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Volume 12 Number 1

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Jacob Klein. Fortin. 198 1. suspicious. One in day "What were I was only a youngster then a number of us got together and asked: should we "How can the world be reconstructed?" The answers von Gierke. who alerted me slightly amused. little sympathy for his fortin When did gadamer you first meet Strauss? He himself never studied at In 1 920 or thereabouts. That We were living of among the students? in an age of great political Everyone was aware of the was impact the new parliamentary general democracy one of not prepared for it. of very different. The recording done by Betty T. I saw him an enormous figure the face Fantastic! were shared search of Natorp himself was a giant in the guise of a dwarf. Marburg. We to the fact that Strauss har against certain misgivings Not that I had anything Project of Jews I editors wish to thank the Oral History the American Political Science Associa which was supported with a grant from the Pi Sigma Alpha Political Science for permitting Interpretation to make Honorary Soci its ety. read and approved and the edited version. for making this interview readers. fortin There country who would late Leo Strauss. Prof. sometimes but his home town (Kirchhain) was only a few used our library. I especially recall that of little look had bored The tion. Prof. John Walters. Was change. about me. his: furtive. too. He had studied under Cassirer at Hamburg but had political views. Some thought we ought to follow Max Weber. tions (He was a good once: friend of Paul Natorp with occasionally Germany. Frederick G. Rahv Mr. Those initial encounters still out in my memory. was conducted and subsequently edited by Prof. thanks to some and moving transla came of a prophet. in charge of procuring the books requested by students. possibly the most exciting period in there a sense of that excitement gadamer obviously an exciting period. others. of which I was the so-called the person was not stand miles away and he that "administrator." is to say. twentieth-century intellectual history. Perhaps School of many philosophers and political theorists like to know more about your lifelong relationship are you could in with this the begin by describing was the atmosphere at the Marburg in the early 1920s. Otto others still.) These concerns by the young Leo Strauss as well. and always a common friend.Gadamer on Strauss: An Interview The It following interview was held at Boston College on December ii. Our budget very large but the library was a good one. He. who was the most popular poet after in to Germany immediately his plays. Ernest L. ironic. World War I. was Gadamer has Prof. possible and it available to . Rabindranath Tagore. The do?" feeling was a country that disorientation. Lawrence pro vided valuable editorial assistance. was looking around in some orientation. He was short and I was tall.

But it was nev I was bright enough to see that before long we would not penny for such purposes. was. had never been outside of Germany. 50-51 . although I was forced to abandon it when it became too dangerous to discuss political matters in Germany. of particular Strauss sent me his books. found it regimented. succeeded He had been a pupil of was a him in the chair at Heidelberg. . as a young teacher traveling allowance. So I turned to more subjects. Alexander Riistow. had the elegance of his presentation. young student who is proud of his success. who were still ludicrous that human beings should be theatre unaccustomed to these things. be allowed a single I went to Paris. later. we are masters of organization and the participants looked bit like The French. The "nudism" referred aspect of a to was that of the parade athletes clad you in sports attire! The event had the military as a know. Among to Kojeve and took me to a Jewish restaurant. neutral one of the leading such theorists of the Nazi party. in who vated attended came to Germany and I invited him to give a lecture As I recall. he introduced a good very pleasant ten days together. the lecture. and by his charm. fortune and. as Aristotle's physics. Max Weber and was a man of considerable stature. robots.1 completely All of this The new whole totally to me who. to that extent. Afterwards The my one on we stayed in fairly regular contact. One could not about talk the Sophists without alluding to Carl Schmitt. to it prior to Hitler's coming to Germany and day we went Nudism. his wit. was so immediately burst into with no laughter. disagreed with what he said but was utterly capti 1954). 1977). The newsreel contained a segment entitled. to Hobbes I found to be interest since it was related own research on the political thought of the Sophists. He was probably After that I was very careful not to offend him." the French to the which reaction movies. After the war. He fine books on twentieth-century Voltairian of sorts. knowing how sensitive he were on good We terms and talked now and then but otherwise had few relations with each other. See Gadamer's account of this and related incidents in his Philosophische Lehrjahre (Frank furt am Main. wrote some industrial scholar. who society but was also an excellent classical 1 . in One We talked deal about the situation power. Strauss (at Heidelberg. then in his late sixties. in 1933. "German turned out to be a report on a recent athletic event. For me that was a small ertheless a warning. Our first of real acquaintance came much abroad. he spoke on Socrates. when I availed myself another radical the opportunity to travel Germany more was undergoing change and no one was allowed to take than 300 marks with him. That happened to be one of my great concerns at the time. hardly a restriction.2 doubt Interpretation whether he ever thought that but he must have sensed in me the typical arrogance of a right. Strauss was there on a other Rockefeller grant and we spent a me things. Riistow.

leader is always the one who was not no know. I later wrote a critical essay on this. has you a moment. inspired to avoid vent by Hans Rose's 1937). we are never spared the hermeneutical effort of finding bridge to them. 138-64. Klassik was an art als kunstlerische Denkform des who Abendlands (Munich. So I sent him ticle. to a though we have to take seriously the challenge which they pre sent our own prejudices. See Gadamer's review of Rose's book in Gnomon (1940). for the younger generation yet been discovered.4 book. 431-36." Hermes 63 (1927). that it challenged the choice was not to find its own evidence. Strauss and H. .'' und The Independent Journal of Philosophy 2 (1978). I was intrigued by the and a way Strauss handled the problem of the tension between Plato had never heard a real answer to that question. it traction. I wrote a paper on in Aristotle for my classics teacher. 4. To into the meaning of a text does not require us to speak its language. also For us.3 Friedlander Platonist who did not have much use for Aristotle." to my using certain modern such as to eluci date Aristotle's thought. who was the leader of the School in the 1920s? Natorp? gadamer Yes. Cf. This still did not pre him from entitling which chapters "Die Personlichkeit" ity"). he was. mention that much I forgot to phronesis was a earlier. Nicolai Hartmann. the not Natorp. Paul Friedlander. The paper was never published but an "Der aristotelische application its results is to be found in der aristotelischen Protreptikos und die entwicklungsgeschichtliche Betrachtung Ethik. the war) in which he praised it but "sedimentation. That go was exactly the point on which we disagreed. he was the great at with Marburg had an outstanding faculty of romance literature 2. G. in the late twenties. 3. but that the really an open one. modern Rose historian consistently tried ("Personal terminology in one of describing his the classics. Some of these revealed to the same problems. especially when we problems recurred our published corre with They the the strange overlapping of our positions along main a number of question of important divergences. The Ancients and the divergence had to do what extent could with the Moderns: to this famous seventeenth-century of quarrel possible to side with in the twentieth century and was it still the Ancients against the Moderns? I argued that this kind reopened modern period be debate was necessary. Concerning of Wahrheit Methode. fortin back to Marburg for But. L.Gadamer Strauss way in on Strauss spent 3 of and I the rest the day together.2 he kept coming back Plato. He wrote me a letter (destroyed objected Aristotle but of the ar copy during terms. One cannot speak the language of another epoch. "Correspondence 5-12. My in wife marveled at the which talked about spondence. Gadamer. I tried to convince without Strauss that one could recognize the superiority of Plato and Aristotle being and committed to the view that their thought was even immediately recoverable that. and that was question. is obviously To come not a classical word.

He had been a pupil of and above all of Natorp. started his day very early. But in those years Strauss was hardly ever in Marburg. As for Hartmann. prompted Heidegger to jokingly that when Hartmann's at 7:00 light went on. He died in 191 8. Baltic Cohen began to hedge. lose fortin What about the students and student life? caricatures of gadamer There were close relations between dents was went from one place to the other. The story that Strauss told me about him came from Franz Rosenzweig. as was the custom after the war and an acute housing shortage and Freiburg. being radicalized. told me doubt whether that not since Cohen had he seen such a powerful teacher. by Cohen. was to the Everything was very dramatic and first lecture honoris causa. Erich Auerbach. followed Auerbach's successor. strong We personality. remark ing his to the following He always worked well into the night. rising went four five o'clock.4 Interpretation a good Curtius. in the sense that we lived in an ivory tower. who came well organized. Heidegger. never met him. Strauss used to say that the atmosphere at Marburg was very pro gadamer and Yes. but he are written most shaman-like figure. Stu in Germany. one finds them style. at who gave or his lectures a. Curtius's by had been Eduard Wechssler. but it dealt with the origins of modern philosophy. Some of his followers him. fortin Hartmann different from the of gadamer Under the influence idealism of Scheler he had begun to and move away our from the both transcendental Cohen was Natorp. That continued to be the case after Heidegger's arrival a very exciting situation. friend of mine. They in a stern. that yond he ever got be the fifth one. and a dictatorial hardly also any had a high argumentation regard in them. fragmentary.. through living all contact with their deeper roots.m. When one reads especially impressed Cohen's books today. I three questions. went This out. I do not recall the exact title of his first course. which was about the time Hartmann to bed. I mean the habit are radicalizing questions almost ad infinitum. and four distinguished scholars. fortin vincial. But he had for him. a series of He concentrated on Descartes and developed twenty-three questions. And then there was this peculiar radicalism of of his. afterwards Hartmann. fortin When did Heidegger first start teaching there and what did he lec ture on? gadamer In 1923. There the biggest problem was to Marburg . What made who later moved to others? Berlin. Rosenzweig visited Cohen in Marburg one day and asked him how he could be so taken up with modern science and still at which point man with hold to the biblical doctrine of cre ation. Werner Krauss predecessor Leo Spitzer. forever asking empty questions which. absorbed in philosophy paying little attention to the rest of the world. he was a typical the Russian student's habit of drinking tea from the late morn morning. Twentytypical of Heidegger. in a way There is Strauss empty.

who its established became its president. of fortin mark that Your discussion at Strauss in Truth was and Method opens with the re of our his teaching 482). Munich. of so nington. What did that's you mean by that? attracted students say. Jaspers star was outstanding reputation as the leader of a seminar. It had Bruno Snell and enjoyed an Cassirer. gadamer Oh. too. to which he often most profitable conversations he had had in a long time. Later on. referred as one of the fortin Do you think Strauss able would have been better much off in Germany for the as a teacher? Would gadamer reason he have been to do as there? More perhaps? simple No. when I went to friends had offered me a room. Heidelberg was well known because of the shadow of Max Weber and the presence of Karl Jaspers and Karl Mann heim. quired Riezler. his students. easy. It eventually ac scholars in people like Horkheimer. and Tillich. So I could imag ine and some of the things I had heard about Strauss: how he. reserved. it had not yet come into its own. Whenever that from a Straussian. Hamburg. Cassirer was a voracious reader with a phenomenal memory. which was wealthy. The city. His high when I was a student. and stayed in touch with them. They things hap were kind and open because Strauss had said some nice about me and about our 1954 meeting in Heidelberg.Gadamer find on Strauss 5 I changed universities living accommodations. very kind. The univer sity was founded in the 1920s but it was not long before it began to attract attention. I met Adler. He was elegant. who was a real boss. I his students able to observe at first hand the dedication in various parts of the country: many of you. As for Frankfurt. Chicago was a citadel of progressivism. I always asked to speak at places about which I had never heard and where I of no one who might could be sure that the invitation my work. Adorno. Chicago "one of the encouraging features world" (p. Hilail Gildin. Richard Ken and others. Allan Bloom. Munich my center. poured a lot of money into it. He had neither Heidegger's dramatic quality nor Hartmann's talent for reaching young people. but only because was not an one of important with philosophic and only once. had only recently grown into a full university. be acquainted with came I was frequently knew pened. when I started coming to was America. originally founded as a already maritime institute. developed it. but one would hardly describe him as a powerful personality. Werner Dannhauser. he had the guts to answer "No" question of whether one should was clear believe in the of progress of the human It to me that the University Chicago was an unusual place. The dominant trend there was phe nomenology. My impression is that he by his courage to proclaim what no one else would have dared to Although to the mind. I had met Hutchins in Frankfurt in 1947 and found him to be a very open and farsighted man. and the greatest scholar to come from the School of Marburg. I can . You know better than I do how for them. Pfander Geiger. I also met McKeon. Stanley Rosen. success was independent of such matters that there was nothing good he drew cared phony about it. was ambitious tried to profile himself against McKeon.

That made a deep im is now a much pression I realize that this debated question and was not that Strauss himself had and second thoughts about his book. I thought he fortin never than six or eight students. Does that have something to do gadamer on it? a great Yes. had historical a special signif icance for struck me as a precursor of the modern consciousness. The other British society. 1 488). the hermeneutical experience is the a ex a perience of difficulty that we encounter when we try to follow book. My feeling same that he was right as not far Maimonides very Maimonides was concerned but that the always author apply equally well to Spinoza. was gadamer thinking mainly of Spinoza. not the way it was produced. can one quences of persecution raises for the hermeneutical one: The question that and it is an enormously important run counter society? how convey relevant express thoughts that to contemporary trends or the commonly accepted opinions of one's studies The question was particularly to my own in Plato. where the issue of public opinion and censorship comes up in of even more acute fashion. camouflage and concealment" (p. although I personally learned deal from his book as a Hobbes. too. From his description in the You 1950s. But that my field to read very of personal something in this style was a revelation.6 Interpretation only see the effect. For the first time somebody was attempting to see Hobbes not only British counterpart of the new foundation of the epistemology of the sci ences but as a moralist whose by means of an analysis of on me. There is a good deal book that I would single out is Persecution and the Art of Writ ing. There was also something in his image of Hobbes as a man who hated the English political of system and suffered greatly at the hands Strauss in the Hobbes book. been in Germany he would likewise have founded My feeling is that if he had I did not real a real school. and I was par ticular by by the way Strauss treated the Theologico-Political Treatise Spinoza as in his analysis of Spinoza's Strauss's did attempt to explain miracles essays on and in terms of the cultural agenda. It took the life Socrates. I pretty much agree with Strauss on that fortin In Truth and Method you also refer to his rediscovery of the eso teric mode of writing or what you call "conscious distortion. There is the possibility that the inconsistencies uncovered in the works of an are due to some confusion on his part. He. relationship to the Sophists could be explained his views on civil society. where one can see both the positive and the negative or dangerous conse problematic. as What would you identify his major contribution? spoke a and while ago about his having revived the old quarrel with between the Ancients the Moderns. ize until you told me how large his had more classes were. Maybe this only reflects the method confusion in my the own mind. I studied was closely. There is always the pos sibility point. One cannot be a thinker without exposing oneself to it. . As I see it. that anything worth saying will arouse opposition.

but he often came back.Gadamer play. I would rediscovery. To what extent is this true? gadamer There was a certain symbiosis between Klein and me. on Strauss step 1 or a work of art us by step. here well in Germany. fortin Strauss credited Klein with having rediscovered the of the dramatic features of the Platonic dialogues. Friedlander did not influence Klein directly. in such a way as to allow it to obsess us and lead beyond our own horizon. and so did I. Together we relating the dramatic elements of the dialogues to the philo sophical problems with which they deal. the only one responsible for the of hesitate to say However. 1933). The only thing I would add is that in Germany philosophy is more at the forefront of Platonic studies. From the center of my even studies. taking us them seriously involves from the danger of agnosticism or confronted.5 beyond him. for whom Hildebrandt had a sensitive He was not a philosopher but a well educated psychiatrist who had a good feel go but tried to for young people. Platon: Der Kampf des Geistes urn die Macht (Berlin. I gave some courses on Plato's dialec tics own which I treated the Sophist and the Theaetetus. On that in complete Needless to say. Klein had already left Marburg when I began to study the classics with Friedlander. I tried to demonstrate that in these late dialogues there is contain more a certain living communication and hence that they struck than is explic itly stated in the text. of I resented as much as willing to take se he did the assumed as the scholar thinks he can improve Plato's logic. In this. I learned something from Hildebrandt's book on Plato. that Klein was although he did so through me. As a result. understanding s discovery. C. score we were if able to think logically. I had a conversation with a young student who 5. he had a better knowledge had the in merit of philosophy than Friedlander. It even is amazing to on how great the as impact as of s book has been the college level. . there is less of a tendency to overemphasize the dramatic setting of the dialogues than there is among Klein's and Strauss's second and third generation followers. It is by no means certain that we can ever recapture and integrate the original experiences encapsulated a challenge relativism. I sometimes re ceive papers from them which abound in all sorts of clever but unfounded in terpretations. I followed ear. Strauss extended of see this to the area of Friedlander' political theory. Still. in those works. who to our thinking was and preserves Strauss riously the texts that he superiority Plato had not been agreement. so there was a genuine exchange. Just yesterday. We import were both by the fact that a proper attention to their dramatic component was crucial to an That was the of Klein's Friedlander' and Plato's thought. Strauss's attention to the external Plato's and Xenophon's works was very congenial to Friedlander to some extent or dramatic elements of me. Hildebrandt. This enabled him to see things in the Platonic dialogues that importance no one else could see.

8 Interpretation between the circular and somewhat comical tried to establish a connection dia lectic of the Parmenides occasion of place on the fact that the meeting with Parmenides takes the Panathenaic games. understand you ism. there was the overwhelming resonance that I found among his former students. I am always I found that very touching. that its rele and that so far we knew no Klein himself did me a that trap. You certainly do not consider yourself a relativist. "Oh. Method (pp. in of which He points out that at the so good. Truth If I and Method. one of the first Jewish philosophers of the Maimon wrote a very interesting the impact of the Jewish school system on we autobiography in which he traces his own thinking. also says would am not suggesting to They have been disappointed! Strauss seems have at- . 1800). Strauss takes issue concerning p. But he then proceeds detailed comparison these fourteen characters and the fourteen hostages Theseus had once rescued from the Minotaur Delos for the wrong place. were present. I tried and indirectly to challenge him in an appendix to not the second edition of Truth either. That is Talmud in the as fortin or That method mudic" "rabbinical. not always on avoid for his assertion. The book is re as regards the experience was vealing because of suppression. you are reacting in your own way against relativ apparently not convinced that you had succeeded in overcom take his criticism to be a serious one? gadamer I replied to his letter but he broke off the correspondence." it reflects on my own worth but only to suggest that we were good friends. I pointed out that that was all and the some support very more nice but that he had to find vance had to be demonstrated from the text itself. the province from which Strauss hailed. 482-491). particularly Hesse. Recently. somebody he says some persons showed copy of his lecture the Phaedo. So between far. On top of that. no. but he did I saw reply to that We met again afterwards and cussion that he was very cordial. He replied. All kinds of doors were open to me when I came to this country. One day in the course of a dis it to I referred to an article of mine and he said: "But you never sent would me!" I told him it since much of it was interested in cause what have been pointless to send along everything I wrote foreign to his interests. Do you correctly. just as there are in Salomon Maimon Kantian era. I demanded full agreement from me. with some of your statements the "relativity of all human values" (for example. at least in Strauss. known for its anti-Semitism fortin in the early decades of this century. Strauss ing it. In his correspondence with you. That that these people fortin something about his loyalty." of reading texts has often been described Is that the right way to talk about it? "tal gadamer There are elements of (1754- that. than that it might be warranted. death Socrates fourteen to make a crazy things. have a parallel here. was 53). with the ship that was still sent on an annual mission to purpose of commemorating this event. I mention it not be you write.

I was twenty-eight years old then and not yet ma of ture enough to grasp the full implications somehow and one of that fact. Of course. for den M. 7. this is the situation out which the new agreement hermeneutics arises. we had about the Ion and.. R. that there is the divine. is what underlies the Phaedrus and the other di alogues. gadamer is disclosed. Dilthey is more of a contemporary of Nietzsche and is espe cially place some of useful as the mediator of the romantic feeling. disagreement is This is disagreement is erkannte a prejudice. Hence my insistence on the positive side of Socrates's conformism.6 meaning about According him. . the primacy Heidegger called die Sorge fiir die cogni Erkenntnis. what In my opinion. Manheim transl. I allude to this in my discussion with Strauss (cf. the monologue of the scientists. world. basic agreement. delivered in 1929. My inaugural lecture. An Introduction to Metaphysics." of the to the cataclysmic crash of all to hori of of value. whereas Heidegger takes his from Nietzsche. City. however. 1961). and central issue of the such. one should not lose sight of the dual nature of the re lationship. You for seem to make light of That is is a crucial question me as well. But behind this difference lies the German Idealism. or so I gather from the discussion example. 33 and 37. that is.M. I do and not believe one can call Socrates an atheist. but be we are never able hind it lurks the to conceive. about the 6. That is in a way true. Both Socrates conformism with Plato maintained a certain conviction distantiated the cult. See. that is. (Gar was never published. one that is characterized by the total lack of fundamental issues and in which the groundlessness of all accepted notions hitherto commonly that.7 begins one's teaching career. in my view. the primacy of epistemology. 485). to what Hei degger zons calls the "darkening and world. as the tension my deepest insights (if I may say so) had to do with what one of Strauss's between the thinker and society Here again. sciences or the epistemology the Beneath the one structures of the opinion-making technology sic experience on which our society is based finds a more ba involving some agreement. Schleiermacher.Gadamer on Strauss 9 our tached more importance than you do to the crisis of time. later. Heidegger. without some agreement. That is why I have always emphasized the role of friendship in Greek ethics. Hegel. The radicalism to which you allude related to Strauss's remark about the fact that I take my cue from Dilthey. My own perspective aware of of is always the hermeneutics of the whole We have to become the limitations of the methodology of the monologue. p. as Bloom does. of communication the public lecture with which one subject. of conceptual thinking no as I think that possible. the preoccupation with "cognized the commitment to certitude. Strauss might agree with me. was on this My point was that what fills two books in Aristotle's Ethics occupies no more than a page in Kant. but I anticipated them I described topics. something whether That. The lecture. but I doubt Bloom would. T.

