to consist in man's love his than in differ between the sexes in potential intellectual ability. however. to be recognized by other economic desires resdily expsnd beyond need. Aristotle points out critique of Plsto's will to mske politicsl order correspond ferences. The people who desire s place so much as a government on an "more. Sexusl differentistion foundation ences function does hsve more natural of foundation. Since things. or honors of the few mskes peace. eco snd csn nomic conflict is inevitsble be regulsted that of a is. government. conflict will not by all equal shares. Since sll points out interests simply economic. in his dif sre sre True. The fundsmentsl resson of women bsrred from the full development sppesrs children cern their deliberative fsculties in thst public life to be the his need to msximize esch husbsnd's conviction his wife's sre own so thst he will s tend to their educstion. Prince IX. .10 be merely to be left not of alone to mansge their own Prompted by stsrvation. Some try to get more. all conflicts of nomic end interest be solved solely will by economic means. or Relatively few people opportunity people will the desire to psrticipate regularly in content in sny community hsve either the directing its affairs. so differ. certsin men sttend to the educstion of their sons unless they these children sre in fsct theirs. people tively in rare and certainly may revolt. Men must slso sttempt not be educsted. office. Machiavelli. as soon as need is met. civil is thus not fundamentally or properly speaking economic in for that reason. Aristotle lster ob women serves. Government will also only by noneconomic means. Most business. conflict them unwilling to engage in purely scquisitive sctivities snd they sre granted io. the subordinstion of women does to rest primsrily the need for sn economic division of labor. Why couldn't a wife also hire a household not sppesr manager? In contrast on to slsvery. but because they wsnt honor." desire for ongoing basis will not be prompted by need which is most often a desire for recognition. in need of democracy for a exsmple. Aristotle is thus very much aware of the role of self-interest in politics snd its primsrily existence economic msnifestation. Because eco desires giving extend beyond need. but interest different kind. As public con for educstion decresses. so does the to regulste the sctivities of snd children. not simply because they want more men ss being better. Cf. not the provision of necessities is a prerequisite snd ss of politicsl life. he cannot in his critique of Phaleas. Aristotle suggests thst it is desirable to find to oversee the employment of one's slaves in order to free oneself for politics or philosophy. but it is to nstursl sufficient. it is possible to obtain Precisely if the desire for recognition. In Book s steward I.196 Interpretation his critique of observes st the end of must msnsge Plsto's Laws (i265b22-27) thst some one the household. but such popular uprisings are rela long duration. Political origin.

Aristotle

on

the

Limits

and

Satisfactions of Political Life
desires
of others with

197

the power to control the scquisitive

force (i267b4-io).

The wsy in which s community sllocates offices and honors is thus absolutely crucial, because it determines the kinds of activities or achievements ambitious
men pursue and whether or not

they
the

will see an

opportunity to
"people"

realize their

de

sires and so support

the regime.

Aristotle
with

mskes us confront or organization. political

fsct thst the

set

leadership
be led

The

character snd educstion of the even

politically only leaders is

thus the
can

decisive

phenomenon,

in democracies. Political leaders

or educated
us

through an appeal to their desire for recognition, but

Aristotle
which

is not the only motive become tyrants, to have the power to do whatever they want, or as he says, to have pleasure without pain. They are mistaken in this attempt, he suggests, because there are always
reminds

that the

desire for Some

recognition

brings

men

into

politics.

also seek to

"costs"

"trade-offs"

or

in

politics of

the kind

we

have discussed in the

context of

the

division of lsbor. The only source of pure plessure is philosophy, presumsbly ss Plsto argues, because the truth is the only good human being can share without losing any themselves, that is, the only good they can truly hold in
common and noncompetitively.

Nevertheless, Aristotle does
ancient political virtue recognition and

not support

Montesquieu's later

suggestion

that

consists

fundsmentslly
Aristotle

in

an

appeal

to the

desire for
of ancient

is

basically

military."

argues that

this

is true

practice, particulsrly of
constitute

Spsrts, but he insists

thst

the

whole of practical or political virtue.

militsry The excellence

prowess

does

not

of a ruler, as

Aristotle
plex

it, is primarily intellectual. It consists in determination Aristotle himself begins in Book III of
presents

duplicating
what

the com
not

is just

only
not

in

general

but

also

in the

specific circumstances.

Such

considerations

apply

fundamental law, or the organization of offices and only to the founding, the honors in the constitution, but also potentially to every piece of legislation, as Aristotle observes, small every particular administrative decision, because, can change the entire changes, in the qualifications for voting, for example,
constitution

(128934-6;

1303321-25).

It takes

great prudence are

to

foresee the
continually

long-term
necessary

effects snd so

of current actions.

These deliberations
snd

thus

difficult thst they tsx

mental snd physicsl capscity.

They

are

fully occupy s human being's entire inherently satisfying, although not en
slwsys

tirely
form

without

pain, becsuse
since

political

decisions

involve hsrd

3lternstives

snd 3lw3ys

h&ve costs,

they
few

always benefit some more than others.
participate at

of government,

only

a

this level and so realize

In any the full
will

benefits. Everyone
slwsys sttend

csnnot govern; st most the rulers will tske turns.

Most

primsrily to the
people ever

means of their

own self-preservation.

If very few

take part in full

political

deliberation, very few
will

will

fully
1 1.

understand

the

reasons

for any

set of

lsws. Most

obey

on

the bssis

Montesquieu. Spirit of the Laws

IV, V.

198

Interpretation
trust or belief that the laws sre beneficisl.
general

of s general

lsw is chsnged, this
criticizes
encouraged.

belief

will

be brought into

question.

But every time the Aristotle thus
rewarded snd so

Hippodamus'

suggestion that

innovation
s

should

be

Since every change hss such forms should even be considered. Reform
undermining
obedience to the
politics

fundsmentsl cost, only msjor re per se cannot be advocsted without
is the

law.
possible and reason
major source

Improvement in
provement.

is

of

im
or

Politicsl

resson

is essentislly deliberative

rather

thsn

linesr
and

simply additive, however, for two reasons. First, there sre competing commensurable elements to be weighed, and second, the weight of
pends somewhat upon

non-

each

de

the particular circumstsnces, which sre slwsys chsnging.

The
one

most

important

political

decision,
or

as we

determining
In short,

what who

the offices

honors

shall

have seen, is the constitutional be and who is eligible for
is difficult, is
slthough not

them.

should rule.

This

question

im

possible

to snswer, Aristotle sees, becsuse of the necessary differentiation of
groups can claim

function. Several
politicsl affairs.

to provide what
right

most

essential

to the

association

and, therefore, the
can provide all

to have the decisive voice

in its

No

one

group

the community's needs, so any group(s)

denied the

right

to participate to the extent of electing officials st

least

will

have

some

just

grounds

for

complsint.

The primsry
and

sttschment to

his

own exis

tence of esch individusl will, moreover, tend to mske esch group overestimste
the

importance
almost

of

its

own

contribution

denigrate the

services of others.

Conflict
never not

necessarily results;

whether

dissent is

voiced or not, there will regime.
also

be

perfect agreement or consent makes unanimous consent

underlying any

Man's

self-love con

only

extremely unlikely but

invalidates

sent as the sole measure of

justice.
There

Unlike
question,

modern

relativists, Aristotle insists that it is possible to answer the rule,
with reason.

who should

are two

kinds

of considerations

to be taken

into

account.

First,

there are the

broad

criteria set

by

the ends of

the association. A political association

is

more

than a market or a mutual de

fense pact, Aristotle argues, because different
each other without

becoming

volves sgreement on s

polities can trade or slly with politically united (1280a). Political sssocistion in desirable way of life, and those who contribute to the
of

maintensnce of this

distinctive way

life have

a greater claim to participate

in the

government than those who
or

simply

contribute to

its

subsistence

by

pro

viding food
are not

defending

its territory. All

contributions or services to the

necessarily

performed

soldiers,

and soldiers can

discrete groups, however. Farmers can become judges. In order to determine what

by

also

polity be

groups

should participate one must also or

in making decisions for the community, and to look at the specific circumstances or people to see deserve
and
so

what

extent,

which

group

groups, on the whole, contribute most and so

to rule.
most revealing case. because they are able

Mechanics

or

artisans

represent

the

limiting
"nstursl

Clearly,

mechanics and artisans are not

Aristotle
to order their

on

the

Limits

and

Satisfactions of Political Life

199

lives

and preserve

themselves. Their need to lsbor prevents them

from

doing more. They contribute to the msintensnce of the life of the city, but they csnnot psrticipste in politics or government in any very mesningful becsuse have not the sense, time, experience, or occasion to follow and they participate in public deliberations. The institution of political association does
not,

therefore,

enable members of this class to reach their

full human

potentisl.

wellAristotle concludes, therefore, that they should not be citizens in sny ordered regime (i 278s). Have they not been treated unjustly, we might respond;

they, too,
vote?

contribute

to the common
that

good.

Should they

not at

lesst be

sllowed

to

Aristotle

would respond

they enjoy

the advantages of law and order;

in

exchange

for their in the

contribution to the preservation of the city,
concludes that

they, too,

are

preserved.

Nevertheless, he

it is dsngerous

not

to

let them hsve
of

some shsre

enjoyment of power;

for

a polis with a

body
they

disenfran

chised citizens who are numerous and poor must

necessarily be
and

a polis which
will view

is full

of enemies

(128^28-31). Men love their own,

the

government as

their own only

if they

participate
with

in it to

a certain extent.

Aris
of

totle thus mskes

his

recommendstion

regsrd

to artisans

in full

view

the potential costs.

Democracies tend to be
totle observes, but
or vote

more stable

than other

forms

of

government, Aris

they

also tend to

be ill-governed. If the

people

decide issues

psrty platform directly, they do so on the bssis of insdequste information and disregard for the need to adapt to changing circumstances. If they merely vote for officials to make these decisions for them, they must be
a

for

very fine judges of character (i28ib-i282a; I326b2). Usually they are Either they blame officials for problems they had no control over, or they
vate sycophantic scoundrels.

not. ele

(Aristotle

Athens'

might well recall

trestment of
s government which

Perikles

as well ss

Kleon.) Most fundsmentsl, however,
life
and endorses and

elevates the necessities of or oligarchic,

those who provide them, whether democratic

implicitly

frees the

acquisitive

desires. It

will neces

sarily be
quisitive

reasons

corrupt in itself and corrupt the people. The only check on the ac desires is reason, but Aristotle recognizes that the people who see the why acquisition should be limited are few, so few that they will not
press

be

apt

to

their claims
see that

to

rule. will

They have
"outvoted"

too

much

practical others.

sense

(130404-5).
extent

They

they

be
on

in

effect

by

To the
not

to

which

all

government

rests

the consent of the many,

it is

based

on reason.
reason can solve the political problem.

Although
not

Aristotle

suggests that

it is

likely

to

be

effective possible

regime

generally "aristocracy") but

very is not

often

at

least

not

fully

effective.

The best

a

regime

which

elevates

the best men (an

one which checks the

worst

abuses of power.

In

a

"mixed
the

or polity, elections and offices are structured so that powers of the people

they balance
desires

(numbers)
wealthy.

and their

relatively many

moderate

against
varia-

the rapacity of the few

There

are

possible

structures or

that is. Whether their rule is just or how they understand their own interest. the rule of the whole still represents the rule of the slwsys psrtial. as democracies. democracy and oli garchy scribe or simple economic and numerical classifications a regime. but that fact sll not alone does not suffice to show that it is unjust or will be effective. for speak. because they of all would suffer from either expropriation and redistribution property regimes by the poor or oppressive taxation by the party of the rich. the distribution of wealth is not in itself politically determinative because gov ernment can change the distribution through taxation both the distribution or outright expropriation. Aristotle suggests. Although a mixed regime is not possible without a large middle class. are more . Aristotle recognizes. however. they The differences Aristotle describes among democracies and oligarchies. Even when the ruling party is self-interested and other more in terms a evidently nomic and and narrowly terms. but not on an individual or private level. by s psrt. The political effects of so to of wealth snd the mode of pro duction. the middle clsss on is also in its public sets politically self-controlled. is possible where there is not Only the middle class has an interest in keeping the balance. very often in its own self-interest. Men tend to cstegorize all re democracies or oligsrchies. but for economic rather than moral reasons. and polities as well as democracies. self-interest classes makes oligarchies. the best regime generally possible depends on the existence of s certsin distribution of weslth. contrast (The distinction lives authoritarisn and in contemporary not political science between psrticipstory. not simply on the to bssis of the number of people involved but becsuse rich snd poor sppear be the only mutually exclusive characteristics of ruling classes.) Distinguishing describe "people" them merely in terms of the number of people involved does regimes or s sccurstely. but a substsntial middle class. Whether the ruling clsss defines its of the prosperity of the whole or over snd against fundamental difference. and tyrannies. moreover. Politics is The government of ent. The best man would that it is not in his interest to abuse s slsve or srtissn. Like human beings. but in these regimes predominantly are economic factors have a much more powerful role. the effect indirect. action always reflects Political Aristotle presents it. gimes ss either msny educsted middle-clsss citizens is significsntly differ from the rule of poor pesssnts. As Aristotle reminds "msjority" us.200 Interpretation no such mixture tions. of government believe that there in the fundamentally only two types democracies and oligarchies. Since it is possible to be both poor snd brave or rich snd educated. there are still defines its interest primarily in eco important practicsl differences smong oligsrchies self-interest. depends see rulers act for their own good. seek to educate Even which do not intentionally and explicitly their citizens have a formative effect. Many on people. do not suffice to de There are monarchies. aristocracies. They affect the polity largely through have on the characteristic attitudes of the people. Aristotle observes.

If. fsrmers necesssrily hsve to spend most of Since they sre geographically dis it is difficult for often. becsuse both terest. to legal control. especially with regard to the law. meet s volves in their rather property immediate (by oppressive and narrow economic in de The same is true of sn oligsrchy will composed of msny other citizens who csn relatively low property to urbsn quslificstion. The distribution of weslth snd types of arouse portant not merely because they property held conflict. after all. becsuse it will be relstively essy for apt slso be to meet regularly to change them to congregste. have two primarily economic sources: the distribution population on related posed of the one hsnd of Aristotle slwsys insists thst the two factors be If s production" snd the "mode smsll on the other. Although Aristotle's is justly associsted with the thought thst politicsl . in order to pay themselves public service. Force lsw. however. Lsws necessary. they may name approximate the same results indirectly through economic regulation. If most citizens resson be persusded to do is right or commonly beneficisl for that see slone. them to organize or participste will directly opposing in political deliberation very and to maintsin They sre tend. few very weslthy fsmilies who recognize no clsim oligarchy right or humsn excellence but wealth is apt to adopt very oppressive laws composed of s even of or to act outside the law in an sttempt to incresse their own sre holdings even more. to of support the rule of law widespresd distribution tsxstion). their general habits snd opinions. on the hsnd. question. Distribution and production" the "mode of are politically important because they determine the way of life of a people. it is apt to be democracy is com law-abiding snd or their time sttending to their own sffsirs. however. it is slone does not suffice to produce obedience to the necesssry to use force. msny Small lsndholders lsndholders farmers. not entirely rational. Surely it way of would be best if all men could rationally decide sre what is the best pre life and then foster it intentionally. and power the lsw day-laborers. When the laws improve the chsracter of citizens directly. lesst to tsx an property hesvily. or highly persed. therefore. When they csnnot be desires intentionslly snd willingly. A divi leisure society will ever have the sion of lsbor is necesssry with the result thst most men economic will spend most of their time pursuing s vsriety of essentislly persusded to restrain their scquisitive tssks. they msy still obey the lsw because they goods snd it as in their own economic interest. As Aristotle "right" politically im argues in Book V. Both the distribution of the kinds of property held sre sub csnnot shspe or ject. stsble. they frequently. and not all members of a cisely because human beings are to engsge in extended deliberations. Likewise. becsuse it is too clear that force may be used to gratify the acquisitive cannot desires of the rulers whst at the expense of the ruled.Aristotle on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life of 201 property and example. st They will be spt to expropriste the holdings for of the rich. there politicsl conflict seldom revolves slwsys sn sdmixture of a concern solely sround the for what is economic is or just.

34-49: Sheldon Wolin. the ruling body. the inculcstion of s relstively low order of moderation and self-control. Politics and Vision (Boston: Little Brown. less oppressive government. Vol. "Aristotle and Political Responsibility. lesson in reasonableness and order or control There is of the no substitute finally for political combines knowledge general principles of politics with observation of the specific circumstances and the what limits these of place on the achievement of is in itself desirable. Aristotle thus returns at the end of Book III to the essential tension conditions for political life and the realization of between the necessary its end that he introduced by asking 12. "The System. is or politics understsnding of either legislstion if we ignore the formstive solely in terms of effects. Aristotle does not merely point out the wsy in which the privste pursuit of economic self-interest. There is big difference between public deliberations concerning the good of the community. Goldwin. Rather than almost all advocate participation. ed. Organizing the a arguing or pres suring merely to foster own interest at expense of others does not develop the highest human faculties. i960). ss opposed to the use of public power to sttsin economic benefits. course. it is right cannot be better than the Laws thus legislators' understanding moreover.202 Interpretation is the only means by which human beings for self-rule. The question. they wisdom which be will obeyed and a negative result.C. Aristotle supports the rule of law in law is ususlly superior to ad hoc decisions. or political participation properly speaking. lesds brosder to more stable. 4 Undemocratic Party in Robert A." 406-22. self- they sre not suited to the psrticulsr people in question. No. Political Parties. whether mechanics should be citizens. will not and appropriate." . pp. of what however. Political Theory. he interested as James Madison in diffusing and the energies and directing into the self-interest of those who have not been educated to public service private and largely economic one's directions. always reflect the cease to men who make when them. Not only is cases. pp. and interest group sctivity.: American Enterprise Institute.12 psrticipation potential their full On the con trary. but the law is also the legislators' determination of what is right without regard to particular applica tions. intended or sccidental. The rule of the law general in application and so freer from personal than particular of a prior interest or attachment product decisions made in particular cases.S. U. In his discussion and the relative merits of the rule of law the absolute rule of one man of superior wisdom. Good laws be good. because it is freer from passion and hence more reasonable. Benjamin Barber. If the law is spt to be better than the specific direct adjudication of general controversies.A. 1980). 3. and conceive of government what it controls or leaves free from restraint. which self-rule. Msdison whether we retsin sn ply drops thst quste concern. he does not advocate participation seems as can per realize se. He slso points out the effects on the chsr scter of or the populsce. Delba Winthrop. D.. he srgues. PP. 58-63. is a reflection at least of man's higher fuller capacity sim sde- for As a student of both Machiavelli of and Montesquieu. that is. (Washington. (November 1975).

If political consists knowledge largely of of reflections on politicsl practice. ss Aristotle argues may in Book II (i264ai-5. con ducted among equals. it is extremely unlikely that any that it is ss difficult observes Aristotle scratch. s mstter of rhetoric any more than it is fun Aristotle's Politics thus points more to the possibility of political wisdom knowledge than to any specific set of reforms. And he repestedly commonest mistskes politicisns mske. observes thst represent pro his resders to svoid one of the manipulate to sttempt to deceive or second the people (i297b5-io. Here. and such would legislate for them. If a man such an would. the rule of the one msn represents snother extreme and limiting case. if the better best were subordinsted to the Nevertheless. his work stands in marked contrast to Plsto's Republic. sbsolutely. the man who possesses and upon it. and practice improve on the basis these reflections. and there is no real. Political knowledge must be essen yet tially acts practical. should the opportunity arise. interpersonsl exchsnge of opinion or equslity in the absolute rule of one man. he end of worse. The of difference follows from the first. Discourses l:xi. he extraordinary man wished to benefit his countrymen. too. rule of law is almost slwsys to one msn individusl dis pervert the Aristotle should srgues thst rule if is wiser than sll resson. this education will occur over time and through practice rather than precept.Aristotle on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life be preferred to 203 Although the cretion. at least on the surface. his It countrymen com would bined. also stands somewhat outside and above politics (interestedness) itself. sion to man will hsve the occa 1269a). because politicsl relstions are essentially deliberative. from legislate entirely to reform sn existing regime ss it is to design sn entirely new one."13 Aristotle certsinly does role of the use religion new constitution "founding" by Roussesu on the not suggest thst the legislator to convince the people who cannot understand the reasons for his to adopt it as a matter of divine will. Social Contract 11:7. moreover. Institutions snd laws be to the character of the people. He does recognize the exist priesthood as a political office (1322^2-37). but he not seems to much hsve the respect ing institutions in mind. He hss more the sssocistion entirely. Aristotle denies the any radically particular possi bility must instituting suited new political order. as serve to educate as well as to benefit the people in they can. He himself does when indicste for the Greek Gods jections urges of or their worship he humsn chsrscteristics snd they merely desires (I252b25~30). The leg- 13. not truly polit ical. 130831-5. therefore. . suggestion Aristotle's lation act that political knowledge properly culminates in legis political and that the construction of the constitution is the fundamental respects differs in two importsnt from similsr srguments snd lster offered by Mschiavelli concerning the importsnce of "Legislstor. His rule is. material If these institutions ways. Prince VI. because it concerns practice. I308b30- 40). Political order is not damentally and a product primarily of force.

depends of association on friendship. The acquisitive desire is too strong. Aristotle thinks. of and all these associations reflect their powers of reason. is.204 islator Interpretation needs to know both the direction in full political which to move and the order limits of the possible." snd ef fectively people crucisl in politics. Such trust will sccept The people slone. fewer be farsighted enough to predict the long-term or under- laws (1308333-35). is not merely a kind of "white-washing" or propaganda. most Aristotle differs from both modern political philosophers and con temporary politicsl scientists in his insistence thst justice is prscticslly It is importsnt "values. they so understsnd quite well when their lives or live lihoods threatened and take messures to resist. he self- express much fsith in the to exercise control. in changes can to achieve even a but truly beneficial change. ernors trust in the character. Although Aristotle does not srgues that to be just. sny government. Human beings associate only for their common or pleasure. therefore. they must want to preserve the constitu infraction of the law must be immediately and seriously punished. good. They The will even most can grow only on the bssis of experience. Aristotle snd concentrates on whst we can rather know generally sctivity because organization than making on specific recommendstions only be "ought" csuse the what we can depends the particular circumstances but also know far exceeds what we can do. that small is. matters of Even though it is difficult to find the truth in these is easier than to persuade those with the power to act equality and justice. and strong thst in his "best regim Aristotle would unnaturally unjustly enslave some to perform the tssks of . Small hsve cumulstively lsrge sbout politicsl not effects. it for their own advantage to act justly. The fact that all ruling groups claim to for the common mstter right. to have knowledge. only though the benefits will long as they benefit most of the inhabitants. Although most men sre unsble to live fully are satisfying life. will Few men will understand how to institutions. Politicsl associations will last. obey your own and primarily to potential laws. It reflects the fundamental benefit truth about politics. (I3i8bi 5) Aristotle most addresses the Politics simply stated. important factor in maintaining any government. ciations structure effects of stsnd s The rationality these asso is simply not complete or uniform. even largely be rather low and concrete personal safety and it is in the interest powers so of most of rulers men the right to own a bit of property. rulers Any obey their own laws. if they are paid (1297b 1-15). and his advice. ss a order to maintain of necessarily equally beneficial) for all members of a a regime. Political faith in the rulers. not only to tske sccount of whst determine and believe is right or their but also to to do what is beneficial (although not society in rule. thst lesves them serve in the army to defend it. therefore. good intentions the gov (i295b24-28). is that the tion.