. Republic. conventionalism. gadamer well. a prehermeneutical situation when German Idealism There I disagree that you raise The point effect that I work not only with Strauss but with Heidegger as is closely connected with Strauss's remark to the from Dilthey rather than from Nietzsche. Euthyphro's denuncia tion of cratic his father illustrates the logical noble conflict that is typical of all of the So convicted dialogues.10 Interpretation where Euthyphro. I follow him the empty or extreme situation. "No. view. Im in the hand is a certain overestimation of the possible impact the theoretical Heidegger only in at all when That is the thought behind my attitude. to the point gods." Socrates is that really pious one. one which coincides appearance of new a transitional consensus. who said that there is no city in the in which the ideal city is not present in some ultimate sense. but whenever philosophical came up. As you know. The I made was that professors question at man. I am a Platonist. to him. I never discussed these matters with Strauss issues or Klein at any great length. Cf. No! That borders the sophistry. we are formed between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. but their function is After the war. they to build up character. that is in along deed my perhaps overly conservative position. pletely. 351c. In the best not instance. he shied away from fortin What do you think of the idea that hermeneutical ontology be longs to of all new precisely with the shattering horizons? Doesn't Heidegger himself look forward to the emergence of a period. Bloom defended the Socrates the had opposite thyphro wrong. I do not follow he talks about new gods and similar things. arguing that Eu I think that is completely So we fierce but He friendly very altercation. the conflict between in us was even sharper. was the pious one and a atheist. Plato. Academic teachers always come too order to get with one another. in lis Strauss avoided them. That I regard as a means fair statement. just as we were in was still dominant. Bloom took opposed the position that Euthyphro acted a spirit of genuine piety. as to Socrates. on what Frankfurt point that plied of can train young scholars. what he does with This is his only point 8. I was invited to give a lecture in the German professor thinks of his role as an educator. was amicable and I took great pleasure tening them. What it is that for me the tradition remains a living tradi tion.8 justice in late. for whom we can only wait? Strauss's is that we shall then find ourselves in a posthermeneutical situa tion. to whom we are always led back. who was emancipated from the on religious tradition. He maintains one should always respect one's piety when he father. You also statement about know the famous some sense of the gang of robbers whose members need Well. Someone of a claims a special competence. I disagreed com I said. hypoc argues on grounds of risy. I agree with world Plato. he is then by means argument based on the real figure of Socrates. have no role to play in that regard.

" 193-207. the self-regulation of the system. "Sein. sense. the self-articulation of the concept. culminating in our present-day technological my latest articles on Heidegger. he has my wholehearted approval. uns his I mysterious allusions to the return of the again and saw we were shocked.9 means only that calculating he can is not what will save us from the he impending sometimes catastrophe.10 certain remnants of culture from which we. he likewise anticipated an extreme position of Of course ended in self-contradiction. Nietzsche. as he new world. and everything will be regulated by an omnipotent bureaucracy. contacted him that that was not what ein he had in It was a facon de parler. That share basic to me and seem here I to his position completely. a certain infinity. Gott. a final world govern into being. it involves phorical a confusion or a categorical and fallacy. looks any the ahead to the emergence of a So I deny that it makes sense to speak of a posthermeneutical epoch.. when he dis maintains that there is something beyond conceptual to be true. 10." that is. Heidegger out with was not a Nietzschean in that When he first gods. Olson. Heidegger's intention was merely to bring to light the one- sidedness of this society. for would example. An English translation 1976). He was only suggesting that there exist in the Far East In one of stance. Western way. or whatever it may be. Heidegger when says more than cover. Cf. 267-84. Nur politics Gott kann retten. the interview appears in Philosophy and day 20:4 (Winter. It is best a meta way of is meant to suggest manner. Gadamer. if we go on in this terminal state. 1981). Geist. issue of Der Spiegel. 74-85.Gadamer on Strauss 11 who of agreement with nothingness. H. Its universality implies human finitude. cusses could the work of art and which can claim thinking seems possibly benefit. who have glimpsed the impasse of Western civilization. You regard hermeneutical philosophy as the whole of gadamer fortin on It is universal. I try to show that Heidegger was He did not believe in Confucius and other very far from any sectarian such exotic novelties. fortin philosophy. which I cannot admit. 1976. Even his famous statement. Nevertheless. On the other hand. Kleine Schriften IV (Tubingen. and. I would criticize that too." in L. opinion. "The Religious Dimension in eds. G. of That would be something like In my at recaptured immediacy speaking will the speculative ideas. started coming really mind. I do not believe in this extreme elabo Nietzsche. Transcendence and the Sacred (Notre Dame." They go together. Finitude corresponds to Hegel's "bad infin What I mean is that the "good infinity. To shortly Heidegger's death. That is the ultimate or extreme situation. in . 1977). of course. technology be enshrined as a only that. yet you insist a great deal gadamer ity. See the interview after with Heidegger published in the of May 31. does. Rouner A.' seems to me 9. selfment will come destruction rated by can occur on the way to it. Gadamer. Heidegger.

Unfortunately. Strauss He once said that as a said young he had two interests God also on a number of occasions that the greatest phi losophers Whitehead of of the twentieth century Bergson. As I Aristotle always one once wrote. never may have had dealt thematically with an politics as the cultural matrix of of the historical we When we speak historian without qualification.12 Interpretation anticipation of a new to be an immediacy. differed from their predecessors by reason of the virtual absence any political dimension from their thought. All is not negative here inasmuch of as the theoret which ical man remains subordinated to phronesis. The ideal of a political science that is not based on the lived experience of phronesis would be sophistic from Aristotle's or point of view. like the technai. What troubles of episteme. Strauss tends to see consciousness. One my recent articles. That I way sense of cannot go along with. of fortin You have done a lot fine work on and especially on his notion of phronesis. Their philosophies grave political political implications but they themselves issues. Do gadamer you still recognize the overarching importance of other side of the same problem. We are mortals and not gods. that of the place the theoretical man in society. Aristotle had to prefer the political life and defended the primacy of the theo retical life only out of deference to Plato. some people is that you seem to stress phronesis at portant well? the expense and Wasn't science or episteme equally im notion as for Aristotle doesn't one have to come to grips with that gadamer Aristotle's main point and it is also Plato's is that science. on the basis of his premises. . like any form of skill or craftsmanship. You mentioned at the beginning of our conversation that you were once interested in the political abandon that pursuit thought of the Sophists but had to This is the because of the situation politics? of in Germany. Heidegger. we When speak of eudaimonia. generally mean a political historian. fortin and politics. The article demonstrates do not the absurd ity of that view. bad as it sounds. we have that choice. the ultimate achievement of human life. the question could be we posed as an alternative. That is very man clear in Plato. We cannot conceptualize the idea the good. I do not deny that the clarification of the apodictic demonstrative dimension exemplified by mathematics and is a great especially by the theoretical mode of Euclidean mathematics achievement in the eyes of Aristotle. Moreover. In it I try to show that it is always a mistake to stress the tension between these two lives or to say that. If we were gods. and has been in the needs years press for years it is being published in Greece Greece deals with the problem of the theoretical and the practical life in Aristotle's Ethics. Husserl. James. The step emphasis on more. finitude is just another Bad this bad infinity in the infinity is not as Hegelian saying that there is belongs to finitude. is knowledge that has to be integrated into the good life of the society by means of phronesis. But the idea of the good lies scope beyond the of any of science.

He was in Berlin then and now lives in Munich. but only that the theoretical We remain embedded in the which we were reared and social structures and must the normative perspectives in we recognize that are part of a development that a always and proceeds on the basis of some preshaped view. He found a new home in the and became extremely conservative. life would gods. very the last grateful day to of your stay in this country least for this We you. I Do you still stand by what you said gadamer mentioned Yes. You year of Strauss a number of times between 1965 then? 1973.11 It was most time on are all this. was possible.Gadamer on Strauss 13 account. 11. as with me. the his death." The Independent Journal of Philosophy 2 (1978). "Letter to Helmut . Kuhn. of He was a Protestant Jewish extraction and had a strong religious bent. Would you not Catholic Church agree that the defense of history kind can gadamer fortin Oh. Strauss of you be equally dogmatic? makes that point in his letter to to give us so at much of your year. fortin More than sixteen years have elapsed since the publication of your discussion met of Strauss in the second edition of Truth and and Method (1965). . the experiences of the Third him to convert to Catholicism. have to take both lives into the second The characterization of the practical life as best life in the Aristotelian be fine if we were scheme means we are not. 23-26. 490). He was modest and. Cf L. fortin gadamer Are there any other survivors from the period of the early 1920s? Helmut Kuhn. Ours is fundamentally come inescapably mediation hermeneutical of situation with which we have to to terms via a the practical problems of politics and society with the theoretical life. As is the case with so Reich prompted many other religious intellectuals. Kuhn. Strauss. though perhaps not a definitive one. in the book to which you refer in Truth and Method (p. and I hope he not earlier. he did very like to discuss his disagreements would agree. describes the opposition to history as being very dogmatic. I had made a new overture a he knew that further discussion. I have always regretted and that the dialogue was not pursued. fortin Litt. certainly.

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unconsciously. What Fortinbras presumably does not yet know is how deeply indebted he actually is to Hamlet. instructive Friedrich Nietzsche. . Fortinbras may be his win the hearts of the dead prince's partisans and thus to advance in Denmark. involuntarily . modern soul where with case. by G. he this endorsement judgment. it casts doubt on would have been as king. / Which speaking well of now to claim my vantage doth invite seeking to own cause (v. prophesy As election a political lights / On Fortinbras.Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince Paul A. Ever ahead to seize an opportunity. ed. and as the most Fortinbras' clearly political action Hamlet takes in Hamlet the play. 1974). Fortinbras is already the situation he has stumbled upon: thinking "I have to how he me" might exploit some rights. If prediction how successful one political theme runs throughout Hamlet. A diagnosis of the it begin? With of incision into this instinctive contradiction. we hear how Denmark sion from Norway. might when Fortinbras concludes was by predicting as we are what put Hamlet's political future have been: "he (v. with the vivisection of the most the isolation its opposite values. say we would like to think that Fortinbras Fortinbras has in the prince's potential as a king. 389-90). it is the struggle of the Danes to maintain their ascendancy over the Norwegians. Hamlet proposes Fortinbras as the next has King of Denmark: "I do (v. My text for Hamlet is from The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. We soon is arming itself against a possible inva learn that the elder Hamlet's greatest triumph was 1.ii. As the play opens. ' cor likely. 355 my dying th' voice" -56). critics might Hamlet fails to for much of luctant to And yet speculate about how he with the problem of why have understandably been re have acted had he come to the throne. The Case of Wagner I Few let have critics have troubled themselves over the question: Would Prince Ham made a good act King of Denmark? Preoccupied the play. / To have royal" prov'd most Sympathetic rectly to Hamlet. a resolute . end of Shakespeare raises the issue at the the play. Cantor University of Virginia But all of us have. For in his last words. moralities of opposite would descent. of memory in this kingdom. But a political motive an ulterior motive one might even one being so generous to the dead Hamlet.ii. formulas. Blakemore Evans. 397-98). had he been assessed on. words.ii. By Hamlet. in our bodies values. of is truly extraordinary. .

because this fratricide is at all times surrounded by many to people" (v. brought younger some achievement. pp. the German play Der bestrafte Brudermord ("Fratricide Punished"). Bullough. 20-24. pp. in Fratricide Punished. Duke Fortinbras of Norway. specifically no precedent to the son of his father's greatest antagonist. Hamlet possibly justify his dying bequest to his people of a Norwegian enemy as their king? It is of course notoriously difficult to discover what is going on in Hamlet's mind. 158. p. discussion of the complicated relation of this Hamlet. there is not the slightest hint sounds patriotic. in check. pp. With his He dying breath. an earlier Elizabethan Hamlet play.i. There is for this in any of the sources we have for Hamlet. Observing political resoluteness in marching into battle for an essentially trivial cause. For Bullough. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Kegan Paul. the cornerstone of Danish foreign policy be to keep Norway winds. 4." the probably be: "Fortinbras should be king because he is the best man for When Hamlet witnessed Fortinbras preparing to invade Poland. 15-20. we cannot know 2. . so hands.4 Hamlet is here given a simple and comprehensible motive bras to the throne. he has successfully present ful diplomacy his to get the King of Norway to rein on policy of peace in Fortinbras and di vert aggressive impulses against Poland. probably by Thomas Kyd and conventionally re ferred to as the Ur-Hamlet. We later learn that the Fortinbras is trying through force of arms to undo the elder Hamlet's to defeat the elder Fortinbras in single combat. a in either Saxo Grammaticus Belleforest. a motive which even version. The clarity of Hamlet's motivation for endorsing Fortinbras in the German play only highlights the mysteriousness of his action in Shakespeare's play. 1973).16 Interpretation a victory which apparently Norwegian territory under Danish control. Whether the battlefield or in the seems to council chamber. The greatest difficulty for any source-study of Hamlet is that we lack what was presumably Shakespeare's prin cipal source. spiritedHamlet felt weak and irresolute by comparison and praised compared Fortinbras' Geoffrey Bullough. sources of For the Hamlet. see Shakespeare (London: Routledge and with certainty whether Shakespeare introduced Hamlet's appears endorsement of Fortinbras into the or story. Vol. In the absence of this play. take the that the Kingdom may crown to not fall into my cousin. 3-189. Claudius cannot equal the martial exploits of his heroic pursued a predeces sor. my revenge.). See Bullough. own Hamlet seems willing to throw this policy to the wants to hand the Danish throne over to a Norwegian. All we can mate say is that no such action sources of the Hamlet legend. for naming Fortin But in Shakespeare's of any kinship between Hamlet and Fortinbras. see For example.2 The only parallel is to be found in the peculiar analogue to Hamlet. the complicated question of why Hamlet delays his and cannot yet attain revenge receives a very simple answer: "Now am I back here once more. VII. but as we see him in Act II. But his defense of his choice of Fortinbras could How then would job. play to the ulti 3. which concludes with Hamlet saying: action "Gentle Horatio."3 other In keeping with the way this much truncated version simplifies the story and tries to clear up its mysteries. he Fortinbras' himself unfavorably to the Norwegian prince.

dying words are no as or last. And Hamlet's aberration.iv.254- king of infinite not space were it not that I have bad 56). the medium through which most men relate their private concerns to something larger and more universal. and instead lets his vision roam freely over all the world. in which he lives. The and the universal are the two poles view between which Hamlet's mind moves. he feels that he must go beyond the narrow bounds of Denmark to lo shows cate the best man available. nobility. II Hamlet's cosmopolitanism is in part a reaction to the provinciality of the to country Europe. Hamlet governed by nature rather than convention.Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince 17 ness. What tends to drop out from his is the middle term. He because private could within in fact be content with little private world of his own mind that mind his thoughts can range over the whole universe. Shakespeare seems have gone out of of his way to portray Hamlet's Denmark as mired in the cultural backwaters Nothing characterizes the Denmark of the play so strikingly as the fact . decides to be act. even if he happens to be a Norwegian. the distinction between us and them. In his most political himself completely indifferent to the most basic of political considerations. Hamlet does take his bearings from the ordinary the political horizon. To find a king for the Danes. When cession. A cosmopolitan by temperament. / That ever I was born to set it at the heart of Hamlet's tragedy is to view him as 188-89). even for anything less than the best is in some re in a ruler. Hamlet evidently recalls the kingliness he thinking of the Danish suc and observed in Fortinbras. with precision when Hamlet defines himself that he is politically myself a he Rosencrantz' rejects a s claim ambitious: "I could be bounded in nutshell. spite." of his own mind and savoring the freedom the world. He refuses to allow his horizons to be limited by any one community just because he happened to be born in it.ii. Hamlet's final speech simply which reveals stark with all along. and his balks at that prospect: "The time is out of joint O cursed (i. But one must wonder how Denmark is at have fared under a monarch who heart indifferent to the distinction between Danes whim and Norwegians. v. Hamlet is a man who wishes to take the cosmos as his polis. the which prevent public demands the is merely a realm of "bad within the bounds him from remaining safely of a citizen of dreams. political For Hamlet. and courage (iv. a One waY of getting cosmopolitan in the etymo logical meaning of the term.minute with Proposing clarity the Fortinbras king momentary is entirely in keeping the character with he displays throughout the problem play. Hamlet's unwillingness to settle spects an admirable would trait. 32-66). the public. Hamlet is narrow politics he has been struggling placed in circum of stances demand that he take the soul Denmark seri ously. dreams" and count (n.

is't. asks drinking horatio hamlet Is it a custom? Ay. as the youth of Denmark are evidently learning despise him homeland Claudius' Hamlet about expresses out-of-step with more modern and fashionable his contempt for Denmark openly when Horatio ceremony: countries. . 12-20). But far in from regarding this as an enviable opportunity for a mance. It does not say much for Denmark even its royal court is looked down upon by actors as the provinces. A that king is are supposed his country. the players have come to Elsinore only because their royal command perfor stiff new competition home city has forced them on the road. only the royal funeral and a royal wedding has brought the cast of characters together ertes are in Denmark. both Hamlet and La to already begging their travels. They Soil clip us drunkards. native But to my mind. Trav Europe. from the latest eling their all over cut of clothing to the avant-garde style of fencing. eigners make how easily Hamlet slips into an outsider's perspective on his doubt a result of all the time he has spent abroad listening to for fun of Danes." If Hamlet ac a cepts Europe's judgment Danish customs as "swinish. he not to point out they "more honor'd in the breach than the of observance. Laertes begs leave to go off to Paris. to By the second scene.18 Interpretation have to be forced to spend time there and are always on that even its citizens the lookout for the earliest potent combination of a opportunity to leave. When Hamlet ways: be excused from the court so that they can return meets an old friend. Hamlet has become in effect a foreigner in his own speech This thus reveals how problematic to uphold the customs of his kingship would have been. This heavy-headed Make revel east and west us traduc'd and tax'd of other nations." would have had hard time acting the part of king with conviction. though I am And to the manner born. that The play leaves ciated with no doubt that Europe offers more interesting places to be than Denmark. country. Hamlet is even surprised to hear that a reputable theatrical company has Claudius' arrived at court. asso Martin Luther. and hence with the new in in the play with new tellectual currents of both the Renaissance and the Reformation. with the clear implication: some place more Hamlet is able to spy out that aren't you "Why Rosencrantz and Guildenstem are working for Claudius because he knows that "What are you interesting?" no one would come to Elsinore of his own volition.iv. marry. As the play opens. Hamlet would rather be in both Doctor Faustus and Wittenberg. a university town. it is More honor' here a custom d in the breach than the observance. and with swinish phrase our addition (i. a city associated fashions to of all kinds. Here we see no homeland. his first question is almost al doing here in Denmark?".

Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince
But Hamlet's

to his native land. When he is prob


not confined


the motives of Rosencrantz and

Guildenstem, he



his disgust really is:

sends you to prison

What have you, my good friends, deserv'd hither?

at the




that she


Prison, my lord?
a prison. world one.



Then is the


A goodly one, in Denmark being one

which there are

many confines, wards,



worst (n.ii.239 47).

contempt focuses on Denmark, but only as the worst example of what is generally wrong with the world. For Hamlet all regimes are prisons: they ar bitrarily limit man's horizons by imposing one set of customs on him. In this


exchange, Hamlet's contempt for Denmark quickly expands into a the
world as




an attitude which

begins to ity. As

suspect a

distinctly Christian ring to it. One link between Hamlet's cosmopolitanism and his Christian
a religions of


to the civic

the ancient world,





to be a catholic church,



to be lim



the boundaries of any particular regime. Hamlet shares this transpoliti
can never

cal perspective.





life because he

tends to view all the things of this world that

from the

perspective of eternity.






to be a great

ultimately insignificant. For transitory lord is only to be "spacious in the possession of

(v.ii. 87-88).

for the breadth


Hamlet's horizons is that he is



history, especially

history. He likes to




the standard of classical models, according to which he usually

finds them

wanting. with

But in Hamlet's eyes,
time dissolved into



superior greatness of

the ancient world



the skull of poor






wonder whether

Alexander the

Great looked the


way in the
of all


Alexander's fate teaches Hamlet

lesson in the vainglory



political greatness


Imperious Caesar, dead Might stop

and turn'd to clay,

hole to


the wind


O that that

earth which

kept the




patch a wall


winter s

flaw! (v.i. 213- 16)




the danger

"Twere to

too curiously, to consider / to

in Hamlet's thinking this way: (v.i. 205-6). A prince, not

mention a


cannot afford

be too acutely

aware of

the hollowness of

political glory,

for that

awareness would undermine

his ability to




goals with singlemindedness and zeal.


cannot close

But Hamlet


eyes to the skull

beneath the skin,


his study

history has like the momentary fads of fashion. Speaking of how the players have sud denly fallen out of the public's favor, Hamlet cannot resist drawing a political
ancient and modem convinced him that


political reputations



for Rosencrantz



It is


mouths at

very strange, for my uncle is him while my father lived,





those that would make


for his

twenty, forty, fifty, a hundred ducats in little. 'Sblood, there is something in this more than natural,
out (n.ii.363 68).

if philosophy

find it



the mutability


this world, Hamlet turns from politics to philoso

phy, from


life to

a private quest


a universal and stable truth. ancient


were with

that despite his

for the

world, Hamlet does

turn to classical philosophy.

Hamlet is concerned,
the "more than

not as


and a

Aristotle Christian
In his

the natural, but



Hamlet's is

philosophy, directed toward what lies beyond the borders of this
one other mention of sees as


philosophy, Hamlet feels


to correct what
are more


the limited horizons





in heaven (i.v.


Horatio, / Than
who claims









he is "more

an antique

Roman than


(v.ii. 341), displays
cellus observes

a classical skepticism about all reaction

things supernatural, as Mar

in Horatio's

to the report of the






fantasy, / And

will not

let belief take hold before he


(1. i. 23-24).



contrast, believes in the


ever sees



is in




phenomena, thus



wide open

to "thoughts


beyond the

reaches of our

an examination of

the implications of Hamlet's emerges, to public


endorsement of

to his own,

a consistent profile
who prefers private

of a man who prefers other countries


and who

is in many



concerned about

this world than the next. Together these attitudes work to unfit
role of avenger

Hamlet for the

his father's

ghost wishes to







as a cultivated and sophisticated product of mod

Christian Europe,

room and

is suddenly asked to step out of a university class into the brutal world of Norse Hamlet must become involved

in the

most primitive of social considerations



blood feud,

and subordinate all

to the sole task of exacting vengeance:


also i.i. 30,

56-58, 165.

6. Cf. Bullough,


Hamlet's tragedy is thus the
called upon

the movement Hamlet


to perform:


mirror image of Othello's. Othello entering Venetian society, he moves

Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince
Yea, from
I'll All


the table of my memory
all trivial all


fond records,
all pressures past

saws of




youth and observation copied


And thy commandement all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain, Unmix'd



(i. v. 98-



reveals more than


realizes when


recognizes that to pursue



avenger, he


have to





Far from

preparing him for the task of taking vengeance, Hamlet's upbringing has in fact made it impossible for him to pursue Claudius with the pagan fierceness his sit
uation calls

can of course
respond emotionally to the appeal of his father's him clearly wants to wreak vengeance on Claudius. There when Hamlet seems to embrace a heroic role and his Danish


and part of

are even moments

heritage, as, for I, / Hamlet the


in his



more than a


"This is


(v.i. 257-58). But there is himself. He

the way Hamlet here announces




irony in deliberately over

histrionic outbursts of acting the part, spurred into competition by grief over Ophelia. Even in his moments of passion, Hamlet maintains a criti


detachment that


him from


completely plunging into the



dictate. He is
to the





I may say,


by the principle of acting "in the very torrent, tempest, and, troop of your passion, you must acquire and beget a temper
governed of players:

in his life


that may




(m.ii.6-8). And



Hamlet its




ideal, he

cannot close praise of


eyes to what


sees as



hollowness. Consider his


expedition against


Witness this army of such mass and charge, Led by a delicate and tender prince, Whose spirit, Makes


ambition pufT'd

mouths at

the invisible event,
mortal and unsure

To Even for


all that

fortune, death,


danger dare,

an egg-shell

(iv.iv. 47-53).


a primitive



to a

sophisticated civilized one.

Hamlet is

an established member of who as a

his society

who craves the


of a cosmopolitan existence;



from country to country, finally hopes to settle down and mercenary has known what it is to move take his place through marriage in Venetian society. Hamlet is destroyed while attempting to as one and become in effect domesti sume an epic role; Othello is destroyed while attempting to leave misplaced: Hamlet, the modern cated in Venice. Each hero is tragically and, as it were, generically

farce lem
and of




Norse saga;


the Homeric

hero, blunders into


Italian bedroom

is in


forced to kill his beloved

himself to




the prob



in Othello, see Allan Bloom, "Cosmopolitan Man and the Political Com Shakespeare's Politics (New York: Basic Books, 1964), especially pp. 46-51-

See Wood. allows Hamlet to see beyond the conven horizon undermines His intellect is constantly called upon to and yet reveals posed perform. Hamlet genuinely admires Fortinbras. 32. he has nothing but that he would just contempt for the Denmark he lives in Norwegian yet as soon see a and to uphold his father's honor. 73-79). Political men take the pretexts for their heroic action very seriously seeing the for.22 Interpretation to this speech. in John Russell Brown also Bernard Harris. 1973. calculations as an avenger. as pagan merely has to kill the concludes body his on Hamlet be reflects on his mission. When. scann'd: so am reveng'd. him to deny meaning to the very acts he feels right the wrongs supposed to in his native land. Fortinbras would he was. We can be help ultimate of what the Norwegian prince straw" admit that because they view their ideals uncritically. That would be kills my father.55). goes to And And I'll do't and so 'a heaven. do this same villain send I. he is haunted arbitrarily won and seldom long maintained. finding "quarrel in a (1v. world-view presence of an afterlife in Hamlet's A introduces that a a new factor of into his enemy. 1966). Thought" Hamlet (New York: Schocken. . Why. eds . 8. to use Hamlet's phrase. Hunter. One is tempted to say that their po litical resolve derives precisely from the fact that they are unaware of the illu sory character of the goals they often But the cosmopolitan stance which tional political pursue. which clearly complicate his response to his worldly tasks. and yet he worthlessness strives not sure that in stating his own position. A villain To heaven. unpublished). of James Wood. one thinks one to the last Listening bras until one gets himself had been cannot inflating. The this is hire and salary. "The Heroism Hamlet" of p. see G. th' incestuous pleasure of game a-swearing. and for that his sole son. "The Pale Cast pp. I now a is a-praying.iv. to take action in this world. he finds that vengeance is a far more complicated matter for a Chris by visions the tian than a pagan: Now might now I do it pat.7 is hearing unequivocal praise of Fortin in which Hamlet abruptly deflates what he line. iii.8 leading He is his ability to take any heroic ideal seriously. his bed. Or in At 7. supposed of ultimately its throne. for example. he finally has an opportunity to kill Claudius. (Harvard University Undergraduate 95 See Honors Thesis. K. He is sup his study of history has shown on and him that political reputations are Above all. he in such a Christian bent vengeance must destroy saved: the body way that the eternal soul of his vic tim will not When he is drunk asleep. or about some act For a more detailed and analysis of this speech. not revenge (111. p. or in his rage. and yet he is constantly next. 30-32.

Hamlet feeds his vengeful impulses by drawing leaving upon classical precedents. he up exposing the For discussion of Hamlet in relation to the revenge play tradition. which in turn par understand him as actor.iii. the classical and Christian traditions recommend of action. Laertes. Intellectual historians tend to the Renaissance as trying to reconcile these two traditions in one grand synthesis. an intelligent and reflective man in the role of avenger. and leam to kill not just the body but the soul. vii. Spencer's Hamlet (New York: Penguin Books. whereto it goes (m. 1980).Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince That has no relish of salvation 23 in't Then trip him. usually referred to as Christian humanism. as a quick review of the Iliad and the New opposing Testament will courses reveal.89 95). B. must Christian. as we have find A a more so simpler man seen. the Iliad-like tale of how Pyrrhus slew Priam. One begins to tracted to the melodramatic genre of the revenge create why Shakespeare was at play and how he was able to such cast potboilers as something profound out of the kind of material that had produced The Spanish Tragedy and (presumably) the Ur-Hamlet. that his heels may kick at heaven. alyzes horizons an works to produce a split clearly how Hamlet's largeness. 124-27). And that his soul may be as damn'd and black As hell. The issue of revenge reveals of hensiveness. than Hamlet would have either rejected the task of vengeance or embraced it claims wholeheartedly and in will not let religious death. As see. the task to God. in some ways the pagan principle par excellence. might attempt a formulation of Hamlet's tragedy this ends way: precisely be profound cause of of his comprehensiveness of outlook. stand that he scruples asks in the way of his avenging his father's him what he is prepared to do to Hamlet to show Laertes replies son. need He shows himself to question. And if with one tries to pursue vengeance sinister and in a Christian framework. not But Hamlet does have this kind of one-track mind. Vengeance is basically we a pagan principle. for example." bluntly: "To cut his throat i' th' (iv. As a let ought to reject a call to vengeance. he form.9 By ing ics. J. in particular. difficult to accomplish than any Homeric One ideal 9. indeed compre in his soul. see Anne Barton's edition of intro duction to T. if Hamlet is to phisticated pursue vengeance as a Christian. But Hamlet's tragedy re veals how precarious and deeply problematic this synthesis was. Ham But. When Claudius himself his "father's church" a more direct form. one comes up something far more Greek ever dreamed of. Shakespeare is able eth to use the revenge play to expose the inner contradictions of Renaissance the conflict between pagan and Christian principles. be a true child of the Renaissance in his to look of at all sides of a and to approach available present the issue of the vengeance in light the two ethical traditions to him classical and the Christian. the way he follows the Renaissance trying a to combine disparate ethics. . On the issue of revenge.

p. 150-51). then. see being Ophelia pictures. J. and as such his father's ghost. Hollingdale. and 11. mother.. tongue. thus which leaving himself in a tragic situation in his own principles make can see alyze him. . be all-embracing human this speech. Brower. IV In a sense. sect. i. will speak daggers to her. Hero Will to Saint (Oxford: Ox ford University Press. v. 983. lose The Let I soul of thy not nature! let not ever Nero enter this firm bosom.390 How in my words somever she be shent. what a noble mind is here o'erthrown! / The court ier's. his is a tragic failure. Against thy mother aught let thy soul contrive (1. Shakespeare suggests the sanity: Hamlet's tragedy is that of a would-be Renaissance man. 12. pp. 12 Though Ham let may 10. Hamlet with needed to be a kind of Nietzschean "the Roman Caesar achieve Christ's soul. To give them seals never my soul consent! 99) . Alternating between pagan fierceness and Christian mildness Hamlet proclaims a disharmony between his words and deeds which mirrors a more fundamental Pulled in two directions at once. 314. Hamlet's final words in this speech in some a hypocrite ing way soul. Hamlet is faced with barbaric pagan vengeance with the tenderness accomplish impossible task: to civilized exact a of a Christian. he does and For a fuller analysis of Reuben A. trans. as day to Soft. not scholar's quite the eye. Brower.24 Interpretation tensions between those ethics. 84 -86). now my O heart. Hamlet ultimately fails laid down to his revenge within the constraints by failure results from a kind of overreaching. but My tongue and soul in this be hypocrites (1n. p.10 seem to echo the ghost's original injunction to him: But howsomever Taint not thou pursuest this act. Cf. (in. To superman: this goal. an From the very beginning.ii. 1971). me be cruel. And do Would such quake bitter business to look not on. 297-98. unnatural. kind of ideal synthesis Hamlet aspired to in Ophelia's eulogy for his "O. he cannot help be disharmony in his to himself. One the inner contradictory demands upon him and hence division in Hamlet when he goes to confront par his Claudius' mother after confirming Now could guilt with his staging of the mousetrap: I drink hot the blood. 1967). nor thy mind. use none. sword" soldier's."11 If. The Power (New York: Ran dom House. See Walter Kaufmann R. 513.

' see See. and welfare: against "Except for the original robust good-nature. 210. On Hamlet's "ventriloquism. He is the ambassador of death walking amid ." on in The Wheel of Fire (New York: Meridian Books. murder of Hamlet's father. Shakespeare takes material from a primitive Norse saga and transposes it to a modem European court. Hamlet. especially p. Hamlet vows to outdo and fighter. but many critics treat his self-division as a kind usually of pathological state. and yet shad- 13. He Though a prince by birth. ascetic indeed Laertes in any part he with his quick wit. contradictions viewed as Renaissance culture come Hamlet is self-divided. for example. The negative side ever is that precisely that diversity influences What Hamlet from playing tragic a single role with utter conviction. theatrical facility. the Hamlet universe is one of healthy and mour. it is that politics requires a narrowing of a man's horizons if he is to be successful in his tasks. alert hands the story comes to embody the complex layering of Renaissance culture. If there is one theme that runs throughout Shakespeare's por trayal of public life. edge of opposing realms of value. The positive side of Hamlet's cosmopoli tanism is that he is open to all the diverse offer vents influences the modem world of has to pre him.ii.12). hu pale with the this background is the figure life. a court clearly Christian in its beliefs Barton. fight. Hamlet in many different But the inner richness which allows Hamlet to play such a wealth of parts works against him when he has to settle down to the singleminded task of can shine roles. the fact that only he is One reason Hamlet has such resonance as a play is that in Shakespeare's division in his culture. 44. 274-79). fast. romantic strength.14 But Hamlet's self-division mirrors a more fundamental self- Indeed Hamlet is distinguished in the play precisely by to the way his culture is self-divided.13 pursuing revenge. Dost thou come here to whine? To outface me with leaping her. eat a crocodile? I'll do't. p. he he can be all things himself on his practical knowl and the theatre and the way own talk to the players on envious of so that Laertes' familiar terms reputation in their as a language. makes Hamlet the ner quintessential of figure of the Renaissance is that in him the in to consciousness.i. 14. chooses verbal to play and mourner. show me what woo't thou't do. woo't Woo't weep. talent. Wilson Knight's "The Embassy of Death: An 32: Essay life.Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince 25 seems at times to wish to prides try to span to all men. as if the community Hamlet lives in were whole and only he fragmented. woo't tear thyself? Woo't drink up eisel. in her grave? Be buried quick with and so will I (v." of Hamlet consciousness of death. Hamlet he is confronted his im excel all areas when by his mirror Laertes Ophelia's grave: 'S wounds. 1957). G. He is sufficiently continual odds" in court fencer to stay "in desire to over practice" he can at least hope to beat reveals him "at the competitive age when they in come to fight (v.

ii. and not the headquarters of some wandering Germanic tribe. 152-53. .98. And finally. 390-91. Precisely any because he is As a open to all of them. and Hamlet's is a peculiar form of hero rather than pursuing one heroic ideal to an extreme. a kind crossroads. p. Hamlet can find something to admire in all these models.i. See. Next Hamlet. cultivated cities like Paris. Hamlet's Norwegian model of the he roic soldier.63). untamed of "lawless resolutes" (i. i. who is caught between these two See Barton. the model of a embodied in the figures a who surround gallant modem courtier. What makes Hamlet stand out in his world is thus ism: and not any conventional heightened awareness genuineness of greatness of of all soul. battleground on which pagan and Christian. i. Fortinbras rash and narrow-minded. Hamlet moves back forth between a number of competing heroic ideals. There is Hamlet's fellow stu dent. south. able to look beyond the borders Western culture. his His soul that his complex culture contains and the depth and to its contradictory ethical a demands. he can never become the captive of single model. Everywhere one turns in Hamlet. finds a rich Renais texture. but the largeness of his horizons. To the surviving Denmark lies the heart of modem Europe. ii. and thus is the appropriate civilization of setting for the tragedy 17. or the all the modernizing touches that make of court seem contemporary Queen Elizabeth's. Cyprus stands midway between the Christian Venice and the pagan barbarism of the Turkish Empire. all the other characters to in the play seem one-dimensional by comparison with Hamlet. 20.i. but he schooled at can also see the limitations of each.17 And in the of middle of Hamlet. and Brower. Othello.ii. Cf. Shakespeare's Denmark is of forces of old a kind borderland. rather than to smite "the sledded Pothis world stands lacks on the (i. Hunter. p. in the many classical references and Claudius' allusions. There is Laertes. 310. in short a kind the frontiers of civilization. 1 13-16. land where single combat of between martial heroes can still take place.16 north stands Norway. and 111. 18. Even the imaginative geography of Hamlet reflects the interplay that went to make up the Renaissance. Horatio.i. Shakespeare's Denmark is to the north of Europe what his Cyprus is to the In the imaginative geography of Othello. for example. Horatio cold and unfeeling. of worlds. Wittenberg in Stoic ideals. 98). for example. 16. subjecting them all in the process to a critique.18 his of response becomes 15.26 owed Interpretation by memories of classical antiquity. young trained in Paris. result. 104. and a model of rational control. 11. there is Fortinbras. Homeric realm on south of an unhe- roic world in which men ice" leam to fence. 1S What we think of as the Renais sance was within a the result of just this blend: that had been an attempt grafted on to revive classical antiquity Christian of culture to the indigenous pagan civ one ilizations sance Europe. Laertes seems superficial and callow.106. p. to see tory of his country and in effect to survey the his its competing models of human excellence him. lying world of pagan on the fringes of modem Europe. halfway Christian between the To the a heroism a yet and the new world of world civility.

Honigmann.19 V Hamlet's tragedy is ultimately that of a placed in very political circumstances. 20. But cannot understand Hamlet if we abstract him from the after concrete political setting in which speare placed of him. limits questions of politics lead to the more fundamental question of the of politics. such as the succession in Denmark or the Danish -Norwegian conflict. He is and all. As always in Shakespeare. 129-47. If we leam that Hamlet is we also unequal to the po litical demands his equal world makes upon leam that that world is un to satisfying the higher longings Hamlet's more comprehensive soul. of us to understand more fully the na Hamlet's apolitical stance. Critics cal terms. J. unable leaving Hamlet unable to remain tme to any one set of values and thus to carry out the specific task his concrete situation demands of him. See Brower. and ture of help him.Hamlet: The Cosmopolitan Prince ancient and modem values meet and 27 a fight to standstill. Hamlet thus be comes a test-case of the relevance of political considerations to understanding Shakespeare's plays. an exception to this rule. as the subtitle of the play tells us. and most analyses of approach. see E. if not psychoanalytic. and 'The World the in Brown and Harris. Hamlet's tragedy. "The Politics in Hamlet pp. it is useful to begin by asking intimately a few straightforward political questions. such as: what kind of king would Hamlet have made and these may seem why does he propose Fortinbras for the succession? Though at first to be narrow political questions. The reason critics politics of generally feel that they cannot be bothered with the petty Denmark is that Hamlet feels that way himself. 19. the Prince Denmark. A. 316.'" p.20 cosmopolitan or apolitical man seldom discuss Hamlet in politi even though the play's action hinges on a number of political is sues. In many respects Hamlet is the least political of Shake speare's mature tragic heroes. his character we take a purely Shake psychological. His viewpoint so completely dominates the play and colors our response to it that his apoliti cal perspective has inevitably influenced all commentators. . they ultimately lead to even the larger issues in the play. For of Play. Thus to that fact is understand bound up with his tragedy.

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for example. Such a to Social Contract. how can a people of the modern state share questions not validate or individually am or di terested rectly in the political process? I raise these in discussing the arguments which a political system because I here in as invalidate democracy but because I am anxious to focus attention on the central question of this essay: given a society in a certain place and historical period. . S. play a significant and aspirations of role the people as individuals process of and groups can in the political process. at least in principle. J. I. if their wills are as ignored they would not exist as self-determined beings. On Hegel's view. The monarch is in effect the final always acts in the interest been of the people? As an immediate ever response to this objection on behalf of Hegel let me ask: has there a political system in the history of human civilization in which all the people participated. Maine. that is. Popular Government (Indianapolis: Liberty Classics. trans. R." there were a not suited Democracy (New York: Basic Books. does Hegel provide a principle or a political framework within which the desires. has all the people even to choose the government. Pickles. my critic might go on. is valid or it is legal. 1973). Masters (New York: St. justified if it does not uphold the whether citizen. I may be asked. as the Basis of the State: Hegel.1 activity. ed. free. Book III. be ignored. And Jean-Jacques Rousseau writes: "if perfect government is people of gods. for writes: "no political system at any time. social. Fall. p. as Hegel does. economic. modified. J. how can this will become concrete? How can we be certain that the final legal authority monarch and his ministers. in the enacting and modifying the law? participate and For in the unless the people political process individually or as a majority (democracy) their will would. M. for Hegel. ultimate constitution which emanates will of the people is the of principle according to which the activities and the Within this organization no institutions the state are organized. Mitias. much less exercise governmental powers. democratic or not. Chap. ment?2 in the process of govern Again." Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy. or could participate. interests. don: Longmans. the ordinary people do not have to be consulted when the law is enacted. "Law 198 1. R. 2. Plamenatz. 1978). or reformed. religious. Masters. 1970).Hegel on the Source of Political Authority Michael H. is from the the foundations of the state. Democracy and Illusion (Lon Martin's Press. On the 1976). Thus the question arises: if we hold. it would govern itself democratically. ever provided D. or educational. See also. 9. that the basis of the constitution is the will of the people. for the legislative power is not restricted to "the Legislature but also extends to the authority on what laws should be adopted or rejected. D. 4." personality or individuality of the But. Sir H. Mitias Millsaps College In "the a recent study 1 argued that law.

aristocratic.. each the thinkers in their tra the basic dition. I do this simply because Hegel has mainly Rousseau in mind in this First. 85S.30 how What tinued Interpretation can the people of that society express and assert their will effectively? sort of governmental structure should a state establish growth of to ensure the con freedom in the lives in the of its citizens? Or. to the philosophers and intellectuals with an French Revolu par tion. The Philosophy of Right introduction by H B 2<s8 273 . Hegel's critique of democracy we should first of all focus at basic ideas in Rousseau's theory of the state. 1975). pp. mends (2) within the political framework which Hegel or the people can. for example. under what conditions and can citizens participate political process in some fashion the feel in their their hearts that they count and that the policies by genuine interests as individuals? We may construct and defend a democratic. needs. rationality. within which citizens can exist under conditions of persons. The of these rights produces what Rousseau calls unity In discussing tention on three critique. In case he analyzed by the philosopher only to see whether that principle is (i) philosophically sound and (2) provides an opportunity for citizens to realize themselves as persons. a political atmosphere. Hegel's Natural of Law. should here point out that also critical of Fichte's conception of the general of the This criticism extends. monarchical. M. In a society 3. at least in theory. moreover. But for Hegel the question which we should consider most of all when we analyze political form cial of government is 'idealistic' or logically reality is not whether this or that neat but whether it provides a so the as structure. and should. and (3) the final authority which enacts the laws of the land is the state as a sovereign power. The ent history of political theory from the days of Plato until the pres is replete with such forms. Knox. See. We This will is the fundamental Hegel is principle of the state. is based mainly principle advocated on this premise. the state is a union of men in which every member has voluntarily agreed to alienate his rights to the community as a whole for the sake of preser vation and prosperity. criticism of and creativity. on the basis of this discussion. Acton (University Pennsylvania Press. T.3 the general will. and we may pride ourselves. Here I shall of government and argue against some aspects of the democratic form that (1) the fabric and the end of the legislative process is the general in recom terest of the people. and whether and they can function Hegel's Rousseau Fichte. In this essay I shall first discuss the major arguments which Hegel advances then. that we espouse the most logical and human adopted state reflect istic form. proceed to a critical treatment of why he adopts the constitutional form of government which I defend in the first essay. trans. or perhaps another form of constitution. express their wants. morality. will. desires to the Legislature directly and indirectly.

consequently he gives is his own will.Hegel governed on the Source of Political the general will Authority 31 by the people are has alienated all his rights to the whole none the others. Power can But the question which we should ask of society? perfectly well be trans is: how does the It becomes concrete become concrete. as a community. 10. the good in itself. Ibid. Martin's Press."9 only the exercise of the general which will. is only a collective being. living. these or which regulates the public activities of society.6 Rousseau makes a clear of distinction between 'general the general interests which will' and 'will of all' The former consists are common to the people as a whole. but not general will represented by itself."8 is the the common This is based good on the assumption is uniquely never basis of this common that society ought to be Therefore. 1975). however. Ibid. Carl L."10 and the maintenance of civil as well see We is can not immediately justified on from this definition that the existence of government the basis of a contract between it 4. Book I. Becker. 6. . Modern Democracy (New Haven: Yale (New Introduction to Democratic Theory University Press. Chap. can only be ferred. 6. it equal for everyone. derives its being from the sanctity which private of the contract according to individuals form a state. estab the true interest the society as it exists in a certain place and Third.. 8. York: St. This premise is central to all versions of democracy in the twentieth century. not In the enactment of laws the lawgiver should have before his of eyes the universal as such. the Social Contract. II. for "since each one gives his entire self. 5. 9. Book Ibid. See. Chap.. gives free because: (i) since every person would be left with extra rights or since each person gives power to dominate or control whole (2) himself to the community as a he himself only to the general he in effect obeys himself. in the life in and through the corpus of law. Democracy. the ultimate source of Sovereignty. usurp the rights tion one of will which himself to none."4 Second. others. for ex ample. I. Book III. Ibid. Thus in obeying this will principle no reason (3) there is in for any person to others. but only time. The latter consists of the private. will. the constitution. it is "an intermediate body for laws lished between the subjects and the sovereign their mutual communication. These interests zen. are subjective and not necessarily by every citi Thus since the general will aims exclusively at the well-being of the whole state it "alone can guide which on the forces of the State according to the end for good."7 which it is instituted. D. Book I. that "it governed. and charged with the execution of the as political freedom. and since the condition is interest in making it burdensome for the the state is sovereign. B. On The Social Contract. that is. 7. the condi no is equal has an for everyone. political authority. can and that the sovereign. or a repub lic.Pickles. being be alienated.5 is. H. On 7. "sovereignty. the government is a public force. shared particular interests. Chap. in other words. Chap. I. 1959).