Love ought" foremost. "To feel that something is one's of oneself is surely natural. Aristotle does not propose any "noble need not opportunity in the never be perfectly lies. sll governments will not be psrtisl to the interests of the ruling group. because the acquisitive desire is freed. and no regime will rest on universal Force will slwsys be necesssry Aristotle to msintsin order. observes thst politicsl power tends to who devolve upon those who possess arms (1297b 16-20). Beginning with man's not self-love." any selfless On the contrary. economic. will not perfectly to differences snd in natural potentisl. So long ss there sre differences smong fsmilies snd there will be differences so long ss there is s division of lsbor the division or sllocstion of tasks smong sdults. The limits are. psrticulsrly to educste the young. that it is or vocations not even appropriate. the desire As to politics and the need for not only to live but to live well. Aristotle ob serves." Aristotle admits that women be confined. Aristotle shows but also why same most men are not only why justice is in the interest just most of the time. neces sity providing the basics. propagstion snd nurture of fu ture generations requires the requires fsmily snd the msintensnce of the fsmily the somewhst unjust subordinstion of women. his Politics differs from Plato's Republic primarily because Aristotle puts self-interest importance of justice. Fsmilies sre necesssry. of snd those in office will have to object. not preach In arguing the "virtue. in recognized democracies and that all contributions tend to be in such regimes through universal suffrage. Aristotle does first snd own makes an inexpressible difference. its sctuslizstion is fostered or restricted by fsmily circumstsnce. mandates a division of labor . the structure. and there is no wsy of satisfying thst desire for Economic desires conflict produces s need own mere life to or more goods on snd its own terms. rulers tend to use their power to smsss s fortune snd so undermine the end of politicsl sssocistion essential itself ss well as the particular regime. But he suggests that no one will lead a truly satisfying life in such a regime. liberal form is something of a myth which can Unlike Plato. Aristotle thus shows in psssing thst equsl modern. ss s mstter fsct in contrast to right. Even the legislator understsnds thst it is in his own interest to be just.Aristotle on the Limits and Satisfactions of Political Life 205 the mechanics rather than give the contributions of necessary goods public rec ognition by making srtissns citizens. reason however. And. to benefit his fellow The citi zens will (actually of subjects) rather than to seek to enrich himself at their expense. If humsn beings for their good. all find that he is unable to benefit them and completely or equally. that gives justice also limits both. of oneself more but this is really not so much love of oneself as love than one (I263a4i-i263b5). benefit consent. food defense. snd this slwsys set for government. realized. correspond visible or including governing. Potentisl per se is not identifisble. give rise competition conflict. moreover. in the first instance. Self ishness is justly blamed. we have seen. of the rulers The rise desire. Short of the best regime. No regime will all those under its control equally. no one perhaps but the entirely private philosopher.

rule Unlike Plato. however. they also surely do not become nihilists and despair of humanity. certain In showing the limits of political action.206 which Interpretation makes it impossible for sll to psrticipate in political deliberations snd so to develop their natural potential to the to live under laws fullest extent possible. It deliberation rather than in effect. in thought or satisfying activity. Most human beings will continue they do be an not make or understand. If his resders do not become Utopians or radical reformers. whose philosophers must be forced to (Republic 579c). Aristotle thus also teaches a kind of self-restraint. Aristotle suggests that politics may also own inherently is so st Aristotle's level. .

sppesr compassed the unsought commsnd of the storm king snd Antonio the duke wish first with s question. the brother of the King of Nsples. past and imposed The by the storm. within the They the all. they ss to know where the ship's msster the play will show. and the apparent Duke of Milan. April 1 16-18. but beyond this the msster of the storm is Prospero. who advises to the boatswain. master. But the recognition the boatswain's authority is then undercut who curses by the appearance of Sebastisn. they are. 27). yet they are all en itself. "Where is the msster?" Literally.i. passengers on the storm-tossed of storm scters constituted out of not the circumstances and time. This reminder is inef usurped fective because their authority is The boatswain says to Gonzalo. in thst a the master is evident snd who everywhere. On the other hand. that respect. he is heartened the apparent authority of the boatswain who "hath no drowning msrk upon (i. in order of appearance. the boatswain. "If you can command by the storm and the ship's master. ' But Gonzalo by him" authority here. these elements to silence and work the peace of the present. However. ordinary are passengers. . . Ohio. 35). duke. "authorities". use no your (i.Temporal Royalties in The Tempest Timothy Fuller The Colorado College and Virtue's Airy Voice The Tempest begins in in s storm a tempest which of but in the midst time. The New Arden Edition. Gonzalo tries to remind is angry at the interference of the king and him of who they are. in greater Rather. 1970. Cincinnati. snd the remembrance of things hoped for within.i. the ship's King of Naples. It is worth reflection king snd a duke ask where the master circumstances is neither of these masters is the master here. The bostswain is contemptuous of the howling of the passengers also has who of are "louder than the westher or our (i. the master is the storm and hence. In these mastery is ambiguous. is to ssy that it begins not only One msy thus be reminded that the ship are chsr But these are tempest is both without. Both Alonso is. Next in patience order of appearance who is the old councillor Gonzalo. edited by Frank Kermode (London. has been consulted. All citations from The Tempest from The Pelican Shakespeare edition edited by Northrop also Frye. or lesser degree. 1981. 1966).i. 20-22). is not evident. authority" we will not hand a rope more. the boatswain to a faretheewell nor Sebastian is This the first character to appear who the is neither an authority a paper was prepared for delivery are at annual meeting of The Midwest Political Science Association.

use Prospero's power be the reslity behind Mirsnds's desire to justly. / Lie there my (i. father" "If by your srt. The king snd prince snd hsve some conventionsl not. the second is her she would have of used her power antici destroy the ship. in telling Miranda the full for the first time. 13) is fulfilled through Prospero's recollection. well worsens and the need to abandon ship becomes inevitable the thresh- King of and the Prince pray but Sebastian and Antonio continue to complain snd curse. Underlying the spectscle which csuses not Mirsnds's amszement is s history Pros loss of events events at sll msgical. The daughter Prospero the conclusion to which Prospero himself which will come at the end of the play. So. The pero's gsrment of magical lsying authority is connected to his revelation of the . a piety st hold desth but Sebsstisn the ship breaks own counsel Antonio do Rsther. begins by asking her to "Lend thy hsnd / And pluck my msgic gsrment from me.i. sn By snticipsting speech renouncing the very power which Prospero's lster sction. the King fear the Prince with conventional pieties. Mirsnds transforms 3 sbstrsct proposition renunciation sbout will life into self-ensctment in the midst of life.i. 41-42). This is the first occssion for Prospero to renounce his msgic background of A further indicstion this is thst their situation srt" srt. opens with s The second scene provides tuousness. One msy summsrize the first scene of the plsy by ssying thst it dramatizes the uncertainty of authority in the face of the elements. the wondering one. suggesting thst this apparent authority is respecter of authority even though he holds it. This reminds us of our his temporality hsbitusl and snd or mortality. Gonzslo responds with resignation.ii. It tranquility sntitheticsl to the first scene's tempesspeech of Mirsnds.ii. who begins. 62).208 Interpretation But this seems respecter of authority. but also in the unsmbiguous relstion of suthority between fsther snd child. and that better and worse responses can be made to this drama of uncertain authority.ii. of Prospero. to incite Antonio the duke to curse the not boatswain ss necessarily a As the storm the (i. and Sebastian and Antonio with self-preserving instinct. Gonzalo affects degree of patience in ssying "the wills sbove be (i. except that the literal sense in she seems to speak will be trans formed in Prospero's finsl preserves rather than reslizstion when he ss the precise "god power of destroys in her by an act of is his. for philosophy appears in the first scene only tangentially in Gonzalo's resignation. philosophically.i). they certain done" sbsndon the king sbout ss apart. 23-25). snd in the a rhetoric of reflection and sense of commsnd thst is implied by reference to Prospero's speech: "srt" But Mirsnds also exhibits two other characteristics in her first the first is the capacity for suffering empathetically with the insistence that if she were a "god of to preserve rather than to pates victims of the storm. The tranquility is or presented not only in wonder. Prospero's commsnd to "be sside of (i. my dearest (i. The ship's master and bostswsin respond with skill to their fsmilisr adversity.

Their eventual ssfe srrivsl on who this enchsnted isle wss msde possible by the generosity of Gonzslo. enemies Fortune is now "bountiful". following thst will Miranda's innocent charitsble instinct. And. Thus. second and sn set of chsrity. in the occasion for reflection on the proper order of things. but blessing thst they sble to survive.ii. For. Antonio royslties". ss the story begins to be unfolded Mirsnda wonders whether their coming to the islsnd wss s curse or s blessing (i. sspect Mirsnds is csused this insofsr as she sees thst Prospero's troubled of by her a "remembrance" her early childhood (i. But it is. ambition. eventuste from Prospero's msrks recollections of This What moment slso the occssion new beginning for his Prospero. The tempestuousness is sscent Prospero's inner intellectusl following which his sctusl political descent from first duke in the "outward a Italy of to exile.ii. Prospero calls this an act of providence. The tempest produced in Miranda is a reflection of the tempest within Prospero himself.ii. ascent to being "god power" of but a descent in the sense of a revelstion of the corruption of his soul in endless smbition. more importantly. remembrance of providentisl instance. however. Thus. and the conspirators set Prospero Miranda adrift th' in the sea" sea rather than kill them outright. To this Prospero also s "both" snswers were Literally it is a curse to be exiled. in King would support his extirpation of Prospero and Fearing an outcry from the people of Milan. temporal royalties seems to made be exhibited return growing for tribute. the tempest produced in scene i is paralleled scene by the calmer tempest as of recollection confrontation of ii. for she has brought his . while it is true thst Antonio's i' th' exercise of the power Prospero his entrusted to him "set sll hesrts state / To ear. 104). The setting aside of the magic garment is setting sside of the childhood illusion sbout the authoritstive psrent. the Miranda from Milan. This hsd pity them. csnnot comprehend the thought thst s library s sufficient dukedom. He thus a pact with King of in endlessly Naples that. which Prospero produces in Miranda is her first swsre with the ambiguities thst wonder produces. and a curse. providing them charity is the with sustensnce both edible snd intellectual.ii.Temporal Royalties of Virtue' and s Airy Voice in The Tempest 209 also his authority in Milan. now his dear lady. 60-62). Mirands professes the to remember "rather like s dream thsn sn sssur something of her esrliest childhood in Milsn. 149). constituted Prospero's out of recollections excite Mirsnds's." what tune pleased it is also true that Prospero was the true source of this sad state of affairs. Remembrance is thus But. 64-65). be of unlike Prospero. remembering is necessary if one is to blessing the have understanding thst is the msrk of humsn wisdom on humsn things. of a thst reinforces the mercifulness things psst. ultimately. concludes thst Prospero is incspsble the cspscity to exercise exercising "temporal the For Antonio. in juxtaposition to Antonio's is a political assumption of face royalty" (i. Prospero now sees thst could Antonio. wss recollected ss prior misfortune is sbout to turn to sdvsntsge. and so they were left "To cry to on (i.

Unable to be im printed with goodness. is contrasted to the exiled good msgician.m. the freedom of Ariel is to come after is to play two days (i.ii. msgicisn. that the theme of ascent and only to be found repestedly within the plsys but runs through the Shskespesresn corpus generally. however. (See.m. Mirsnds's Ariel mskes eye lids sre. between Prospero and Ariel it turns perform the on out thst the exile sn evil preceded the isle by the exile Sycorax. presumably to give him time to guide all back to Milan. He has deposited Ferdinand snchored others sbout. He initiates wake his thus invisibility by clear exiting. Prospero had the power to release him. for a time. although the action of the run from 2 p. to be given sight of Caliban.210 Interpretation from power to the shore where he currently exercises his authority. Ariel she perforce retires Prospero's servsnt his first appesrsnce. but the action of the play proper is. Caliban wants to imprint goodness with himself. She is. The release wss predicated on service. But Caliban had attempted the overthrow of Prospero by raping Miranda in the hope of populating the islsnd with Cslibans. snd stsr" droop" But if Prospero's fortunes ss sre not drooping. snd 6 p. plsn the crew to must be csrried out sleep below deck. Sycorax caused this condition but did the torment that resulted.ii. as we know. The descent into humiliation is the premise of the plays beginning ascent.. for Caliban.) Prospero hss been presented with sn "suspicious whose influence he must court if his fortunes sre not forever sfter "to (i. to spring of . not to King Lear. Ariel has been transferred from or from serving evil to serving good. is roughly to the time it tskes to In the Prospero who conversation wss plsy itself. which. Ariel in working off this indebtedness. The remsinder of Prospero's between 2 p. This stirs Mirands to curse Cslibsn. 178-184). in im sense.ii. Prospero is the usurper who. virtually from the sequel the outset. she against her wishes. to Prospero. by scholsrs. What remains of the sea and have the power to amend a nymph is for Ariel to become like and to be invisible to all but himself Prospero. has arrived here because of being usurped. D. for exsmple. Thus. Caliban is Prospero's himself as slave and of is addressed as (i. whom "esrth" detests as a villain. reports thst he as hss carried out in precise detail the raising of the alone storm on the on ship the isle. And.m. dispersed the snd put directed by Prospero. During the dozen years when Ariel was incarcerated in a pine tree he engaged is howled and screamed in such a way as to create a tempest of his own on not the isle. It is that Miranda is not at this point to Ariel. The moment of fortune already referred action to is reinforced by the compression of time in as noted which all the remaining equivslent is to be undertaken. Jsmes in The descent is Dream of Prospero. whereupon Miranda is bidden to be given sight of up. Cslibsn presents the ruler the isle by right as the off Sycorax. If serving black magic to white magic Sycorax had the power to imprison Ariel. 314). G. to 6 p. the ship in s ssfe snd obscure hsrbor. an This structural feature an supports portant the oft-made remark among the critics that this play and is.m. 229).

Whether it Cslibsn most Prospero taught Caliban speech. cases. snd he is led on by on no esrth- bound Just sound snd it is him. in Miranda. Esch esse is returning from sea snd sn encounter with the distssteful: in Mirsnds's the Cslibsn. Ferdinand is a noble. One. orchestrates Thus. and ritualized Moreover. on as Ferdinand is led raise by a spirit. But it would appesr thst the purposes of Cslibsn when brought to self-swsreness result of sre language is unsavory to ssy the least. answer readers may themselves. on so Miranda. What is there really divine counter? The as is that Ferdinand and Miranda respond to each other by interpreting meeting play is intellectualized the neoplatonic the encountering of divinity. Prospero to a spirit her eyes to look Ferdinand. problem of Whst 2. is s complex insight into the ask ruling 3nd about being this en their Upon reflection. is service of by god Ariel's of Ferdinand intuits that the it. The other response. has been seeing the world and being revolted by the ignoble. This might be expected from the we offspring of Sycorax. It would appear that to the noble have here a confrontation between two first revealed as responses human in the condition. Prospero encounter with the first encounter of Mirands snd Ferdinsnd. The fsct that. speak To be imprinted to with goodness is. The sweet air calms the also his spiritusl sbove frenzy. consists who in the heightening was whst of self-assertion as the consequence of self-awareness. in her innocence. tutelage. . loss his father the king. matter or Miranda who taught Prospero taught her (the sense is disputed are by scholars). the divine on within The proper union of male female is the as encounter of the human and this is not either/ presented a mistsken perception the p3rt of It is the results conclusion to which Prospero directs them both. in Caliban. is taken being directed by by what she thinks divine thing and and brought Ferdinsnd himself. be sble to pursue one's purposes consciously. It is likely that Prospero kept Ariel invisible to Miranda her directly to gaze upon Caliban in order to educate her gazing upon Ferdinand. their response to each other throughout the attitude that the divine of reveal unplumbed depths chess) in a manner unmistakably reminiscent of is intimated in those striking human interactions which experience.Temporal Royalties subdue and Virtue's Airy Voice in The Tempest 21 1 to be self it to his how to power. Prospero The scene now shifts to Ferdinand. taught snd. The tempest in Ferdinand's soul. has remained in control of both. drawing thought beyond all ordinary objects of con (they play sideration into the mysteries of conscious life. Caliban's view is that the knowing how to curse. allayed accompanied by the invisible but audible supposed Ariel. To Mirsnda. thus. On the isle Prospero's rule is both just and competent. of a consequence of the music. not alter she may not always the point about accurately distinguish one from the other does her disposition. for Miranda. in Ferdinand's case the encounter with a storm-tossed sees the grief of losing his fsther. in the of important both Miranda and Caliban the results Prospero's has the capacity to unlock both orderliness and disorderliness in these two but. It is song is in the waters and some the island. Ferdinand source of Mirands ss divine snd s goddess he supposes her the and the sweet airs he has been hearing.

3sks if she csn direct his there. Prospero's threst to imprison Ferdinand draws overcome by Prospero's hypnotic charm. still rules Prospero Mirands potentisl the King of of Nsples Ferdinsnd. be if he st home in Nsples (i. he is would the le3ding were spesker of thst lsngusge ss the new king. st this point understsndsbly thinks of Milsn ss subordinate to Naples because he thinks Alonso has ruled Antonio. for example. snd hss encountered royal person. would be pertinent.6) as human. and and Antonio mindful of However. and in remembering the human is ensbled to see opportunity in it as well as danger. But of course Prospero rules Ferdinsnd them all on this isle. more importantly. Just as they showed themselves to no advsntsge now desth. the political-legal. most their notion of Every opportunity is entirely one of self-assertion occssion of life is the razor edge between life snd snd desth 3. significsntly between the life desth of whstever potentisl in a single One may note here the coalescence of the divine. of Prospero. Interpretation met s goddess of Ferdinsnd. conspiracy. s Ferdinsnd is not yet Wishing of to keep mstters complicsted for arriving with trescherous intent to time. snd if she is s maid.422ff.). Thus. thinking he hss conduct the islsnd. manly resistance which is immediately As with the Duke in Measure for evi Measure Prospero is exemplary of the union of power and justice as is denced by his use of power here to unite those who should be together. divine or roysl person hss recognized rules divine spirit. constitute their msrks them for each other. and the passionate dramatic moment. present woe" lation: the threshold death is Alonso turns this of consolation aside. are and. . so and Antonio and Sebastian make fun of Gonzalo. they seem. for Ferdinand and Miranda "have achieve.212 ruled. It can be said that Sebastian too. they must nonetheless. He will be able to transfer this rule to Miranda and Ferdinand. as his f3ther is now desd. among plays. Prospero sccuses Ferdinsnd usurp Prospero's position. One ought to weigh sorrow against comfort. Lear could not intention has succeeded. The first scene of the second act of begins with Gonzalo's speech of conso for human beings every day it is "our theme of (u. to hsve forgotten the ordinsry enough mortslity of life which Gonzalo wisely has not forgotten. She surprises him by speaking spp3rently or thst he spirit his langusge. A comparison of the method by which this is brought about in other Measure for Measure. But few live through impending mortality to enjoy merriment once more. opportunities opportunity of an ennobling sort. This reminds Ferdinsnd that.i. and and together the key to the reconciliation Milan Nsples thst tske plsce lster. Gonzalo condition thus remembers. hsving in the opening scene's confrontstion with escsped. undoubtedly considering the apparent loss his son. parallel to Prospero. Prospero's eyes" changed and as and Ferdinand has ceased thinking be of Miranda of as a goddess begun to is not think her a virgin eligible to queen Naples. now thus achieving what.3 But just so she ready to be relessed from the tutelsge free of due submission to the old king.ii.

i. not refuses water stained. in trying to console Alonso. Michael Oakeshott is invoked here because he of expresses view of conduct like that qualified when Shakespeare's: "This not unresolved and inconclusive character of as human remarkably conduct is (and they are understood merely concealed) when actions are in terms of the sentiments in recognized which self-enactments. But whst is disclosed is not only of sn sssessment of whst sction is required. An sction is slso s consequence the the understsnding thst informs the drsmstic identity of s offered stoic spirit attempt st self-ensctment which constitutes chsrscter. that is. Among of other things. How such occasions sre used will determine whst sssessment is to be msde of the chsrscter enscted and so revealed.19) So slso the preoccupation of Sebsstisn as well Gonzalo's stubborn persistsnee to be bothered. There is least the to-vanish echo of an imperishable achievement and when the valour of the agent and not the not soon- victory. P. Whst's green to Gonzslo is tswny might to Antonio. On Human Conduct (Oxford.84. By contrast. pp. then." an episodic and an inconclusive engagement. looked at in this way. full are the con or other siderations. when his loyalty is it fortitude and the evanescent defeat. ses- rotting lung or Gonzslo sees He them snd their garments as refreshed and glossy. is the a of his own Prospero's. Sebastian and Antonio out. chides him for insisting on the his daughter in Tunis against their advice and thus setting in when train a series of events which led to their wreck and result which the loss of Ferdinand. There is way. this means that of innocence in this extended commonwealth would require given innocence is a its origins. th' entertsiner" grief Gonzslo 's "dollar" is by Sebsstisn snd Antonio. . He speculstes thst close here is a place for a new commonwealth as a natural as anarchy.4 is entertsined. that's / Comes to ridiculed reveals As Gonzslo ssys. beginning" Thus. But nowhere more than a distant echo. actions and Alonso 's parallels fate. cit." by choosing Op. "When every (n. at they are performed.Temporal Royalties and Virtue's Airy Voice in The Tempest 213 for nobility there msy be in the soul of an individual. to look on the bright side. unity but dramatic Michael Oakeshott. Every set is s self-disclosure. Self-enactment (virtuous not a generic wise) is itself identity. "the latter end of his common forgets the (11. Self-enactment has to do with "an agent's sentiment in choosing and performing the actions of an action is the action itself considered in terms the he chooses and performs 'motive' of the sentiment or sentiments procure in which it is in chosen and performed choosing an agent an action as is he always meaning to a satisfaction a motive of some sort thinking of to think and enacting or re-enacting himself as he wishes to be chooses to think is related to his understanding and respect for himself. in Sebastian has a clearer perception thsn Gonzslo. marriage Sebastian. point to nature and without sovereignty. who wishes to console.. 1975). Gonzslo is decent but But sbstrsct. is itself a as ondoyant and as of unresolved a tensions as any other the enacted self fugitive. this order without a sovereign would be founded wealth by an act of sovereignty. 16-17). to the chooses what the agent integrity his character. of a The pre- description by Gonzalo his vision quite clearly 4. 70-74. 154). to entertain the grief that be expected in their situation. The play on "dolor" and as not (n. who prefers Adrisn's sttempt to see s delicste climste or temperance on the isle perfumed is ridiculed ss the sweet smell of the fen. of he turns to Alonso. and not at all an to his understanding of a contingent situation to which he must respond action.i.i.

214 Interpretation psrsdise where there would sbundsnce" fallen be neither lsbor nor struggle but "sll (ii. 166). His dream is consistent with his sction. it is a in parallel to Prospero's dream-world commonwealth which psrsllel he eventually dissolves as a nothing.i. whereas in Gonzalo's dream there would be a natural anarchy. Sebastian's encourages a natural tendency is to ebb (ll. This disturbing turn of events prompts that power makes Sebsstisn to feel not remind Antonio of his "conscience" Antonio confesses thst T this deity in my bosom" (11. way he taught Prospero about ambition by overthrowing him.159). He they sre 3 dre3ming state while awske. With Ferdinand Claribel out the wsy. and perhaps slso in to Cslibsn's sim to people the islsnd with Cslibsns. This lesves the field in imsginstion to Antonio. who sees s crown on Sebsstisn's hesd. This moment of grief a new for Alonso and resignation and for Gonzslo is of beginning for Antonio. 3ccuses Sebsstisn while of not exercising his imsginstion snd thus sllowing his fortunes to die he lives. on the other hsnd. Antonio. Idyllic 3nd Mschisvelcommon context of the lisn dresms life its this 3re presented here in the which overrides m3nifeststion them all. One might conclude st this point thst every character in the play is the lsrger dresm of embodiment of his dream within the larger dresm of life. 266-68). so to speak. However. Antonio's dream is of tyranny and distinction in his favor. This dream commonwealth is known can by speculative dream. i.216will 17). Antonio thinks the man this is his dream whereas the play seems to be saying that power shows the man for what he is. Antonio can realize his ambition reminiscent of the manner ambition Sebastian in through Sebastian. / And look how men" well my gsrments sit upon me. or a spontaneous equality of men and women. Sebastian recognizes 3wske by retorting that Antonio's speech to him is snoring. Whst is envisioned is revelstory of by of esch the chsrscter snd motives of esch. But this vision which nor mortslity Gonzslo intends as a further world consolation to Alonso is to Alonso "nothing" (11. that is. This should Sebastian takes Antonio's meaning he remembers that Antonio over be a source of discomfort to Sebastian. 2 10). 260-61 ). But as threw Prospero.i. which is to in Sebastian's stature threefold to be the teacher of ambition and Sebas s tian's confession of laziness. i. For now. The man of ambition looks for opportunities to realize ambition. Esch character makes s world for itself where of itself would be ssfe or sppropriste. Ariel sppesrs snd puts Gonzslo is snd Alonso to sleep. now they sre my (11. Who then is snd who ssleep? But this turns into crease distinction between Antonio's smbition. Antonio uses it as s mesns to persusde Sebsstisn: "True. 271-72). i. My brother's servsnts / Were then my fellows. It be understood Gonzalo to be nothing. Antonio teach in which. / Much fester thsn before. Antonio wishes thst he were Sebsstian (11. but his ebbing Antonio's ambitiousness. Not only is Antonio sn stheist . One notes also that. Sebsstisn sees thst csnnot tell whether Antonio swske or dresming. or slumber while he wskes (11. i. i.

Cslibsn thinks "gods" from the prefers moon snd he will conduct these on a tour of the island. he can live on that persuaded. unlike Cslibsn. Antonio's chsracter. 2 16). but becsuse.89 90). is certainly true of human beings. slothful fellow will describes himself with as "standing matter. i. believing them the only survivors. though s log-msn now. Who con a as trols the teaching who form to a difference.ii. now plan They. see own mortality sll be not unimpressed by it. be imprinted here to Antonio's plans Antonio's form His quick submission is explained by the fact that the submissive. i. He can. set off to search for Act II plays Cslibsn. Alonso's sleep shall be like Prospero's study. Act III. She Ferdinand met. passive vision of another. whose burdens sre nothing when redeemed by the thought thst he is serving his slavish nature Mirands. to inherit this island kingdom.ii. The watery Sebsstisn is properly slothful snd phlegmatic. he has the sttributes of full humanity.114) to Miranda's convinces at him that things" they they are "fine This is parallel first look Ferdinand and offers the proper comparison of noble to sre bsse innocence. He reveals 3 prince. being saved. such and a one and opines that is flswless outstrips and the first that he has She thinks his form imagination ssys so. and Caliban's first look at Stephano Trinculo (11. (11. Neither study nor type. that. Trinculo and Stephano. then for Antonio in it is slso true thst Prospero is no more slive thsn the books he studied power seclusion. Cslibsn at least recognizes that there is in books (m. 284). In the mesntime. he is a lower character Caliban because he hss the cspscity to dissemble in order to exploit the reslity of the humsn condition. real and Gonzalo Ferdinand. that is of smbition. in one sense. Now Ariel intervenes to extended rouse Gonzalo and and thus return the favor Gonzalo to Prospero. He selves shows their drink to Prospero's servitude. ambition are a full realization of his He in to be what he is because he hss sn enormous or to capacity to forget his short. thus sgsin depsrting from her father's commands to honor discretion. Caliban in wishing to submit himself to yet s new msster. He is to Cslibsn in wishing to populate the world only with his own image. i. contempt seems / No better than the and he lies (ii. all against her father's command. 274-75). The alliance of ambition and sloth is a powerful source of wickedness in the ordering of humsn sffairs. The second scene of Alonso. If Alonso is no better thsn the earth he lies than upon. opens with the enslsved Ferdinsnd. low in ambition. self- The earth of which sll of humsnity which is constituted is made human in the enactment the dreams of imprint the matter will earthiness make with form. in 3Ctuslity he is . Thus Antonio's case becomes his precedent (n. revesls her she name to him. Sebastian. scene i. is easily of self-enactment.Temporal Royalties with Virtue' and s Airv Voice in The Tempest but he has no 215 respect to the clsims your of conscience kindred earth or brotherly upon" feeling: "Here lies Machiavellisn brother. Having little imaginative grief can be comprehended by the ambitious or the slothful. in psrsllel the mortality others but in himself. which.

/ Sounds and sweet sirs not" thst give delight and hurt and (m. so thst Stephsno will be sble to rule. .130). The scene opens with both Gonzslo snd Alonso wesry from wsndering in s msze. Ariel spesks in Trinculo's voice snd thus csuses Stephsno to drive Trinculo further away from him. of course. Thus Cslibsn as will his own sspirstion vicsriously. Alonso tells as seems itself. Csliban is to Stephano Antonio is to Sebastian. Act III. Cslibsn then proposes thst they murder Prospero in his sleep. that Caliban spirators sgsinst is simultsneously sttscking Trinculo. snd keep For Antonio. Caliban cannot learn the deeper lesson of dreaming. are surprisingly. But it with would appear that the sweet sound of the disappear the destruction to suggest Prospero. When Caliban not dreams. scene can ii. he what believes thst the come riches were if the "dreams" to he alresdy become enjoys inferior to reign "realities" in the of Stephano. thus setting the con esch other. / Even here I will put off my hope. Csliban dissociates the sound from Prospero's of riches of rule. Caliban reminds him that the and his description Stephano's desire to isle rule.89). prevents self-restraint inertia that most attempting much. to possess Mirsnds snd to create offspring schieve for the islsnd. "Sit down snd rest. action is for the dramatic it may also be said that Caliban cannot appreciate the rule of the poetic as what distinguishes the human being from mere esrth.216 Interpretation a series of professions There follows the other. But Ariel is intervening counsels cslmness again and playing tunes which csuse fright. brings us bsck to Alonso 's psrty. (m.i. Cslibsn because the isle is "full of noises. which makes it charity. These spurs sounds orchestrate Caliban's How sleeping waking ever. For Sebastian.ii.5 Love is the bondage that is free We are immediately reminded of the bondage that is not free by the re appearance of Caliban. Stephano Stephano to and Trinculo at the outset of Act III. ss Again have presented what might be called the tyrsnnicsl imsginstion opposed to the noble imsgination suffused constantly appear being upset by the presence of But the conspiracy is by Ariel's airy voice. even though. a metaphor and thus also cannot appreciate the rule of the just. scene iii. Freedom here is we equated self-assertion once more. Love in which esch seeks to be the servsnt of Antonio and induces self-tempering and marks the contrast to the ambitious slothful Sebasti3n who sre incspable of love or self-restraint. there is only the For the former. There is nothing in the speech of Caliban thst the sweet sound of the isle is not dependent on Prospero snd of Ariel rule. he dresms thst the thst drop not from the clouds. but he does surrounded understsnd dresm just riches is fulfilled in living would by the sweet sweet hsrmonies of Thus. condition of this rule is the destruction of might Prospero. If this which would be to live encompassed in the art harmonious imagination. things are too much trouble. everything is permissible. is only concealed ambition. 5. Caliban and entreats overthrow Prospero with so that Stephano rule favor Caliban. then Gonzslo. likely. for the latter.

One may agree with Douglas vision measure of snd go on to ssy that poetic vision in responding to the intimations of immortality is comprise agency par excellence. while Sebastian bsnquet. 11. P- r7- . This is noticesbly speech in Act V. But this is to the poetic insight which underlies the play and connects which the human condition to Shakespeare's grest art. opportunities we were to admit that time "neither and causeth both" things nor of things. The gentle but monstrous shspes vanish but the food remains. whose undulation the human imagination to order the world in its own attitude of image. more gentle snd kind than human beings. 3nd reminds mocks Prospero's first sesrch on renuncistion tend" in Act I. If it is true. 9-10) indicstes also not only the literal situstion world of the it sppears to Alonso. well because some there are worse thsn devils. sccompsnied by refreshed and inspired."6 discovers something of becoming. A Study of Shakespeare's Romances (San Marino. If. scene ii. excites also unsvoidsbly thst the end with On the other hand. Pol. dramstic s contrsst 3 new Immedistely following music hsrmony snd sweet srise. iii. poetic constancy in the midst of endless Peterson that "time in the Renaissance cosmology is only the motion. and Alonso lapses back into his which contrasts despairing Antonio's thought that "the past ss best is past" (in. sfter 6. usefully with "prologue" (u. humsn existence. The constancy of the poetic and is itself. but indicstes the dresm islsnd's relstion mocks to the stormy condition of the powers of temporal.247). that this would arrangement must be emblematic of a providentisl ordering thst one Prospero. Time Tide Tempest. a condition rather thsn sn sgent. Prospero editorializes that Alonso speaks amusement.Temporal Royalties Virtue' and s Airy Voice in The Tempest 217 it / No longer for my flstterer: he is s prefiguring of Prospero's renuncistion one of drowned" (in. 6-8). 1973). iii. Peterson. is suffused with being note because time is the humsn the thought of the providentisl experience eternal. has arranged things so that at this moment in the drama the and wicked see opportunity where the decent only cause for despair. thst the good differ from God only in the element of time. only intimsted in the vsnishing moments of time. be led although it contain (Ecc. Gonzslo snd Alonso sre and Antonio respond with touristic The appearing shspes sre. we would on to think that time which. Typicslly. to Alonso. Thst the "ses / Our frustrate ss (m. Douglas L.i. scene i. in a manner Measure. One is led to reflect very see reminiscent of the Duke in Measure for that Prospero. in sn aside. 51). That this is intimated in the tized Gonzalo and Alonso is drsms- by the contrast snd immediately thst made with the attitude now shsred between Antonio Sebsstisn. thst we will design here is Prospero's of snd it will come vision to sn the ending the plsy. iii. reflection compels the thought that our vision of right order Underlying the perceived order nsturslly is snother associste with the nsme of order but it is one is fleeting and ondoyant while the also connected divine would almost certainly be firm For it is and constant. ss Senecs remsrked. following Hooker.383). And. in its fleetingness.

What distinguishes of time. What has from Measure for Measure to The Tempest is that the the rule of restraint on Vienna. m. The reduction in com of plexity of the each life thus achieved allows the drsmstic evocstion of the timeless presence in the midst of time. . courage. It is seeing s universe in a ssnd. as almost commentators noticed. to but free to known sfter choose in self-ensctment of s its visions. To quote Peterson sgain. pp. and reconciliation.8 poetic vision of the has become law of the enchanted isle instead resurgent Such agency is to be this way is the mark of seen as teasing constancy out of nothingness.. Op. He could not have done this could without not seem likely Shakespeare have achieved merely ironic negation of the tradition which rested on the intimation of the eternal in the temporal a tradition which itself achieve by a exploring Christian themes the profundity he did. human that Shakespeare explored on the connection between wisdom. The Shakespeare this author is unable to say with conviction despite having examined mentaries on this point. The plsy msy be understood as an 7."7 This new precariousness which in sn act of contemplstion denies the possibility of ignoring the temporal intimstes the superiority of poetic vision to philo seeing further thsn philosophy of but in ss creatures or theology seeing crumbling dust must see: "A breath Thou srt Desth's thou art. It slso permits the revelstion snd assessment one character characters. seeing substsntislity in the merest momentsry contiguity of goings-on. (Measure for Measure. Self-ensctment is enduring according to an agent's with self-understanding. to be aware of process is to be more sharply aware of its remorseless- ness and of the precariousness and dependency of one's existence upon it. 8.218 sll. contingency. the relation of poetic vision to a profound confrontation with mortality.i. Interpretation snd not fleeting sharply constsncy unquslified. . and faith. reader may wonder to what extent this is a specifically Christian interpretation of It is true that the virtues of love and forgiveness are specifically associated with Christiantiy. question of snd grain instigstors of with them. 20-21. Prospero drags his opponents into confrontation time as duration but in the shelter of the island. and in the play itself. from is another is the to use character makes Nobility of response connected seeing the contingency of the of love and persistently occasioning the necessity forgiveness. On the hand. snd by such visions be the of the occssions their initial sppesrsnce have passed. At the very failing. in fact. hope. superiority not in fool" . "All other temporal things more sctively psrticipste in the eternal. Humsnity is free not to be not temporal. Whst Prospero will finslly schieve is the extension condition as human of the occssions of and the right use of all temporality by have the marriage of Ferdinand changed Miranda. and least it would seem temporality. what these usages meant to the play's action. / Servile to sll the skyey influences sophic or theologicsl vision. the Augustinian meditation on rested on an affinity for Plato's complementary account of what human experience must inevitably involve. However. cit.8 1 1). and What is unmistakable is the dominance of poetic vision many com in The Tempest. Time is duration to be endured. and justice the one hand. temperance. It is also true that there are many occasions of Christian symbolism in Shake speare's play which cannot be dismissed as mere ironies. charity ideas. It does and on the other. .

100102). The tempest has and now revesled (in. Prospero's vision is s momentsry unificstion of these themes before time moment is thus is caught sweeps sll before it. or it is a recon possible action humsn sction not from the perspective of the virtue implicitly in human from action but above so to speak.i. found Prospero ad Ferdinand to be Ferdinand and mskes s life" snd for "quiet dsys.Temporal Royalties "emblematic struction of narrative". He disappears in and a Prospero high praises Ariel's work has reached the height of clap his "My charms work. Every agent a promise and a peril. sepsrsted as the between Milan on on the one the dukedom discrepancy of the library of the other. power: and from this point on an innocent life. sre sll knit up / In their distractions: they now sre in my stste Alonso thinks the clouds. and he reveals himself as the minister of Fate demanding of Alonso.iii. it must be transmitted through the visible and transitory At any rate. . Thus. Sebsstisn second encounter with snd Antonio confront is their the tempest. p. for at every moment the human between merely temporal royslties and virtue's siry voice.9 and Virtue's Airy Voice an in The Tempest of -219 that is. Ferdinsnd is bedded seek in the The mud. But a on the other hsnd. Mirands. In this reflective moment in the midst of time none of the reslities the humsn can condition is denied. In this hypnotic snd the thunder pronounce the nsme of ss itself Fste snd 3 call to remembrance hence repentance. 215. mine enemies. but for a whst is ssserted what be the occasion deeper vision positively is thst any moment is to be seen never alters but self-ensctment of agents. Ferdinand to release Ferdinand good.. Sebsstisn snd Antonio repentance of thunder. iii. It is the which st fleeting Antonio unity snd the real snd ideal the outset of the plsy and hsd been hopelessly hand. By and contrast the first scene of Act IV begins Prospero is with Prospero. Ariel returns now to make the banquet vanish. With a few minor 9. / And these. fsir issue. 88-90). long stirring speech for honor (iv. e'er plummet sounded with him there lie mudded" confrontation the ethereal hss driven Alonso towards the insensste their own guilt. who normally The high or directly or seen. Alonso Alonso / And wishes with assumes that the loss of Ferdinand is the recompense for his allisnce with Antonio to sgsinst Prospero. ooze and now join him: "I'll him deeper than (m. op. cit. Peterson. it is imitation action. 24). the second to self-awareness. the winds Prospero. characters are ritualized vis-a-vis the low characters are reslistic cynical simply moment of time is the eternal moment snd the tssk is to see Thus every that that is so. The first brought them to the island. This Now Alonso. in s situstion where beginning and from his monishes thralldom. It is seeing human semiconscious. Ferdinand has been tried chaste. the the plsy is the remembrance of a vision and sign of its repetitive presence glimpse of in all of moments of human the en durance.

220

Interpretation
of passion

lapses
Ariel
The

Ferdinand
the

and

Miranda look to be composed,

and

now

will produce
masque

masque.

duly

celebrates and

fertility
what

and the cooperation
wishes

of

sky

and earth

in the lives
spirits,
which
fancies"

of

Ferdinand

Miands. Ferdinsnd

to think these sre

but Prospero foreshadows

is to

come

by

remarking,

by

mine art

/ I have from their

confines

called

to enact /

"Spirits, My present

(iv.i. 120-22). Ferdinand understandably wishes for time to stand still for the fair thing it has revealed. But time will not stand still, for at the moment of harvest in the wearying August of the mssque, Prospero's fsncy
now

shifts

to Caliban's foul conspiracy (iv.i. 140). In the regime of Prospero the
of

visions

the island
of

shift

with

his fancy. This
of

confirms

the view that The

Tempest is the story

the

interior drama
of

the "dream of Prospero". "Prospero
ss a s

hsd

plsyed with

the thought

humsn life

masque,

beautiful,

majestic,
evil."10

transient:

but it

would not

do. It is instesd

bitter drams

of good snd

"In the

end

the choice is between himself sffirming the spiritusl sources of
of

society, the dependence the sscred, snd
rejects
s

the temporal snd the seculsr

upon

the eternsl snd

society

which rejects supernstursl ssnctions snd

in the

event

morality Machiavellian perspective but to
He
ne'er

itself."11

The

return

to human affairs, in short, is not to the

a comprehensive view
who

leading

to moderation:

is

crowned

/ With

immortality

voices

lead. Prospero's

remembrance of

fears to follow / Where airy Caliban 's conspiracy is, naturally, the

occasion

for remembering the general atmosphere of conspiracy Prospero has inhabited, and, necessarily, in the end, the fact that he himself has conspired
against

the conspirators. This memory produces a tempest

in Prospero's

own

mind now which

is

evident to

Ferdinand. But Prospero dismisses him limit to his imaginative
are power
a

snd

in

reflecting
the
stuff

on
of

Cslibsn
which

recognizes a

to transform
which

human beings

formed. Caliban's is

nature

Prospero's creep up the form

nurture cannot perfect.

on of

Prospero's

dwelling

Thus, Caliban and his co-conspirators now like animals and are driven out by spirits in
snd

dogs chasing prey. Now all Prospero's enemies are st his mercy, resched. The king snd his followers hsve become

hunting

the sixth hour hss been

penitent snd this

is

sufficient msgicsl

for Prospero. He
powers. under

shall choose virtue over vengeance snd relinquish reduced

his

The king's party has been
spell.

to

something less than human
at

Prospero's

They

thus lie

foul

and

muddy,

the ebb tide of their

humanity. As they
repentance which

are

of reason overcomes

gradually led back into the human condition the flood their muddiness. Their humiliation is the prerequisite to

is the

beginning
and

not of

their

degradation but

of their ascent

to some semblance of virtue.

That there is

virtue

intimated for
Gonzalo is
10. 11.

some

time,

this is the case

in Alonso has been strongly in his first reunion with Prospero. Antonio may be held
p.

of course virtuous.

Sebastian

and

by

some

D. G. James, The Dream of Prospero (Oxford, 1967),

136.

James,

op.

cit., p. 150.

Temporal Royalties
virtue

and

Virtue's

Airy
revesl

Voice in The Tempest

221

becsuse

of

Prospero's direst to
Alonso'

their abortive conspiracy sgainst

Alonso. Now Prospero
plays on

hss lost his daughter This But
serves

without

to remind

loss of Ferdinand by saying he saying that he has lost his daughter to Ferdinand. Alonso of his separation from his daughter Claribel.
s

apparent

having

had this bitter joke the
is

restored

Duke

of

Milan

now

produces

Ferdinand.

The
"all
of

play's conclusion
us"

contained

in Gonzalo's

reflection that

in

one voyage

hsve found "ourselves / When
wickedness

no msn wss

his

own"

(v.i. 209-13).

"Prospero trsnsvslues the
of

snd

torment on his isle into the stuff
abides

dresms.

.

.

.

Possibly

the lsst

evil

for Prospero

in cynicism, the
psrs-

Antonio

in

psrts

Antonio is, like Iago, an antipoetic mind who sees the world instesd of by totsl In this dilemms the eternsl is only,
malady.
vision."

doxicslly,

s momentsry solution within the terms of the human condition. The incipient lawlessness of humanity can be subdued "only for a moment in a scene created

by

a

wholly

poetic s

consciousness."12

The

enacted self

is itself

a

fugitive;

not s generic

unity but
s

drsmstic identity.
of sdditionsl
considerations:

There are,

however,
and most

number

it

would

be

difficult to study The Tempest
and

structure,

remarking its evanescence both in theme commentators have done so. To this point, the dis
without an attempt

cussion

has

proceeded
mindful

in

to be faithful to that quality
sentiment

and of

to be

of

the centrality of Prospero's

that the

in the play, fabric
an

his

vision

is

"baseless"

(iv.i. 151), that the human

condition must not

is

"insub
that

pageant"

stantial

(iv.i.

155).

On the

other

hand, it
is

be

reaffirmed

there is

a

fabric This

and

a

pagesnt,

snd

their reslity

constituted

in their

msterislity.

certifies

the connection between Shskespeare and the ancient

roots of sents

philosophy and theology, and leaves no doubt that Shakespeare pre both a conception of excellence or nobility ss real, snd slso s forthright sccount of the difficulty of schieving these quslities. Since thst schievement

is intuitive

snd/or

intellectusl, it is
esrlier

s mstter of

seeing snd, in The Tempest,

poetic seeing.

It hss been
poetic

suggested

thst,

within

the specific terms of this plsy,

philosophicsl or theological seeing. To the extent seeing is superior to that is so in The Tempest, it is because the srt of seeing the Tempest seems to demsnd poetic seeing, snd, if proof were needed, The
"insubstsntisl"

itself is proof,
of such seeing.

provided one suspends a prejudice against

The

rank of characters

lack

of

it,

which

they

possess, and

possibility in the play is based on the vision, or on the degree to which they can learn,

the

sheer

previously they hsd not seen. This is, Prospero snd thus is reminiscent of of course, true in the highest degree of Measure. for Measure in insight Vincentio's Duke
when given a

fresh chsnce, to

see whst

12.

in Shakespeare (New Wylie Sypher, The Ethic of Time, Structures of Experience
pp. 205-6.

York,

1976),

222

Interpretation
other

On the
snd

hsnd,

there is s clesr

difference

of tone

between The Tempest

Measure for Measure. Measure for Measure is
obvious political

more esrthbound snd

has

a

more

teaching
of

about

the value

of

domestic

or

familial
divine

orderliness virtue

for the

maintenance extremes

of political order

in

a condition of moderate
suburbs

(between the
which,
mesn

the dissolution of the

snd

perfection

on

Does this

esrth, devolves into mere rules). thst Shskespesre, in moving, by s
to The

long

route not

described
kind

here, from Measure for Measure
solid political consolation

Tempest, hss gradually
on poetic

abandoned a
of

teaching for

a

dependence
of

imsginstion

ss

for the

imperfectibility

the mortal, human condition? There is

much evidence

to suggest otherwise.
of proper marriage
and

In the first place, the theme

is

maintained

in The Tempest
in their
vision

in

a semidivine presentation.
other and reinforced

Ferdinand

Miranda

are united

of each

by

the vision of cooperation between earth and

sky in the msrrisge mssque. But this is done in s wsy thst remsins consistent with The Tempest's internsl integrity snd themstic cohesion. In the second
plsce, Prospero's descent from
snd
power which

is

repsired

by

an ascent

in wisdom,

his

eventusl return to echoes a

his

proper post

in Milan

armed with s more compre

hensive vision,

Shskespesre's
vision

recurrent theme of

suffusing the humsn
that only those

moral order with

larger

that leads to the
can

moderation

of comprehensive and sober

The Tempest may then be
philosophical expression of

understanding seen as Shakespeare's

display.
greatest effort to achieve a

on

moral

and

subsumed
mesn not

the thought that consistently underlies his teaching life. This play seems to assert that generic unity is in dramstic identity. But whst does it mesn to ssy thst? Does it
political

thst nothing persists?

On the contrary, it is
vision

quite clesr thst

if there is it does.

something in the
snd sober
we must

poetic

thst persists,

the emphssis on nobility,

excellence,

judgment

could not confront us so

clesrly

ss

Rsther, ssy thst no humsn sgent of such poetic seeing persists. To the extent thst the vision of The Tempest is specificslly Prospero's vision,
or, for thst mstter,
sleep,"

specificslly is

Shskespesre's, it
behind"

must

be "rounded

with

a

dissolving
instead
persist.

to "leave not a rack
not

(iv.i.i54ff.). To the

extent that

the vision of The Tempest
at

least

a

mysterious presence

presence

However, its
seen

only Prospero's or Shakespeare's, but is in the text itself, it obviously must in the text depends on its continued potential
the observers themselves

for

being

by

successive observers.

But this
who will
"practice"

potential what

depends in

some

measure

on

know
of

they

are

being

expected

to see.

Implied, therefore, is
be
reaffirmed on

a

seeing

which can persist

but

which must

every
who of

occasion

by

those who see,

thus

distinguishing

themselves from those
as
of

do

In this way The Tempest may be understood the highest sort, and necessarily reminiscent, in its own idiom,
not
see.

a

teaching
put

the experience

of

the Platonic presentation

of

Socrates. To

see

in this

sense
avoid

is to

into

practice a vision of

human

conduct

but,

simultaneously, to

the reduction

stsndard of judgment. in the temporality of humsn things. but resl. experience imposes upon humsn But it is not only natural. the and of base the noble. Antonio is unsmbiguous in this sense. it seems to come from an comes this swareness the comprehensive range of possible motives for humsn beings upon us. spprehend and choose smong. It is this which Prospero snd psss on csrry bsck to Milsn to Ferdinsnd snd Mirands. of course. It is thus s vision which seeks exercise of to hold together the moral sutonomy of humsn with beings in the of whst their sgency. It is the vision to which one subscribes rsther thsn s command which one must obey. Prospero's is of a misadventure in originally relinquishing his Antonio's in perverting his political responsibilities political responsibilities. tslk of the higher snd the The the question will. ss hsnd. optimism There is a fundamental in this understanding that what is to be seen can be seen despite the conspiracy against it. not wickedness or mslevolence. makes sense whence if self-enactment is the self-chosen the actor sssess by to which to of motives? sppsrently independent standsrd For Shskespesre. Finally. srise lower. betray limited perception. or The purity of missdventure sdmirsbility of motives will in the mutable and uncertain On the other not relesse us circumstsnces from the dsngers in which we must try to act on those motives.Temporal Royalties of such cannot vision with and Virtue's Airy Voice in The Tempest 223 to a set of rules which. but snd. Antonio's dictate. unimproved snd magnified Antonio's motives sre wicked tiousness csn only be cannot ambisppsrently unimprovsble. circumstances It or diminished as be transformed or transposed might into his a different urging. it may be remarked that no hierarchy among the better motives . range of motives of is slso orderly snd csnnot we be expressed otherwise thsn in terms better we are or worse. sny certsinty be of permanent value in guiding humsn beings through the vicissitudes of historical existence. subject to revision snd improvement. the nsture of our motives. and that it can be resffirmed in every psssing moment. and ss to whether lower. more compre hensive understsnding symbolized by his two insdvertent snd the second by choice under Prospero's initisl motives renuncistions of power: conditions the first of unlimited power. if human The by natural is meant the unsought but unsvoidsble conditions reflection. the admirable and despicable. insofsr they msy be revesled to us. Thus. the possibility of s conception humsn sgency should le3d to snd look like providing must sn elusive. in the event. They are some between instinct would and reflective They snd lack the delibersteness permit us to judge with certainty how far he might be able to advsnce. undoubtedly sffects our judgment of the actions thst proceeded under their guidsnce. Of Caliban. maturity. misadventure different sort from Furthermore. The range is real and imposes itself It is natural. Prospero's lesds to s grester. the benevolent sentiment the malicious. msy be flooded by motives but not permitted to be unaware of their msny implications in possible a moral sense. it where which be said that motives are unsettled.

The good msn of hsve the cunning about if he is to outwit the deceptions the wicked and remain resilient to the endlessness of temporality. of Their breath must fill his sails or else his project was fails. one virtue For. Surely. would of while the audience can see what it wants to see. Of course. the play has provided a precept for seeing better. snd of revelstion of of chsrscter in respect. the srrsngement by esch well-disposed individusl the better motives (including srrsnged). one cslls upon for the sske of virtue sltogether. On the contrary. But or whst is decisive is the motives. to persist in the us persistence about their pleasure. first. he is reduced to the fsint the disposal not temporality. his dramatic task he wishes "to please". rank In the meantime. The task and seeing wishes of now falls to them. Thus. The Tempest is of this if it is From this nificant "Epilogue" point of view. The case relative hierarchy of of the virtues worthy depends on the dramatic of in importance the various good motives will depend in chsrscters. in preserving life's contingency. The vision in each play. To insist thst this is insist thst the dreams of politics are not not a political tesching be to encompassed by the dream life. one does crucial. Shskespesre the stsndsrd in s chsrscter who motives is an both well-disposed snd exhibiting sn extensive array thus orderly manner. about anything. schieved better worse second. consideration of the comprehensiveness of the range of motives so personifies Ususlly. the play has taught something the of pleasures. of is sppsrent.224 Interpretation This is true enough. he to be In addition. it his will depend on their appropriation of gentle his to resubstantiate it as successors. contingency of virtue would overwhelm virtue. But if he is to be "confined" any human being in confrontation but "Sent to it Naples" depend vision on the audience. that is. applauded. . require different in arrangements in different moral order struck each case is among the good things in the midst of diminish one virtue for the sake of another. but does coherence of the coherence not does not prevent hierarchical arrangement cases. each on the contingent conditions the play of the virtues imposes a on the The The relstive equslity among them. Were this must not the esse. the The Tempest takes snd on a sig with will dimension: Prospero's strength st charms are now of overthrown.

been I. endeavors. open-ended. not as an end in itself but goal' as as making possible other ends. liberty. individusl ss ssfegusrding security. snd including he was "preservstion whst of life. for Jefferson. striving for s sense of venturesome self-relisnce which to hsppiness. Not only is it not the plsce of the stste to determine hsppiness or whst should be the psrticulsr gosls for its citizens. Declaration of Bacon has extent ss hss the draught" From his "original Rough ed. Julian P. It msy seem one-sided to mske support of the self- indi vidusl' s spontsneous fulfilment the crux of the stste. the first to recognize and promote a with psychology of endeavor associated the emergence of experimental with science in the seventeenth century. the bssis for all sorts of individual and joint Following construe he tends to pursuits thst sre not of and ultimately Hobbes. ig83~84 When Thomas Jefferson men maintained that government is instituted among to secure their inaliensble rights. If he thus and political as so-cslled negative Hume Montesquieu. the quslity of endeavor itself represents s vslue both for the individusl snd for the stste. snd liberty with the pursuit of widespresd happiness. until this natural it is recognized thst the individusl 's urge to crucial legitimscy of enjoy and develop the liberty of the is in turn to the good of the whole. On the contrary. . Locke conceives liberty in terms. of the Independence.The Pursuit and of Happiness in Jefferson and its Background in Bacon Hobbes Jeffrey Barnouw John Dewey Fellow. in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. to maintain ing a just government snd constitution. The snd series is sn sscending order: self-preservstion s prerequisite of liberty."1 conviction respect stating smong his compstriots. s pursuit which generates new purposes ss it Jefferson is provide not ssserting thst legitimste government has an for the hsppiness of its citizens. might constitute In securing the is essenti3l pursuit of hsppiness. but slso msking to the inaliensble right to the pursuit of hsppiness he felt to be s particularly s complex snd subtle clsim with fsr-resching provides implicstions for is constitutions! theory. Boyd (Princeton. I: 423. I950ff.). liberty themselves politicsl. The tssk present in Jefferson's writings essay is to elucidate the relation of these ideas against the background of analogous constellations of who were ideas in Bacon new and Hobbes. nor necesssrily public. with obligstion regsrd to to the constitution of the stste the emphssis is 'pursuit' ss much on ss on whst 'hsppiness'. the stste is mesnt to protect snd encourage s spirit of enterprise in its people. underestimated and neglected Hobbes's own continuity in the secondary literature. Jefferson also conceives of the 'ultimate progresses.