Chap. Its end is the common interest. if this minority does not consent to the adoption of the law. But one may ask: can determine the validity of a law by a majority vote? For if a minority is of a different opinion. This will viewed as a universal and rational principle and "which has thought not both for its form the (Par. Each whether whether one ex will his opinion on this by voting. Ibid. there is no longer any freedom regardless of the side one II Hegel agrees with Rousseau that the fundamental divine authority but content" principle of the state will of is not gregarious instinct is or rather the general the people. for the general will cannot be represented. as simple officers of the sovereign. In such an the deputies to agree unanimously on what law should assembly it is not be adopted or usual rejected.. 3. interest of this or that particular person or group of persons. He thinks the whole question is badly put. Ibid. 12. they exercise in its name the power that has mod been entrusted to them by the sovereign. for "when asked a proposed in the assembly of the people. Hegel he called complains. But unfortu nately. and contrary to what I that "all cease thought to be the general will was not. "a function in which. task of But the on what principle popular assemblies will. Thus an older one the duty for the people's assembly is to discover the new law or to change the old one so to be expressive of the general will. but precisely does not conform to the general will that is theirs. for Rousseau. Book IV. Therefore This prevails. the social since the alienation of such a right is in compatible with sociation. they when there is a need for a new law or the modification of of as its agents. it is a commission. what they are being is not or it does presses they approve or reject the proposal. abandoned this notion of will and replaced it by what the 'will of all': "he (Rousseau) takes the will only in a de- 11. Ibid. 258). 13. the legislative power is a function of the people. on the contrary."12 of course presupposes the characteristics of the general will are still in the majority."13 be. . does a people promulgate new laws? The main general is. and that the sovereign can limit.32 and the Interpretation people. it Whenever this happens we would not feel free law is when Rousseau is aware of this compelled to act according to that law later on. a majority vote is appealed to."11 the nature of body and contrary to the goal of the as Accordingly. ify. and take back whenever it pleases. to enact laws that are expressive of the The deputies of the people must not be viewed as 'representa are tives'. and the declaration of the general when the opinion is drawn from the counting mine of the votes. to When they takes. Rousseau. difficulty. that proves nothing except that I was mistaken.

2. if the fundamental principle of the state is not the general will as law of which I must something obey does not universal and rational. "their arbitrary wills. good which often know is truly what it wants." ions. that is. This will aims at the gen eral interest of all. 184. and their capriciously when given express misses and We should therefore dis agree with seau's Avineri he states that "Hegel volonte will' the significance of Rous volonte distinction between la sees generate la de tous." Now. and this interest could not be articulated by any specific member of the community. that a law is He did insist that the assembly should by majority enact the general will. be needed to could work in give century laws to which one and men. community-oriented Tower' level of consciousness. . Book II. vote. goals. their opinion. had no passions nature experienced none of them. and interests of the people as particular individuals. a will that is above the desires. The result is that 'general' he reduces the union of individuals in the state to a contract and therefore to on something based given express their arbitrary wills. preparing for himself a future glory the passage of Gods would time. S. chap. their opin adopted or rejected consent. discovery who of the best rules of society suited to who saw all of men's nations would require a su yet perior intelligence."16 fully Rousseau's distinction Ibid. and he regards the universal will not as the absolutely rational element in the will. Book II. yet who was nevertheless finally who. Rous of what not seau good repeatedly for them: "how the people are not the best judges does out blind multitude. Ibid. articulating the laws have seen. Avineri.. came to discuss the legislative power. carry by itself an under taking "the as vast and as difficult as a system of legislation?"14 This is why the or constitution: people need a person of superior wisdom to draft their laws. but only as a will which proceeds out of this individual will as out of a conscious will. if the my rational will but the capricious will the majority of the society to which I belong. yet what the assembly articulates as law is nevertheless decided by the will of the majority. p. 7. willing to with us. 3) Rousseau that is both general and rational."15 enjoy But when he of the reward in another. 6. because it rarely knows what is for it. express or. whose attend happiness to ours. a will that cannot be alienated. 7. divided. Rousseau a maintained. 1. and mistaken. transcending Hegel is the will which aware of is oriented towards be- merely individual 14 IS. values. chap.Hegel on the Source of Political Authority 33 terminate form as the individual will. and then I cannot be free. 16. was relationship independent one at all of to our yet knew it thoroughly. Hegel apparently wills Rousseau's 'general the fact that it as represents a pure a aggregate of individual and overlooks higher. Hegel's Theory of the Modern State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). and their capriciously consent. Early in the Social Contract (Book advances a concept of will I. In his discussion of Law and the stresses that will a Legislator. Chap. the assembly of social has the task as we behavior. put differently.

. a The will of refounders was what they of alleged was purely rational basis. the that is actually operative. there must be within the state a viable mechanism. but in the contract established a principle by the Rousseau failed to bridge or to provide according to which the two wills can be unified. trans. the executive power and the legislative power. himself Thus reduced the notion of the general will to that of the will of all although Rousseau formulated a rational principle of the state management of this prin ciple remained abstract and people. Chap. Macmillan. "For this reason. the frightfulness is and (Par. when these abstract con clusions came into power. and the experiment ended in the maximum terror" being used. be an add that Hegel does to say that there cannot. but it was only abstractions that were Idea was lacking. abandons concept of the general will and re with the concept of the will of all see B. pp. 599-610. seem will ineffective in the contract will the affairs of the The real social contract. is. places For it a detailed discussion how Rousseau 5. They smoothly functioning state. for the customs. here de immediately not. The defects. which facilitates the absent realization of the ideal in the life of the people. 18 The crux of this criticism is that an abstract idea of the general will not fruitful in reforming an adequate political or restructuring an already existing state. the government is an intermediary concrete between the in the eign and the people. they the French afforded for the first time in human history the prodigious spectacle of the overthrow of the constitution of a great actual state (France on during Revolution) its and its complete reconstruction ab initio and the basis of pure thought alone. basing in fact lead to a state the idea of a contract ab initio does on not a well-organized or a a it only produces nized political body. G. on It is a mistake to be built the basis of pure thought alone. But the sovereign the constitution. in The people alone are entrusted with the legislation of all the laws. the contrary. F. or principle. becomes general will. Unwin. (London: 18. Baillie (London: Allen & 1961). This prin state ciple is from Rousseau's political theory. B. loosely society I orga which arise out of should the existential conditions of the people through a not mean historical period. See also. the at tainment of rationality think that a state can is a gradual process of achievement. Moreover. sover As that an executive power. or should ideal which stands above the actual. W. Hegel. J. Bosanquet. as I shall argue in some tail later on. Phenomenology of Mind. Rousseau held that the is composed of two basic powers.34 Interpretation is also aware that tween the general will and the will of all. does not to be expressed in the general of all. on injustices. values. The Philosophical Theory of the State 1958). and interests of constitute the heart of its constitution evolve gradually. or blunders of a state may be exposed or condemned but the reality merely of the state cannot be denied or obliterated. after the destruction to give it of all existing given material. but he Rousseau " . 258). but. Rousseau's of reluctance to allow any his other power or agency to 17. The main task of theory is to help in building on what already exists.

Hegel is. that is. if. . in the general will. Now let us place the problem of ask again: is the. these questions for two reasons: (1) they popular is the people freedom into sharp focus. or in a position. for Hegel. to ar law. becomes concrete in the popular of what assembly. in the negative. private will (Par. in process is the heart democratic process. be restricted to the people in events of popular as In these assemblies they vote on those laws which they take to be ex pressive of not the general will. the private or individual will should be null."19 But if the end of the state is the freedom is principle. III. the conceptual framework within which Rousseau analyzes the concept of general will and the way this will quate? The answer to this question concretely ade is. quite aware of this weakness in Rousseau's con for in the same section where he discusses the concept he insists that rationality exists concretely in the state when objective freedom.Hegel assist on the Source of Political Authority 35 popular assem in the enactment of laws led him necessarily to invest the bly was with the full power to enact all the laws. will member of the state should submit his completely to it. for Rousseau. his actual the and ignored. err. 258). and consequently the dominant and the unique rule of all the of general or sovereign will al others. the people are sovereign: their will is the political authority. This is the main reason why forced in the final analysis to reduce the general will to the will of all. and to adopt the law as a rule of social behavior. tive freedom. is unified with subjec the general will. at least in individual. it cept of to me. We have source of that. For if the and cannot is sovereign. But here ask: under what conditions will? the true content of the general to Are the discover the common good? I raise assembly to arrive at qualified. Chap. participate will if this individual does not. This task can be 'representatives' relegated for two reasons: (1) the people are most qualified to judge is in their best interest. On the Social Contract. to what of the will of the people as a whole. for if the end of the state is freedom we should explain not only the mean ing of freedom but also the conditions under which it is possible. But the the general will process. in other words. Book 3. and (2) the will of the individual 19. a central question of political the ory. the corporate will of the gov ernment ways very subordinate. and as then it should follow that every inalienable. for Hegel. This premise underlies Rousseau's insistence that seen must the legislative power semblies. This premise is made explicit by Rousseau: "in perfect legisla tion. (2) the method of articulating and realizing the general will is. legislative with the freedom This of the particular. the freedom implicit in the universal. for in it the ticulate this will as a we should people are expected is usually called the to declare their will. an abstract he Upholding consequence: general will idea of of the general will leads to another undesirable the freedom the individual such would be disregarded. In what fol is actualized lows I shall explain why. then any claim to seems his freedom would be a fiction and not a real ity. in the legislative process. indivisible.

and that it and their right that what is done be done their knowledge volition." the state would be reduced to an atomistic and abstract 20. it is composed or corporations.36 cannot Interpretation be represented. class-status" particular grave mistake particularity 308).21 A person realizes himself as an far he belongs to &" such a group: "the single person attains individual only in his actual and living destiny for a tion. to borrow a merely a number or term from Herbert Mar not 'one-dimensional' cuse. or whether universality only when he becomes a member of a Corpora (Par. "to hold that every the following single share in deliberating and deciding on political matters of general concern on the ground that all individu is als are members of the state. thinks. of each 1975). is tantamount to form into the sion of such a means when a proposal to put the democratic element without any rational organism of the state. 4o8ff. 21." Reason in History. 56-7. the consciousness of the Idea. Thus shares with does. certain matter or pro as groups who share and living actuality only when they are means determinacy as particular and a bers of that posal society to agree unanimously. hence the minority pp. as such. "this consciousness and will. however. and to that extent coincides sense. for it to the sovereignty of the people in a genu ine fashion. islative process. on a primarily because people exist as individuals and certain so ideas as and interests. 308). unique wills: "the rational consideration of a topic. Their wills are not. should person freedom effectively. society. is A concrete. Hegel. rejects it for First. which a citizen merely interest or consciousness the rest of the society. classes. or In whatever an which individual he feels. Charles Taylor. present and each Hence in articulating a needed law the people must be person must deliberate and decide on the appropriateness or of a proposed inappropriateness law. however. he is not reflects a the interests of the group to universal he belongs. 308). lose their emptiness and acquire a content and a filled with particularity. And the people are not. What Hegel he that the idea of state popular government lacks rational form is that it ignores the aspect that a als who compose is an organic whole and that the individu it are concrete. From the Cf. "whether individuals pose. in other The state is a concrete whole. Accordingly if individuals participate in the are to choose representatives leg for this pur every single individual is to have a vote in the legislature level (Par. What Hegel is here stressing is that it is a to think that in any society it would be possible for all the mem (Par. . then of the subjective aspect From this only principle follows as a matter of course that no law is valid must yield to except by agreement of all. It also seems account for the possibility reasons.20 in every possible respect. This implies that the majority decides. This line asserts of reasoning of seems at first look attractive and convincing. himself. that its should concerns are their with concerns. associations. Hegel (Cambridge: Cambridge principle "if freedom implies the consent is meant. although it is only in all" virtue of the posses form that the says state is an organism at (Par. of homogeneous." with a genuine practical citizen in the state is an abstraction. groups. words. course individual. pp. University Press. equally. the majority.

Reason in History. What constitutes the state is matter of trained intelligence. The result of this is that the par of the state en property. I mean. for then "each popular faction can set itself up as the People. under normal conditions. people. however commonly we may hear it sponsored. the claim that each person should participate in the legislative busi that "everyone is at home in this business a ri ness of the state presupposes diculous notion. Still. Second. Ibid. the ultimate directly by the people: "in an elective nature of the relation between king and people implies that the constitution decision is left of with the particular will. but in this agreement there is no guarantee that what they have 'people' we must willed is the universal. a mechanism assembling the individuals. Chap. barbarous. 1964). kind of freedom subjective If they fail to will the universal they achieve only one freedom. In a to will the ability certain law. . will or a frightful. and finally the state disintegrates within and is overthrown without" (Par. cease irrational. 281).23 Third. it would instead exist under the sway interests. dedication. the sovereignty feebled from and lost. not a matter of 'the people'. 57.Hegel 303).. writings Hegel discusses this the latter part of the excellent difficulty with specific references to France. who would announce what in his opinion were the of of the and state. requires of the general nature of interest of the "a comprehensive insight into the This insight is ordinary men. if we hold that the laws the state should be decided by for the people directly we undermine the superfluous: tion becomes centrally located needs observer a constitu very idea of the constitution: the need "the only institution necessary would be a neutral. 57. not. 301). generously present in the minds of Its attainment requires skill. the state's organization and (Par. casting This is a their vote. p. 308)."22 Hegel insists that will actually and their clearly distinguish between what the popular assembly a people may agree on a universal. England. nineteenth Germany during eighteenth century and See Z. A. But the determination of the universal." activity could therefore only be If this happens the state would to be a of particular wills or cusses unity of purpose. on the Source of Political Authority 37 The a 'people' become the 'many'. of wisdom. Pelczynski's treatment of this point 4. 23. p. in public opinion a field is open to everyone where he can express his purely personal count" political opinions and make them (Par. the power of the state at the discretion of the particular ticular offices of state turn private will. early part of the in Hegel's Political Writings (Oxford: Oxford 24. and and as such they exist "as an aggre gate. the arithmetical counting and comparison of the votes on the various decision. University Press."24 propositions and this would already be the serious 22. formless mass whose commotion and elementary. political In his early and century. In Reason in History a Hegel characterizes this presupposition as false and dangerous. and hence the that is a surrender of becomes a Compact into Election. Hegel makes this point forcefully when he dis monarch the possibility of electing the monarchy.

p. however. Hegel. Rousseau.38 Interpretation idea of popular general consequence of the sovereignty. He holds that the of political for electoral Hegel is certainly apathy is. in order for it to work. disagrees how its 25. lack quence of a more rooted consciousness. he as an activity of personal satisfaction. electoral apathy? I raise We may here ask: why does popular suffrage lead to this question. entity. I. Chap. its foundation is the will. for the 'state' is an abstract en tity. in effect ignore the validity universal. the particular actually falls into the power of a few.25 Accordingly to the it needs to be translated of gov concretely."26 Moreover. express and agrees with Rousseau that in order for a state to be free it must realize the common with interest. at order for popular government to be effective. Book 26. Thus the result of what was institution election of this kind is more likely to be the opposite of a in tended. since of of a single vote is of no significance where there is a multitude Even if a voting qualification still highly valued and esteemed by those who are entitled of an to it. that for one to be fully free should acquire personal both understanding and skill in realizing the universal in his experience. then. for it would seem that casting one's vote on a matter of social alive significance is a political obligation. Hegel thinks that popular suf states frage especially in large the casting electors. and so of to have been what was neutralized" (Par. and contingent interest which is precisely 311). like Hegel. An this difficulty is electoral apathy. While Rousseau insists that tract. this requirement does not seem to be fulfilled. 57. or the general will of the people. caucus. Ill Hegel. the people must enjoy a high degree of political consciousness. the ideal. if of the do away the constitution we the people. See On the Social Con Reason in History. in fact. But in freedom abstractly. as I a conse have just indicated. this lack is itself problem. . This translation is what gives rise whole machinery ernmental and social possible. on law. any come to a halt. in the life If this happens. namely: most people do not have a substan tial conception and sense of freedom. attempt at rational progress or reform would necessarily Fourth. 6. but in expression of least in Hegel's time. "leads inevitably is to electoral indifference. Rousseau on how this content can be articulated as a valid will becomes actual. institutions in the without which social life and culture are im But the detailed determination of the general will is the very entity of structure of the constitution: "only constitution we does the abstract with of the state assume life and reality. main reason to this point. they do not enter the polling booth. ideal. They conceive of order is. views the state as an abstract. This happens only when a person views his destiny as an life of integral achievement of the the state as a rational whole.

It exists and But sovereignty is an ab concretely in the three pow the the Executive. aristocratic. what is the purpose of this representation? Now suppose it cannot be all. 61-62. Thus unlike Rousseau. in Hegel's view. the Legislature: "the organic unity both firmly of the powers of the state itself implies that it is one single mind which establishes the universal and also brings it into its determinate actu ality the and carries it out" (Par. we can determine "the best constitution. as a people. Hegel thinks that this procedure is im practical and does not ensure of the gradual realization of the general will as a ra the whole. the other powers are the first moments which are (i) the monarchy as that to the advisory which ultimate moment decisions belong.. Here my critic may ask once more: who. of the state. securely guarantees the state.." Hegel writes. or monarchical form of constitution. 28. be represented by another per represented at son or an assembly of persons but whether the real interests of the people can be discovered. is not whether we democratic. does it not have the right to seek and attain its true interests? does it not become free in realizing these interests? Thus the question Again. are sovereign. political tional principle in the life problem The central should adopt a but whether theory. (ii) the possessed of executive as body since it is the (a) a concrete and knowledge and oversight of the whole state in its numerous 27. for Hegel."29 through representatives. the actual principles firmly established within it. Ibid. Ibid. systematized. add this has become a firm prejudice. "is for and dependent upon the of representative government. facets p. and enacted into law. that contribute they cannot directly. and (b) a Ibid. p."28 should immediately that when Hegel speaks states are so of representation he means indirect representation: "our big and their people so many. idea We what sort of political organization is most conducive us this end? "A free constitution. of the legislative power. or mechanism of government which most purpose of the Thus we should ask: since the end of the state is free to the realization of dom. or cannot. it is the the state: ideality Crown. but only indirectly decisions."27 for organization.. is a function the state stract ers of entity. 29. Hegel maintains that of enactment of the law is not restricted to the Legislature the Assembly stated Estates but to all the powers of the state.Hegel on the Source of Political Authority participate 39 in the legislative process the people as a whole should cause directly be they. namely. This point as a whole is clearly in the following two passage: "in the legislature effective. that institution. . is qualified to enact the laws of the state? Hegel holds that the This power enactment of the of laws is the task qua sovereign. 299). but for now let me make the fol lowing remark. 61. for Hegel is not whether the will can. pp. 58. Suppose the will of a person can be represented directly or in My shall directly. their will to political critic may here object: how can a person be represented indirectly? I discuss this question in detail later on.