. Enlightenment. enlightened. whether in an individual writer or a par ticular period. circum truths disclosed. 1813. and manners and opinions change with the change of stances. to politicsl order snd liberty he and to the progress bound up "no other and with social sure enlightenment. December 20. 35. and Hobbes to various figures the 3. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh (Washington. To Samuel Kercheval. The mean not connection becomes but more complex when enlightenment is taken to only the spread the advance of knowledge. makes the same point in broader terms. 37. Andrew A. Cf. discoveries times..' thsn the idess elsborsted reflect which or by Locke under the hesding 'pursuit of s distinctly different snd even opposite psychology. In 1 8 16 Jefferson wrote.) Jefferson's letter to John Adams. in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. ed. August 13. Next paragraph: 4. reveals Its cogency depend the depth of understanding which it in interpreting writers or configurations of ideas. As that becomes new more developed.226 of Interpretation sffinities and will his with lesding is msde of writers not of the later Enlightenment. 28. and corresponding change of interests and purposes. Papers X: 244f.). June 15. July 12. THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS At the beginning. XV. No sttempt be here to the directly to the debste on the of immediste sntecedents idess expressions the Declaration of of of Independence. 1787. for example. but to caution the present generation ss 2. and laws institutions must go hand in hand more with the progress of the as new human mind."3 interest. 1903ft. Writings XIII: 254f. thst the understsnding Hobbes is more relevsnt to Jefferson's conception the pursuit of hsppiness snd its politicsl rsmificstions hsppiness. of I have followed up several strands linking Bacon to Hobbes. to James Madison. in that is to George Jefferson's thinking. XV.C. 40 and 50-52. but it endesvor csn in Bscon snd be shown. 1816.4 are made. we must see how the pursuit of happiness is relsted.2 To discern continuities sffinities the ssme ss contribute snd tracing sources or influences. and said keep to pace with the It is significant that this was not vindicate the Revolution. in essays cited in notes 11. and on the capacity to ground its correlations between different disparate ages in this deeper level of coherence. D. 1786. 18. institutions must advance also. proceeds The lstter in fsct Intellectusl not history in terms of continuities which on snd sffinities on need be less rigorous less illuminsting will th3n thst insists the sttribution of actual influence. can In 1786 wrote Wythe that of foundation than "the be devised for the of preservation freedom happiness" diffusion underlying idea is that only the people are a reliable are well knowledge among the The judge of what is in their people. the well constitution of a new republic. and then only when they informed. (Where the appropriate volume of Papers has not yet been published. 40. I. I will cite Writings. 41. .

" "the flaw in our constitution which might endsnger spirit enlsrge its snd thst sccordingly "s the powers of Congress wss becoming general. The happiness of governments like ours. for per at lesst. I knew that age well. principles happiness." people or conversely security agaist the rise of priests. Jefferson confederacy pursuit sgsinst kings. It has then. and be beyond amendment. as that was had gone before. and years of experience in government is worth a century of book-reading. reverence. but without the experience of the present. as . as to them shall seem most laying likely to its foundation effect their ssfety a Reformulating this in 1816. ignorance. truly so the mainspring. for the repeated renewal which reaches deeper than mere sdsptation of heritage. saw Writing msss from Paris in his "an letter to George Wythe. as to is that they are never to be despaired When an evil becomes glaring . snd the of happiness informed "Preach a crusade common against people. . nobles or kings in a republic representative democracy. "Some look st constitutions with ssnctimonious Jefferson remsrks. wherein the poeple are of. its introduction political constitution. the founding the Republic does not csll in its not originsl form. "Esch of sll which generation is ss independent it believes of the one pre ceding. ascribe to the men of the they did to Forty years esrlier a he had written that "it is the right of the people to of abolish" to form of government that new has become destructive their on inalienable rights "and to institute such and revolution government. We back to consider the implications this conception of a republic as a perpetual founding of (not 'permanent time revolu tion'). Bacon ss and Hobbes 227 men posterity sgsinst venerating the Revolution in the wrong wsy. petuation upon for the of government that follows from it. but rather calls for emulation." . as well as a virtue. This is Jefferson's point when he tells Wythe. of the form of government that it was responsive to public happiness. most promotive a right to choose of for itself the form of government its happiness. suppose what . of a new understanding into the sphere of For Jefferson it new republican was precisely 1786 a safeguard. like them.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. forty alter or preceding age a wisdom more than human." They it. Jefferson adapts the motive of to support a provision for constitutionsl revision snd renewsl on regulsr snd perpetual basis. of nobles and priests as of sbsndoned the hsppiness of an the people." own sets a precedent The Revolution For Jefferson. to measure the of the form it of of the present polity against the prevailing will come (common) sense goals was instituted to promote. I belonged to It was very like the present. Let our establish and improve the law people for educating the Countrymen know that the alone can protect us against these In the preceding were head" year he had written to Richard Price that "the people sensible" becoming as universally to of "the want of power in the federal destruction. like sn achitectural foundation that can be built but altered." In this response he recognizes an essentisl trait of republicanism. that is.

"render the farms there almost hereditary. 1785. is an importsnt influence. 1787. Garry which goes in his 'the eagerness to debunk the living. September 6. 127) Wills even suggests it would be consonant with Jefferson's idea if one generation were to "acquire the means native for its own enjoyment posterity. which is bssed not in s in the heritsge. whether one generation of men has a right to bind Again the context of French politics. when he writes to the Marquis de highly.228 Interpretation they arouse strike them generally. 631. The capacity to to negative and with popular welfare and approval as criterion and touchstone. He only is then the reform the and this char popular man and can get evil. emerge. that the esrth is precisely.6 Jefferson in fsct the obligstion not offers a rationsle for concern with the rights of posterity.' purposes "pulse-quickening for liberals" quote earth belongs to the By of making any each generation of one's posterity. and it is redressed. on as the contrary. He would teach men not only to live quit from the dead. (p. themselves. is what "promises thst each generation permsnence" for s republic. new conception of is introduced into politicsl thought with the A history ides thst snd esch generation which living. snd not st sll Jefferson's expression) "belongs to the bssis of the snd the parsdoxicslly. yet a coherent outline of the relations own between public happiness. returning quick none of it to profits. and the progressivity and stability recognize of republican respond has begun to situations." . to future generations. In Wills "modem February 1. the living. The ides (to use is or should be its own focus. but quit of the claims as well since only the unborns' living should enjoy earth's usufructs. claim live only for itself. 6. responsibility of entsiled foreclose their possibilities. Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration overboard of Independence (New York. to change accordingly. April 11. linking the generations. the nstionsl debt. The letters we have drawn on far present variety of as contexts. but I think. or use up the land by aliening the land itself sell it off and leave by short-sighted management. It is in s the esrth belong to the letter to Msdison from Psris. Jefferson would not only inhibit the entailing but the enhancing of its life." should consider before. the preceding month hsd seen 5. Calamity so was our best a physician. and the people's government concern. but precisely in the ides thst the fruits living. into office who shows the best disposition to the This truth in was obvious on several occasions during late war." interest in posterity as part of the self-interest of Lafayette. 1789. s acter our governments saved us. continuity enduring strength of the polity. that it brings with it both a concern for to 'entail' concern such ss not posterity (however broadly opinions and institutions on we and construe 'our') and the constraining situations. counted on the Jefferson. thst he takes up "the question." itself independent has seen of the preceding self- "all had gone One to a critic this functional centeredness 'rights' as necessarily 'our' leading lsck of concern for the needs snd of posterity. in contrast to England where long leases." now very different. another. [and] make it worth the farmers while to manure the lands Papers XI: 284. Papers VII. on the contrary. 1978). criticizing the short leases on land in France.

The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. to the Jefferson srgues that a man property not by natural right.' When Jefferson 'Declsrstion two of of pencilled in suggested emendstions of Lsfsyette's draft for s the rights of msn and put the phrases forward Wills does under early in 1789. which I suppose to be self-evident. earth returns the fundamental or to labour the to the unemployed. For if he could.' William Inventing America by Ronald Hamowy. 4 (October 1979): 503-23. he refers to the latter idea as setting Jefferson apart from Locke and linking in a him with Hutcheson. that the dead have neither powers nor rights over it.) October 28. 8. to the payment of debts contracted by him. Hobbes did. If we do not. of a correlation that has been challenged. he might during his own life. and then the lands would belong pied or the persons who succeed to the dead." cesses to be his when himself inherits cesses to be. liberty property. but by a law of the society of which he is a member. and that this conflict was sddressed in his principle 'the esrth beongs to the that living. uncultivated lands and unemployed poor. and not the living. The immediate implication of his principle seems to be the very opposite of what Garry Wills inferred. "I set out on this ground. living and the idea that property is not a natural civil right. 231. (the statesman's cousin William and Mary. in this regard and in general. oblige the lands he him in that occupation. take care that other employment provided to right those excluded from the appropriation. it is that the laws of property have been so far extended as to violate natural right. This view of property to the conception of the pursuit of hsppiness ss s clear Whenever there is in any country. To the Reverend James Madison.' 7. If neither Locke and property rights as civil in origin. "Jefferson and the Scottish and Mary Quarterly'^. Bacon the 'feudal' and Hobbes 229 decrees sbolishing privileges." Whether in 1776 not Jefferson's original reference to of the pursuit of a correction of happiness the con was influenced triad by the idea effecting ventional (Lockean) 'life. no man can. no. If for the encour agement of industry be we allow it to be appropriated. The portion occupied snd reverts by any individusl society. In a different context. Then. earth The is given as a common stock for man to labour & live we must on.' and it seems highly probable by 1789 Jefferson saw the pursuit of hsppiness as an inalienable right which is incompatible with a natural right to property or inheritance. trenchant critique Enlightenment. nor Hutcheson saw President of the College of . by natural right. Papers VIII: 682.7 The 'in principle that the earth belongs to the living and the qualification usufruct' is connected only brings out what is implied in the with Jefferson's view that property is emphasis on 'the living' not s nstursl right but one which is estsblished by snd subject to is in turn closely linked nstursl right. not recognize between the idea that the but a belongs to the p. earth Papers XV: 392-93. that the earth belongs in usufruct to the living. and to occu which he is subject. 1785. the civil power. he bracketed the 'essential rights of msn': "le soin the connection citizen. eat up the usu fruct of the lands for several generations to come. In 1785 Jefferson hsd written.

1943). The Letters of Lafayette and Jefferson. 80-82. January Writings XIV: 48. Gilbert Chinard (Baltimore. 1977). made this point at with very just delivered. 519 62. is incspsble of proof. "Fame and the h others (New York.970." for revising generations. The only on the sub stantive reference to Baconian method that I Salt. 3-26. and Adrienne Koch. 181 1. beyond that might and the need to keep abreast the "progres des lumieres. 80-81. In Pursuit of Happiness: the disparity between certain contemporary forms in it its of private property and Locke's concept idealized 'natural of property' and that in an effort to restore the old moral content to the substituted individual property.' 62-96. in his essay. to Walter Jones. History and Culture. most posterity work of as dimensions of historical time be delineated clearly in the Jefferson ever Francis Bacon. This a new configuration of of ideas in Jefferson's (based in effect as intro be duced argued conception historical time into on political thought. at Studies and the Institute Early 10. will below. Fathers. Chinard abuses claims that Jefferson was also responsible arise for the insertion of of an additional reason." reprinted 16-20. founding esp.' have been able to find is in "Report ed. To Benjamin Rush. ed."9 The stability of and generation and each continuity individual the republic are thus seen to depend on esch 'self-centered' being in and through writings the pursuit happiness. lacking explicit testimony. Thomas Jefferson. 232-34. 'the earth belongs to the living. Scott writes. Chinard. 1814. Jefferson stead the more suggestive phrase 'pursuit of was Happiness. Saul K. pp. pp. in note 8. Virginia. "it is tempting to conclude. 9. Fresh Water from The Complete Jefferson. pp. Scott. This progress and spheres culture in the Scientific of characteristic interrelation can pursuit. . its systematic character and psychological grounding. Such s connection. Koch resists the tendency to 'the happiness' pursuit of to a natural right of property. that in 1776 Jefferson sensed citing the letter to Madison quoted William B. 1957)." generations qui se the right of succeeding pp.10 Beyond any strictly identifisble debt in scientific mstters or methodology. Writings XIII: 4. at The Jeffersonian a keep 7) sovereign power a distance in different direction. Jefferson and Madison: The Great Collaboration (New York. 1964). pp.'" This is fair with an enough as far as goes. 1929). but it is a conception analogous of configurations) that hsd slresdy proved its worth in other Revolution snd the Enlightenment. that is. human institutions: "le droit des In her discussion oppose of succedent.230 de son Interpretation honneur" snd "le droit de propriete" snd sppsrently suggested thst the lstter be replsced by "Is recherche of du bonheur. but impossible to prove. relations. (see preceding the time the present paper was note p. regarded yet Bacon as one "of the three written greatest men the world has little has been on what he might owe to Bacon. 1974). The Apostle of Americanism (Ann Arbor. Methods Obtaining P. Williamsburg. Hamowy. Padovcr (New York. 2. p. but Locke's idealization linked from the beginning right natural to a interest in safeguarding pursuit of happiness would first established property and n. I believe Jefferson msy hsve derived from his resding of Bscon s bssic theme of his political thought. 42. This issue is also addressed in chapter 3 of American Conceptions of Property from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century (Bloomington. January 16. Douglass Adair explores one aspect of the deeper resonance of and attitudes Bacon's ideas in Fame for and the Founding in Jefferson. at the plenary session of a conference on Enlightenment' sponsored by of the East-Central American region of the American Society for Eighteenth-Century 1979. but what is important is the breadth and depth of the analogy. Cf. in slightly different form but 'The Pan-Atlantic this same emphasis. November 8-10.

such attitudes "tend wholly to snd the unfair circumscription of which not and to s deliberate fsctitious despsir. Science. as more having breath of life. In the some mechanical arts we do not so: the contrary. tradition and particularly classical philosophy.) Experience ss initistive snd cslsmity is the foundstion of science. to ignore "negative expectations. Aphorism 88. snd He was on thus opposed both to a nsive psssive mode of experience to reliance to teachers. are continually growing becoming perfect. because it throws into relief hand' the active contact with reality that is 'first one's own experience. Aristotle presented (their) science as a closed of completed which mind. native Bacon. the Humanities 2 (1979): 92-1 10- in the articles cited below. seeks conviction and produces contention. experiences a that do not fit its and thereby to preserve the vsin pretense to knowledge without loose to ends. IV: 86. and Spedding."" and spur of of industry. and perfection on the things invented." attscked the misdirected the schievements of the sncients and the related assumption that these could not be surpassed or improved. as translated in Works IV: 14. Heath (London. Experience in the Scientific which are extended Revolution. the general signs which away the chances of experience which Bacon took as justifying hope is the prog- ressivitv of science.). be and therefore to msn's mind. exploiting and reinforcing the predisposition is evident in common induction or experience in its instances. (It is in be s analogous sense that sccident or even enterprise tescher. Bacon criticized the presentstion of (supposed) He science in finished form resssurance. vener- becsuse this rather than stion of seemed to him cslculated to induce awe. All the tradition and not of succession of schools is still a succession of masters and scholars [disciples]. for Bscon. ." in Francis Bacon's Moral Psychology of and "Bacon and Hobbes: The Conception my essays. see of this the following Science.' the passive mode. in them II. instead fruits and works. Ellis. innovation and an attention to the faults limits of current csn knowledge. and as translated in The Works of Francis Bacon. gaps or that is. One only disturbs the and throws suguries of hope. if implicit. sort he saw prefigured in the cumulative advance of the mechanical He of contrasted this with the continual vicissitudes of in the history of that philosophy which. Plato whole. because human power. belief to stimulate "expectant inquiry. i857ff. but also cuts the sinews itself. "Active Experience vs. From the Preface to Instauratio Magna.12 Novum Organum. arts. Wish-Fulfilment The Philosophical Forum 9 (1979): 78-99. is at 'personsl' recourse to a real individual responsibility for knowledge advancement which assures continuity in science. Bacon Bacon conceived of science ss a and Hobbes 231 disciplining and of the mind through deliberate experience. The nstursl concern involves overcoming a conservatism (and pride) for continuity and closure of ex perience must countered and mediated by curiosity." of Science/ Technology & note 28. inventors and those who bring find it to further they. ed. that is. For fuller treatment of the themes paragraphs. experience and the Only an this pervssive. 12. According and Bacon. or the same time a form of tradition handing snd on. Book I.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson.

"13 A tradition based trades snd crafts is is grounded sense of mediated in the testing. vary but never higher than its original founder. for this results from an act of independent not This broad analogy of Baconian and Jeffersonian ideas. their pursuit. of authority never rises The self-corrective and continual recourse course."15 the opinion. in that "they have never given a valid assent to judgment. is an indication for Bacon that the knowl edge involved is rooted in reality. It stands in marked contrast to the passive sort of tradition in which. like living based on waters. snd sn words from the Declsrstion snd there is emphssis not so much on ."14 A are critical tradition. For proper knowledge is either by teachers. to effect their ssfety hsppiness." ss on the preceding phrase. which can of course include their a happiness for the care welfare posterity. like ciphers coming general after an integer. Works III: 413. the other Pe- dantical. their concern. . followers make a 'leader of great. or attained endeavours. From The Advancement of Learning. 14. 95. delivered the one Critical. p. 127. the individual engagement with In this sense Bacon distinguished two types of continuity [or all particular "touching by men's the tradition handing on] of knowledge. while knowledge on opinion can. not translated in ed. primsry involvement in practice. thst happiness is to include is precisely psrt of the in Jefferson's " people's own concern. p. The American a republic marks a radical break with classicsl republicanism in a number of respects. and 'benevolent' absolutism). It is not that government should be directly the happiness of rather the people (a characteristic assumption of that it should be responsive to. From Cogitata et Visa. perpetual uprushings and outflowings. but as "The Refutation of Benjamin Farrington (Chicago. one of the most drsmstic 13. but The determinstion of whst indeed rely on. Works. cumulative chsrscter of of increase. like utility itself. will help to underline a crucial point role of about the the 'pursuit of happiness' in Jefferson's idea concerned with of a republic. on Jeffersonian republicanism perhaps another. represents fundamental acknowledgement of the realities which possible positive value of the qualitative changes and emergent conception of time brings. as Bacon said. 15. which may or may be a reflection of direct influence. depends for its their continuity the repeated initiative of individuals who bring heritage opinion' to the test of their own experience. "Knowledge which is founded in nature has. From Redargutio philosophiarum . "ss to them shall seem most constitutive reference of the present of their likely to of The of each American polity to the pursuit generation. these arts to practice ss 'proof in the The relstion of one thinker or generation and the next by s problems. 1966). Philosophies' in The Philosophy of Francis Bacon. as translated in Philosophy of Francis Bacon.232 Interpretation This progressivity. and of which the mechanical arts and Baconian science examples.

length elsewhere. the illusion at of a persistence of virtue. and "What is still American in the Political William and Mary Quarterly 39. no. that only a Spartan time. which Jefferson only but to further." Early History 68. His spprecistion of the rewsrds of commerce ss s in J. Harrington. in Joyce Journal of Appleby. Paul J. both in suggests interest here in thst its the 'pursuit of happiness' how 'private' the tion in socioeconomic sphere and in to political participation. not and overlooks perceived the intimate interdependence sought the two. 4 (March 1982). 2 (April 1982)."' rigidity institutions to master the politics of Instead meant ss of recognizing the fundamental break 'paradigm' which American independence s revolution of the republicsn continuity of the classical broke and 'the Country whst idesl. had committed both ethical and political theory to a static ideal. Philosophy "American Independence: Revolution ed." strict opposition between in the classical republican and stoic sense and 'commerce'." he claims. reinforce The Revolu America presupposed and sought the consonsnce of privste consistent pursuits snd public of good. between 88.18 The clsssicsl with model sketched by Pocock is of incompstibility fundamentslly idess of the stste must hsve been sffected by the new significsnce snd dignity sssumed by individual interest and initiative. Thought. The doctrine that the integrity latter of the could personality."17 opposition and of commercial of life. The concept of the citizen or patriot was antithetical to that of economic man. multiplying his encouraged the satisfactions and transforming his culture of in a temporal process: it could enable men idea . Pocock. Boling Americsn revolutionsries. 90. not particular polity must be founded on the integrity be maintained only through devotion to of the univer goods. . J." Language 17. A. pp. and Time (New York." in The American Revolu tion and Eighteenth-Century Culture. psrticulsrly This last link is based in the alleged wsys party' to the he " cslls of Jeffersonisn agricultural mythology. Pocock has only the argued thst for clsssical republicanism time government' meant instability of and of decay. Jefferson?" Thomas 18. no. Pocock insists on an historical through Machiavelli. the and commerce approached sound basis. mythology" For "Jeffersonian relations see agriculture and Pocock. and that the sal. 97L Such misconceptions are cleared on a up. of the Republican Ideal. "We recognize also that the aim politics and is to imperfection that change must 'virtue' from time. Korshin (New York. American of "Commercial Farming the 'Agrarian Myth' in the Republic.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. ss exemplified by Jefferson's championing the rights of commerce. A. 1971). Politics. "Civic Humanism and and Its Role in Anglo-American pp. that time is the dimension of This entails a necessarily be degenerative. . 1983). 16. . "In the Polybisn 'mixed the we recognize universality Aristotelisn escape polis. criticized I have of Pocock's construction of the supposed historical continuity the paradigm of republican republicanism. G. G. Bacon and Hobbes 233 being the reversal of the attitude toward time as the medium of change and chance.

execute. to find mesns within of Francis ourselves. whst csn Such snd sn openness to shows possibility. Bacon had written. s is. thst is. depends possible. Papers XI: 251. ed. with we seek all the possible effects. be seen as contributing to his as conception of the pursuit of If the American Revolution. in s way that inference from effect to possible cause csnnot be." motto is truly 'nil perandum' As he wrote letter two years later. p. "21 Jefferson to ssy to Price. 1785. Leviathan. desperate." for Hobbes "is nothing but Seeking. the reorientstion of experience to the future. snd to . to we imagine what we can do it. the polity into I history. All thinking or regulsted "discourse of of the Invention. it wss in psrt believe. by pursuing further elsborstion of Bscon's thought in Hobbes."22 The Philosophy Bacon. Spelling modernized. of the possibility gave experience an active relation to an essentially open reality future. it broke A new sense of through a traditional orientation of experience to the past. this seeking is directed to supposed to conform of sn open future thst is longer expected snd instinctively imsginstion des- "required' to conform to the terms the psst. p. 22. of the mode of prscticsl thought sppropriste to the clsssicsl conception the politicsl sphere. 96. Pru dence."19 pletely fallacious the 'new thst We can snd illustrate the this relation between science' of the seventeenth century new sense of possibility. . introduced s new conception of because. principsl modes of experience or Hobbes distinguishes two thinking. Macpherson (Baltimore. Papers VII: 631. 21. to surmount every sid. 1968). conjectured. that it. March 28. with to government "wherein the people are truly in a the mainspring. when we have Hobbes's immediate power s point is that inference from cause thst is in or our possible. but rsther with msn's distinguishing trait of curiosity. whatsoever. to be "our schieved regsrd by endesvor. 3. or the fsculty In the reorientstion of experience from psssive to sctive thst the no mind" is connected with Scientific Revolution. 96. we difficulty by sre obliged Remote from to invent 19. The old governs their imagination. which on is tsken from by Hobbes ss the model of passive or effects experience. reslizsble. that can by a imagining anything it be produced. like Bsconisn science. February 1. Based on the recall of previous associa past-oriented when tions of events.234 Interpretation must way of life happiness. "It is sll other part of the American character resolution to consider nothing ss and contrivance. Yet this is a com pattern of thought. experience is essentially of in its approach to the future. 1787. "The other [mode thinking] is. 20. "Men's anticipations of the new are fashioned on the model of the old. science."20 is to say. . ch. But Hobbes's underlying insight links the capacity for science not so much with the urge to practical control (which is as true of prudence. such causes. To Martha Jefferson. shared by animsls). effect is necesssry knowledge. that inferring given appearances to their is.

historical in its constitution snd influenced by ideas." progression of he writes. Bacon The 'progressive' and Hobbes new 235 sense thus nsture of republican government in the corresponded to s snd sre striving. sn idesl projection.' guaranteeing first saw citizens relying for its stability and legitimacy rooted in the pursuit of happiness."23 The wiser knowledge ensures that it "is delivered ss a thresd to be spun thst insight snd motivstion sre conveyed ss well. and who but to Hobbes. Hope curiosity. the wisdom of tradition is that sort which inspireth the or of tradition felicity handing on on. can resourcefulness snd resolution: these within a s humsn chsrscteristics. To understsnd with Hobbes's snslysis critique of the humsn nsture. Bacon is concerned not only with moti vating science. In snticipstion of the contrast between Pedsnticsl snd Critical types of tradition with particular reference of 'sdvsncement' to "the one knowledge. conception of past-oriented prudential mind experience mode of and the nstursl predisposition that is reflected in thst experience. the trait of thst gives reslity to the pursuit snd mskes possible its role in msintsining the connection between the two strands. Human the 'pursuit of with happiness' in Jefferson's political thinking and traced its ho mology snd its sdvsncement. II. 23. We have examined the role of new constellation take and historical psy role. "since the labour and life of man cannot attain to perfection of knowledge. resourceful chsrscter in the Americsn snd people. It the pursuit of the state as which was was Hobbes as a first conceived of the state as happiness 'natural' or 'inalienable right. THE HAPPINESS OF PURSUIT In The Advancement of Learning. to Bacon. to a considerable degree. which. To and on a spirit in its appreciate fully Hobbes's undeniable and must but indirect scarcely snd acknowledged contribution to the conception of republicsn Americsn. imsginstion universsl initistive. here too. the desire for real knowledge in Bscon's hsppiness into conception of science The integration as of the pursuit of the psychological as well not legal foundation of the modern state goes who back. we must begin of s stsble polity. we psrticulsrly the status Jeffersonisn. of government." of continuance snd of proceeding. however. Hobbes could find resources for his conception in Bacon. As in his snd. in his elsboration of the active. was both an in the sspect of interest here. Works III: 43- . But on psrticular chological nature they quality is. including ideas about human nature. but with understanding motivation snd the psychologicsl bssis in humsn sctivity generally.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. initiative propensity of human nature. follow both the legsl the psychologicsl strands of of foundstion: the snd constitutionsl mind the pursuit hsppiness ss s right. like Bacon's.

Bacon speaks rather of "a wise and industrious and contriveth use and sdvantage out of that which which contrary. life which however. From Advancement. 26. ends." pursuits provide the model for 'plessure leads to sppetite in proceeding. and the Sophist in much After weighing both sides. 25.' sppetite enjoysble snd satisfaction satisfsction snd new sre desire: "Of knowledge there is interchsngesble. 272. to humsn desire generally. recoils. are enjoying. to which he ironically assimilates the stoic idea of by an adroit reversal of its intention. For a stoic." exercise and experiment. there is much whereof men are sensible with pleasure their their inceptions. The pre-eminence likewise of this Active Good is proceeding. Works III: 296." mortsl snd exposed Moreover. to shun the want that you may not fear the loss of it. from the point For insight into the of view proceedin "felicity of continuance the individual. variety." the Mind. higher egotism of that regard fame. pursuits. upheld by the affection which natural in man towards variety and But in enterprises. 317. approaches." seemeth adverse and In effect this is the sort of undergoing which complements 24. Bacon supports the Sophist to the effect thst 'to sbstsin from the use of s thing thst you msy not feel s want of it. From Advancement.24 progressions. Works III: 427. . suborn we must turn to the conception of of 'plessure in which serve proceeding' which Bscon develops in his 'Georgics life. Book I.'26 stoicism can be seen in his conception of how to learn from experience. Socrates sgsinst s Sophist in debste. in his the Mind. 'suf 'suffering' fering' means undergoing draweth superiority suffering. practicsl ethics or It is this 'Georgics chsrscter of of he seeks to vindicste. labour for the and this self-sustsining quslity hss sur lesst with respect to intellectusl effort: "Only lesrned pleasure men love business action as an action according to nature. Book II. but he is of content here to concentrate on and for posterity the method of delivery.' "to instruct snd sction Good" snd sctive There Bscon upheld srgues for s "priority sideration of the Active our estste which he ssys is "much to by the con of to be fortune. is in he sdds. and attainings to In Eden before the and not matter of vived st Fall.' by Bscon pits s rsther stoic countering snd redirecting bssic tendencies of stoicism. work had been only "for use. "Socrates placing and felicity in an equal desiring and much constant peace of mind. and not in the purchase. and and enduring external necessitation. but perpetuslly Bscon spplies this model. and purposes of life. but with an inner indifference to it." the precautions of Bacon's crucial pusillanimity departure from and cowardice."25 satiety. the undertaking or initiative aspect in that form of experience Works III: 424!'. reintegrations. Intellectual in which taking is itself no in the itself.236 One less known Interpretation might expect thst in this or the context Bscon would refer either to a self concern as for posterity.

Hobbes focuses on "the difference together in Manners. Spelling modernized here in subsequent quotations work. Felicity is of continual progress of the still desire. consisteth not in the nor repose of a mind satisfied. for where the cause is not known obeyed.29 we csn content ourselves with of pleasure and active one passage which reflects interdependence conatus desire pursuit." as develop) but at the level of conscious striving. Book I. "I put for a general inclinations men." actions." Isis 71 (1980): 609-20. act not at the subliminal level of conceives of as (that is. Instesd sttempting to desl the positive with the subtleties snd difficulties of Hobbes's grasp or of mentsl processes here. and that which in contemplation is as the correlation of cause-and-effect with is in operation as the rule. Sensation. but slso differ only in the It may be surprising to have Hobbes's notorious phrase. since the advantage which from adverse experience depends on "the exsct snd industrious suffering draws distinct knowledge of the precedent stste or disposition. ss which account of sensstion of snd thinking ss well willing. Works III: 434- Novum Organum. which I way thst relstion have shown to be related to a new sense of of experience. . "Hobbes's Causal Account 15-130. from way to the one object to another. "Vico and of Journal of the History of Philosophy Epistemology 30. of The bssis of possibility snd future-orientstion is to be found in Hobbes's elaboration proceeding.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. Bacon which and Hobbes 237 leads to science. that is centered in the conception of conatus 'endeavor' psychology Here the natural is basic to integration Hobbes's with of feeling and motive.30 For Hobbes this premise predisposition of human nature leads to a fundamental for the and establishment of political order: of all "And therefore the voluntary wsy. snd life. infinitesimal and impulses to motives which Hobbes competing combining of Pesce. Nor can a man any more live.) Summum Bonum. (utmost aim. 18 (1980): 1 the Continuity and of Science: The Relation from this of his to Bacon and p. the attaining the former. to the sssuring of s contented not only to the procuring. 27. is snslyzed insight." the effect cannot be produced cause ." "those To qualities of man-kind thst concern their living of this which end we are to consider.) as is spoken of in the Books of the old Moral Philosophers. than he. For there is no such Finis ultimus. 29. tend. 160. Aphorism and 3." See my essays. whose Senses and Imaginations are at a stand. whose Desires are at an end. that the Felicity life."27 It is this undergoing thst is implied in the fsmous Bsconisn msxim: "Nsture to be commsnded must be which is the bssis of his clsim that "human knowledge and human power meet in one. being but the later. of plessure snd appetite. Works IV: 47. 28."28 This point means-and-end provides the as knowledge of effect by for Hobbes's conception of science starting of knowledge of cause or production. In chapter II of Leviathan. Leviathan. Hobbes.' Bscon's germinal idea of 'pleasure in In Hobbes this ides is expsnded and deepened in or an empirical . (greatest Good.

Peace. 1976). "liberty to do. Jefferson's "Peace is my passion. Harold Whitmore Jones (London. Rule. it is either consideration of some other good power Right reciprocslly transferred to himself. or to forbesr") to the common power. reflects desire to assure and thus leads quite nsturslly to general "the way of his future consent in a common coercive order. where 'sense of self. is." or Renounceth it. a perpetual and restless desire of Power after on power. to obtain some as predicated of The desire of "Power after the in general. character of If we can understand how the open-ended human desire is further in related to the foundation of the state pursuit of for Hobbes.'31 his meaning is mainly psychological The general meaning of 'power' power.) is s Precept. and follow it. 192. future msn which apparent Good.") The constituting of a common coercive power or sovereignty constant releases individuals from the of state of nature. 189. or for some he hopeth for sovereignty By a conceiving of the constitution of common natural or as transfer or mutual renouncing of certain liberties of on the part of all individuals." gloss 'the hsppiness. See Hobbes. p." the operative rule to endesvour obtain Pesce. own Pesce" use. where 'potentia' 'potential' Leviathan. thereby. that is."32 holds in this context. "A Lsw of Nsture. is "present means. 190.238 Interpretation of all a inclination offered as mankind. Leviathan. Thomas White's De Mundo Examined. obtsining it. p." in Hobbes. (Lex Naturalis. as part of its basic good desire" power which can keep all individuals in awe and function as a power for securing present and future for those individuals. or taketh away the means of preserving In the state of nature same. Civil pesce for Hobbes is the precondition of all meaningful human pursuits. 32. . 150. in that it makes it safe and thus to follow what to seek he cslls "the first. helps and sdvsntsges of It is by insight into their endesvour best interest in the snd long run thst men certain "sre commsnded to led to transfer rights or alienate nstursl rights order (Jus. Following paragraphs. found out by Resson. as Hobbes introduces the deliberate fiction with the 'social contract' a voluntary act. in be in better to enjoy snd thought of ss insliensble. snd when he it. pp. snd Fundsmentsl Lsw of Nsture. pp. is rendered as 466-69. that he may seek. 33. ss fsr ss he hss hope and of all is "'That every msn. the proviso: "and of the 31. by which s msn is forbidden to do is destructive of his life. from the rational which expectation conflict. trans.' pursuit of This is in the term psrt because as a sinister construction has been put on Hobbes's 'power' use of if it meant coercive power over and concerns sn expansive others."" In Hobbes's or general thst which the ought cannot Wsr.'" definition. and even the supposed by psre (Comattaining and keeping of pesce is conceived by him in terms of endesvor. we should gain of pursuit sight into the hsppiness snd the hsppiness thst sre pre Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence. "Whensoever s msn use other nstursl which Hobbes ssys must Trsnsferreth his Right.

But the life which is msde secure sovereignty is more by thsn mere existence. civil happiness. p. De Cive. in his life. cf. or tske swsy his Self-preservstion is sn insliensble right. ch. shall acquire to "ssfety" In a parallel passsge order to in De Cive he of end ss the preservstion sssemble of life "in its hsppiness. contsined Instruction. The is sn open-ended one. but by Providence. p. namely the procuration of the safety of the also all other he adds. Leviathan."34 At the same time Hobbes holds that than government "can confer no more to [its subjects'] civil wars. for example." 239 A contract every man. For to this government. the object of wills is some Good to constitutes a mutual social contract binding or persistent endeavors entered over time. into to secure future (sppsrent) natural right good." Hobbes "the end. ss much ss their human condition would afford. thst ssssult him by force. and a by their Industry The civil can the future reliable to the extent that individual industriousness be motivsted by st the expectstion of sttsining the goods of "commodious efforts. in Leviathan Hobbes not that "this intended general should be done. be understood "lsy down the life. show the importance of Hobbes Leviathan. thst did men freely themselves snd institute s they might."35 executing of good Lsws. speaks of "Of the Office of the Sovereign Representative. Desire Hope things as are necessary to to obtain commodious state makes living. While a man.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. in snd Misery." the security of s msns person. to Government should provide for the hsppiness which individual msy spply their of the people only by msking There have been 34. that being preserved from foreign purchased and they may quietly enjoy that wealth which they have stipulates by is a industry. 376. "The Psssions that of such them. can be he understood to give csnnot up his to to the use of right of force.." to Peace are Fear of Death. 376. with the outset where of the chspter. 4." Hobbes hsd no plsce characterized the state of nature ss s condition "there is for Industry. live delightfully. ss not to be wesry of In the preceding chspter of Leviathan. becsuse encline the fruit thereof is men uncertsin.. hoped for snd expected." hsd concluded. Right is introduced." their own Moreover. own snd esses. by in care public applied to Individuals . para. persons snd in the msking. "By Safety of here is which not meant a bsre Preservation. to this end. is nothing else but snd in the mesns of so preserving the Nstursl Condition of Msn- life. living" through one's own Similsrly. every man by lawful Industry. "Of snd which kind. for which he was trusted peopl the Sovereign Power." without danger hurt to the Commonwrites wealth. himself. ." resisting them. "The motive snd end of for which this renouncing snd transferring it. 35. but Contentments or life. several attempts recently to 13. ss concerning their Felicity. . Bacon voluntary acts of and Hobbes himself. their pursuits secure.

of With their spprecistion the s interdependence pursuit snd plessure. Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and 1979).' Richard Tuck. mistaken in contending that the influence of natural rights theory finished by from pp. Development (Cambridge. but slso. 203. 148. Madison and the Federalist. and 226. 214 and 239s. 198. The object of the efficient csuse of rather desire. disturbing in his Hobbes's desire is of endesvor empiricsl psychology. and the Federalist Papers: An Essay on the Genesis of the American Political Heritage (Carbondale. 1979). could not snyone else. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson (Boston. Hobbes's psrt. desire is a passion or passive response than s voluntsry sction. A similar and human practice submitted sustsined " For Dsniel Boorstin reticent snd 36. becsuse desired. yet objects are not desired becsuse they not sre good but good on but insight experience. 53. The affinity of principles is greater Hobbes than Locke or the classical republican tradition. but Rousseau. Hobbes. to life one object but "a continusll progresse of the desire. which claims that Hobbes is more relevant than Locke not only for Madison and Hamilton but for Jefferson as well. snother. in The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson. 199L. 37. for 1980. slso supports to the future which snticipstes thst goods snd gosls unknown to the present will emerge from humsn of sctivity. 197. This circulsrity since it reflects an of this represents undenisble inconsistency of festure It humsn Recognition circulsrity in experience is sn essentisl fsctor in the relstivism proper to true tolerance of sn openness diversity of vslues. Locke. Tuck is illuminating was Hobbes. 6. Frank M. from consensus. Bscon snd Hobbes introduced Dewey trait and other pragmatists. Jeffersonisns [sre] men immersed in sction. the part of that he pursues. for defining our ends interests is itself the pursuit. See my reviews of these two works and of foundations. quotations are . See also pp. and extends only to Hamilton. which was first given as a paper in 1976 at the Bicentennial of the American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies. and to deny the has been to noted intrinsic superiority and the in the Jeffersonian conception criticism fixity of of ends. snd quite centrally. but superficial Meeting and A far better treatment leveling view both of Hobbes and of the 'constitutional is George Mace. that is. to tendency. thst sre the object of this 'pursuit of the stste or of hsppiness' be determined clear by by s or by snyone for A implication Hobbes's conception of desire is that good even the individual concerned cannot determine. stste not The like s essentisl nstural here is thst the for Hobbes ss survivsl secures ss something the goods right to endesvor." to By definition. One could pursue this affinity further with to Jefferson and the regard to natural equity. inalienable rights. reflects s psrsdox in A further conception implication. who were sctivity. Hobbes and America: Exploring the Constitutional Foundations (Toronto. p. and the civil (not natural) basis not of property.240 Interpretation for the with founding of the with American republic. for to the which Hobbes is the indispensable source of ideas that proved crucial conception of point the republic realized through the Revolution.s. i960). 1977) has a critical. n. to many. and once and for all. Subsequent 149. Declaration. in The Eighteenth Century: A on Current Bibliography."37 inexplicit sbout the ends of their own In whst Boorstin See the essay cited in note 18. later brought to full fruition by relativize the distinction between means and ends. Coleman. of experience seen as endeavor.

right It contrary to feeling his . where the laws are milder. and and the Moral Role of Literature. of Similsrly humsnistic perhaps Boorstin finds "strikingly little discussion individusl" hsppiness in the Jefferson sense of the because by 'humanistic' well-being of the Boorstin in Jeffersonisn writing. which follows up the argu Werke VI: 85-102. Papers 40. "Johnson and Hume Considered Enlightenment Essays 7. 1966). fulfilment is sssured that projected in Jefferson's letters throughout his done his If part For example. W. Clsiming that "Jefferson never seriously suggested that cosmopolitanism and breadth of absent mind might from Jeffersonian thought. X: May 20. dialogue. actually explsined one characteristic of the Englightennot ss "the Jeffersonian evil. dizee.' 'Period In his the on Transactions of the Fifth International Congress Eighteenth Century. but sees it ss s spirit which "stifled the very desire "Jeffersonisn to know the gosl towsrd which science . esp. Bacon sees as s new sort of ment. As already for Leibniz." Boorstin links this moving." that justifies the loss of Eden on these grounds. 1782." fit a msn to discover the society. as the Core of a New on the Concept' Enlightenment. See my essays. reality. . VI: 105-24." proper ends of premise Boorstin fsils political to recognize thst Jefferson had discarded the of classical thought that the proper ends of society could and should be determined.38 and Hobbes 241 theodicy. since our obligation to act is part theodicy. intended to msgnify good. Weischedel (Darmstadt. "Even the the concern of the concept Boorstin clsims. virtuslly emptied of its personsl but this rsther reflects s Jeffersonisn tendency to define hsppiness only formslly in public terms since its mesning wss to be just was 'personsl' hsppiness thst. and yet for ourselves." Enlightenment I (Studies 39. felt that setting "unique of goals of which individual Boorstin pursuit individual" accuses him of precisely ignoring. Voltaire and the and pp. where there is attentive greater tranquility. he has now for his country. indeed ridiculous to suppose a man has less would in himself than and not that changed.39 A tug-of-wsr between public service snd privste csreer.. . pp.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. while means was 'normative'." orientstion with of men politicsl prsgmstism. Immanuel Kant. and for Johnson as a critic of to providence must be practical not intellectual. Jefferson the respect privacy: "There is not a country earth. "Ueber das Misslingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theoin Werke." to his own business. 190)." moral ends of the human community vaguely implicit of Boorstin notes thst "concepts the 'public interest' . October 12. not s deliberate revision of republicsnism. in a greater are we made we are made were degree for others. ioif. 1786. 92. but ss designed indirectly to promote sctivity. (Spring 1976): of 17-39. "Readings of 'philosophical' Moral' Rasselas: 'Its Most Obvious no. he in some writes to Monroe in 1782." ment E. were political but construes this simply strikingly as an inadvertent flaw. others. of the man's relation standing back from its entanglements.40 one of neighbors or all of them put together. of "Mutmasslicher Anfang der Menschengeschichte. . The moral order of the world is not to be judged by contemplative reason." 1/2. This liberty for the preservation of which our government be slavery has been 38. Heart. or meddles less with that of where every one is more To Maria Cosway. or better obeyed. . 447. ed. "My Head emphasizes My for in the context of a defense on of American sociability. they were was not concerned with duties because it has left the in nature.g. 189-96. Papers VI: i8sf.

See my paper. sn element of gives s effort. Instead and seeing this as a threat to the integrity personality attempting to undermine it by an internal discipline inent an approach which Rousseau adopted at certain points most prom writers of the Enlightenment affirmed the open-ended chsrscter of desire snd urged snd socisl thst it be controlled snd corrected only intercourse. ed. secured by civil tion of lsw. was country the to them. and ever in this alone consists his growing perfection. G. or sscrifice of privste or has been completely the suppression The very idea of a public welfsre thst interest hss become conception of requires questionsble." Lessing. is what constitutes the worth of a man. 1823. satisfied In chapter 21 of 266f. Possession makes calm.43 The 'hsppiness snticipstion of s pursuit' of gosl. In Montesquieu this liberty.42 in snd through experience The ongoing socisl constitution of selfhood was not only finally appreciated as a fact. H. or thinks he is. pp. can The pursuit of happiness be misconstrued as a chase after an ever receding of goal or pursuit. 41. Jefferson wrote." Writings XV: "The Critique Classical Republicanism Clio 9 in and the Vico's New 42. the cessstion. Modem Forms of Polity in (Spring in 1980): 393-418. for subjected example. 43. . what Hobbes termed "the repose of s mind It makes Leviathan. VIII: 32f.41 The [Spsrtsn philosophical petite Roman] republican virtue." other In Athens. the meeting and overcoming of re vslue itself certsin to sctivity. as a determinability provided that could not be avoided open- by any absolutization of autonomy. but the socially interdependent the self the basis for a and ended experiential character of profound under- stsnding Pursuit includes sistance. fed proliferation by of an active imsginstion.. Hobbes of shows that the of 'liberty' which is celebrated power by the classical republican tradition is not that or individuals. is defined by its antagonism to just the sort of ap that is celebrated as basic to human life by Bacon. The clsssicsl republicsn identifica liberty with political life in the sense of dedication to the public good reversed. lazy." Understanding of military 482. but also certsinly borrows something from the plessursble involves enjoyment of the effort itself. but states. See the "Eine essays cited note 38 preceding. only if one identifies hsppiness with the end. which of individuslity.242 That Interpretation essentially private. That of October 31. liberty is It is the who liberty which entered the world of political thought with Hobbes. lesds to the process of artificial of the needs. Lessing wrote: represented this Enlightenment sense of endesvor or enterprise when he Not the truth in whose possession has made to find out the through the possession any man is. reduced to abject of slavery. Desire. hss become 'politicsl liberty'. Gopfert (Munich. Hobbes and their Enlightenment 'followers'. derived it both from personsl nstursl right snd from 'the silence of the lsws'. "The govern that of the people of one city making laws for the whole Lacedaemon [Sparta] was the rule of monks over a letter of laboring class of the people. ment of invade people. Werke. For it is not but through the inquiry after truth that his powers expand. Science. but the honest effort he truth. 1970-79). their constituted "to resist. Duplik. proud. like the stoic conception.

But Wills reduces the laws of nature. Bacon a great ss as a and Hobbes 243 difference whether one sees desire in s negstive or s positive pssssge state opposed to or akin to fulfilment. or crucisl even Roussesu. p. like the revolving of heaven's bodies. PURSUIT In Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. the csussl moved chapter necessitstion of a universal gravitation desire. Diderot. a pattern emerges." Out The and of a sequence of observed results.46 the colonies. a good Leibnizian. III. This is psrticulsrly importsnt for the topic as under consideration here becsuse Locke has been of 'pursuit' claimed the prime source of with Jefferson's idea the pursuit of happiness. 241 Contrast Hamowy (note 7 preceding). including those of the 'state which is mighty in or mechanics far too literally to catch the liveliness and power of physics laws of to of the original metaphor. in Locke thsn in Leibniz. will recently A consn spt frontstion this opposing interpretstion of provide conclusion. fsr less evident and the corresponding conception of humsn nsture. light. 511-16. the one who formed a triad with Bacon and Newton. It lsys opening is events claimed lsw. from Johnson well as Burke ss well ss Hume. from Schiller considered charac- Herder ss Lessing. political concerning Human Understanding. Jefferson has of to describe 44.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. could Pssssges embodying this perspective or be cited from Montesquieu. 45. no. 'pursuit' 94 In his discussion of Wills a telling passage from Bacon's Advancement. Gsrry Wills devotes of s chapter to snslyzing the term ss 'pursuit'. was the significant Locke for the eighteenth century. quotes 12.45 of wills that are ir- resistably In the of by the objects of 'Necessary' headed from the ' phrase "when in the course thst "the Decla- human rstion's Wills it becomes necessary down the Newtonisn. closed off. Wills suggests. 3 (Spring Inventing America. p. it. . This treatises. and interchange of application. poursuite. is come a process open to scientific observation and description. But there is poses one figure. included. 1979): 433-38. In the quoted. 46. conative who sn obstscle to this general terizstion: Locke. revolution of is stated as a law. 'HAPPINESS' VS. sequence." snd in the "'necessity this one determines to a bliss. denial is of conceived of perfection as an open-ended progressive quality. Lessing. is single chapter from Locke's and not Essay the work.44 this idea of perfectio as a process characteristic of the Enlightenment. The and psychology that was so essential empiricism in Bacon sre Hobbes. on model' A 'Newtonian determines the conception of pursuit focused by Wills. ususlly to to the Enlightenment. finished. Inventing America. a the perfected. I emphasize this neglected aspect Leibniz in a review in Eighteenth-Century Studies pp. giving phrase emphssis to "elements determination pursuit necessity. "It is order.'" the of His main source of examples.

244

Interpretation
devotes that
chapter to
as a

Accordingly Wills
losophy'

discussion
explanation

of

'mechanical

phi

in the

eighteenth

century,

if in

of the

Declaration's

opening.

In

an

earlier psper

I hsve srgued,
of

on

the contrary, thst this reference to

'necessity'

in the

course

humsn

events

is

sn sppeal

to the law of nature
sn

in the
vidusl

sense

of the nstursl right of self-preservstion ,
s people

spplied not to

indi

but to

in thst 'state

nature'

of

that prevails between nations.

In the

same vein

Alexander Hamilton hsd

srgued

esrlier, in Hobbesisn terms,
sre

thst "when the

first

principles

of civil
. .

society
msy

violsted,

snd

the rights

of s whole people sre

invsded,

men

then

betske themselves to the

lsw

of nsture. might note

We

stone snd

in psssing that Hamilton adopts this srgument from Blackcontrasts it with doctrines supposedly tsken by his opponent Sesbury
'Mr.
Hobbes'

from the
no

sinister

This

should suggest

how Hobbes

csme

to hsve

overt

influence in
or

Revolutionsry Americs,

although or

through

Priestley

Blackstone, Hume, Hutcheson
the case with

Locke

his ideas, working and often in a
had
a

direction that

cut across also

the main tendencies of these writers

decisive
neces

impact. This is
sitation

Locke's

conception

of the

causal

thst determines

'pursuit', for Locke's
Wills

mechsnics of motivstion

derives

directly, but tscitly, from Hobbes.
I
the
would not
will'

dissgree

when

claims that

Locke's denial
to an

of

'freedom

of

is

not

only

consistent with

but

material

As he says, "The

will

is determined

by

its

object."

understanding of pursuit. There is, however, a subtle

but important difference in the way this ides is taken by Hobbes and by Locke, leading to a major difference in their conceptions of pursuit. Locke
understands motivation

principally in terms

of

'uneasiness',

that

is, in

negative

terms:

What determines

the will?

Action, is only
uneasiness:

the present satisfaction

The motive, for continuing in the same State in it; The motive to change is always

or

some

but

some

nothing setting us upon the change of State, or upon any new Action, uneasiness. This is the great motive that works on the Mind to put it upon
will.4"

Action, [i.e.] determining of the In the

long

chapter

'Of Power',

on which

adopts a quasi-Hobbesian conception of
snd

Wills bases his argument, Locke motivation, but deprived of the open
'endeavor'

forwsrd-urging

quality that

characterizes

in Hobbesian

psy-

47.
quoted

See the beginning of the essay cited in note iS preceding. The passage from Hamilton is in Gerald Stourzh, Alexander Hamilton and the Idea of Republican Government (Stanford,
p. cf.

pp. 15-22. In a letter to J. B. Colvin. September 1970), 10, 20, 1810, Writings XII: 419, Jefferson says, "The law of self-preservation authorizes the distressed to take a supply of

force. In

all

these cases, the unwritten
written

laws

of necessity,
"

of

self-preservation, and

of

the public

safety, control the
48. 249.

laws

of meum and

tuum

.

that

is,

civil

laws

of property.