. My critic might once more interject: of this view undermines the people's authority in determining the laws the state. is the proper business of the legislative powers. a distinction. for example.40 Interpretation particular of what knowledge in the legislature the state's power 300). (2) we further the separation. not a here that in fast universal legislation our end is law. So when political thinkers and critics speak of "the 'summoning' people legislative business they usually mean the Es assume that the deputies of the or even the people "(i) they people. and (ii) their will for themselves. First. add in the first part of this essay. for the legislative task is. must know best what is in their best interest. for if the sovereignty in its three governing powers it would necessarily follow that exclusion of any of these powers would limit the authority of the people in the formulation of its laws. of of the powers of the state. Hegel avers that the legislative power is a function of the state. its the concrete determinations I just indicated. If we re we the legislative business to the Legislature alone face two difficulties: of the sovereignty of the state. what of do we mean by 'the people'? Do we mean." hand. 301). should declare and enact their will into Second. for Hegel. desiderata" people' law is vague and misleading. and insight. or indepen (1) we violate state integrity of the becomes concrete dence. But this as with reference to tates. 'all' for. its promotion is undoubtedly the most (Par." disinterested" sumption is mistaken why? Hegel holds that the one which we should make a distinction between what one wills. This argument is for at least two reasons. The last moment in is the Estates" (Par. to Par. on the other. However. the people. I should. Willing requires the universal. mistaken or declare their own will express directly. and. is statement which is both one. but as sovereign. which is Prima facie excludes at definite least children. women. then it is surely still more obvious that the quite word should not be used when something quite indefinite is meant" (Par. the claim that 'the are the fundamental to check one another. on willing the universal. needs. Hegel repeatedly stressed that remain separated if the powers the state sequently contains meet its end: its unity would be destroyed. destroys the unity dent. 300). that is. to promulgate a however. by being a law. however. sovereignty is an the three basic powers. the monopoly of the monarch and his advisory will council. "the law. there would not be any guarantee that the enacted laws their true interests. of the state. the state "the idea of the so-called 'independence error of would con powers' of supposing that the powers. general and hard and because a determinate. as are abstract strict ideal. But unless the people speak for themselves. prehension and It is a mistake "profound ap to think that the Assembly of Estates is I discussed this point in a position to determine the universal. "denotes universality in current use. 301). 'many' or empirical the people? "The phrase 'the more Many'" Hegel writes. though indepen This independence however. If it is 'all' said to be obvious that this 'all' strictly than 'All'. and unity is the chief of all (Add.

insight in under the first place into activity functionaries of such officials of as are not immediately the eye of the higher the state. he should also know these problems as interrelated. the opin public consciousness as an empirical universal. Hegel argues. He should have a profound grasp of its external and internal problems. A popular assembly is not in a position to possess this sort of knowledge. pressing and more in their view. and wisdom. "they a greater skill habituated to the business the Estates while have is in it. The executive is belief in the necessity party standing of such an- over against . that is." assump the state to the tion that its would various powers are antagonistic to one another. But in of order one to enact such a law he should have a synoptic knowledge the affairs of the state. the determination of the universal requires political skill. (b) in the fact that the anticipation of criticism from the particular of public criti cism. or the executive power. But this executive charge assumes that of the is bad or less good than the will of the Estates. for Hegel. otherwise be doomed to failure should not sooner or later: "the and a not a attitude of the executive Estates hostility is a sad mistake. of which the thoughts and ions of Many particulars" are (Par. without this character. its terms law is for capable of being carried stand" they to the (Par. but the determinate it is. This of the negative on the the rabble or assumption. Thus although a general proposition. has the effect of inducing officials to devote their best attention before hand to their duties and the schemes under consideration. 301). In this way it becomes a major factor in guaranteeing the well-being and freedom of the people. so that even without they to do what best. experience.Hegel is ab on the Source of Political Authority 41 'Thou more out as initio something more than a mere command in general terms (such as shalt not kill'). they have a deeper and more comprehensive of government and are able insight. is "characteristic of of the state affairs the We cannot conduct outlook generally. it has an empirical cable character. an inter mediary. it cannot be relevant or appli life of the people. it is only qualified to articulate what the people actually will under given circumstances. and in particular which are into the more specialized needs and deficiencies directly Many. toward despotism. but especially in its political in sight. just as they also continually have to do the Estates are in sessio Hegel is here aware of the possible charge that if the monarch. becomes the ultimate factor in the legislative business there will be a tendency. I quote this pas that. A law must in itself be something determinate. 301). the more readily are 299). the will at least in principle. and to deal with motives" these only in accordance sage at with the purest (Par. be essentially hostile. This is a main reason why he held that the executive power is in a better position than the Estates to contrib length only to stress ute to the legislation of the are also more law. "(a) in the additional insight of the deputies. between the government and the nation: "the Estates have the func tion of bringing the into existence the moment of subjective formal freedom. Hence it should function as a link. But its ability to render this service to the nation does not lie merely in its status of being the representative of the people.

namely. the Assembly of Estates. there is a genuine link between the particular which It is only in this way that is effective in the state and universal" the (Par. I reiterate it only to focus at harmonious unity. but it that cannot be health" called (Add to Par. between the government and the is the Estates. they individuals. intends society. Although this tention on the outside point need to view the state as a has been discussed before." society "neither as a its "political indiscriminate multitude nor as an aggregate a class subdivided a tie of substance dispersed into its atoms. that such a and wrest is a misfortune. same gan ceases which. at from the particular interests. legislative power enacts the . princi repre ple around which this framework is on organized and is this: society the its sentatives as a society. the the Estates. From standpoint of civil nation exists as a conglomeration of particular individ uals who give preeminence interests without due conscious ness or concern for the well-being it here appears of society as an organic whole. IV A brief throw more consideration of this framework. Moreover. If such a situation arises in the state. the one hand. The elects should light on the role of the people in the legislative process.42 other Interpretation party in way that each has continually to steal a march on the other something from the other. 301). has the position of an ex to be such and is a moment in an organic whole by being at the mean" time a (Par. 303). Hegel writes. acquires mere But in the signifi Estates the cance and people qua members of civil efficacy. "from isolated view. not only because also to establish on a it ethical life is impossible but source of such firm foundation the claim that the people are the ultimate source of political authority. the second. This moment nation. the to their the particular the people. it is a mediating or While the first intends the univer interests of sal. by standing in an opposition. into two. the other moments in the power of the state explicitly take up the one of standpoint of the state from the start and devote end" themselves to the universal (Par. (the business class) on particular needs and the work whereby these are met. of Hegel thinks that "it is specific moment the most important discoveries logic that a treme. For the peo ple cannot be the authority unless they exist as a unified will and unless can there is a framework enacted within which the rational and general aspect of this be into law. and so are inclined to devote their activities to these expense of the general interests. one subclass (the agriculture class) being based on and the other between its members. 302). but as what it already is. we should remark end while by its very nature the executive has the universal as its the Estates proceed in their business as private individuals. from while per contra a private point of start. 301).

articulated into associations. 306). It is extremely difficult. Let me discuss the dynamics this principle. "is more structively to the well-being of the state. on the other. it cannot sever its political outlook or interest from that the nation as a whole. entire prop erty at will. ety. Its virtue consists (1) in bringing about a more reasonable and prudent judgment in the Execu legal tive. On the contrary. consequence it follows into direct that their appointment is made by the society as a society. status allows they have a will of their own. With the cal monarch unique role of on being an interme the one hand. in making the units. from and although it has the immediately of realized in its life. It is likewise independent even favour. and alike of class. which although constituted already for other purposes. if not impossible. the posed of possession of (Par. socioeconomic them to be in a position to contribute con Hegel states. are not because those members of who are called to political life entitled. either to dispose of their to their children. and civil soci it shares the aspect of economic and politi independence and with civil society it shares similar rights and needs. the 306). as other citizens are. is. to harmonize and ar ticulate these diverse interests by means of direct participation in the legislative process. Hence they do not depend for their living This either on the state or on the other classes. 305). "This particularly fitted for political position and significance in that its capital is in dependent profit. It is this class fortified against its wilfulness. communities. composed of two The "one Assembly of Estates is houses: the first represents the agricultural class and the second represents the business class. in similarly equal this class universal will pass whom they divisions" (Par. because (1) it is the largest segment of society sional (2) because it is is composed of various associations. Each these associations grouped together on the basis of mutual economic or profes interests. matters and (2) in of enhancing the unity between the Estates the and The second class." the state's capital. It thus has the diary between the monarch and the executive. or to the assurance that it love equally. and. to Par. kept together for a moment and no and Corpo pointment as a society. atomic That is to say. to perform rations. as a unity of will. The whose first class is whose ethical life is natural. of the other. collected appointment society is not dispersed and only a single and temporary act. so far as its class livelihood is concerned.Hegel laws of on the Source of Political Authority 43 on the nation as an organic unity. own whether from the executive or the mob. But although the right of is based on the natural principle of family. Thus as a since the deputies of this class "are the deputies of civil society. the uncertainty of business. Add. their land and sociopolitical class by Like the monarch. house This Assembly of Estates represents politics the interests of the business class does not participate in directly but indirectly of by means of and deputies or representatives. the quest for of any sort of fluctuation in possessions. it makes the ap longer. acquire in this . basis is land" family life. This is com farmers and an educated elite. its members acquire birth. that the general interest of society (Cf.

the ex isting parties. the temperament. qua Sec First. should appoint its depu means that the people are the electorate. 311). The term 'people' refers to human beings look in society emotional individuals clinations. he of when Hegel asserts that society. is not whether exhibits a certain mode of economic or professional organization society but that if a con- system of representation 30. A quick at how people actually their activities in life shows that they exist as groups. of how and which is the Hegel's argument. the people are not In the United States.30 But the crux crucial point which we should recognize. But 'the man people' not an abstract or a play homogenous who exist a role in the legisla mass of beings. businesses. how can the diverse interests of these asso be harmonized does it does it and articulated as a the will of the people? what what mean mean law? Again. intellectual capacities. conditioned by all sorts of lobbying groups which represent the concrete interests la bor unions." have the . and. possible Hegel would call them. Par. is to be successful. it should take into of serious I am of the opinion that Hegel's claim that society is composed associations. judgement (Cf. he should I am aware of the possible objection that the differentiation not of society into our own associations or corporations is demode or perhaps apply to society ever. he should be de above voted and responsive to the needs of a wise be capable of making his community. 310). . in desires. that these associations reflect definite socioeconomic or professional interests. ond. qualification and above all disposition that accord with this he writes. ties. In civil society a corporation is usually preoccupied with its particular interests: the attainment of or as these interests is the basis of its satisfaction. and other types of caucuses. at the present. conduct with personal interests. Corporations.44 way sist: Interpretation politics" a connexion with (Par. should elect corporation would not be useful or effective unless the its deputies. and that the concrete interests hu as the people as a whole must be is expressed and must tive process. people are each Accordingly if the interests of the to be represented in the Legislature comprehensively and concretely. and the skill which a dep of uty acquires as a result of the actual transaction of business in managerial or official positions. for example. Thus a deputy the people should enjoy a political and administrative sense. society! First. can the deputies repre These questions call for a two-fold clarification. What makes a corporation is unity of socioeconomic and professional interests. or associa tions. . and then evinces in his actions" (Par. "is to be in the knowledge (of the organization and inter ests of the state and civil society). Hegel is ties will sensitive to this condition: that the depu end. In addition. is valid in principle even in our contemporary society. social values. But my critic might at this point in how can the deputies of these diverse associations discover the unity of the will of the people? ciations sent Put differently. and world outlooks. for a society to appoint its deputies as a for the deputies to represent the people? society. the president and the representatives of elected directly by the people but indirectly through the electoral college. a large portion of the legislative business is of minorities. does all. But the activity of representing deputies are competent or qualified "the guarantee for the task. and others. 308).

good. other. This activity is deliberative. trust. not merely for this that individual or group of individuals but the whole of society given as a di of common versity. it is conceived. of these affairs a choice of such individuals as have a better understanding than their electors have or a and such also as essen tially vindicate the universal interest of a society Corporation in to be a preference to that which interest. articulated. the their election is that it is a choice of individuals the strength of felt in them. its con ready made or clearly formulated on On the contrary. being" while he himself is there to 311). the Hegel writes with reference to the 'will of the "this is a great or use Word. (1) "Since deputies point about confidence are elected to deliberate and decide affairs. the when Hegel characterizes not mean deputies as representatives of the people or of their will point he does "simply the substitution of one man present for an is rather that the interest itself is actually in its represen tative. Second. arguments are advanced in support of on public on the claim. but trusting own in my on me. noble. I do think merely of my subjective interest but also of the well-being of the state as a sov ereign power. things one difficult. that is. 309). indeed complexity.Hegel sideration on the Source of Political of all Authority This 45 the interests of the multiplicity. people': not In the proceedings of the Wurtemburg Diet. but rather one should choose from among the people. actual the basis of under the state as an standing the on social condition and rational aspirations of organic whole. the 'all' torate concretely and not abstractly as a conglomeration of atoms (Par. interests exists as a diversity. and representatives of the people should take the greatest care is' to profane it it lightheartedly. just vote as for a person if they were his I declare confidence in this In this act own" conscientiously and to the best of his knowl (Add." (2) The The Assembly of Estates "is and meant living body in all members deliberate in common merits other. Hence majority voting runs counter to the prin should confidence ciple that I We have be personally in a present man when we in anything which is to be obligatory take him to be a man of discre tion who will manage our affairs edge. I function as a citizen. is not given as a interests.31 Hegel is aware of this difficulty. or good. 31. It is a notorious presumption to claim that an elected official can. This is why Hegel reminds us that "representation is grounded another is something different from giving my vote myself personal capacity. to Par. know the actual content of the the people. since not every- . tent. represent the objective element of his own (Par. of various interests. or Accordingly the deputies should be the deputies of the people." vince each point which reciprocally instruct and con special emphasis here is that the substance of the or legislative activity is what is right. the principle. Accordingly when I person's qualification to discover not and promote the common good. regardless of his intellectual will of achievements or political position. and hence most is one of the most To say 'he knows what his will can say of a man. People's representatives must not be the wisest picked at random. 311). He clearly states that the deputies Two are not "agents with a commission and specific instructions" (Par. 309). Only in this way does a society act as an elec people.

may not. or the press. needs. and unless shows respect for their interests. rational aspect of these interests and enact them into law. i. contribute their objections. The latter is not.. But it cannot do this it knows the it mind of the people as members rights and of corporations concretely. Again. to bring the particular under realizes or makes est of general task is to the universal. the purely 316). will. people should voice their opinions and make state. Indeed if political institutions. to Par." p.e. they or assemblies other in general. the main interest of the government is to discover the objective. 93. of what one's true and real will is. and since the administration cannot than helpful to such protection interests. opinions.' lectively lutely universal. "just interest society is the battlefield where everyone's individual private meets one knows. pate skilled. It should. aspirations. It is the power which the will of the people actual. tance manifested as what 'public in which what is abso the substantive and particular and private opinions of and political emphasize true. links his private as the maintenance of the whole" (add.46 Interpretation peoples' But the Assembly or of Estates. directly by They can. for its main instead. This freedom is col opinion. debated. the Estates. the Assembly of Estates is lic forum in are which the problems. should also contribute to this task. moreover. what is good for Quoted 32. The proper strength of the government lies in its which associations: "in them the executive meets with the legitimate interests be other it must respect. in words. as it is his duty to know. is linked the (Par. of public opinion Here I would a pub like to two (1) For Hegel. and and settled. wise. means interests of the state evaluated. including the monarch and his advisory council. we find that in most cases the various states look at the history of peoples' assemblies of the did not exercise the highest degree of wisdom or competency. be viewed as an instrument of the apply the law. I discussed the impor with elsewhere. In this forum the Executive of as well as the citizens can. This is the main reason why he refused to re strict the power to enact laws only to the Legislature. may qualified not be honest. nation. that the people themselves. cooperate in determining what is best for the The relation between the people and the government on is not con tractual. Hegel. Moreover while the main of inter the Assembly Estates is to discover and exchange what the people ac tually unless want. though it must also supervise them. instituted the basis of trust. as we saw. Many" its opposite. or wisdom. be we to partici effectively in the legislative process. the individual finds interest civil with in the exercise of his rights and so 290). and commented on by Pelczynski the in Hegel's Political Writings. Hegel strongly believes that the recommendations on which the political business of the This is a they can exercise their political consists freedom: "the formal and on subjective basic way in freedom of individuals in their is having called ments. Hegel knew this fact very well. and recommendations expressing their own private judg affairs of state. he insisted. Cf "Law as the Basis State: .32 implications points. moreover. views.

as a unifying bond between the government and the nation. here we have the (a) interests against particular matters of common concern and (b) of both these together against same time the corpo the organization of the state and its ration now higher outlook. "The idea usually dominant is that that the everyone knows from the a mere start what of this is best for the knowledge. A nation which has such public sittings is a far more vitally related to the state than one vate" which has The no Estates Assembly of or one which meets in pri (Add. (2) In being ucation an open people forum. (2) it brings to focus. When this acquires a special objective comes its subscrip existence. the relative laws. the supreme council monarch and the individuals who compose They bring the before the legal for his decision the to meet content of current affairs of state or provisions required aspects." circumstances (Par. to Par. on the one hand. performs two impor tant functions: (1) it informs the government about the people's needs or prob lems. how the ever. and the articulated needs or demands of the Legislature. en joys the privilege of being state: final authority because he power of the sovereignty of the "the the crown contains up in his person in itself the three and moments of the whole. sums qua ruler. by the wisdom of the executive council. It is in this dual function that the As that sembly of Estates acts as an intermediary. It be clear from this passage that the monarch is not strictly personal or subjective but assisted. be viewed as antagonistic but as complementary to each other. are which serve as examples to the public. viz. which refers the to the universal. the problems of the state as a whole internally and externally. 283). criticism with wit and eloquence to meet the have to equip themselves there directed against them. enactment of But the power responsible council: the laws is the monarch and his advisory "the second moment in the power of the crown is the mo ment of particularity. together with their objective decision is to be based. in its meetings they learn their interests. This is enough to show maintaining its particular that for Hegel the work of the government and the Assembly of Estates should means of ends" not. At the mind. and (c) the . for the is. the grounds on which existing needs. converted is inwardly into the mind of the state since it finds in the state the (Par. then. Assembly Estates. In state and Assembly debates is discussion have to fact. course develop dexterities. that is. engendered when the particular sphere gain their title of rights. the precise contrary is the truth. in the the Assembly of the of Estates provides a realistic ed for the affairs best how to recognize the true character of state. it be it. abilities. a on the other. (a) the universality of the particular constitution the mo- laws: (b) counsel.Hegel everyone on the Source of Political so Authority struggle 47 of private of else's.. indeed determined. The monarch. as we argued earlier. publicity here is the chief means of educating the public in national affairs. to the attention of the people. 289). None theless. or the moment of a determinate content and tion under the universal. It is here that first begin to virtues. who Of such debates irksome to ministers. 315). should &c.

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1 He argues that Pharaoh held the officers responsible for having fact butler to as unworthy men in such high position. Santa Fe CHAPTER XL I . The house of the was captain guard is the prison which is the place where Joseph bound. The syntax of Verse Three of the repeats the problem implicit in Verse Two. This interpretation. Verse Four falls into two 1. how clearly ever. His argument is based on the that the and men who committed the sin in Verse One are referred to as the are referred the baker but the men who are punished in Verse Two the chief of the butlers and the chief of the bakers. THE PLACE WHERE JOSEPH WAS BOUND. to and read there seems no purpose to this constant reidentification. Abrabanel argues that the men who actually served the King were not the Chief Butler and the Chief Baker themselves but men of lower placed stature. The first half Abrabanel. again throughout the present chapter and are an integral part of its 3. almost as if ideas would quickly if they to were not seven chords. 41:9. THAT THE BUTLER OF THE KING OF EGYPT AND HIS BAKER HAD OFFENDED THEIR LORD THE KING OF EGYPT. 4. In addition. p. AGAINST THE BUTLERS. INTO THE PRISON. 377- . In his commentary. does referred not seem tenable because the men who were punished were to again as the butler and the baker in Verse Five. AND THE CAPTAIN OF THE GUARD CHARGED JOSEPH WITH THEM. AND PHARAOH WAS WROTH AGAINST TWO OF HIS CHIEF OF THE OFFICERS. the speaks of conclusion chief of the butlers been forced to this names since my sin in Gen. AND AGAINST THE CHIEF OF THE BAKERS.The Lion and the Ass: on A Commentary the Book of Genesis (Chapters 40-43) Robert Sacks St. his apparently unnecessary does not face the time and main real problem repetitions will occur time theme. AND HE SERVED THEM: AND THEY HAD BEEN IN WARD FOR DAYS. AND IT CAME TO PASS AFTER THESE THINGS. Commentary on the Early Prophets. John's College. Abrabanel seems to have the by the apparently unnecessary solution repetition of in Verse Two. Vol. As we continue the chapter we shall see that it is a painting by and Chardin. I. 2. However. sections juxtaposed one another. AND HE PUT THEM IN WARD IN THE HOUSE OF THE CAPTAIN OF THE GUARD. The unnecessarily bound by places and the people are all clear drawn with surrealistically sharp vanish lines.

They cannot be distin to by the dream but only by the interpretation proper to each man. Potiphar. both strange kind of clarity in the When Joseph the curtains aside of which superfluous but which add to the style of the chapter. In other words the days they had been in ward came to roughly ten was . is the cent. AND THEY DREAMED A DREAM BOTH OF THEM. half clearly states that he served them. . which This point time will may be insignificant in itself. The verse is composed of a series of short phrases which established even identify and reidentify absolute men whose identity had been well before the verse started. The duality of his becomes intelligible when we remember his position in the jail. When the text reads they dreamed of dream the bold lines division begin dream. AND. EACH MAN ACCORDING TO THE INTERPRETATION OF HIS DREAM. He has therefore placed of the Joseph in guard and knows that Joseph was inno a high position under the guise of being is a prisoner. 7. WHICH WERE Again in Verse Five we noticed we are presented with the strange sort of clarity which in Verses Two and Three. guished and so fade. The men were sad. BEHOLD. . WHEREFORE LOOK again shows signs of ward YE SO SADLY TO-DAY? Verse Seven that were with him in the unnecessary identification. EACH MAN HIS DREAM IN ONE NIGHT. but it is play in the present chapter. In addition to the complications and the other unnecessary repetition there verse. 41:46). Since he remained in prison for two years after the scene of the present chapter (Gen. THEY WERE SAD. EGYPT. AND JOSEPH CAME IN UNTO THEM IN THE MORNING. master. . years. 41:1) he was at point twenty-eight years old. He had been taken from his father's home when he roughly seventeen (Gen. AND LOOKED UPON THEM. SAYING. 6. The read reason for the demand for clarity becomes evident once we a the verse more closely. part of the strange role 5. another thread prison when to the story which begins in this was Joseph was released from this he thirty years old (Gen. AND HE ASKED PHARAOH'S OFFICERS THAT WERE WITH HIM IN THE WARD OF HIS LORD'S HOUSE. entered their room from the window. and given what we know of Potiphar's it is doubtful that he spent more than a few months in the home of his wife. The two dreams suddenly become one the two dreamers become one dreamer.50 of Interpretation the verse implies that Joseph was put whereas role in command of the two officers. THE BUTLER AND THE BAKER OF THE KING OF BOUND IN THE PRISON. 37:2). the second captain his former master. in the morning it was as if he had pulled letting in the sunlight. The words of his lord's house contain at least two ways of this are reidentifying the men.