This is

within

An Essay concerning Human Understanding, ed. Peter H. Nidditch (Oxford. 1979), p. para. 29 of Book II, Ch. 21, to which further references will be made by paragraph parentheses in the text. On 'uneasiness', para. 31-34.

The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson, Bacon
chology.

and

Hobbes

245

For Hobbes

conatus

is

not reducible

to a self-preservative urge nor

is it

regulated

by

an

essentially

negative 'uneasiness-principle'.49

The determinist
more restrictive

implications

of

the causal conception of motivation thus are

fsr

in Locke thsn in

Hobbes,
revised

implications. He

Locke himself is clesrly not happy with such the chspter st several stsges in later editions, intro
snd

ducing
with

a

different

conception of

freedom,

which

is mixed,

most

uncomfortsbly,

the residue of the
new

Hobbesisn
msy

conception.

The
model

spprosch

seem to

complicste, but in fsct bresks with, the

tsken from mechsnics or grsvitstion theory, snd it does this

by

intro

ducing
pulling
stoics contrast

the notion that the mind can suspend motives that are weighing or
on

it. This is

a

variant

of

the epoche

which

classical

sceptics

and

claimed

to be able to exercise on their own passions and desires. In
whom

to

Hobbes, then, for
result
of

cumulstive

the process of
and

is simply the lsst desire, the deliberation ss a libration of competing
the will
motive objects
or

(mutually
sction,

corrective
sees

interacting)
ss

projected

courses

of

Locke
while

the will

"perfectly

distinguished from

desire"

(30).

Thus,
the

will,'

it msy seem s plsusible msxim that 'the greatest good determines Locke concludes "that good, the greater good, though apprehended be so, does
makes us

and acknowledged to

proportionably In the maxim
'good'

to

it,

determine the will, until our desire, (35). uneasy in the want of
not
it"

raised

which

Locke is correcting, the Hobbesian
'good'

relativist

definition
good'

of

was presupposed: which exerted

wss

whst wss

desired,

the 'grester
a new

thst

the grester sttrsction (cf.
a

42). Locke has introduced
from
without, and this
either

normative

element,

determination

'good'

of

is decisive
see this or

for

all those passages cited

by
an

Wills, though Wills

fails to

omits

to

acknowledge

it. Wills 's interpretation is thus damaged because Locke
about opposition

has in

effect

brought

between his idess

'hsppiness'

of

snd pursuit.

"Wherever there is uneasiness, there is

desire,"

writes

Locke, "for
so shows

we con

stantly desire hsppiness; is certain, we want [i.e.

and

whatever of

we

feel

of

uneasiness,

much,

it

happiness"

lack]

(39). This

more

than

Locke is from any idea of the happiness of pursuit. Locke sees in the unavoidsble concern with hsppiness the possibility of leverage to mske a predominating determinant of the whst he considers to be 'the grestest

how

removed

will, that

is,

a more constant cause of uneasiness.
constant

"How much soever Men sre

in
as

earnest,

snd
use

in

pursuit

of

hsppiness.

[Wills
a

cites
clear or

this statement
view of

the

first
and

of

the

formula];

yet

they msy have
concern'd

good,

great

confessed

good,

without

being

for it
it"

moved

by it,

(43). if they think they csn mske up their hsppiness without In the preceding psrsgrsph Locke hsd resffirmed the Hobbesisn
"Whst
49.

perspective.
. .

hss

sn sptness to produce
writers

Plessure in
and

us

is

thst we csll
confuse

'good',
his
use of

for

Many

on

Hobbes, from Dilthey

Tonnies on,

the term

with that of

Spinoza,

who conflates conatus with the urge to self-preservation.

246
no other

Interpretation
resson, but for its
happiness"

sptness

to produce Plessure
spparent

.

in us,

wherein

consists our sistent
with

(42). It is

that this can only

be

made con

the succeeding paragraph if we understand that the "grest snd

good"

confessed

is

rsther

known to be
someone else

apt

to

produce grest

hsppiness

not

to

the one
for'

concerned

but to

(like

Locke)

who

'knows

whst's good

the

other person. sbout

Locke is in fsct tslking possibility
the
of s nonetheless

lukewsrm Christisns who, "sstisfied

of

the
sre

perfect, secure,
moved

snd

lssting

hsppiness in

s

future
wants

stste,"

"not

good."

by

this greater apparent
stand

He

them to use

stoic-sceptic

capacity to
so
as

back from the

motives

that are actually
pursuit of

working
and solid

on

them,

to achieve "a careful
another of

and

constant

true

happiness"

(51,

Wills's examples, torn from its
constant

context).

They

must

not

only interrupt but break through the
the
main

determination
in

of pursuit.

Wills
similate

elides

bent

of

Locke's

composite

approach

order

to as

to the 'Newtonian
all

model'

the attraction
should

which

ultimate good

bliss

beyond
will. with

earthly pursuits "Freedom is the
'msss'

cspscity,"

(but evidently does not) exert on the human Wills writes, "to resist the pull of things
grest

s

smsll

of

hsppiness but
'resl'

proximity,

in

order

to be true
snd solid
would

hsppiness."

to the ultimste gosl of
hsppiness'

Although
of

remote,

'true

should exert a greater pull

because

its magnitude, Wills
overlook

have the
model

model no
as

imply. But then he
of

must
such

simply
a

the

fact that this is here
used

has

'should'

"'Pursuit'

way

accommodating

[he claims]
gives that can

response

to the gravitational

the push-pull pain-pleasure world

tug of a determining object. In Locke describes, the attraction of happiness
of

constant, that determination
a science of no

reality,

on

the basis of which one

build
make

human

motion."50

I

objection to

such a program

of

'human

science'

In

an earlier

essay I maintained that Hobbes's a denial of 'free far more
will'

conception of

motivation,

which

leads him to

consistent than that of

Locke,
of

also provides

a sound

basis for understanding
attractive and

and

improving

human

freedom.51

But Hobbes's
motive such of
world"

view of the social world on

the model of a mechanics

interacting

forces,
as

repulsive, is not a "push-pull pain-pleasure
was

Locke describes. Locke

only led to

posit

his

second

conception

freedom because his
man

own version of motivation-modelled-on-mechanics

made

seem more the victim of experience. application and of the concept of mind

Hobbes,
and

on the

contrary,
of

with

his

'endesvor'

parallel

in his

sdsptation

Galilean
of

mechanics

in his

analysis

motivation

in terms

'inner

motions', far from reducing the lstter to the
50. 51.
esp. pp.

former,

showed

how freedom

Inventing America,
"Materialism
202ff.
and

p. 242.

Freedom,'

Studies in

Eighteenth-Century

Culture 7 (1978): 193-212,

or in the way to it. in a critical inversion of R. beings." and Faith in Bacon Hobbes. arrives at a similar identification freedom and determination. motives do not act upon the mind. the Theodicy of 1981): 607-28. its ans- fully anticipates Jefferson's idea the pursuit of happiness and logues in the Continentsl Enlightenment. Leibniz critical was is evident in his responses to very Locke much a and to follower of Hobbes. "whilst we are under any uneasiness. besides motives. Clarke's Fourth 53." The consistent Hobbesian conception of freedom grounded not from but through the concept determinstion thus of our motives snd sctions.The Pursuit of Happiness in Jefferson. Wiener (New York. no. 5i3f. I say. pain and uneasiness being. 1951). Bacon could snd must and Hobbes 247 be understood ss adequate determination of our motives by our experience and of our actions by our motives. as weights do upon a balance." dialogue. Journal of the History of Ideas 42. of by how much the election is more 1962). Peter 'uneasiness' 'endeavor' 1981). as the author does here. S. on and pp 164-66. is to divide the mind from the motives. esp. tr. plessure." and Studies in Romanticism 19 (Winter 1980): 497-514. . and necessitateth him to and choose to do one thing vain rather than another. 256. which are its dispositions to act. in "The Separation of Reason p. "The Morality of the Sublime: Kant Schiller. p. 15 of Leibniz's answer to Reply.52 In this respect. Remnant and Jonathan Bennett (Cambridge. other motives. this. "My Head possibility the second and My positive Jefferson counterposes calculation of against enthusiasm. Leibniz. Peters (New York. would In "Of make Liberty and Hobbes answers the charge that his view of human action deliberation or consultation useless: "It is the consultation that causeth a man. their mske hsppiness insensste greater consists in complete sttsinment. and Citizen. concluded felt to be inconsistent to the happiness" with Leibniz counters that never "it is essential happiness of created would (36). Philip P. 172 and 186. which them and stupefied. Body. or 169. I have argued Kantian transcendentalism. 183 and 188-89 on 'disquiet'. 4 (October-December. pp. Para. and therefore consultation is not in vain. and even that it prefers that which is indifferent before motives. Selections. pp. but it is rather the mind that acts by virtue of the motives. as as in others. The mechanics snd 'endeavor' point of vstion the concept out in the analogy between is nicely brought by one of his snswers to the lstter: properly speaking. but in continual and uninterrupted progress towards goods." dispositions to act. by virtue of which could reject or accept the Where Locke apprehend maintains ourselves that. that Schiller. New Essays on Human Understanding. nece Hobbes. relsting the first to the effort to svoid psin. we cannot happy. And therefore to pretend. ss of in the 'endeavor'. and as if it the mind had. moti- Samuel Clarke. and by every one. In his Heart. snd to the urge to hss the Hesrt claim credit Necessity" 52. as if they were outside the mind . Initiative and risk-taking are as es sential to this sense of endeavor as is being determined or driven. that the mind prefers sometimes weak motives to strong ones. indeed the less in ed. See Leibniz. Leibniz's continuity and ed. Man. 241 I touch on this aspect of and with Hobbes Leibniz.

of settled experience.248 Interpretation success of for the the the Revolution: "We put our existence to the hszsrd." Papers I: 122." colonists' rights from their of at the hazard of their lives and loss responded their 'plus Esrly settlers of the New World hsd to the call ultra. "A Summary View of the Rights of British America. right to the pursuit of happiness was affirmed in their Cosway. his richly ambivalent relation to stoicism needs further study. 'head' To Maria and 55."54 Even before the Revolution he hsd derived the emigration. 1816. . inslienable venture. Papers X: 451. when hazard seemed sgsinst us. Jefferson is clearly both 'heart'. of of right. as. which nature not departing from the country in which chance. 54. "rights thus acquired fortunes. likely to promote public happiness. the Straits of Gibrsltsr of of the In s sense they hsd sought out a 'state a nsture' in exercising has given to all men. Sec his letter to John Adams. 1786.55 A nstursl. April 8. Writings XIV: 467. to and of shall and regulations them. has placed them. choice. under going in such laws quest of new habitations. snd we ssved our country. new there establishing seem most societies. October 12.' which drew them beyond the limits known politicsl world.

GO UP TO BETH-EL. AND GOD SAID UNTO JACOB. verse: One of the fundamental ways of appears in the following And upon whatsoever whether any of them. Annapolis and Santa Fe CHAPTER XXXV I. AND BE CLEAN. Only water. The itself. of It may be that he surely which suspected away Rachel being in possession of Labsn's gods snd wss aware of the relation ship between that four. AND CHANGE YOUR GARMENTS: Jacob begins his journey back to Beth-el by having his house put their strange gods and cleanse themselves. must doth fall. is object sufficient to carry away not con with it everything which superfluous. 2. THAT APPEARED UNTO THEE WHEN THOU FLEDDEST FROM THE FACE OF ESAU THY BROTHER. 34:11. it or skin. accomplished in a combination of at least three cleansing wster. is done. PUT AWAY THE STRANGE GODS THAT ARE AMONG YOU. it even. difficulty is the is snd the trouble he ssw in Chspter Thirty- Cleansing. is sidered clean until evening. be put into water. vessel when they are dead. It now tions announced cision of Shechem forced Jacob to to him ss though return under to Beth-el. shall be unclean. wherein until any the work of wood. which had arisen by itself as an uncreated mixture of the darkness and had been considered the beginning of the world's inability . however. and Evening. By virtue of their circum the Hivites hsd become followers of the New Wsy. John's College. AND DWELL THERE: AND MAKE THERE AN ALTAR UNTO GOD. Jacob is of forced to the mes to the scene the former dream hoping that God would make sage of the first dream more explicit. so or raiment. snd sscrifice. THEN JACOB SAID UNTO HIS HOUSEHOLD. and it shall be unclean it shall be cleansed (Lev. whatsoever vessel it be. snd their murder constituted return the fratricide which Jacob had hoped to avoid. ARISE. What he learned in the city the scene of his dream. in its kinship to chaos. it be any or sack. Cleansing is is done by washing in water as in the days of the Flood. time. that strange moment when distinctions become less the light real. AND TO ALL THAT WERE WITH HIM. 11:32). tary which antidote for defilement as discussed in the commen wsys to Gen. condi sppesrs life the in the dresm will not be possible.The Lion A and the Ass: on Commentary the Book of Genesis (Chapters 35-37) Robert Sacks St.

23:1. 12:5). however. ARISE. AND THEY GAVE UNTO JACOB ALL THE STRANGE GODS WHICH WERE IN THEIR HAND. as in her separation: and she shall continue in the blood of her purifying threescore and six (Lev. AND ALL THEIR EARRINGS WHICH WERE IN THEIR EARS. AND GO UP TO BETH-EL. 49:10 by considering the lions the base of the great lsvsbo thst held the wsters of sblution in front bear Solomon's Temple. AND LET US ALTAR UNTO 3. In this context the word pure means refined by fire until all of the dross has been not gold removed (see 3:3). capable of were relation to David playing in the commentsry to Gen. state. of used which we discussed in the com mentary to Gen. Chapters 22 and 28). 34:11. then she shall be two weeks. 7:21). AND JACOB HID THEM UNDER THE OAK WHICH WAS BY SHECHEM. Those respect for the Ark ss well ss the nificance of water which lately come from the ses. AND WAS WITH ME IN THE WAY WHICH I WENT. WHO ANSWERED ME IN THE DAY OF MY DISTRESS. provides We had when we our for the possibility of s chsnge in character. Before returning to Beth-el Jscob purifies his house by burying their strange There sppesrs to be s reference here to Chspter Thirty-one. Up to now Jscob That has followed the him God has which come along. The sin. now.250 to Interpretation confines. AND I WILL MAKE THERE AN GOD. Jscob. is to confuse the two reslms such an by act psrtsking in the sscrificisl meal while in a state of defilement. We shall return to the double sig in the commentary to Gen. Cleansing is the opposite of defilement. will now return to the God who was with me in the way which I It Jacob's manner of describing lay God at this point is somewhat curious. precisely because of remain within clear its undefined chsr scter. and the Ark itself (see Ex. first glimpse of the double role that water is considering the Philistines and their men. In the Book to describe the pure gold which was Exodus it is used over and over again to make the utensils for the Tent of Meeting Mai. Shechem snd the difficulties Jscob there. seems almost to indicate that God has been path which of ahead of following and man. The gold used for the Ark is used intentionally in its natural Purified is gold had to be in nature a mixture and in making the Ark because gold as found hence not adequate for man. met wsy led to the city 4. gods. csnnot Often things be clesnsed immedistely unclean snd time is required: But if she days a maid child. tsught Dsvid stood at of srt of wsr. grestest It is part of the world and be lived with. especislly line must be drawn between that world shsrp sacrifice becomes possible. a and the artful world in which Defilement in itself is must never considered sinful. and psrtly becsuse of most men's resction during the time of sscrifice. Jacob went. For there is no cleansing: there is only banishment (see Lev. st . Partly for these reasons to thst world of mixtures.

AND THEY DID NOT PURSUE AFTER THE 6. ss one csn Drsmsticslly is often So fsr wss tell the oak under which Jscob buried the sltsr strange gods the osk of Moreh where Abrsm built his first to the Lord sfter he left Haran. 24:24). 15:17). 34:11. 9:7-15. see also the com Jothsm gsve his fsmous psrsble of the trees. foreign gods which of lay buried whose under this tree wss finally Abimelech. most of tions of spesking it wss s very old osk which lasted throughout Israel's history. The last-time they connection with the are mentioned is in Ephod which Gideon msde sfter he hsd refused a the kingship. The after osk the son Gideon. THAT IS. 35:22). The gold from wss esrrings wss used also used by by Asron to build the Golden Cslf (Ex. story told in the commentsry to Gen. becomes even more significsnt when one remembers immediately the crowning of King Abimelech. THEM. plsy s seessw role in the development of the Bible. wss crowned king by the oak of the pillar that was in Shechem (Judg. In spite of all of these noble enterprises the came to the surface. . indeed there was such an osk. In have set a precedent slightly lsrger context Gideon's privste Ephod may for the private Ephod of Micah which played such an im of the portant part in the decline Jubilee Year. SO JACOB CAME TO LUZ. It led to the first all gathered private wor of the ship away from the people. 32:2). however. HE AND ALL THE PEOPLE THAT WERE WITH HIM. passed through the land unto the place of Shechem Moreh. who were to have Lord (see commentary to Gen. 5. slso 34:11). And Abram and to 12:6). mentary to Earrings Gen. indicate the exis and The tence use the definite srticle is peculisr snd seems to of a psrticular snd fsmous oak near Shechem. suspects thst Lsbsn's gods were with indeed stolen by one of his household. WHICH IS IN THE LAND OF CANAAN. lech 's power snd its power smong the certsinly gsve force to Abime contention thst if he s were not msde king the sons of Gideon would tske (Judg. and it was under this tree that Joshua wrote and set up the Book of the Lord (Josh. 11:3). of Moses uses the osk of Moreh as a signpost when he gives the people the oak directions to Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebel (Deut. He buried these spesk gods together the esrrings of which we will in s moment under the oak which was of by Shechem. It msy hsve group to hsve msde Abimelech 's king people ship possible. And the Canaanite was then in the land (Gen. BETH-EL. unto The Ephod is then and unto referred to ss s thing which became snare Gideon collected enough of the people into one his house (Judg. that 9:6). Following its history in msny of the English transi the Bible is. but it Bezaleel to build the Ark (Ex. 9:2). which is perhsps the most theo reticsl srgument sgainst kingship in the Bible (Judg. together at the House AND THEY JOURNEYED: AND THE TERROR OF GOD WAS UPON THE CITIES THAT WERE ROUND ABOUT SONS OF JACOB.The Lion lesst st and the Ass 251 this point. sometimes confusing becsuse the word for oak translated/?/^. 8:27).

remind ourselves of to understsnd this verse character. AND GOD APPEARED UNTO JACOB AGAIN. 45:14. WHEN HE CAME OUT OF PADAN- ARAM. guarding a promise which would not be fulfilled for many The same long-range care is symbolized by the nurse. BUT ISRAEL SHALL BE THY NAME: AND HF BE CALLED ANY MORE CALLED HIS NAME ISRAEL. The be discussed in the commentsry to Gen. But and the oak at Beth-el lasted much longer than the Shechem its promise was fulfilled by King is Josiah. as if it were an oak that we should recognize. the 8. This oak to the oak at Shechem which concealed the gods that came stands in opposition to light in the days of Abimelech. THY NAME IS JACOB: THY NAME SHALL NOT JACOB. significance The of oak is called this name will in Hebrew Allon-bachuth. BUT DEBORAH. Rebekah's In order nurse. even though Isaac was not fully swsre of whst he hsd done. I AM GOD ALMIGHTY: BE FRUITFUL AND MUL- . AND SHE WAS BURIED BENEATH ALLON- BETH-EL UNDER THE OAK: AND THE NAME OF IT WAS CALLED BACHUTH. man The oak at Beth-el lived for long time.252 7. AND GOD SAID UNTO HIM. the answer to Jacob's fears and doubts. 20:7). Deborah. preserve snd destroy. I I . AND BLESSED HIM. part of the wsy in which it csn concesl snd revesl. WHEN HE FLED FROM THE FACE OF HIS BROTHER. Interpretation ALTAR. and When the lion this osk years the ass gusrded the body of the young man of God under they were to come. It was the oak under which of God was was found young years by the Prophet after his encounter with King Jeroboam. snd Time. 10. REBEKAH'S NURSE DIED. the oak of tears. The author again speaks of the oak. AND GOD SAID UNTO HIM. This the man who predicted the coming of King Josiah three hundred nineteen too early (see commentary to Gen. oak at the son of Gideon. She was the woman who cared for Rebekah herself a when she was a very young the child. Jscob is still confused becsuse he sees no wsy of fulfilling the divine plsn of estsblishing s well-ordered society upon s just foundation. In spite of God's protection. This time Jacob hss s ssfe journey. was buried beneath another famous oak. it will be necesssry to Rebeksh's Isssc and She was the good womsn who quietly csred for blind old most of his life snd ssw to it thst the blessing wss csrried through Isaac delivered safely into the hands of Jacob. AND CALLED THE PLACE EL-BETH-EL: AND HE BUILT THERE AN BECAUSE THERE GOD APPEARED UNTO HIM. but he returns to Beth-el to where he fled from face of his brother. The womsn buried under the oak in Beth-el wss even more removed from the divine plsn than Rebekah. 9.

26:1). THEREON.The Lion TIPLY. still silent. AND JACOB CALLED THE NAME OF THE PLACE WHERE GOD SPAKE WITH HIM BETH-EL. and under every green tree (I Kings . 28:3). AND JACOB SET UP A PILLAR IN THE PLACE WHERE HE TALKED WITH HIM. 28:13). The is a history of pillars snd the role it plays in the development of the people fascinsting and curious subject. He knew very well thst he hsd been sent God Al silent God hss by mighty snd thst he would become a company of nations (Gen. He built another one as a after will and memory of his sgreement with Lsbsn (Gen. 28:18. That was the last chapter esrlier legitimate slready pillar ever raised in the New Wsy. built on every high hill. 31:45-52). In Leviticus they in the Book of Deuter onomy they are are told not only I to burn the existing pillars with fire but they phrase which even specifically told not to build any to God because their worship should be place which limited to the became so shall choose (Deut. Jacob was the first great builder of pillars. 32:28). 12. Nadab effects Abihu. and immediately after Jeroboam's revolution there were pillars 14:23). slso Moses and of built s pillar at the time he invited the sons remember well of Aaron. AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE WILL I GIVE THE LAND. snd he build two in the present chspter one to commemorate the present moment permanent one to commemorate the death of Rschel. 15. Moses hsd commanded people to smash the pillars which were dedicated to new other gods when they enter 23:24). The first illegitimate pillar was built by Absalom in us important for The text self-commemoration (II Sam. AND THE LAND WHICH I GAVE ABRAHAM AND ISAAC. to share his vision. 15:9). 24:9 the snd commentary to Gen. and we the disastrous thst moment (see Ex. The lsnd hsd been promised to him and to his fathers many times (Gen. in the commentary to Gen. AND KINGS SHALL COME OUT OF THY LOINS. and the Ass 253 A NATION AND A COMPANY OF NATIONS SHALL BE OF THEE. 31:13). new in the words of Appsrently. and yet one msy also say that He Jscob hsd slresdy schieved the nsme Israel sfter his wrestling (Gen. and he himself had already understood that he would be the there is nothing father of kings (Gen. the 15:9. God. One into the land (Ex. 16:22). 28:18 and commentsry). goes so fsr ss to ssy the Lord hates pillars (Deut. AND GOD WENT UP FROM HIM IN THE PLACE WHERE HE TALKED WITH HIM. mstch finslly spoken sgain. (Gen. 12:3-5). 14. TO THEE I WILL GIVE IT. and are commanded not to build any pillars (Lev. Appsrently. EVEN A PILLAR OF STONE: AND HE POURED A DRINK OFFERING AND HE POURED OIL THEREON. God is 13. one at He built the first Beth-el and even mentions it once waking from his dream. 22) to his wives (Gen. The hss not spoken. 18:18).

At times they are forgotten and then suddenly reappesr on the surfsce. It began in the days in which by chance we noticed that the places he built Bible altars became important in later times. In that sense southern kingdom to the altar which they became the counterpart in the Jeroboam built at Beth-el in the northern work of kingdom. it is proper that something should be said at this point about what moderns might call our speak of a method method of reading the with which Bible. Ahab became a great builder of to Baal (II Kings 3:2). reading the Bible would have been a slow process of as the author remembering and forgetting which would have duplicated life understood it. forgetting itself (see commentaries to Gen.254 Interpretation of Under the influence pillars his wife. The Bible is not only sn sttempt to lay the roots of 3 tradition. In other words the one thing Jacob had forgotten is and 19:31). Although Jehu (II Kings 10:27 and and Hezekiah began the tearing them down 18:4). The author's way is not merely a literary device. On that occssion he poured oil on the which pillar. It duplicstes his understsnding which Men live by traditions into the land only to arise from time to time for good or for bad. until this point Jacob had forgotten the wine. bury themselves deep . For reasons which will become evident. Rebekah's nurse. symbolizing his awareness that there would be snother dsy in the formslities snd rigor of kingship snd priesthood would come to his people. Beth-el. died. In one sense our task was msde essy because of the modern invention of the concordance. In another sense we have seriously failed to participate in the Bible when we used that book. of men snd their wsys. we tried to recall everything that happened in a given place or to a given group of men whenever their names appeared. Understanding the verse in this way begins to reveal the full meaning of Verse Eight in which Deborah. to Following the indication that the wished be read in such a manner. Man's ability to forget and to remember spite of is the means which will allow the New Way to be established in sre will the fears which Jacob felt at the end of Chapter Thirty-four. 9:21. general a If we had not had the concordance. Jacob had forgotten that ideas can sleep while life continues. There those times when men must never fight their brothers. their final destruction came when in the reign of Josiah. Jezebel. snd while scars of will battles and completely disappear. other than the notion that one should begin by that a book is written with intelligence until the opposite is shown. and in story evolved. 28:18). assuming Nonethe of less it is Abrahsm clear when that a certain way has developed. altar at one verse prior to the highest point in the book he destroyed the 23:14). the battles themselves be forgotten life will once more be possible. This time he sdds a libation of wine. It is difficult to we come in the sense of s tool to the book. Up 22. long the symbol of a divided nation (II Kings Perhsps the best wsy of understsnding the radical change in the Biblical atti tude toward pillars is to consider the present text more deeply by comparing it with Jacob's last journey to Beth-el (Gen.

the nsme she gave to her son means This time Jacob can no longer accept Rachel's way of my right re-names the child the son hand. 20. WHEN SHE WAS IN HARD LABOUR. participating in it. 17. AND RACHEL TRAVAILED. 1 6. The son which she csnnot sorrow. AND ISSACHAR. 27. THE SONS OF AND LEAH. son rejoice of my in birth. AND THERE WAS BUT A LITTLE WAY TO COME TO LABOUR. by now most of us It has been msny years since we have had either forgotten him or thought that he him. but one cannot see that presentation without. even on her the and death bed. He between his father might csll and ss- thst at the desth of Rschel the even Bilhah became sn less than it hsd been of previously. THAT THE MIDWIFE SAID UNTO HER. AND JACOB SET A PILLAR UPON HER GRAVE THAT IS THE PILLAR OF RACHEL'S GRAVE UNTO THIS DAY. FATHER UNTO AND JACOB CAME UNTO ISAAC HIS WHICH IS MAMRE. seen So and old Isaac is still alive. 23. UNTO THE CITY OF ARBAH. AND IT CAME TO EPHRATH. AND IT CAME TO PASS. Bilhsh. AND WAS BURIED IN THE WAY TO EPHRATH. GAD AND ASHER: THESE ARE THE SONS OF JACOB. AND RACHEL DIED. AND ZEBULUN: THE SONS OF RACHEL: JOSEPH. WHEN ISRAEL DWELT IN THAT LAND. AND SPREAD HIS TENT BEYOND THE TOWER OF 22. at least in sense. THAT REUBEN WENT AND LAY WITH BILHAH HIS FATHER'S CONCUBINE: AND ISRAEL HEARD IT. l8. WHICH IS BETHLEHEM. had asked for has finally come. JUDAH. AND BENJAMIN: AND THE SONS OF BILHAH. AND THE SONS OF ZILPAH. AND SIMEON. For the full story of Reuben 49:3. HEBRON. AND LEVI. 21 . REUBEN. was . AND IT CAME TO PASS. mild esse incest.The Lion it is also a and the Ass 255 dramatic showing-forth of how such traditions some are possible. RACHEL'S HANDMAID. (FOR SHE DIED) THAT SHE CALLED HIS NAME BEN-ONE BUT HIS FATHER CALLED HIM BENJAMIN. LEAH'S DAN. NOW THE SONS OF JACOB WERE TWELVE: Now that Rachel is desd Reuben sumes sleeps with connection her hsndmsid. One this relstionship see the com extremely mentary to Gen. AND THEY JOURNEYED FROM BETH-EL. JACOB'S FIRSTBORN. WHERE ABRAHAM AND ISAAC SOJOURNED. 25. AND NAPHTALL HANDMAID. AND ISRAEL EDAR. but Rachel. AS HER SOUL WAS IN DEPARTING. 19. FEAR NOT: THOU SHALT HAVE THIS SON ALSO. dead. 26. AND SHE HAD HARD PASS. WHICH WERE BORN TO HIM IN PADAN-ARAM. JOURNEYED. 24.

Now Ishmael was born Abraham may 85. . the age of 120. he took in preserving the Way. Isaac's his son.256 Interpretation come to s msjor chsrscter This is the third time death has in the book. In the commentary to Gen. seven yesrs longer thsn the life thst enough wss to msn sfter Flood (Gen. There interesting differences in the two esses which the chsrscters of Abraham and Isaac. Isaac is buried by both detached from the New of his sons. SISTER OF NEBAJOTH. 25:1). it and would establish have commsnded our respect even many grest nstions if he had not been chosen to produced the New at Way. that would mean that Abraham was 140 when he married or Keturah. died 99. Once he had passed on the seed his care private safely married. death seems to be private and Way (see Gen. Moses died the two lives. The part of seen completely reflect Abraham's life which was devoted to the New Wsy lssted until he hsd his son included the the birth of over. 2. AND THE DAYS OF ISAAC WERE AN HUNDRED AND FOUR-SCORE YEARS. 3. sre the length of of that which 85 yesrs plus 35 yesrs or exsctly 120 yesrs. 29. If one conception of presupposes that his private life lasted he from his birth to the msrried Ishmael life was and was resumed sgsin when Keturah. CHAPTER XXXVI I . NOW THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF ESAU. AND ISAAC EXPIRED. The first msjor chsrscter to die wss Ssrsh. she died st the sge of granted 127 yesrs (Gen. the 23:1). BEING OLD AND FULL OF DAYS: AND HIS SONS ESAU AND JACOB BURIED HIM. 25:1 we showed that Abraham had two lives one which he led as a private man and the other which he led Abraham was as the was 86. 25:20). Now Isaac was born when Abraham was Sarah died when Isaac was 40 (Gen. 6:3). AND AHOLIBAMAH THE DAUGHTER OF ANAH THE DAUGHTER OF ZIBEON THE HIVITE. AND BASHEMATH ISHMAEL'S DAUGHTER. AND WAS GATHERED UNTO HIS PEOPLE. in his case there was no distinction between 28. It life began at work was essentially Abraham's private life was full and rich. ESAU TOOK HIS WIVES OF THE DAUGHTERS OF DAUGHTER OF ELON THE CANAAN. AND DIED. In a more complicated way the same thing is true of Abraham. but Isaac would have remained unknown. As in the case of Abraham. the length life God prescribed to msn. and therefore we presume that he was conceived when founder of the New Way. ADAH THE HITTITE. If one allows one year for mourning. He st the sge of and 175 (Gen. Strangely Isaac was Jacob. when that he lived with Keturah for 35 years. WHO IS EDOM. Again his 25:9). which would mean that his life after sixty years old at the birth of the birth of Jacob was precisely 120 years.

AND ADAH BARE TO ESAU ELIPHAZ. 5. AND HIS DAUGHTERS. hss become Aholibamsh the dsughter of Ansh. Bsshemsth. Hittite. EDOM. By his apparent artlessness the nature of These chapters are a reasonable people snd facsimile traditions as they come down through the have faced presents wss mass of material which must our author may not himself. women suddenly become men. 9. 26:34). We shall see more of this three-ring circus as we go along. Hittites become Hivites. the second wss Bsshemath the daughter of of Elon the Hittite (Gen. Judith the dsughter Beeri. does keep records. AND ESAU TOOK HIS AND WIVES. as a strange mixture between the New Way and the wild ass. And Mshslsth's nsme things even more hss become Bsshemath. AND BASHEMATH BARE REUEL. Esau had the mar three women. AND THE LAND OF AND ALL HIS SUBSTANCE WHICH HE HAD GOT IN BROTHER JACOB. 28:9). But Esau. WHICH WERE BORN UNTO HIM IN THE LAND OF 6. FOR THEIR RICHES WERE MORE THAN THAT THEY STRANGERS COULD NOT BEAR THEM AND THE LAND WHEREIN THEY WERE BECAUSE OF THEIR CATTLE.The Lion and the Ass 257 chspter Chapter Thirty-six. 4. the author of The reveals other reason more complicated. AND KORAH: THESE ARE ESAU. in the mesntime. becomes Adah is of now considered the dsughter of Elon the Suddenly. ALL THE PERSONS OF HIS HOUSE. There is no long tradition con cerning Ishmael. snd brothers who slmost hsve identicsl names will suddenly become one. own art. There are two reasons for as this artlessness. doing so he reproduces the artless chsrscter of Esau himself. who hsd been the father Bashemsth. There since seems to be some question about the time of Esau's occupied migration to Seir in the earlier chapter return. First. be so unlike the The ried problem immediately The first itself in these first of verses. the fsr the chspter most desling with the descendsnts of Essu. the author. as it were. MIGHT DWELL TOGETHER. and a To make of descendant Seir. However. AND HIS SONS. the dsughter of Zibeon the Hivite. WENT INTO THE COUNTRY FROM THE FACE OF HIS 7. is by most artless whole chapter of of the entire book and perhaps the will artless will in the the Bible. The way of the wild ass is not a way that keeps records. and the third Mshalsth the dsughter who Ishmsel (Gen. AND JAALAM. CANAAN. nsmes will sppesr from nowhere like rabbits out of hsts. THUS DWELT ESAU IN MOUNT SEIR: ESAU IS OF ESAU THE FATHER OF THE EDOMITES AND THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS IN MOUNT SEIR: . he sppesrs to hsve that country before Jacob's 8. AND AHOLIBAMAH BARE THE SONS OF JEUSH. AND ALL HIS BEASTS. Judith's name Hittite. just to round difficult Anah will turn out to be male a things off. AND HIS CATTLE. In presents the history of Essu if it had been preserved by his own children. rather thsn being Hivite who was supposed to have been a Hittite. CANAAN. they is his tend to get scrambled a bit.

Aside from Joshua. too. Interpretation SONS. is mentioned ss the fsther of the tribe to that other Eliphsz from the Book of Job belongs (Job 2:11). Moses when Lldsd snd Midsd were prophesying in the Before coming from the he agsin wsrned of middle the csmp. In only one case can the geneology of the spies be trsced bsck beyond the second generation. snd from thst time on he the gsp together with Moses (Ex. OMAR. but none of the other sons mentioned we in Verse Eleven for Kensz. Caleb was the only spy who wss Children of Israel hsd the prowess snd stsmins to fsce the returned. Soon after the Israelites had escaped something about Pharaoh's srmy. Eliphsz's first-born which son. There is little sense in going through the rest of the list. Little had that role was heard of him again until Nadab and Abihu. of Reuben sent Shammus the sent son of Zsccur whose grsndfsther is of The tribes Caleb the is of Simeon Shsphst the and son of sent Hori. Temsn. snd thst the described the besuties of the lsnd When they the horrors of . Issachar Igal the Joseph. detour to understsnd At this point we must make a second the character of Joshua. but even his grandfather is unknown.258 10. becsme the leader suddenly army in battle (Ex. It was strange and somewhat vulgarized vision of which played such a people. Our fortywith journey list of begins in the thirteenth who were chapter of the Book of Numbers us the spies sent out to view the new land. Let consider them individually. AND GATAM. in the formation of the great gap between Moses and the then that Joshua wss chosen to stood on the other side of who sccompsny Moses. 32:17). must make a long excursion. The tribe unknown. The fsct thst this is even true of Joshus mskes matters most strange indeed. ELIPHAZ THE SON OF ADAH THESE ARE THE NAMES OF ESAU'S THE WIFE OF ESAU. son of Nun. TEMAN. ever sppesrs in the books with which hsve been desling except We may not take the direct route to understanding this verse. of the they were sttscked by the Amslekites. REUEL THE SON OF BASHEMATH THE WIFE OF ESAU. 1 1 . famous Joshua. but like the Children of Israel. The tribe son of Judsh sent son of Jephunneh. God the sons of Aaron. It wss he and first told Moses the significsnce of the cries thst were csmp during the affair of the Golden Calf (Ex. AND THE SONS OF ELIPHAZ WERE AND KENAZ. becoming the successor to Moses his great virtue seems to have been his sensitivity to the dangers of wildness. At thst point the son of Nun snd sppesred in the text for the first time 17:9-14). who feared the giants and were forced to take the longer route which year lasted also forty years. This is a very peculiar circumstance whose grandfather also unknown. the other spies convinced gisnts. ZEPHO. we. 33:1 1). Ephraim sent the to find in a book which relies so hesvily on tradition snd which so often under lines the importsnce of fsmily trees.

. Raphidim where there was a second revolt. wss not s gisnt. Jephunneh of fathers of the spies with the exception of was s digression nothing is known about Jephunneh. Nonetheless the people becsme frightened and revolted. whom we closely have mentioned to Israel than either on many occasions. As the to live through that journey to see the promise fulfilled (Num. It was at that time that the wander Lord decreed that the Children in the desert because they the servant of of Israel yet would be forced to able to face the giants. but in the we shall meet another descendsnt snd see snother side of thst chsracter. Esau was able the land of the Horims who seem either to be giants or at least to (see Deut. The country of Amalek was first mentioned as having been captured by Chedorlsomer in Chapter Fourteen during the time that he wss fighting the problem gisnts. to ss we know. mentary direct descendsnt Essu. and God promised to provide manna for the starving people. the Amslekites sttacked from the rear. we see one side of chsracter.The Lion and the Ass 259 the gisnts. Israel successfully eluded the srmy of Phsrsoh by Reeds they revolted becsuse of stsrvstion. 15:17 snd Judg. next com Essu hss the stamina and prowess which Israel lscked. often Amslek. 24:22-25). 32:12) snd hence s direct descendsnt Eliphsz. in spite of the fsct thst he thst will be sssocisted with them. years were not God. 2:12. wss himself s Kenizzite (Josh. but the general sub ject of concubines be discussed in the following chspter. related being descen of course much more Syrians. This was the begin was to ning of a war which dants of Esau. were the Moabites or the last for centuries. together with Joshua. The Amalekites. AND SHE BARE TO ELIPHAZ AMALEK: THESE WERE THE SONS OF ADAH ESAU'S WIFE. the first 3:9)- the Judges. AND TIMNA WAS CONCUBINE TO ELIPHAZ ESAU'S SON. Moses success of After the Children crossing the Ses of fully quelled the revolt. of be in close contact with giants a 21-23). Eliphsz hsd snother son will by s concubine nsmed Timns. 13:30). Our present is to discuss Israel's relationship to that other son. just ss Csleb 's son-in-lsw. Our tssk will be to understsnd kinship ss well ss see whst distinguishes them. we mentioned at of the beginning of this any Caleb. 12. The people then arrived at a place called wster. But Csleb ssid: Let well able to possess us go up at once and possess it. in which it is pointed out Israel to conquer in slavery for four hundred years in Egypt. the son of Essu. Oth- niel. wss sllowed forty Only Caleb. this time over the lsck of vided Just sbout the time wster wss pro from s rock. the father of the fifth son of of Kenizzite (Num. for we are it (Num. Amalek. In Caleb the Essu's son of Jephunneh. This rsther shocking turn of sffsirs makes a certain amount of sense in the that light while of the second suffered chapter of Deuteronomy.

was receive the New Way in fulfillment Israel they The of the fundamental clear promise. to the Promised Land so that it would not have been have been For as we remember. In their revolt. His in a follows: Write this for will book. and the unity of the people would assured. 13:28.260 Interpretation the brothers access who were They them were with to have welcomed Israel and to have provided easy necesssry to tske the lsnd of the Ammonites. sfter this be a way of bsttle (Ex. He turned to Csleb snd called able to him My servant becsuse he alone would have been face the giants. 19:2). The following over the morning the men woke up and saw the Promised Land right hill. grest written law took place in Raphidim suthor seems to indicste the relsting these two incidents. resr wss the expanse. the Children churned of Israel showed that the wsters of chsos still deeply within them. and rehearse I utterly blot the remembrance of Joshua: of Amalek from under heaven it in the (Ex. The cowsrdliness of the sttsck led to God's decision thst the Amslekites words were as ears should be trested for lived before the Flood. 17:8). Had this plan worked the Jordan River would have formed the eastern border. By being the first people to attack the universal promise made it that so long as they lived Jethro in would never be fulfilled (Ex.29). The Amalekites on the other hand are our own brothers. The Maobites or the Amalekites. 17:14). and which critical meeting between Moses it was determined that the New Way should immedistely gisnts. who Midianites. but Esau. These the spies people next showed who up as living among the giants and were seen by brought back the reports concerning the invincibility of the new land (Num. rebuked After God the people for their revolt in the face of the gisnts. the as laws were intended to contain the chaotic waters within the hearts of the people. the difference between the Amslekites snd the By The of gisnts sre the irrstionsl forces but sround us whom we csn escape by means borders snd covensnts whom we can never conquer. it country which forced the eastern provinces The Amalekites were to have been one of the first to simply the largeness of the to build the first sepsrste sltar. The author takes that opportunity to remind us sgsin we must remind our thst the Amslekites selves that were living Caleb too was a son of smong the giants. mere were closer in kin than our either waters within souls just the giants are the waters Since they are psrt of us they cannot be excluded by Their cowsrdly method of sttsck from the first indicstion thst the kin originsl spresding the New as the men who a memorial out Wsy vis their nesrest of would not succeed. With a sudden burst of courage they decided to attack imme- . are like the beyond the borders. If the firmament is intended to hold back the waters of the universe and borders are to hold back the chaotic waters of the these Philistines.

They rest have brought the we Amalekites: for the best of the Lord thy God. wsrned Before the battle Ssul among the the Kennites. whom to leave so thst would not be injured in the bsttle. of sheep have utterly destroyed (I Sam. discuss the snd In the commentary to Gen. 14:48). of Esau. sttsck csme shortly was sfter again. 14:40-46). kingship hsving sgsinst been estsblished. There were a few more skirmishes. It only becomes intelligible when we reslize thst we sre not . 49:5 Thst desth hsd strange desth of Aaron. were fsther-in-lsw (Judg. but he from life Agsg their king the and snd ssved the best of the cattle to present as a sacrifice to them the God: And Saul people spared said. descendsnts the text of we remember Moses' Hobsb. 15:22). the same theme has occurred The Kenizzites descendants problem. Israelite lsnd during the Philistine war (I Sam. period of allowed but brief following could the death of Joshua when rule it looked without as though the or Children Israel themselves under God king lesder. So long as Othniel alive the Amalekites were no the Amalekites was such a Israel's best been protection sgainst the evil side of Esau and had always a son of Esau himself. but Ssmuel only snswers. There were several skirmishes between Israel the Amalekites the during the times of the Judges. death of Othniel. s profound effect on the people. Othniel the Kenizzite general man. spared the Ssul of was proud of his success in the fields that day. For the second time between the Amslekites snd hss msde s connection Jethro. Ssmuel reminded him of the divine decree the Amalekites. mean them to set off with confidence Israel had become giant-killers. they who were st that time living Amalekites. 15:15). from the commentsry to Gen. and to hearken of the Lord? Behold. with After Saul's first battle with the Philistines there wss snother brief bsttle hsd appsrently tsken the opportunity to conquer Amslekites. sympsthetic way in Saul's position is presented makes it evident suthor is thst the esse of Amslek is s strange sffsir which must sppesr monstrous. 25:1. The Kennites. As s result Agsg wss hscked to pieces by Ssmuel. 4:11). while it did not In that wonderful the Amslekites that regain the city of Horma.The Lion and the Ass 261 their courage came too chased diately late called without and they were waiting the appointed forty years.Saul's quite moving. Judsh The first snd Simeon recaptured snd Horma with esse. but in the situation was quiet until the reign of King Saul. but defeated by the Amalekites. to obey is than the fat of rams (1 Ssm. Hath and the to sacrifice unto the Lord as great voice delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices as in obeying the better than sacrifice. snd immedistely sfter he died That they were sble to fsce battle. but it was sometime the who later that the Amalekite Ssul's wsrs becsme well serious. were Thus. to the land of King Sihon. The that the snd the kingship swsre wss tsken which from the line of Ssul. words of excuse to Ssmuel sre the oxen. who we shall them to a city Horma (Num. the Kenizzite.

to those fight. and delivered into our hand. Belial. Saul asked him to do the same service by holding the sword. pretended vassal to King Achish Amale to his lord that he and his men had attacked Israel. Although King fice to the Lord. they had and made also to abide at the brook Besor: him: and thev went forth to meet David. which were so faint that they could not follow David. 30:30). While Saul attacked fighting his last battle with the Philistines the Amalekites the camp at Ziklag. and depart. Two days later a man Dsvid's camp to report Saul's death. 14:4. who hath the company that came against us matter? preserved us. Ssul wss wounded during war and asked his armor bearer to relieve his suffering with armor his sword. that went he saluted them. (I Sam. so. But the truth is that during was this period David had begun his conquest of the kites (I Sam. and the young man complied. my they may lead them away. 31:4). but the sppesred st bearer refused (I Sam. Then said David. that tarrieth that by it the stuff: they shall part alike. As in the msn. snd recspture his belongings with only 3 bsnd of men. we related his last Philistine in the commentsry to Gen. When David discovered that the young man was an Amalekite his reaction was no weaker than Samuel's when he met Agag. are Looked in that way we can see why there facets which might tempt even a decent man to pre serve what must During in Ziklag. that of Because they went not with us. 27:8). free his smsll wives. we have recovered. all his belongings captured. According to his account. This insistence justice is intended had been as a revision of the simple ban on goods which placed upon Saul. the early days of his rise to power. David. esrlier occssion the were ss Amalekite youth was portrayed ss s decent His exsct words follows: . to meet the people that were with and when David came near to the people. them ought of the spoil that we children. and Then said. When David returned he found Ziklag in ashes. brethren. 30:21-25) those to receive the spoils upon were Among Amalekite As the men of Horma (I Sam. and his wives tsken prisoner. save to every man his answered all the wicked men his Ye shall not do so. of those will not give wife and with David. with that which the Lord hath given us. ultimately be destroyed. this so shall his be . history internal but with a book about s the nature of peoples which and their Amslek as an csnnot be thought of ss foreign race is to be at wiped out but counterpart of the external giant. For to the was who will hearken unto you part in this But as his part is that goeth down battle. And it from that day forward he made a statute and an ordinance for Israel unto day. The pass3ge resds 3S follows: came to the two whom fought and to those And David hundred men. David took Ssul lost his throne for preserving Amslekite csttle ss a sacri possession of all the Amalekite goods and dis who tributed them who did not equally among all of his men.262 Interpretation with dealing wsys. But he wss sble to de- fest the Amslekites.

the Levite similar 16 and 17. ESAU'S WIFE. villain The tradition in the Book the Amalekites lasted for many was a centuries. 18. hss suddenly become Eliphsz. THESE WERE DUKES OF THE SONS OF ESAU: THE SONS OF ELIPHAZ THE FIRST BORN SON OF ESAU: DUKE TEMAN. even though it What makes the of Bible an interesting book is its awareness of that the value. ESAU'S WIFE: AND SHE BARE TO ESAU JEUSH. DUKE KENAZ. THESE WERE THE SONS OF The show author goes through this government list of the sons of Esau once again in under. AHOLIBAMAH ESAU'S WIFE: DUKE AND THESE ARE THE SONS OF JEUSH. in Verses Fourteen one can see Fifteen is the son compared with list in Verse Eleven s son of thst Korah. 1:9-10) of value was understood As in the bound up esse of Ishmsel. and the hero. order to the kind of they lived lived in Apparently. 15. the crown that was upon his head. THE DAUGHTER OF AHAH THE DAUGHTER OF ZIBEON. DUKE OMAR. DUKE ZERAH. So I stood upon him. the the son of given Adsh. something with to be closely of with the Amalekites and could not remain. the Amalekite in the hesrt Israel. I pray thee. Haman. AND THESE ARE THE SONS OF REUEL: NAHATH. If the list of and sons of Eliphsz. THAT CAME SAMMAH. . DUKE GATAM. 20:7). This confusion is prob- the author because it reminds us of a sbly intentionsl on the psrt of (see Num. s descendant of of Agag (Esther 3:10). AND DUKE AMALEK: THESE ARE THE DUKES THAT CAME OF ELIPHAZ IN THE LAND OF ADAH. (II Sam. DUKE MIZZAH: THESE ARE THE DUKES THE SONS OF BASHEMATH OF REUEL IN THE LAND OF EDOM: THESE ARE ESAU'S WIFE. and the bracelet that was on his arm. SHAMMAH. the Ben- jsminite. of Esther. AND THESE WERE THE SONS OF AHOLIBAMAH. 14. DUKE KORAH. Mordecsi. and commentary to Gen. and have brought them hither unto my lord. wss descendsnt Kish. AND MIZZAH: THESE WERE THE SONS OF BASHEMATH ESAU'S WIFE. l6. DUKE ZEPHO. the fsther of King Ssul (Esther 2:5). AND ZERAH. 13. of Aholibamah. AND JAALAM.The Lion He and the Ass 263 upon said unto me again. there was no unity among the sons of Esau. AND KORAH. and slew him. because I was sure that he could not live after that he was fallen: and I took me. Stand. This the repetition revesls snother difficulty given within the tradition. difficulty in Israel hsving to do with Korah. EDOM. and slay me: for anguish is come upon because my life is yet whole in me. DUKE AND THESE ARE THE SONS OF REUEL ESAU'S SON: DUKE NAHATH. THESE WERE THE DUKES THAT CAME OF DUKE JAALAM. who small communities each ruled by its own duke. 17. DUKE KORAH: AHOLIBAMAH THE DAUGHTER OF ANAH. me.

st lesst for the time being. but her mother Ansh hss suddenly become her uncle. WHO IS EDOM. AND 24. DISHAN. . AND AKAN. was also her brother or his brother as as we shall soon see Esau. DISHON. the son of Zibeon. AS HE FED DISHON. 23.264 19. BOTH AJAH AND ANAH: THIS WAS THAT ANAH THAT FOUND THE MULES IN THE THE ASSES OF ZIBEON HIS FATHER. Rizpah. It is two brothers nsmed Dishsn snd Dishon. SHOBAL. AND ARAN. Ajah may have been the father of Saul's famous concubine. wife of you Anah. was the mother of Aholibamah. wish. UZ. DUKE LOTAN. DUKE THESE ARE THE DUKES THAT CAME OF THE HORITES. Lotsn's sister. AND SHOBAL. the son of Anah. AND THESE ARE THE CHILDREN OF ZIBEON. EZER. AND DISHAN: THESE ARE THE DUKES OF THE EDOM. AND ONAM. WHO INHABITED THE LAND: AND LOTAN. AND THE CHILDREN OF ANAH WERE THESE: WILDERNESS. Verse Seventeen is in Eighteen is in perfect perfect sgreement with with Verse Thirteen except snd Verse sgreement Verse Fourteen thst it must be remembered thst Ansh was Aholibamah's mother. with whom Ishbosheth sccused Abner of hsving slept. slso peculisr thst there should be AND THE CHILDREN OF LOTAN WERE HORI AND HEMAN: AND LOTAN'S SISTER WAS TIMNA. Chap. HORITES. BILHAN. 28. 21 and commentary to Gen. AND ZAAVAN. 22. THE CHILDREN OF DISHAN ARE THESE. Timns. 29. but he was two brothers all in one. 22:6). THE CHILDREN OF EZER ARE THESE. EBAL. AND ANAH. THE CHILDREN OF SEIR IN THE LAND OF Zibeon was the grsndfsther of Essu's wife Aholibsmsh. AND ITHRAN. DUKE ZIBEON. MANAHATH. 26. AND AHOLIBAMAH THE DAUGHTER OF ANAH. Rizpah also the the sons of Saul David which hung the in order of to avoid the famine against which was sent because of the deeds house Saul had done the Gibeonites (II Sam. AND THESE ARE THE CHILDREN OF AND CHERAN. 20. wss the mother of Amslek. AND AND ZIBEON. mother of 3:8 and 23:1). AND THESE ARE THEIR THESE ARE THE SONS OF DUKES. 21. the Dishon. Interpretation ESAU. This sccusstion wss the imAbner' mediste csuse of s decision to lesve Ishbosheth commentary to Gen. 25. whom snd join the forces was of Dsvid (II Ssm. SHEPHO. DUKE ANAH. HEMDAN. THESE ARE THE SONS OF SEIR THE HORITE. 27. AND AND THE CHILDREN OF SHOBAL WERE THESE: ALVAN. AND ESHBAN.