THIS IS THE INTERPRETATION OF IT: THE THREE BRANCHES ARE THREE DAYS: . IN DREAM. AND JOSEPH SAID UNTO THEM. DO NOT INTERPRETA TIONS BELONG TO GOD? TELL IT. however. 8. Pharaoh be specifically one dream by Joseph himself 41:25). AND JOSEPH SAID UNTO 12. The color had been lost. There are either two dreams depending on how one counts them. A VINE WAS BEFORE ME. HIM. AND THEY SAID UNTO HIM. AND THERE IS NO INTERPRETER OF IT.8). Chapters Thirty-one give a and Thirty-two. was As in Verse Four the dream is continually referred to in the singular. AND THE CHIEF BUTLER TOLD HIS DREAM TO MY JOSEPH. We shall of the words involved. Joseph higher than a man never speaks any being throughout the whole book. which dealt with Jacob's magic. BEHOLD. The dreams of the present have been of referred will chapter to as a dream in two called places (Gen. FORTH. GRAPES. addition to being characterized by unusual words. is less marked The vocabulary in are infrequently list used. However. AND SAID TO HIM. AND IN THE VINE WERE THREE BRANCHES: AND IT WAS AS THOUGH IT AND HER BLOSSOMS SHOT BUDDED. There is one other peculiar facet to this verse. The dream of the butler con butlery and the dream of the baker. IO. AND PHARAOH'S CUP WAS IN MY HAND: AND I TOOK THE PRESSED THEM INTO PHARAOH'S HAND. and which surrounding the dreams tends to contain words was in than it This tendency. AND CUP. 9. There only one dream though two men claimed to have dreamed it. WE HAVE DREAMED A DREAM. Joseph asked the men to tell him the dream to because God has the interpretation. The list is in fact many In each cerns of the somewhat more impressive than it seems to be at since words appear in clusters. I PRAY YOU. In real important aspect time is con life grapes require months to grow and wine must be aged even longer. TO ME.The Lion and and the Ass 51 which the sharpness of the lines had been drawn all by constant redefinition painted their cell in black and white. AND I GAVE THE CUP INTO PHARAOH'S Chapters or four Forty and Forty-one contain several dreams. bakery. including those which appear in Pharaoh's first dream. 40:5. and the dreams (Gen. the dream appears to dreamer in terms of his own private position. AND THE CLUSTERS THEREOF BROUGHT FORTH RIPE GRAPES: II. one The dream itself differs from reality in densed.

13:23 Num. 1:7 Blossoms 1 " Song Clusters 1 2:12 Song 7:11. 59:3 Ps. YET WITHIN THREE DAYS SHALL PHARAOH LIFT UP THINE HEAD.8 Job 24:24 total: 7 words 30 5 17 6 13. remembering forget ting. The importance interpretation ever since of of time in interpretation is and by no means limited to Joseph's together we the dreams. 12:5 Ezek. Once this is thoughtful human understood the rest of the dream becomes clear being. have been able to understand the author's message by seeing the traditions and ways of peoples and places throughout their history. 1:14 Eccles.52 Interpretation Number Occur Occurrences rences Occur rences words of in occur- rences chaps. Time memory have held the book the Flood. 7:1 Song Song 1:14 7:8.13 Num. 69:16 Zech. 4:12 17:5. 18:5 Job 15:33 Job 40:17 Lam. 32:32 Is. Is. 13:24 Deut.9 Press Meadow 1 2 Job 8:11 Hos. 65:8 Mic. AND RE STORE THEE UNTO THY PLACE: AND THOU SHALT DELIVER PHARAOH'S CUP INTO HIS HAND. Only by remembering. Joseph quite that the interpretation of the dream is that the three branches stand rightly says for three to any days. Apparently the distinction between him large extent of only to this dream. Joseph's way of interpretation . and hence. but to all who can and him who upon cannot interpret dreams depends to the importance of the interpreter's and awareness of time. time is the crucial The three awareness of key. in the rest in the rest of of the The word 40'and 41 Dodecateuch of the Bible from the same root Interpreter. interpretation 13 2 Branches Joel 1:7 Is. a not dreams. AFTER THE FORMER MANNER WHEN THOU WAST HIS BUTLER. Time also plays a central role in the interpretation. 13:15 Ears of Corn 10 Judg. that is by forgetting time. Ruth 12:6 2:2 Ps.

as our author knows full be said well. which is the prison. THEE. UNTO ME. BUT REMEMBER ME WHEN IT SHALL BE WELL WITH I PRAY THEE. severing all relations. MANNER OF AND IN THE UPPERMOST BASKET THERE WAS OF ALL BAKE- OUT OF THE BASKET MEATS FOR PHARAOH. has suddenly disappeared again. AND THE BIRDS DID EAT THEM UPON MY HEAD. AND JOSEPH ANSWERED AND SAID. HE SAID UNTO JOSEPH. The dream itself concerns the strange relations arise time is neglected. must be understood differently be true or they apply to different Words. As we shall see. the baker's dream contains no refer ence to time in this sense. THIS IS THE INTERPRETATION THEREOF: THE THREE BASKETS ARE THREE DAYS: . FOR INDEED I WAS STOLEN AWAY OUT OF THE LAND OF THE HEBREWS AND HERE ALSO HAVE I DONE NOTHING THAT THEY SHOULD PUT ME INTO THE PIT. The words Pharaoh times in the present chapter and only in the Book of Daniel (Dan. In many ways Joseph's interpretation is more confusing than the dream it self.The Lion has in time. The house. 37:24). same situation in the story Joseph is being Judah had been in at the beginning of Chapter Thirty-eight when he left his brothers. lift up thine head will be played with several allow for at least two crucially different inter Even the interpretations men. l6. When Joseph asks the butler to remember him in In Joseph's mind time good times his own memory goes back to his brothers presented as and to the bad times. AND. BEHOLD. I ALSO WAS IN MY DREAM. pretations (see Gen. Words can never to false apart from the reasonable expectation of what the speaker be lieves the hearer to say will understand by his words. are meaningful only in relation to the listener. as 40:20. has suddenly become the pit in which his brothers had left him ten years before (Gen. His homeland is suddenly the land of the He At this point in the brews. that is to say a land of slaves. l8. In the following chapters we shall see this separation grow and then suddenly collapse. AND BRING ME OUT OF THIS HOUSE: 15. and the Ass 53 for the interpretation of effect served as a model the book for a very long im The butler portance when seems to share in some vague way Joseph's awareness of the which of time.21). WHEN THE CHIEF BAKER SAW THAT THE INTERPRETATION WAS GOOD. 14. The word which has been translated place normally means a base or socket and is used in the sense of position shall 11:20). I HAD THREE WHITE BASKETS ON MY HEAD: 17. AND MAKE MENTION OF ME UNTO PHARAOH. and the words may be intended different things to different people. AND SHEW KIND NESS.

awareness of time Clarity man's of dreams yet and a vague could how can they save a life? And Joseph have of seen no other difference between the and two men. some translat In addition. AND THE BIRDS SHALL EAT THY FLESH FROM OFF THEE. At the beginning of the story we were told nothing more than that both men had sinned. must have a vague reflection of that awareness. Suddenly. of With Pharaoh things will be dif has the wisdom of Joseph's interpretation. they. He will have to be convinced ending. meaning hole and indeed. the other hung. and in each case the dream meant the same thing: within three days Pharaoh shall lift up thine different. Whatever was said of one was said of the other. The word meaning is unclear. in their hearts. They had dreamed but a single dream. His dreams are unclear and lack any feeling for time. The chief baker had no particular insight into the wisdom of Joseph's inter pretation of the butler's dream. Interpretation YET WITHIN THREE DAYS SHALL PHARAOH LIFT UP THINE HEAD FROM OFF THEE. To see the whole force Joseph's interpretation its relation to the dream as it was understood by the dreamer we must reflect on our own ac tivity as interpreters of the Book of Genesis and its relation to that large mass of people great and small for whom the book was written. When he saw that the interpretation was good he saw nothing more than the happy ferent. If the New Way is to succeed. It comes to the baker as a whole and and to time in the sense that the butler's dream had that Pha raoh's dream will have. When Joseph returned adds the words head. Was it thought were by the author that all the men. the two become totally from off thee he means that one will be to be one so different? The but a vague and subliminal of the to his made place of honor. and children whose lives the to be of guided by this book would not. that alone will save their . What these men who seemed almost ler's dream itself butler shared was a with playing with time. no The dream itself is manifest reference quite vague. It could also be a which we have translated have come white is a peculiar word whose very misleading dream. and a less apt interpreter could lieving a that the dream portended the baker's ultimate have easily been misled into be freedom. The baker is not very good dreamer. AND SHALL HANG THEE ON A TREE. like the butler. But dreams touch the heart of man.54 19. It could as well ors take it in that sense. women. In Joseph his understanding of way the importance of time. and this vague but deeply-rooted understanding time was sufficient to save his life. follow the intricacies are we of dates and history each city? Probably How then Israel to understand the relation of his deepest thoughts to that ery one of the mass of people of for whom he is writing? While not ev Children need be aware of the deepest understanding of tradition deep lives. it could have come from the Hebrew word from a root for freedom.

BEHOLD. 4. When Joseph says when it shall be well with thee he knows that the butler will forget him but that seph when the right to mind. and the Ass 55 DAY. AND HE GAVE THE CUP INTO PHARAOH'S HAND: 22.The Lion 20. 7- SEVEN THIN EARS AND BLASTED WITH THE EAST WIND SPRUNG UP AFTER THEM. of this think on me when it shall be well me thee. BEHOLD. BEHOLD. BUT HE HANGED THE CHIEF BAKER. . The word which has been translated make mention of literally means cause me to be remem but bered. AND HE RESTORED THE CHIEF BUTLER UNTO HIS BUTLERSHIP AGAIN. SO PHARAOH AWOKE. YET DID NOT THE CHIEF BUTLER REMEMBER appears to show read as JOSEPH. CHAPTER XLI I. RANK AND GOOD. bring house (Gen. WHICH WAS PHARAOH'S BIRTHDAY. HE STOOD BY THE RIVER. KINE AND THERE CAME UP OUT OF THE RIVER SEVEN WELL FAVOURED AND THEY FED IN A MEADOW. and make mention of 40:14). AND PHARAOH AWOKE. AND THE SEVEN THIN EARS DEVOURED THE SEVEN RANK AND FULL EARS. This fact alone is a key to interpreting a good part of the meaning of Pharaoh's dream. 2. 6. SEVEN OTHER RIVER. AND THE ILL FAVOURED AND LEANFLESHED KINE DID EAT UP THE SEVEN WELL FAVOURED AND FAT KINE. BUT FORGAT HIM. AND IT CAME TO PASS AT THE END OF TWO FULL YEARS. BEHOLD. 21. 5AND HE SLEPT AND DREAMED THE SECOND TIME: AND. BEHOLD. AND. Pharaoh. SEVEN EARS OF CORN CAME UP UPON ONE STALK. on Verse Twenty-three deep ingratitude unto the part of the but ler. I pray me out me. KINE CAME UP AFTER THEM OUT OF THE FATFLESHED. memory cannot play a role if there is no forgetting. Verse Fourteen had with unto follows: But thee. 3. AND. AND. 23. AS JOSEPH HAD INTERPRETED TO THEM. opportunity arises the conditions themselves will bring Jo Presumably Joseph's trust in the butler is based on his awareness a solid that the butler is dreamer. and shew and kindness. AND. IT WAS A DREAM. BEHOLD. The word translated river is a peculiar word which is used in the Bible ex clusively for the Nile and may even have been an Egyptian word. AND IT CAME TO PASS THE THIRD THAT HE MADE A FEAST UNTO ALL HIS SERVANTS: AND HE LIFTED UP THE HEAD OF THE CHIEF BUTLER AND OF THE CHIEF BAKER AMONG HIS SER VANTS. THAT PHARAOH DREAMED: AND. ILL FAVOURED AND LEANFLESHED: AND STOOD BY THE OTHER KINE UPON THE BRINK OF THE RIVER.

The baker's dream does not share this clarity. AND PUT ME IN WARD IN THE CAPTAIN OF THE GUARD'S HOUSE. it never rains in Egypt. The dream also shows an awareness whole of cows or of time. . The up out of in which the upon what comes Egyptian well-being depends the Nile River. behold. it was a other interpretation would be his a realization that a very important thing had happened to him knowledge of he had had can dream. He was vaguely aware of but unable to articulate it fully. IO. But they were unable to interpret them. Pharaoh nificance was troubled by his dream. and now of a good man has a way working by that the times are ripe Joseph came back into his mind. but if the waters fail to rise or rise only a little. The order the ears of corn come up also shares is the most crucial part of the dream. Pharaoh took his experience as real life until he awoke. PHARAOH WAS WROTH WITH HIS SERVANTS. Pharaoh's dream the clarity of the butler's dream in another sense. just as the but than vague sym ler will actually give a glass of wine cakes which to Pharaoh. The present commentator is somewhat confused not by the last phrase of Verse Seven. BOTH ME AND THE CHIEF BAKER: Almost seph. 9.56 Interpretation As is commonly known. the chief butler has fulfilled his he was released obligation to Jo At the end of the last chapter when from of prison the but it ler forgot Joseph. I MUST CAUSE MY FAULTS TO BE REMEMBERED THIS DAY. The cows. the birds eat are no more bols easily misinterpreted. AND ALL THE EGYPT. AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE MORNING THAT HIS SPIRIT WAS AND HE SENT AND CALLED FOR ALL THE MAGICIANS OF TROUBLED. stand for real lean for seven years. Egypt prospers. THEN SPAKE THE CHIEF BUTLER UNTO PHARAOH. Pharaoh saw the unity of the dream even though it was separated by time. In at least one critical sense its sig he was more aware of the solution than either the wise men or the magicians. Perhaps the point. reader with a more subtle Hebrew decide the 8. the crops fail and Egypt is desolated. as well as cows which will be fat for The seven years and standing for years. SAYING. Pharaoh as containing one dream. In that sense he was more aware of the told them his dream: Pharaoh considered the whole incident Biblical notion of time than the wise men and magicians who considered them two different dreams because they were separated by time. without thinking. The and. WISE MEN THEREOF: AND PHARAOH TOLD THEM HIS DREAM: BUT THERE WAS NONE THAT COULD INTERPRET THEM TO PHARAOH. The language. If the waters come up at the right time. But the memory self. perhaps because he does words have a fine enough feeling for the Hebrew dream may have been intended to imply that the imagery was so sharp that in spite of the strange things that had been going on.

have been sensitive to the problem at least in a 14. only until their beards grew back (II Sam. since he lost his clothes. and Joseph of was taken out as if he were ing directly 40:15). AS HE INTERPRETED TO US. We must remember Joseph shaved and put on new clothes.The Lion II. The butler repeats the words which point to the seems to ambiguity in the number of dreams. AND THERE WAS THERE WITH US A YOUNG MAN. ME HE RE STORED UNTO MINE OFFICE. SERVANT TO THE CAPTAIN OF THE GUARD: AND WE TOLD AND HE INTERPRETED TO US OUR DREAMS: TO EACH MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DREAM HE DID INTERPRET. Even rounding the 19:27). delivered from the hands his brothers (see commentary to Gen. and the Ass 57 AND WE DREAMED A DREAM IN ONE NIGHT. 12:20 and were about Children of Israel commentary to Gen. SO IT WAS. they also changed their clothes Shaving. however. discussed the the great rise in David's character when We have already he changed his clothes after death of and suffering. 19:10. Joseph shaved. AND THERE IS NONE THAT CAN INTERPRET IT: AND I HAVE HEARD SAY OF THOU CANST UNDERSTAND A DREAM TO INTERPRET IT.14). is not part of the New Way. ward change his first son. THEN PHARAOH SENT AND CALLED JOSEPH. THEE. New clothes are often used as a Biblical symbol for change of the inner man. AND THEY BROUGHT HIM AND CHANGED HIS HASTILY OUT OF THE PIT: AND HE SHAVED RAIMENT AND CAME IN UNTO PHARAOH. In a strange who brothers way time has had put him in collapsed again. I AND HE: WE DREAMED EACH MAN ACCORDING TO THE INTERPRETATION OF HIS DREAM. whom he had mourned while the child was still alive David's willingness to face life again was symbolized by his out (see II Sam. corners of the beard as was against the law of Moses (Lev. 10:4. HIMSELF. THAT . and now wears Egyptian AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO JOSEPH. I HAVE DREAMED A DREAM. His coat of many colors was taken by his brothers and his outer garment had been grabbed by Potiphar's wife. Jacob's family buried 35:2 and commentary). 13. Shaving is of mentioned being sometimes necessary in the clothing. 15. On their return to Beth-el. case leprosy (Lev. that because of the collapse of time he was nearly naked. 12. David is described as having a beard (I Sam. which then lay in desolation. 23:1). ar*d his servants were so scandalized when they were shaved by the enemy that they went to Jericho. 21:14). HIM. a It was not Pharaoh's men but his be pit. When the to receive the Law and to enter into the New Way (Ex. AN HEBREW. AND HIM HE HANGED. 13:29).5). The butler passive way. AND IT CAME TO PASS. their gods and changed their clothes (see Gen.

MAGICIANS. AND BEHOLD. BEHOLD. cows grew no fatter. 27. which follows an early translation into Aramaic by Jonathan Ben Uziel. AND THE THIN EARS DEVOURED THE SEVEN GOOD EARS: AND I TOLD THIS UNTO THE ME. AND THEY FED IN A MEADOW. APART FROM AND JOSEPH ANSWERED ME. AND JOSEPH SAID UNTO PHARAOH. FAT- FLESHED AND WELL 19. 21. . AND BLASTED WITH THE EAST WIND.58 l6. is more in conformity with the connotations of the word as it ap pears in Verse Forty-four of this chapter. BEHOLD. 22. AND THE LEAN AND THE ILL FAVOURED KINE DID EAT UP THE FIRST SEVEN FAT KINE. BUT THERE WAS NONE THAT COULD DECLARE IT TO Pharaoh's account of his dream is fuller than the Pharaoh not account given noted by the author in Verses One through Seven. THE DREAM OF PHARAOH IS ONE: GOD HATH SHEWED PHARAOH WHAT HE IS ABOUT TO DO. THERE CAME UP OUT OF THE RIVER SEVEN KINE. 26. SEVEN EARS. but he also connected important results. Interpretation PHARAOH. 23. AND. It contains a rather ways. I STOOD UPON THE BANK OF THE RIVER: l8. FAVOURED. SO I AWOKE. BEHOLD. THIN. BEHOLD. 17. only namely that the lean of Egypt. AND WHEN THEY HAD EATEN THEM UP. . AS AT THE BEGINNING. AND. THE SEVEN GOOD KINE ARE SEVEN YEARS. AND THE SEVEN GOOD EARS ARE SEVEN years: THE DREAM IS ONE. it with the land 25. The meaning of the original text is unclear. IN MY DREAM. POOR AND VERY ILL FAVOURED AND LEANFLESHED. AND THE SEVEN THIN AND ILL FAVOURED KINE THAT CAME UP AFTER THEM ARE SEVEN YEARS: AND THE SEVEN EMPTY EARS BLASTED WITH THE EAST WIND SHALL BE SEVEN YEARS OF FAMINE. WITHERED. AND. SPRUNG UP AFTER THEM: 24. SEVEN OTHER KINE CAME UP AFTER THEM. At that point the King James version me: shall give in God Pharaoh an answer reads: without thee shall no man lift. IT COULD NOT BE KNOWN THAT THEY HAD EATEN THEM: BUT THEY WERE STILL ILL FAVOURED. Our translation. AND I WAS IN MY DREAM. FULL AND GOOD. SAYING. AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO JOSEPH. used word which different translators take in different not The men of infrequently King James translate: It is of peace. SEVEN EARS CAME UP IN ONE STALK. ONLY GOD SHALL GIVE PHARAOH AN ANSWER OF PEACE. SUCH AS I NEVER SAW IN ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT FOR BADNESS: 20.

34. AND THE PLENTY SHALL NOT BE KNOWN IN THE LAND BY REASON OF THAT FAMINE FOLLOWING. AND FOR THAT THE DREAM WAS DOUBLED UNTO PHARAOH BECAUSE THE THING IS ESTABLISHED BY BRING IT TO PASS. FAMINE. How reflection our random of a be made intelligible by seeing them as a the life hero who this sense the hero is notion that the most a lives according to the way things living.The Lion 28. For comments on the particulars of the dream and its singular clarity see the com 41:1. do not have fates in the tragic can sense of the word. AND GOD WILL SHORTLY Joseph's interpretation of the dream again turns on his insight into its rela our tionship to time. it appears face of God appears to in Greek tragedy. and the Ass 59 THIS IS THE THING WHICH I HAVE SPOKEN UNTO PHARAOH: WHAT GOD IS ABOUT TO DO HE SHEWETH UNTO PHARAOH. breathing eidos. their honor from the way in lives which meet Men. and Only comes heroes have fates. as we know them from ever. AND ALL EGYPT. Nothing they in their lives is accidental. LET PHARAOH DO THIS. In seems to reject the understand important factor in understanding is to that . 33. AND LET HIM APPOINT OFFICERS OVER THE LAND. The sense of the as tradition and in particular a clear its deepest manifestation in the have relationship to as Moira. AND THAT FOOD SHALL BE FOR STORE TO THE LAND AGAINST THE SEVEN YEARS OF FAMINE. NOW THEREFORE LET PHARAOH LOOK OUT A MAN DISCREET AND AND SET HIM OVER THE LAND OF EGYPT. WISE. AND THE 31. AND THERE SHALL ARISE AFTER THEM SEVEN YEARS OF THE PLENTY SHALL BE FORGOTTEN IN THE LAND OF FAMINE SHALL CONSUME THE LAND. AND LET THEM KEEP FOOD IN THE CITIES. In about order to draw the distinctions fate is it appears notion of have to say something more in the Greek tragedies and its relation to we shall the nature as that word understood by Plato and Aristotle. WHICH SHALL BE IN THE LAND OF EGYPT. the inevitable. AND TAKE UP THE FIFTH PART OF THE LAND OF EGYPT IN THE SEVEN PLENTEOUS YEARS. 35. 36. THAT THE LAND PERISH NOT THROUGH THE FAMINE. That is made particularly clear in Verse Twenty-six. TWICE. But the Bible men are essentially. At this thor and point a certain distinction emerges between the teachings notion of of our au the teachings of the wise men of Greece. mentary to Gen. THERE COME SEVEN YEARS OF GREAT PLENTY THROUGHOUT ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT: 30. 29- BEHOLD. of daily experience. FOR IT SHALL BE VERY GRIEVOUS. or Fate. AND LAY UP CORN UNDER THE HAND OF PHARAOH. IT IS GOD. AND LET THEM GATHER ALL THE FOOD OF THOSE GOOD YEARS THAT COME. 32.