DISHON. DUKE DISHAN: THESE ARE THE DUKES THAT IN THE LAND OF SEIR. and Baalam's father is there. 34.The Lion and the Ass 265 and the chsos Dishon has 30. 35. AND THESE ARE THE KINGS THAT REIGNED IN THE LAND OF BE FORE THERE REIGNED ANY KING OVER THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL. DUKE TEMAN. 41. DUKE IRAM: THESE BE EDOM. God only knows csme from. AND JOBAB DIED. snd It contains well known sons such as Kenaz snd and Teman. 43. KENAZ. AND HADAD THE SON OF BEDAD. AND BELA THE SON OF BEOR REIGNED IN EDOM: AND THE NAME OF HIS CITY WAS DINHABAH. AND BAAL-HANAN THE SON OF ACHBOR REIGNED IN HIS STEAD. Pinon. DUKE DUKE DUKE ELAH. 40. s brief period of unificstion the brothers hsve now become two EDOM. ESAU. THE DUKES OF MAGDIEL. 36. One famous find of a man named Saul. 39. DUKE JETHETH. a potpourri of names The kings who ruled over whole of Edom turn can be found throughout the history. sgain. AND JOBAB THE SON OF ZERAH OF BOZRAH REIGNED IN HIS STEAD. Mibzsr. ACCORD ING TO THEIR HABITATIONS IN THE LAND OF THEIR POSSESSION: HE IS ESAU THE FATHER OF THE EDOMITES. THE DAUGHTER OF MATRED. snd s couple of the others . DUKE EZER. out to THE DAUGHTER OF MEZAHAB. CAME OF HORI. DUKE MIBZAR. 33. REIGNED IN HIS STEAD: AND THE NAME OF HIS DIED. AND BELA DIED. HIS STEAD. AMONG THEIR DUKES After 31. AND HUSHAM DIED. AFTER THEIR PLACES BY THEIR NAMES: DUKE TIMNA. AND HUSHAM OF THE LAND OF TEMANI REIGNED IN HIS STEAD. AND BAAL-HANAN THE SON OF ACHBOR DIED. AND SAMLAH OF MASREKAH REIGNED IN HIS STEAD. AND SAUL DIED. 38. AND HADAD MOAB. However. 32. DUKE ALVAH. WAS MEHETABEL. 42. This list the sons of purports to be a summstion of the chapter in which the names of Esau are restated. WHO SMOTE MID IAN IN THE FIELD OF CITY WAS AVITH. AND SAUL OF REHOBOTH BY THE RIVER REIGNED IN AND SAMLAH DIED. where the Dukes Elsh. Timns Aholibsmsh hsve become trans vestites. AND HADAR REIGNED IN AND HIS WIFE'S NAME HIS STEAD: AND THE NAME OF HIS CITY WAS PAU. DUKE finally become Dishan is complete. 37. DUKE AHOLIBAMAH. DUKE PINON. AC AND THESE ARE THE NAMES OF THE DUKES THAT CAME OF CORDING TO THEIR FAMILIES. as well as the king Syria.

Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and of Gershon. they shall come thou shalt be buried in a good old age. sons of the sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon. and Uzziel: and the rears of Kohath. and Hebron. This began the tradition in of was delivered by the way of mount would pick Seir. 15:13-16) However it is closest not possible to reconstruct the time sequence in Egypt. relevant from read: what point one is to begin the count. And the sons of Merari: Mahali and Mushi: these are the families of Levi according to their generations. and Hazeroth. it is intended to Only one thing must be sdded. Amram. Libni.) (Deut. day the author time. But in the fourth generation hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. The sons and Shimi. On msny Actually it is passages occssions we not clear have spoken of the four hundred years in Egypt. in speech of of the deeds contsined in the former books. Red Sea between Paran. show As we the un weeded gsrden. The book These be beginning of the chspter. AND JACOB DWELT IN THE LAND WHEREIN HIS FATHER WAS A STRANGER. and Laban. given geography in the simple sense of presents Deuteronomy It is a repetition sense oral itself as sn address by Moses to the people. One tradition as such. (Gen.2) Scholsrs hsve geographically. days' Tophel. The that one can come is arrived at through the are the names and following verses: And these and Kohath. In that speech which it is the beginning Israel. them: and they shall afflict them four hundred years. and also that nation whom they shall serve will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. And the Izhar. Know of a surety and shall serve that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is theirs. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace. IN THE LAND OF CANAAN. of Deuteronomy begins with the following Moses spake unto all the results of sn verses: the words which Israel on this side Jordan in the and wilderness. since it mskes no sense not realizing that the author was concerned with more than the word. the life Kohath an were hundred of of thirty and three years. Dizahab (There are eleven journey from Horeb by the way of mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea. The from Genesis said unto not And he Abram. pen the unweeded garden traditions.266 Interpretation of errors concludes This comedy ststed st the discussion of the sons of Essu. Perhaps he wondered whether the generations come up for the last to follow would also be his lost in the desert and wander into the land of Seir. and seven years. in the plain over against the and . . CHAPTER XXXVII I . often wished to delete Verse Two. i :i . according to their families.

At sny rate the only other time in is the description of the report which the spies brought bsck regsrding the 3. his and brothers among The the sheep though was a lad. HIS FA THER'S WIVES: AND JOSEPH BROUGHT UNTO HIS FATHER THEIR EVIL REPORT. THEY HATED HIM. and she bare him Aaron and seven Moses: (Ex. gisnts (Num. After the vision at Beth-el Jacob realized order would that a solid snd well defined This order would require s preference be necesssry in the life of his people. YEARS JOSEPH. The second one among. for the eldest son. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF JACOB. BECAUSE HE WAS THE SON OF HIS OLD AGE: AND HE MADE HIM A COAT OF MANY COLOURS. it is obvious the four hundred as well. that is the sons of Bilhah the sons ofZilpah. 2. NOW ISRAEL LOVED JOSEPH MORE THAN ALL HIS CHILDREN. 6:16-20) Kohath wss Now since born before Levi went to Egypt. his father' s wives. The same two particles ap the same verb in Verse Twelve. AND COULD NOT SPEAK PEACE ABLY UNTO HIM. The first particle is usually the sign of usually care means in or but may also mean with. For the reader who knows Hebrew the particles of conclusion of these reflections may be summed up as follows: if the are taken in the same sense as they must must be taken in Verse are Twelve the present chapter. of the rather subtle use snd it mskes The two a psrticles involved sre eth be. which clearly must be translated: father' And his brethren fed his no s flock in Shechem. Joseph.The Lion and the Ass 267 sister And Amram took him Jochebed his father's and to wife. 4. and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty years. ZILPAH. words which sre rsther translsted evil report seem to refer to something which frightened Joseph the words sre used thsn to something evil. 13:32 snd 14:36. but may be used to show the direct object of object direct verbs such as for a pear with ruling or caring for. The direct object of the verb meaning to flock usually requires the particle eth.37). Verses Three us and Four of contain the kernel of the problem which shall face for the remainder the book. WAS FEEDING THE FLOCK WITH HIS BRETHREN: AND THE LAD AND WITH THE SONS OF WAS WITH THE SONS OF BILHAH. snd he wss slso st- . Verse Two is difficult to translste becsuse of particles. At the ssme time most Jscob believed his youngest son to be the cspsble. AND WHEN HIS BRETHREN SAW THAT THEIR FATHER LOVED HIM MORE THAN ALL HIS BRETHREN. BEING SEVENTEEN OLD. yesrs must have included the time is which wss spent in Canaan The not word stranger or sojourner able used here to remind us that Jacob will be to spend the whole of his life in the Promised Land. being he seventeen years old. then Verse Two be translsted: These shepherded the generations of Jacob.

for. and made obeisance to my sheaf. AND TO HIS BRETHREN: AND HIS FA THER REBUKED HIM. AND HE TOLD IT TO HIS FATHER. the Tamar that we shall meet in the next chspter but Dsvid's dsughter. THE AND SAID. symbols of The book leaves the dresms uninterpreted. 6. AND ISRAEL SAID UNTO JOSEPH. my sheaf arose. AND I WILL SEND THEE UNTO THEM. and he told it his brethren: and they hated him yet the more. SUN AND THE MOON AND THE ELEVEN STARS MADE OBEISANCE TO ME. wss sble to rule over the fsmine. BEHOLD. I HAVE DREAMED A DREAM MORE. 13. AND TOLD IT HIS BRETHREN. 8. . Benjamin is 5. For further reference 13:12). and for his words. and lo. who wss abused by her half-brother. snd if he fsmine. AND. this dream which i have dreamed: 7. AND HE SAID HIM. WHAT IS THIS DREAM THAT THOU HAST DREAMED? SHALL I AND THY MOTHER AND THY BRETHREN INDEED COME TO BOW DOWN OURSELVES TO THEE TO THE EARTH? Given the author's way of ss relating the well world to the may be intended Egypt Joseph. Amnon (II Sam. 1 1 AND HIS BRETHREN ENVIED HIM: BUT HIS FATHER OBSERVED THE MATTER. shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou have dominion over us? and they hated him yet the more for his dreams. and he said unto them. tribe. your sheaves stood round about. human soul. IO. snd though the mesn is relstively clesr there is no indicstion why these specific symbols are The word for sheaf never appears again in the books with which we have been dealing. wss such s cost thst Tsmsr wore. However. DO NOT THY BRE I HREN FEED THE FLOCK IN SHECHEM? TO COME. i pray you. HERE AM I. the brothers. not yet considered as being one of and joseph dreamed a dream. behold. 9. and also stood upright. and the sun and the moon do bow down to him. . the notion of binding may imply the unity of each ing used. and his brethren said to him. 12. psrtly becsuse Jscob himself psrtly because of the heroic streak in his .character. noted it should be that because of his extreme youth. we were binding sheaves in the field. hear. and.268 Interpretation wss trscted to snd Joseph's youth. he rules over nature. AND HIS BRETHREN WENT TO FEED THEIR FATHER'S FLOCK IN SHECHEM. BEHOLD. behold. to csn rule over literally a ss metaphorically. AND SAID UNTO HIM. AND HE DREAMED YET ANOTHER DREAM. the dream During his rulership in large extent. the youngest son The elegant coat which brothers' he It presented to Joseph seems almost calculated not to cause the anger.

but this time it sffected Joseph's younger brother Benjamin of the more directly. a Judge would arise of to free them. 17. AND. The made massacre of the Benjaminites at the end Book of Judges it evident to sll thst Israel desperately needed s king. two sons mske it evident thst awaken. I PRAY THEE. thing will happen again. the days the Judges a constant in which Israel would be conquered.The Lion 14- and the Ass 269 AND HE SAID TO HIM GO I PRAY THEE. kingship of Abimelech. BEHOLD. after the horrors of their own deeds. AND WELL WITH THE FLOCKS. like Abraham. He his other solution to the problem was sacrific by the eminence of son and youngest son. AND HE CAME TO SHECHEM. AND THE MAN SAID. mind. brothers the Hivites words in which they am could kill The Go. were there was the war between Joseph's which Ephraim thousand out and Manassah. ing his dearest on reflecting only hoped that through this sacrifice his sons. AND HE HIM. God asking Abraham to kill his only son. WHAT SEEKEST THOU? SAID. . 15. Jacob. In s somewhst more mitigsted wsy the same theme the reoccurred when Saul finally to all united the people by hewing yoke of oxen and sending the pieces the tribes as a call to arms against the Ammonite. would arise. but his death another enemy three Judges approached After the deaths the Ephraimites there was a series of record was who reigned when was The only time in which this two Judges peacefully led Israel after the in peace. as we have before. HE WAS WANDERING IN THE FIELD: AND THE MAN ASKED l6. AND A CERTAIN MAN FOUND HIM. SEE WHETHER IT WILL BE WELL WITH THY BRETHREN. Israel sent Joseph to his brothers in Shechem though he hsd observed their feeling their towsrd him. wss s Nesr the which end the dsys of the Judges there series of put incidents to sleep. The problem came to light sgsin. Shechem snd wss the city in which they hsd slresdy killed sgain. LET US GO TO DOTHAN. AND FOUND THEM IN DOTHAN. during Ephraim of judgeship were of Jephthah. 12:6). the while they could be would one day First. AND BRING ME WORD AGAIN. AND JOSEPH WENT AFTER HIS BRETHREN. I SEEK MY BRETHREN: TELL ME. I pray and thee and Here I race through the reader's once They was are bits fragments of a conversation he had heard it looks before. Jacob's fesrs. in Now struggle at forty-two pointed men of killed (Judg. SAYING. SO HE SENT HIM OUT OF THE VALE OF HEBRON. THEY ARE DEPARTED HENCE: FOR I HEARD THEM SAY. WHERE THEY FEED THEIR FLOCKS. would be able to pull themselves s of together and form just society. Ever since the sffsir st without established posed and now as though the same Shechem Jscob knew thst can see no the new land could not be bloodshed.

was also the scene of the and war that wasn't in the time of Elisha (II Kings 6:13 the com mentary to Gen. there was no water in it. 18:2). HIM. EMPTY. in which Isaac finally after all his diggings. 31:45). The implication is thst from at lesst one point of view again. SAY. If finding water was Isasc's great act then the availability of such underground sources seems to springs of be related to the hidden tradition. AND SAID. HANDS. THEM. AND THEY TOOK COAT. mind wster Chapter Twenty-six. THIS DREAMER COMETH. famous the city in Joseph was not killed. SHED NO BLOOD. AND LET US SLAY COME NOW. Verse Thirty-seven. that the do know or not whether it was the man with we whom Jacob wrestled lonely evening (Gen. SOME EVIL BEAST HATH DEVOURED HIM: AND WE SHALL SEE WHAT WILL BECOME OF HIS DREAMS. When Joseph Shechem he we wss met not by s mysterious identity know is not revealed. 47:5. THEREFORE. those sources have dried up and Joseph will have to begin 25. LET US NOT KILL HIM. It is returning Reuben's life which the son we shall surprising that he to his fsther. OFF. These should sttempt the most pious solution sre part of the fragments of try to piece together in the commentary to Gen. THERE WAS NO When the he has in found author says And the pit was empty. AND IT CAME TO PASS. 35:22. AND REUBEN HEARD IT. 21. 23. which Dothan. BUT CAST HIM INTO AND LAY NO HAND UPON THIS PIT THAT IS IN THE WILDERNESS. AND HE DELIVERED HIM OUT OF THEIR HANDS. AND CAST HIM INTO A PIT: AND THE PIT WAS WATER IN IT. 32:24). AND WE WILL HIM. TO DELIVER HIM TO HIS FATHER Given the fact that Reuben surprising that he even more should slept with one his father's wife in Gen. Therefore. 22. THAT HE MIGHT RID HIM OUT OF THEIR AGAIN. AND REUBEN SAID UNTO THEM. THAT THEY STRIPT JOSEPH OUT OF HIS THAT WAS ON HIM. HIS COAT OF MANY COLOURS HIM. AND THEY SAT DOWN TO EAT BREAD: AND THEY LIFTED UP THEIR EYES AND LOOKED. A COMPANY OF ISHMAELITES CAME FROM GIL .270 Interpretation the Fortunately gone to msn whose brothers had left Shechem before Joseph's srrived st arrival and had Dothan. WHEN JOSEPH WAS COME UNTO HIS BRETHREN. BEHOLD. it is be the to try and save his brother's life. EVEN BEFORE HE CAME NEAR UNTO 19. AND THEY SAID ONE TO ANOTHER. AND WHEN THEY SAW HIM AFAR l8. AND CAST HIM INTO SOME PIT. AND BEHOLD. 24. Nor do whether it was one of men who stood in front of Abra ham's tent (Gen. THEY CONSPIRED AGAINST HIM TO SLAY HIM. 20.

snd saying that thst in Verse Joseph to Potiphsr to assume vis the Ishmselites. they would not have heard the highest. Midianites. plan was the more pious. FOR HE IS OUR BROTHER AND OUR FLESH. This passage has caused great difficulties over the centuries. Without the snd without appeal sppesl to the to the lowest. COME. So far as the present author can see. GOING THEIR CAMELS BEARING SPICERY AND BALM AND TO CARRY IT DOWN TO EGYPT. Ishmaelites. According to Verse Thirty-six of the present it was the Midianites who sold Joseph to Potiphar. states that Potiphar bought Joseph from the which ment with Gen. The sold caravan of in Egypt. 43:1 1 and for the calculation see the commentary to Gen. AND THEY DREW AND LIFTED JOSEPH OUT OF THE PIT. The out traditional of the pit solution and by the Rabbis is that the who brothers took Joseph sold sold him to the Midianites. problems would arise cspsble of his If He own sffsirs even in difficult Perhsps his greatest wisdom msnsging is revealed was in the twofold after nature of shown the sppesl which he makes gain to his brothers. AND LET NOT OUR HAND BE UPON HIM. only he had them that they would murder of their brother that he appealed to the natural abhorrence of and to what nothing by the fratricide. the 28. The mod to the difficulty is that there were According to one of them the brothers sold him to the originally two texts. This is essentially in agree maelites. sppesls both to whst is lowest in them is highest. AND SOLD JOSEPH TO THE ISHMAELITES FOR TWENTY PIECES OF SILVER: AND THEY BROUGHT JOSEPH INTO EGYPT. in which case we are to interpret the present verse as Ishmaelites via the the brothers sold Joseph to the Thirty-six the Midisnites ern solution sold Midianites. Judah's several ways. 47:28). there exist three possible solutions to the problem. In addition we must in turn sold chapter. AND THERE PASSED BY MIDIANITES. AND JUDAH SAID UNTO HIS BRETHREN. who whoever drew Joseph out of the pit sold him to the Ish him to the Egyptians. .The Lion EAD. but accord- . plan of seems to be the This wisdom is displayed in First all. the same enough to realize thst Joseph is circumstsnces. According to Verse Twenty-eight. AND LET US SELL HIM TO THE ISHMAELITES. highest they would hsve lesrned nothing. 39:1. ask ourselves why the Midianites given are mentioned in the present verse. in turn him to the Ishmaelites. carrying spicery and balm and myrrh (see Gen. he realizes that if Joseph again. The brothers do will Ishmaelites is csrrying spicery and balm not reslize thst in thirty-five and myrrh to be them yesrs they selves be msking the ssme trip. MERCHANTMEN. WHAT PROFIT IS IT IF WE SLAY OUR BROTHER AND CONCEAL HIS BLOOD? 27. 26. were to return to He is also wise his father's house. WITH and the Ass 111 MYRRH. AND HIS BRETHREN HEARD HIM. One problem remains. While Reuben's wiser.

the brothers never spesk hsving sold Taking brothers hsd the Midianites. This position makes the further assumption that the redactor was careless or stupid. The phrase is ambiguous becsuse it could mesn either one is not with us or one no longer exists. since pit snd thst the ssme to them ss occurred In the mesntime. sume thst the normsl it it wss wsy of interpreting Verse Twenty-eight the Midisnites who drew Joseph out of the pit would be to ss- snd sold him to the Ishmaelites. psssing by. This interpretstion would slso sccount for Gen. If Joseph's statement is to be taken lit is left with must reject hypothesis. of no conclusions can In any case. and therefore one pit rather thst he is thinking more placing Joseph in the than about selling him into slavery. one possibilities remain. In Gen. we sssume merchantmen ss the subject of the verb drew who were plsn would mske sense put if thst the Midisnites. pit and devoured him. Verses as Four him Five. This sssumption of s corruption need thsn the modern unnecesssry. this would imply that the brothers did in fact believe that an evil beast found Joseph in the tended. 42:13 the brothers. themselves ss even after they hsve fully Joseph into repented slavery. Spake I not unto you. behold. it is more thsn likely thst he would have arranged matters way thst their meal would have taken plsce st some distsnce from the pit. saying. such a in This Joseph own explsnstion would slso sccount for the fsct thst even sfter they repent the brothers never sdmit to selling Joseph. in which Reuben ssys. 42:22. One the author means that the Midianites sold in the text. in which Joseph clearly the present his brothers having sold into Egypt. and ye would not quired. If out of it wss the Midisnites who took the pit then it is more thsn the wild likely of that the brothers believed their story about animal. The difficulty with this interpretation lies in Chapter speaks of Forty-five. but it. Since the Midisnite merchsnts sppear right before the words they drew. ancient commentaries assumed Verse Thirty-six many of the that the Ishmaelites bought Joseph from the assumption mskes more Because brothers sense and then sold him to the Midianites. Do not sin against the child. order to Reuben hsd intended to return to the pit secretly in free Joseph. merely say And one is not. thinking of Joseph. occurred ssw the Joseph into the to Judsh. hear me? Therefore.272 Interpretation ing to the other they sold him to the Ishmaelites. too. is only assume that in Verse Thirty-six Joseph into Egypt indirectly by sell ing and him to the Ishmaelites. sllowing him to relesse Joseph without being noticed. Two erally. If the latter interpretation is intended. though it too hss its difficulties. in which case one . ss we have seen. However if the first interpretation is in be reached. Under this assumption Verse Thirty-six would then preted as was be inter by the Rsbbis. thst is to ssy. There is one other possibility which should be exsmined. he is dead. he hsd said would sssume also is his blood re Reuben obviously hss in mind whst in Verse Twenty-two of the present sbout chapter.

and all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort but he refused to be comforted: and he him.The Lion and the Ass 273 verb the ambiguities in the present verse. thus his father wept FOR HIM. he shall be their shepherd. 35. 45:3. and none shall make you afraid: and your I will rid evil beasts out of the land. After God said the plan for the Jubilee Year on which so much depended. the brothers csnnot sctuslly bring themselves to tell the lie in speech. 33. for i will go down into the grave unto my son mourning. It may be that the with author wished to connect Joseph's journey 29. he shall feed them. The other possibility of will be discussed in the mentsry to Gen. joseph was not in the 30. 26:6) mind when and Ezekiel hss Leviticus in Therefore between will he ssys: I save my flock. And I the . and he returned unto his brethren. but Jscob draws the Jacob ssme conclusion an evil beast hath devoured him. said. behold. colours. they shall no more be a prey: and I will judge cattle and cattle. the child is not. and reuben returned unto the pit. and dipped the coat in the 32. and he shall feed them. He the following: will give peace And I in the land and ye shall lie down. and they brought it and they sent the coat of many to their father. whither shall i go? 31. even And I will set up one shepherd over and them. David. blood. this have we found: recognize i pray you whether it be thy son's coat or no. (Lev. mstter several one notions present themselves for our consideration. and he rent his clothes. No how resds the present chspter it seems to be importsnt to the suthor thst the Mid isnites were present snd were thus swsre of the internsl conflicts within Israel. and killed a kid of the goats. over desert country the wild ass. Although there msy be other no clesr wsy solving the present difficulty. After having heard Judsh. since the Ishmaelites are so rarely mentioned in the Bible one feels obliged to give an account of their presence. On the other hand. and said. pit. joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. and mourned for his son many days. him. and he recognized it. It is difficult to know presented whst meant by the words evil beast. and jacob rent his clothes. and said. This msy in part account for their lster actions. and put sackcloth upon his loins. an evil beast hath devoured 34. and said it is my son's coat. and they took joseph's coat. in which the subject of the seems drew com- to be the Midisnites. neither shall the sword go through land. and i. and.

And I will make with them a and covenant of peace. And my of the land. (Ez. The last verse of Chapter Thirty-seven begins life again in Egypt. It has s double function. but it will slso force us to see Chapter Thirty-eight as part of the Joseph story. Jscob in this is slso thinking of men snd Verse Thirty-five is full to comfort becsuse are of strange psssions. AN OFFICER OF PHARAOH'S AND CAPTAIN OF THE GUARD. The story is further wsy they brothers may now believe their own lie. The sons wish they sre not sure in whst wsy they sre guilty the snd in whst innocent. I the Lord have and will cause the evil spoken it. The fsther will not be comforted becsuse he believes thst his comforters sre slso the murderers. complicated by fact that the AND THE MIDIANITES SOLD HIM INTO EGYPT UNTO POTIPHAR. 34:22-25) s comment seems to verse be right the evil beasts sre men.274 Lord Interpretation will be their God. Not only does it sssure us thst we will hesr more of Joseph. beasts to cease out they shall dwell safely in the wilderness. only hopes the evil beasts will be quieted. and sleep in the Ezekiel' woods. 36. servant David a prince among them. .

Rousseau's Reveries "Phaedrus" Translation. Gillespie Heidegger' Time" Political "Being and Philosophy by Mark s and the Possibility of Blitz Short Notices Will Morrisey Rousseau's Emile Introduction. Stone Index to Interpretation. Aristotle on Reasoning by Larry Arnhart . Notes and Interpretive Essay by by Charles E. Cohler Montesquieu's Perception Spirit of the his Audience for The Laws of A. Preface. Anthony Smith Ethics snd Politics in the World Ass: s Jurgen Hsbermss on the Robert Sscks The Lion snd the Commentsry Book of Genesis (Chspters 38-39) Robert L.Forthcoming Barbara Articles Tovey Shskespesre's Tempest snd Apology for Imitstive Poetry: The The Republic of Anne M. Butterworth. Translation and Notes by Allan Bloom. Volumes 1-10 Discussion Thumos'' Thomss West Response to Stewart Umphrey's "Eros and Reviews Michsel A. The Political Philosophy of the by George Friedman. Plato's Frankfurt School Political Ronna Burger.

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