Man. It is hard to do since much more than to repeat Abrabanel 's argument at this point it is probably one of the finest insights into the nature of prophecy and dreams that has been written. Why does Pharaoh find Joseph's interpretation its closeness so compelling? In part. Jer king 2. op. But the Biblical a magic does not believe in lamp. has again 37:30). once more come only to disappear in front of our eyes. / see a rod of an almond tree. Thought is very different from creeping speech. p. up the side. 37. which author By the dream portends establishing new ways Joseph can mitigate the fate in a way which Oedipus could not. Thou hast seen: for I will hasten my word to perform it (see Jer. . Jerusalem and Athens. one could argue that to the text is one of the compelling factors. That is the es Abrabanel's argument. like the fish. Pharaoh's acceptance of the dream was like a recognition. and those five years will stretch out invite his brothers to stay into centuries of The author is it aware of will the great difficulties there will be no more in establish ing the state and that last than those same four hundred years our (see commentary to Gen. Joseph will in Egypt for five years.. In the sym the almond Jeremiah saw at once the summation of all of the political al and passions which liances filled his time. requires a blessing be cause character depends more on tradition and individual ways than it does on the unchangeable. cit. One sees a red-roofed house with blue shutters and a vine roof or whole. Abrabanel argues that since Pharaoh himself was the dreamer the full meaning of the dream must have been in him. somewhat the way in which things that we have forgotten are in us.2 In order to see more who seems to be saying very clearly the distinction between Abrabanel and Freud. knowing 259-64. Babylon Egypt in was about to attack and the the attack. 1. word Now the Hebrew bol of hasten is the same as the word almond. that Egypt Abrabanel. One thou? well day the Lord said to Jeremiah What seest And he said. and the con but from his own memory. wanted to join forces with an attempt to withstand emiah could not have helped Vol. And the Lord said. The distinction between to the surface two parents.60 which Interpretation is his everywhere and always. Abrabanel begins by posing the following ques tion. much the same thing. AND IN THE EYES OF ALL HIS SERVANTS. servitude. Though speech does us not see the red before the the vine before the creeping. It was like the action of a man who has been reminded of viction comes not sence of in the reminder something that he once knew. Pha but that does not seem sufficient to account for the great investment which raoh makes on the strength of the interpretation. forces to destroy the inarticulate There is a sense in which this is not true of the words of a prophet. that the people were weak. AND THE THING WAS GOOD IN THE EYES OF PHARAOH. we should begin by think ing one somewhat about thought. 1:11.12).

case of of Unconscious thought is It can err as easily as can any other thought. and it sometimes happens that their These are pettiest of needs appear to them as as having cosmic significance. both consciously and unconsciously. was not unknown to the author. the men whom the Bible knows the false prophets. and that for the and mo He surely knew all the facts dates any modern news analyst would. In his case that would fully conscious awareness of the use of symbols that when he wrote . other men seem to exhibit a genuine con cern for a greater whole which pervades their thoughts and even their dreams. men The and conscious thought of most are usually centers around their own needs desires. This distinction. then our concern for the whole may lead about terms us to we dream know the whole in wayo that draw the those powers with which we conclusion from the things by means of prophets form dreams. The way in which the imagination summed up these ele ments into the tree is close to the activity of dreaming. not magical. though expressed in other words. did not regard himself as a prophet mean a his own work as a work of either. Per haps he had never collected all the data as a journalist would have. The fragments and the political situation began to revealed form of a whole in Jeremiah's thought.The Lion and the Ass 61 could not control. Men quite see the beginnings of a and an ordered world which doesn't fit together they begin to for the missing pieces. The thoughts which compose them are as involved as most of scious are thought. But men differ. according to modern psychology. It's hard to say pattern search where wonder comes from. He emphasized the fact that prophets were taught through dreams but that Moses of saw the world with clar ity. had just lost many battles and ment. Neither absolute order nor absolute chaos can of be the grounds of a question. and yet suddenly all those things were from his mind and he could see only the almond tree warning him. of as happened in the the man of God who predicted the coming Josiah who and are the destruction capable the altar at Beth-el. concern True though are not those men whose serious is with the whole. There are. as well. at least. our author. But it was gone all summed up in the almond tree. But if that is correct and our own middle hidden from ourselves. knowledge they have the political situation While most of us are concerned with our own daily needs and petty desires. In the commentary to Gen. They are sometimes called philosophers. who never speaks revelation. they may and be fully conscious of the of ways in which their fragmented about insights thoughts join together the bits to form a whole. Babylon was in as be relied upon. Presumably. But there times when some men reflect upon a larger whole. are an expression of our desires. if not more so. unstated our con Dreams. almond they themselves in the form the almond tree. those concern men of articulating their for the whole in human speech. 20:7 we tried to show the radical distinction the he made between Moses and the prophets.

one of the still unanswered questions political wisdom and concerning the best is wisdom. Joseph 50:9). AND HE MADE HIM TO RIDE IN THE SECOND CHARIOT WHICH HE HAD: AND THEY CRIED BEFORE HIM. The history of chariots within the books sheds a great deal of light will on the present verse. AND PHARAOH TOOK OFF HIS RING FROM HIS HAND. THIS. SEE I HAVE SET THEE OVER ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT. will Chariots when form the of force of the Children Israel escape via the Pharaoh's army four hundred years Sea of Reeds. AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO HIS SERVANTS. THERE IS NONE SO DISCREET AND WISE AS THOU ART: THOU SHALT BE OVER MY HOUSE. sim whether ply. Pharaoh butler. however. We He should begin by considering Pharaoh's recognized the truth of Joseph's interpretation and also made him ruler. . 11:9). AND ACCORDING UNTO THY WORD SHALL ALL MY PEOPLE BE RULED: ONLY IN THE THRONE WILL I BE GREATER THAN THOU.62 Interpretation curse Joshua's he was thinking about the death of Zedekiah in the same terms in which we have tried. main use his chariot twice once when he to greet his father (Gen. and they were all burnt by fire his command (see Josh. BOW THE KNEE: AND HE MADE HIM RULER OVER ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT. IS. goes out In Genesis. Part Moses' of final speech to people will them not to fear horses help. actions as two separate actions. FORASMUCH AS GOD HATH SHEWED THEE ALL 40. be drowned (Ex. 41. 46:29) and again when he takes his father's body later back to Canaan (Gen. Moses and his and people will. chapters But in these store about the dreamers were only vaguely aware of what was and the in for them. the text would distinguish between 43. AND PUT IT UPON JOSEPH'S HAND. appear and chariots for they will be able to possess the land even without their The gaged chariots finally with during the time of men Joshua when Israel was en in battle Hazor. 38. These two parts of Pharaoh's act reflect the two parts of Joseph's act. Joshua's at conquered the chariots. A MAN IN WHOM THE SPIRIT OF GOD IS? AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO JOSEPH. at ots will exhort that time. pass through the sea unharmed. Pharaoh's his chari 14:28). However. shared a deep-seated feeling the nature of time and thought which the baker lacked. CAN WE FIND SUCH A ONE AS THIS 39. AND ARRAYED HIM IN VESTURES OF FINE LINEN. He had both interpreted the dream way of and given solid political advice meeting the situation. 42. AND PUT A GOLD CHAIN AROUND HIS NECK. AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO JOSEPH.

The Book of Judges politically idealistic time when there was no leader and each man part of the whole.22). were victori Though that battle is ous. but had come to stay. But after of having Saul's defeat he decided most of not to follow the example Joshua. and was brought to Samaria. since described. for one of the ways in which he tried to dissuade them to warn them that a king would take their sons to be charioteers (I Sam. They were used in displays by both Absalom and Adonijah when they called the people together in order to form their insurrections (II Sam.12). in the pool one washed the chariot they buried the king in Samaria. And saying. career 1:6). So the king died. Joshua told them they were free to con the mountain territories and assured them that of they could be victorious in the iron chariots never which the Canaanites had (see Josh. There was to have been a loose federation of tribes a only by God and by the Jubilee Year. and died at even: and the blood ran out of the wound into the midst of the chariot. Every man to his city. he reserved one hundred for his (II Sam. Under the King Solomon chariots came into their He sanc tified the forbidden sacred sea or chapters part of objects by using the form of the chariot as the base of the lavabo which stood in front of the Temple (I Kings making 7:33)- Two later he fulfilled Samuel's prophecy played a role by chariots a permanent the army (I Kings 9:19. who rode in a chariot. who was on killed. but Judah and Simeon. 1:19). who by that time had banded together. at the end of continually ravaged the land the battle Jehoshaphat. own. must 17:16-18). give them a freedom only lived When the demanded that Samuel was king. and and every man to his own country. Saul died. These foreign and monsters also played their role in the loss were of individual freedom after the rise of kingship. Ultimately these chariots caused more harm than good. was captured and And up in his chariot against the Syrians. able to ots. of Samaria. and the dogs licked up his .15). 8:11. began in acted as united chariots posed a greater threat. On the plains. King Saul. when were Ephraim and Manasseh complained that the lands given them quer spite too small. Chariots (I Kings in the Syrian wars which 20:1-33).13.The Lion and the Ass 63 the men of Later in the book. all hold his own against the Philistines without the use of of his faults. And there went a proclamation throughout the host about the going battle increased that day: and the king was staved down of the sun. foot. The iron chariots give finally of conquered and Israel had been forced to the under judgeship people of up that understanding Deborah (Judg. the chariots. reign of 15:1 and I Kings 1:5). Although he own use burned 8:4). However. Early seen David conquered a thousand chariots. however. escaped. the while Ahab. it on be inferred that they mentions from that point the Bible often the mountains of Ephraim. 4:3. was horses and chari But the last his in his eyes saw life was a mass of chariots chariots following hard upon him in the field (II Sam. were unable to conquer the iron chariots (Judg.

AND JOSEPH WENT DOWN FROM THE PRESENCE OF PHARAOH. Instead all of his new plan called for collecting ginning of the seven years of plenty. collecting food and rationing it from the be Clearly the first plan would have been one-fifth of the the provided enough food for two years. 49. Hilliapolis. AND HE GAVE HIM TO WIFE ASENATH THE DAUGHTER OF POTI-PHERAH PRIEST OF ON. sometimes called the sun. 45. AND WITHOUT THEE SHALL NO MAN LIFT UP HIS HAND OR FOOT IN ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT. horses and again when and frightened the Syrian army 7:6). . I AM PHARAOH. AND IN THE SEVEN PLENTEOUS YEARS THE EARTH BROUGHT FORTH BY HANDFULS. AND JOSEPH WAS THIRTY YEARS OLD WHEN HE STOOD BEFORE PHARAOH KING OF EGYPT. and thinks of Joseph has completely abandoned the home himself only as an Egyptian (see Gen. AND LAID UP THE FOOD IN THE CITIES: THE FOOD OF HE UP IN THE FIELD. land (II Kings author's and Josh. 41:51). resurrection of kings of Judah had up as a gift to the the state Josiah burnt those 23:11 chariots as Joshua This had done return he first in entered the seems to a chariot. spake. AND HE GATHERED UP ALL THE FOOD OF THE SEVEN YEARS. WHICH WAS ROUND ABOUT EVERY CITY. to the beginning be the final reflections on chariots. Joseph's married rule in Egypt was an total. It almost looks as though on in this of it will his fathers life. LAID SAME. AND WENT THROUGHOUT THE LAND OF EGYPT. 47. AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO JOSEPH. AND PHARAOH CALLED JOSEPH'S NAME ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH. VERY MUCH. Apparently. AND JOSEPH WENT OUT OVER ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT. 11:9). Joseph's new name According to modern scholars is Egyptian for creator of 46. WHICH WERE IN THE LAND OF THE EGYPT. Later become clear that The city. UNTIL HE LEFT NUMBERING: FOR IT WAS WITHOUT NUMBER. insufficient since it would not have even food. Joseph the one he seems to have decided to play of a much firmer role than had outlined to Pharaoh. they washed his armour. He rode in an Egyptian chariot and was to the daughter of was Egyptian priest. according unto the word of the Lord which He (I Kings 22:35-38) were Chariots threw a almost laughed at in the Battle Which Wasn't when Elisha Elisha fog around the Syrian army (II Kings with 6:15). but Joseph now rides 44. the noises of chariots (II Kings The last time that In his final when a chariot is mentioned by the author set is when he speaks of sun- the statue of a chariot which the god. 48. On. AND JOSEPH GATHERED CORN AS THE SAND OF THE SEA.64 Interpretation and blood. Joseph chapter were dedicated to the worship of riding in the chariots which Josiah tore down.

Moses to God but had to remain as mediator. Joseph's break that with the past has become total. DO. ACCORDING AS JOSEPH HAD SAID. 52. AND ALL THE COUNTRIES CAME INTO EGYPT TO JOSEPH FOR TO BUY CORN. THAT WAS IN THE LAND OF EGYPT. Joseph had provided well for his people. FOR GOD. THAT WE MAY LIVE. THE PEOPLE CRIED TO PHARAOH FOR BREAD: AND PHARAOH SAID UNTO ALL THE UNTO EGYPTIANS. But forgetting. has two sides. AND THE FAMINE WAXED SORE IN THE LAND OF EGYPT. WERE ENDED. WHICH UNTO HIM. AND HE SAID. I HAVE HEARD THAT THERE IS CORN IN EGYPT: GET YOU DOWN THITHER. but he also had am ple reason to hate it. to send the people directly 56. AND THE NAME OF THE SECOND CALLED HE EPHRAIM: FOR GOD HATH CAUSED ME TO BE FRUITFUL IN THE LAND OF MY AFFLICTION. in the case of Jo seph. BUT IN ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT THERE WAS BREAD.The Lion 50. GO JOSEPH'. AND WHEN ALL THE LAND OF EGYPT WAS FAMISHED. AND THE SEVEN YEARS OF PLENTEOUSNESS. NOW WHEN JACOB SAW THAT THERE WAS CORN IN EGYPT. . and the Egyp was tians complained to Pharaoh with the same will use when unable words that the Children of Israel they address Moses in the desert. AND SOLD UNTO THE EGYPTIANS. At this new point in Joseph's life there is neither duty nor ha tred. AND THE DEARTH WAS IN ALL LANDS. SAID HE. Unlike Pharaoh. the hardship came. 54. He had a duty towards his homeland. AND ALL MY FATHER'S HOUSE. HATH MADE ME FORGET ALL MY TOIL. AND BUY FOR US FROM AND NOT DIE. WHY DO YE LOOK ONE UPON ANOTHER? 2. AND THE FAMINE WAS OVER ALL THE FACE OF THE EARTH: AND JOSEPH OPENED ALL THE STOREHOUSES. There is only the life which he is thinking about in Verse Fifty-two. years of After the birth of Joseph's sons. BECAUSE THAT THE FAMINE WAS SO SORE IN ALL LANDS. 57. WHAT HE SAITH TO YOU. and in a strange image of the prophet vision when all men shall come way one has the Jerusalem. to CHAPTER XLII I. AND JOSEPH CALLED THE NAME OF THE FIRSTBORN MANASSEH. AND THE SEVEN YEARS OF DEARTH BEGAN TO COME. and the Ass 65 AND UNTO JOSEPH WERE BORN TWO SONS BEFORE THE YEARS OF FAMINE CAME. BEHOLD. 53. THENCE. 55. His first son's name implies he has completely forgotten his brothers. JACOB SAID UNTO HIS SONS. ASENATH THE DAUGHTER OF POTI-PHERAH PRIEST OF ON BARE 51.

4:23. which ends with longing for a king (see I Sam. It causes vast migra of the word. 28:47. (Deut. 19:31). In his great prayer. city was it. and there was bread for the people of the land. and all his and pitched against host. in famine. And it came to pass in day of the month. And the besieged unto the eleventh year the ninth day of the fourth month of King Zedekiah. Famine was one of the choices open to for the sins of Saul against the Gibeonites.66 Interpretation one of the great Famine is tions in the most literal sense moving forces in the book. There were Elisha. 12:10) went only as far as Isaac to migrate in that same direction though he Gerar.48) want of iron upon thy neck. they will only learn to live was with it when they have learned to live with themselves. arrow could and slay (I Kings 8:37-39). and in thirst. David as a punishment and the com mentary to Gen. reads as Moses' follows: Because thou servedst not the Lord thy God with joyfulness and with gladness of in heart. but the great famine came under the lost and the people enemy whom famines again in the days reign of that unseen King Zedekiah when all was taken into Babylon. in the tenth month. famine a census occurred at the spite of end of his reign because he insisted upon taking in Joab's warning (see II Sam. Though David chose blight. 24:13 and the commentary to Gen. This joy in serving God was based primarily on the internal relationships which culminated in the celebration of the Jubilee Year (see commentary to Gen. (II Kings 25:1-3) . Thus far in the book famine has and Abraham to even go into Egypt (Gen. prayer 2:1-10 and commentary to Gen. therefore shalt thou against thee. in the tenth Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon came. for the the abundance Lord shall send of all things. put a yoke serve thine enemies which and and in nakedness. 15:9). As we shall see later. the home sons of King Abimelech (Gen. and they built forts against it round about. contrasting their service to God with foreign domination. The new state to have joy as its principle characteristic. 23:1). He have de The word famine next occurs in Hannah's prayer. no of King Ahab Solomon again warned the people of famine. he. the other mov caused ing force is food. 26:1). until of all things: and He shall stroyed thee. When their finally leave Egypt four hun dred and years later the famine will still out there in the desert waiting for them. And the famine prevailed in the city. on no Jerusalem. 20:7). warning. which not only serves as a paradigm for which contains some of all prayers but the deepest reflections on the nature of prayer itself. Obed (see Ruth 1:1. and now it will send Jacob and all his into be a strange world children from which they them selves will never return alive. that against the ninth year of his reign. But even before which sent Hannah's Elimelech there had been a famine in the days of the Judges and prepared and Naomi to Moab the answer to Hannah's prayer by the birth of David's great-grandfather.

AND HE IT WAS THAT SOLD TO ALL THE PEOPLE OF THE LAND: AND JOSEPH'S BRETHREN CAME. AND JOSEPH WAS THE GOVERNOR OVER THE LAND. JACOB SENT NOT WITH HIS BRETHREN. is the word which played such a role in the life of . WHENCE COME YE? AND THEY SAID. same man ner since Benjamin. 6. 7. was and From Abraham to Zedekiah famine the people the goad which continually pushed on. yet Joseph is the prominent one and they number recognize only ten in him. SAID. It was used nize. FOR HE LEST PERADVENTURE MISCHIEF BEFALL HIM. contains a large crowd. has taken Joseph's 5. AND THE SONS OF ISRAEL CAME TO BUY CORN AMONG THOSE THAT CAME: FOR THE FAMINE WAS IN THE LAND OF CANAAN. JOSEPH'S BROTHER. AND SPAKE ROUGHLY UNTO THEM. The reason Judah explicitly will become clear in the commentary to Gen. AND JOSEPH SAW HIS BRETHREN. Verse Five presents the sons as appearing among the crowds of people which countries had come from many to buy corn. In other words the author subtly wishes to a proper role remind us that Judah has returned to his brothers why the and author not wish to mention for himself among them. AND BOWED DOWN THEMSELVES BEFORE HIM WITH THEIR FACES TO THE EARTH. recog Judah. Apparently he does not to give them the opportunity of dealing with Benjamin in the place. BUT BENJAMIN. BUT MADE HIMSELF STRANGE UNTO SAID UNTO THEM. AND HE RECOGNIZED THEM. This word. 3. FROM THE LAND OF CANAAN TO BUY FOOD. 4. The author stresses the fact that ten brothers went down into Egypt. 43:2. the is intended to be has found did in opposition to the number Nine. The Hebrew words recognized he made himself strange come from homonymic roots.The Lion The final which and the Ass of the 67 state was collapse accompanied by famine the famine of Moses had spoken. in his eyes. from Canaan to Egypt back to Canaan. pression that wish In reading this verse we must bear in mind that Jacob is still under the im Joseph was murdered by his brothers. AND HE THEM. and finally into the great world. he can spot them but they do for not Verse Seven and a play on words. AND JOSEPH'S TEN BRETHREN WENT DOWN TO BUY CORN IN EGYPT. His em phasis on verse the number ten was not meant as an introduction to the following in which we are stress told that Benjamin did not go with his brothers. Actu understood ally. from Canaan it pushed them to Moab and back with the seed of a king.

He has found life for himself and has no intention ognition will not cause come much more returning to his brothers. Judg. reads as follows: The nakedness of thy father's wife shalt thou not uncover. AND SAID UNTO ARE COME. try to discover why he accusation of order accused them of being spies. At any rate spies will 18:2. has become Egypt's nakedness. Joseph's attack Egypt in pose a number of spying is tantamount to accusing them of wishing to be used for this pur times later in the book (see Num. Even from the outset Joseph tries to get his brothers to remember where they two came from He and hence who their fathers really he were. they become dead if not recognized from time to time. it is thy s nakedness. AND JOSEPH REMEMBERED THE DREAMS WHICH HE DREAMED OF THEM. The last part father' of the sentence means that it is a nakedness which it is only proper for the fa ther to see. a and II Sam. YE ARE SPIES.68 when Interpretation Judah recognized his own staff in the hand of Tamar and at the same time recognized the wisdom of Jacob. By gazing upon his own origins he remembered or rec ognized that which was inappropriate for him to remember. 15:10). Josh. 2:6. When Ham uncovered his father's nakedness he did. 21:32. to dwell there. BUT THEY KNEW NOT HIM. THEM. but according to the text the question posed in Verse Seven is already rough language. How ever. . 9. Joseph is now in somewhat the same position a new in which Judah had been in Chapter Thirty-eight. TO SEE THE NAKEDNESS OF THE LAND YE According unto them to Verse Seven Joseph Joseph's spake Whence come ye. in a way. AND JOSEPH KNEW HIS BRETHREN. In his case relations will be of complicated. in an inappropriate way. and we There must were a great many in which Joseph could have reacted. the brothers will ultimately settle for time in Egypt as if they had been The term nakedness in Hebrew has a somewhat wider meaning than it does in English. for instance. accused them of being spies who had come to see the nakedness of the land. Joseph's accusation is based on the fact that he. 10:3. spies. Leviticus 18:8. speech roughly unto them. and he said in Verse Nine is rough language. The word Isaac failed to recognize Ja Traditions can because he through a Esau (Gen. Ironically. and we shall have to see their development in the next chapters. We have connection with already discussed the notion of nakedness once before in Noah. his rec him to return immediately. be passed whole generation even though recognition is not present. Recognition is not had been cob on used once was necessarily before in the disguised as a characteristic of passage in which every generation. an accusation which ways will repeat in Verse Twelve. 8. In Egypt the Children of Israel were known as Hebrews. But Joseph was still of minds. 27:23). something very close to the highest human activity so far described in this book. Unlike Judah.

NAY. His doubts are.The Lion and the Ass 69 and as we so that is as slaves (see commentary to Gen. THAT IS IT THAT I SPAKE UNTO YOU SAY ING. WE ARE ALL ONE MAN'S SONS: WE ARE TRUE SPIES. and yet it seems to be the only one with possible. AND YE SHALL BE KEPT IN PRISON. are suddenly forced to remember the brother pit. BEHOLD. that is his origins. has begun it is a new sition to reveal life for himself. Perhaps In Verse Thirteen the brothers whom the connection between Joseph and the voice of the man who stood before see them was made by that part of their minds which allowed Pharaoh to even the solution to his dream before Joseph interpreted it. NAY. The real question is whether the brothers can be trusted Benjamin's life. THAT YOUR WORDS MAY BE PROVED. of course. CANAAN. AND. THE SONS OF ONE MAN IN THE LAND OF WITH OUR 14. MY LORD. MEN. SEND ONE OF YOU. AND LET HIM FETCH YOUR BROTHER. 39:11). and does not yet know for them to see whether appropriate it or not. It may be that Joseph. BUT TO SEE THE NAKEDNESS OF THE LAND 13. AND THEY SAID. 10. AND JOSEPH SAID UNTO THEM. Does Jacob have enough trust in his sons to place Benja placed min in the same position in which Joseph himself had been Even if Jacob thirty years not previously? Joseph is taking quite a risk. who is for the family on as a not certain that they have their any care for the family as a whole. EXCEPT YOUR YOUNGEST BROTHER COME HITHER. YE ARE SPIES: In Verse Eleven the brothers intend to that prove their honesty by telling care Joseph they are brothers. by law. AND ONE IS NOT. had placed into the But it is not clear what it was that reminded they them of Joseph. their But the lives simultaneously because of their proof does not satisfy Joseph. were forbidden to Verse who being lowly them. 15. the Hebrews were Egyptians. AND HE SAID UNTO YE ARE COME. BUT TO BUY FOOD ARE THY SERVANTS COME. This proof assumes that the sons of one man would not all risk whole. THY SERVANTS ARE NO 12. HEREBY YE SHALL BE PROVED: BY THE LIFE OF PHARAOH YE SHALL NOT GO FORTH l6. THY SERVANTS ARE TWELVE BRETHREN. based earlier actions towards him. HENCE. should agree. WHETHER THERE BE ANY TRUTH IN YOU: OR ELSE BY THE LIFE OF PHARAOH SURELY YE ARE SPIES. thought eat with of as shall learn in that the Thirty-two. THE YOUNGEST IS THIS DAY FATHER. THEM. it is . II. AND THEY SAID UNTO HIM. The test which Joseph has devised is a dangerous one. fears that his brothers would be in a po his nakedness. Perhaps it was his voice which brought him to mind.

taking God (Ex. to sacrifice to their there will follow a 8:23). This three-day God or circumstances.70 Interpretation his sons will pass the test. 3:18. but Solomon becomes king three-day periods never occur again. SO SHALL YOUR WORDS BE VERIFIED. and seen. clear that otherwise But since nothing can be accomplished Joseph has decided to go through with his plan. At the period makes end of the three-day period Joseph made differs from all others in that Joseph. the and 3:2). knowing their journey death of be like. Pharaoh's officers waited in jail for three days be true or not go knowing whether Joseph's predictions would will ask turn out to (Gen. 5:3. Most the men will be . After the di vision of the country the end was inevitable. They differ forty and four hundred in that they character of the of are always a period of unrest because occur of the unknown outcome. THIS l8. and the a magician (Gen. with and they waited. Three days from they always mark a period of doubt and wonder. 30:36). three-day of period of darkness in not nothing what can be After the Children would Israel left Egypt. FOR I FEAR GOD: 19- IF YE BE TRUE MEN. AND THEY DID SO. 17. and all of their possessions with them. AND YE SHALL NOT DIE. three days passed before the water ran out (Ex. BUT BRING YOUR YOUNGEST BROTHER UNTO ME. 1:11. After the Moses. But Pharaoh which will refuse. where would sacrificed him (Gen. Similar three-day periods and twice near the end of the Second Book once Samuel (II Sam. such as Samson gave to the from Ephraim spent at Philistines for solving his riddle. 22:4). Joseph not placed his brothers in we prison for three days. rather than his decision. his son. In the time the period the Levite of Judges there were other similar three-day periods. DAY. LET ONE OF YE. CARRY YOUR BRETHREN BE BOUND IN THE HOUSE OF YOUR PRISON: GO CORN FOR THE FAMINE OF YOUR HOUSES: 20. 15:22). to Mount was a three- day journey place where he became not between Laban's house. of the decision. Joshua announced a three-day period to prepare for the cross ing of the Jordan into the Promised Land. not knowing what life would be like on the other side (Josh. In the future Moses Pharaoh to let the Hebrews for three-day journey. AND HE PUT THEM ALL TOGETHER INTO WARD THREE DAYS. a 40:12-19). 14:14 and 19:4). and the time the home of his father-in-law before the jour ney which ended so disastrously (Judg. nor will Isaac. This is the first time that he have have sweated through a period of three it be the last. 2:22. 9:20). There days. Abraham walked for three days Moriah. in which Jacob was a servant. AND JOSEPH SAID UNTO THEM THE THIRD DO. Saul spent three aim less days looking for his father's lost she-ass before he found Samuel (I Sam. His final judgment was twofold. AND LIVE. 20:4 24:13).

US. 22. the things it knows. AND RETURNED TO THEM AGAIN. to It. This the a clear example of how the author views question of forgetting and of remembering. AND COMMUNED WITH AND TOOK FROM THEM SIM EON. AND THEY KNEW NOT THAT JOSEPH UNDERSTOOD THEM. present thoughts seem to of have been called same interplay forth by time and even contradict. IN THAT WE SAW THE ANGUISH OF HIS SOUL. who will emerge as their spokesman. AND WEPT. AND THEY SAID ONE TO ANOTHER. DO NOT SIN AGAINST THE AND YE WOULD NOT HEAR? BEHOLD. ers By deciding accept to hold one of them prisoner. in which he had warned the brothers not to kill Joseph. WHEN HE BE SOUGHT AND WE WOULD NOT HEAR. SAYING. which is characteristic of the as such book as a whole and upon which the significance of tra dition is based. is as Verse Twenty-three of points out.The Lion returned and the Ass 71 home. moment remains However. speech After the brothers' confession in Verse Twenty-one Reuben's "I told you falls flat. is sufficient bring Joseph to mind again in Verse Twenty-one. While the brothers do not fully understand the hint it seems to have a quiet effect. 40:1. AND HE TURNED HIMSELF ABOUT FROM THEM. Like the words of a child who says so". At the they freely of their guilt as rather spoke no moment Hebrew. AND REUBEN ANSWERED THEM. SPAKE CHILD. I NOT UNTO YOU. 23. FOR HE SPAKE UNTO THEM BY AN INTERPRETER. Joseph's indication speak he feared the God if Joseph insignificant the Jews. in which Joseph was taken out of the pit and sold. Judah. providing the brothers with sufficient time for them their own decision about returning to Egypt once they have returned while will provide a means of home. In this sense the verse tends to substantiate the notion that it was the Midianites who pulled Joseph out of the pit and sold him to the Ishmaelites. together with the incarceration of Simeon. he makes no reference to Gen. for the 24. Their that the things it knows only in a way. they serve no purpose. Joseph even forces the broth to the test if there is any decency left in them. THEREFORE IS THIS DISTRESS COME UPON US. 21. WE ARE VERILY GUILTY CONCERNING OUR BROTHER. In Verse Twenty-two Reuben apparently is referring to Gen. the things it does not know. It is strange and how the human mind. ALSO HIS BLOOD IS REQUIRED. THEREFORE. However. THEM. SAYING. This father and to reach sending ample provisions to his brothers. silent. was eaten Nonetheless it is wild consistent with the belief that Joseph actually by a beast. In Verse Eighteen Joseph suddenly hints to his brothers about his identity by saying For I fear God. . AND BOUND HIM BEFORE THEIR EYES. 37:21. seeing and of not seeing.

29. YOUNGEST IS THIS DAY WITH OUR FATHER IN THE LAND OF CANAAN. me. upon the commentary to Gen. 31. This which give rise world will awe. AND THE MAN. knowing for them or whether they are to be accounted thieves. AND TO RE SACK. IT IS EVEN IN MY SACK. and they are con fused. in from nowhere and in which wild and fantastic delights things will and money appears happen to them. AND TOOK US FOR SPIES OF THE COUNTRY. IT WAS IN HIS SACK'S MOUTH. AND THEIR HEARTS FAILED THEM. Joseph purposely them Simeon harshly in front of his brothers in order to impress duty towards him. SONS OF OUR FATHER. HE ESPIED HIS MONEY. WE ARE TRUE MEN. 26. BUT THAT YE ARE TRUE MEN: SO WILL I DELIVER BROTHER. 25. BEHOLD. AND TO GIVE THEM PROVISION FOR THE WAY: AND THUS DID HE UNTO THEM. AND DEPARTED THENCE. 32. WE ARE NO SPIES: AND THE BRETHREN. FOR. and take food for the famine of your households. . SAYING UNTO US? ONE TO ANOTHER. 33. AND LO. and be AND BRING YOUR YOUNGEST BROTHER UNTO ME: THEN SHALL I KNOW THAT YE ARE NO YOU YOUR 35.72 Interpretation are complicated. places them which in a strange One might even call it a world of miracles. AND THEY LADED THEIR ASSES WITH THE CORN. 28. SAID UNTO US. SPAKE ROUGHLY US. however. be filled now with the kind of torments to They not believe that God has if it is meant returned the money. AND IT CAME TO PASS AS THEY EMPTIED THEIR SACKS. 27. Joseph's tears pentance. AND THEY WERE AFRAID. AND HE SAID UNTO HIS BRETHREN. THEN JOSEPH COMMANDED TO FILL THEIR SACKS WITH STORE EVERY MANS MONEY INTO HIS CORN. MY MONEY IS RESTORED. 45:1 for treated their weeping. WHO IS THE LORD OF THE LAND. AND YE SHALL TRAFFICK IN THE LAND. SPIES. ONE IS NOT. AND WE SAID UNTO WE BE TWELVE HIM. THEM. but They contain recognition of own his brothers' re see they also contain the necessity for his our remarks on return. WHAT IS THIS THAT GOD HATH DONE At this which will world. AND AS ONE OF THEM OPENED HIS SACK TO GIVE HIS ASS PROVENDER IN THE INN. point Joseph begins to a work upon his brothers in He yet another way play large role in their education. THE LORD OF THE COUNTRY. HEREBY SHALL i know that ye are true men: leave one of your brethren here with gone: 34. EVERY MAN'S BUNDLE OF MONEY WAS IN HIS SACK: AND WHEN BOTH THEY AND THEIR FATHER SAW THE BUNDLES OF MONEY THEY WERE AFRAID. TO 30. THE MAN. AND THEY CAME UNTO JACOB THEIR FATHER UNTO THE LAND OF AND TOLD HIM ALL THAT BEFELL UNTO CANAAN. SAYING. BEHOLD.

The expression word sheol. MY TWO SONS. AND HE IS LEFT ALONE: IF MISCHIEF BEFALL HIM BY THE WAY IN THE WHICH YE ROW TO SHEOL. But throughout the discussion Judah con tinued to remain silent. FOR HIS BROTHER DEAD. he lost forever. GO. 44:29. THEN SHALL YE BRING DOWN MY GRAY HAIRS WITH SOR Jacob decides to do and nothing. His suggestion arises from his he true desire to accept the responsibilities laid upon the first-born.33). and Judah will use the word once he the present verse to Joseph (Gen. Reuben's offer of further sacrifice only have sounded grotesque. AND JACOB THEIR FATHER SAID UNTO CHILDREN: JOSEPH IS THEM. AND REUBEN SPAKE UNTO HIS FATHER. And while could presently believes himself to have failed. and yet he put another in chains as bit. MY SON SHALL NOT GO DOWN WITH YOU. whom He cannot risk the now considers life of Benjamin in the hope saving Simeon. ME NOT. Jacob had used it once before when he was the bowels of the presented with again when Joseph's quotes coat (Gen. Proverbs and Isaiah. he can no end of longer trust his sons. 16:30. The He demanded to see if he cared not a man one brother Jacob if he cared. AND SIMEON IS AND YE WILL TAKE BENJA MIN AWAY: ALL THESE THINGS ARE AGAINST ME. 38. HAVE YE BEREAVED OF MY NOT. 37:35). Well-meaning whole Reuben has blundered again. David omon. But Jacob's life has been spent in an attempt to avoid such sacrifices. has connotation of the English often poetic word appear found often very in our is generally a but it does not in Job. His memory of Joseph's death is too strong.The Lion and the Ass 73 of strange and The brothers spake went home full provided roughly as and yet for their needs. . books. IS AND HE SAID. 37. old the word twice in his last advice to Sol of In both cases it is a poetical friends for whom there is no way longer telling his son what must be done to a place (I Kings 2:6. contradictory tales. sense when It will be used once in the Book of Numbers in a literal Korah and the rest of his rebellious followers uses are swallowed up by a sudden fault in the earth (Num. Psalms. 36. He believes that his sons had killed even that of he himself is guilty.9). which earth. SAYING. IF I BRING HIM NOT TO THEE: DELIVER HIM INTO MY AND I WILL BRING HIM TO THEE AGAIN. SLAY HAND. even participates in these wonderful things when it is discovered that all the money has been returned.31). writings The the verse belongs to a different genre of Biblical than more the works the with which we have been dealing. Jacob is Joseph and most concerned about his sons.

WE WILL NOT GO. 22:6). I Sam.30) the soul can Poetry the final arises again as the last means by which be calmed. SAYING. AND IT CAME TO PASS. and David Moses both use the word in the psalms which they sing which. EXCEPT YOUR BROTHER BE WITH YOU. Jacob is in such distress that his mind breaks in two one living in the world which is and the other living in the world which should have been. until they were ended. THEIR FATHER SAID UNTO THEM. This is the author's view of poetry. AND THE FAMINE WAS SORE IN THE LAND. the Book of Genesis contains a certain antipoetical strain almost the last word on (see commentary to Gen. 31:29. have had several occasions and II Sam. Ja might persuade humility him to grant the food. As to mention. to provoke Him to anger through the hands. The figure self upon of the grand minister so impresses it Jacob's mind that he acts as if the minister were present even though Jacob knows that he is far away and that Benjamin must be sent. GO AGAIN. without demanding that Benjamin be brought to Egypt. and evil befall you in the latter days. FOR THE MAN SAID . BUT IF THOU WILT NOT SEND HIM. at the end of their gins lives. be her life (Deut. WE WILL GO DOWN AND BUY THEE FOOD: 5. Time and starvation have forced Jacob to of send his sons back to Egypt. IF THOU WILT SEND OUR BROTHER WITH US. It is refuge of an essentially antipoetical work and as such mirrors Jacob's feeling of resignation. He word imagines himself in front stresses Joseph begging for a little food. 2:6. BUY US A LITTLE FOOD. (Deut. 4:23 and 21:7). It is his following words: by For 1 know that the way which cause you will work after at the end of my death in the ye will utterly corrupt yourselves and will turn aside from I have commanded you. but nonetheless Moses and Moses' David both ultimately turn poet. YE SHALL NOT SEE MY FACE. CHAPTER XLIII I. we Hannah will use the word in the prayer as it were. SAYING. WHEN THEY HAD EATEN UP THE CORN WHICH THEY HAD BROUGHT OUT OF EGYPT. If the grand minister were present. song is a bitter song sung introduced the life. 2.74 Interpretation the word will appear three times in three different poems. will and Finally. THE MAN DID SOLEMNLY PROTEST US. AND JUDAH SPAKE UNTO UNTO HIM. 4. And Moses spoke in the ears of all the congregation of Israel do evil sight the words of the song. 32:22. 3. The reveals little the humility of his request and at the same time the complex way in cob's which the human mind works. be of your of the Lord.

AND NOT DIE. AND ALSO OUR LITTLE ONES. AND ISRAEL SAID. finally decides to speak. but in a deeper will use almost sense their words turn out which to be true. The words that we may live by saying both from Jacob. AND JUDAH SAID UNTO ISRAEL HIS FATHER. 33:20). But he does try and not to shift the grounds of the discussion a bit.The Lion UNTO YOU. WHEREFORE DEALT YE SO ILL WITH ME. THAT WE MAY LIVE. falling a silent. argument and returns Judah ignores the to the simple facts at hand. 32:28). allows his Their answer is. not His words are simple Unlike Reuben he does begin with a great oath the situation as best he words can. AND WE WILL ARISE AND AND GO. SEND THE LAD WITH ME. who had used them when he sent the brothers to Egypt the first time (Gen. BOTH WE. THOU. BRING YOUR Judah does brothers to do sense of not answer so. 42:2). AND OF OUR IS YOUR FATHER YET ALIVE? HAVE YE ANOTHER KINDRED. In doing so Judah is trying to an and of Verse Two and place the discussion back on the simple nul the die which he amplified we and thou and also our little ones are a direct quotation humility forthright level sons of the beginning of Chapter Forty-two. and the Ass 75 FACE. Joseph to when the same words they have attributed he asks them about the welfare of their father in Verse Twenty-seven the present chapter. SAYING. EXCEPT YOUR BROTHER BE WITH US. BROTHER? AND WE TOLD HIM ACCORDING TO THE TENOR OF THESE WORDS: COULD WE CERTAINLY KNOW THAT HE WOULD BROTHER DOWN? SAY. in which Jacob sent his for food without ceremony. the problem face of God is closely connected to the question of whether a trusted with the life of his brother (see commentary to Gen. The Thou shalt not see my face were never spoken by Joseph himself. as we remember well. lie at least in the superficial the word. his mind. In spite of this precision and unmistakably but calmly describes his words are not a direct quotation. seeing the man can be 6. of Judah's is not a simple one for. They does may be telling the truth in of recognition are an even more profound way. AS TO TELL THE MAN WHETHER YE HAD YET A BROTHER? 7. AND THEY SAID. his father's question but. We have seen that the seeds seem to on buried deep inside the brothers. Perhaps it those questions which must them as if Joseph had in fact asked have been 8. of course. None they will be spoken when God addresses Moses (Ex. But Judah is very insistent theless error upon this point and states it twice. . YE SHALL NOT SEE MY Judah clear. They themselves were the first to mention their father and their two other brothers in Verse Thirteen him of of the last chapter. THE MAN ASKED US STRAITLY OF OUR STATE.

the elder. To this extent Verse Nine is common. But in his Reuben. 10. AND SET HIM BEFORE THEE. knew that he would the first-born and that this responsibility. was metaphorically compelled to commit fratricide in a deeper sense. AND THEIR FATHER ISRAEL SAID UNTO THEM. What Reuben did not see that speech is of no avail and can on the part of barely be said to exist when explain it cannot be heard. A LITTLE BALM. OF MY HAND SHALT THOU REQUIRE HIM: IF I I WILL BE PLEDGE FOR BRING HIM NOT UNTO THE BLAME FOR EVER: THEE. Ju to commit dah and Reuben have spite of one thing in refusal They both refused frat as ricide. Insofar as the verse the time he spent with comes a replacement is directed to himself. Interpretation HIM. AND ARISE. AND TAKE DOUBLE MONEY IN YOUR HAND. proved to be inadequate a leader. This insight Forty-two. peradventure it was an oversight: 13. Insofar as directed to Jacob they are intended as a correction of Reuben's rather they clumsy statement in Verse Thirty-six of the last chapter. Judah helps to his silence in Chapter II. GO AGAIN UNTO THE MAN: . FOR EXCEPT WE HAD LINGERED. THEN LET ME BEAR words are partly directed to Jacob and partly to himself. TAKE ALSO YOUR BROTHER. DO THIS. also addressed to Reuben. in his decision to of have to take the responsibility Reuben cide. his private thoughts go back to Tamar. should In Verse Ten Judah subtly implies that there is no question but that they have returned to Egypt immediately in order to save Simeon. in return to the mind of the author.76 9. TAKE OF THE BEST FRUITS IN THE LAND IN YOUR VESSELS. Judah. AND ALMONDS: 12. MYRRH. ring which he gave to Tamar as a pledge (Gen. to commit fratri the necessity for Judah had been the two brothers essential respect who refused as sees But in this Judah. will continue even past the and days he of Josiah. IF IT MUST BE SO NOW. When he pledges himself in this verse he be and signet for the bracelet. NUTS. SPICES. CARRY hand. SURELY NOW WE HAD RETURNED THIS SECOND TIME. AND THE MONEY THAT WAS IT AGAIN IN YOUR BROUGHT AGAIN IN THE MOUTH OF YOUR SACKS. AND A LITTLE HONEY. staff 38:18). He realizes that pledg ing his own life is no solution and that the pledge of his own honor is of greater Judah's are value to his father. insofar replacing his brother. his brothers. AND CARRY DOWN THE MAN A AND PRESENT. Thus ultimately he was the only one of the brothers to perform the act. as Reuben argued had was in Verse Thirty-seven of the last chapter.

AND THE MEN TOOK THAT THEIR full of despair. AND THEY TOOK DOUBLE MONEY IN HAND. l8. Jacob gave to Esau (Gen. Joseph's servant over is quick. 17. of is also used in this sense when use the last king Israel paid to Assyria (II Kings 17:3. 10:27. AND THE MAN DID AS JOSEPH BADE. 14. AND BENJAMIN. BRING THESE MEN HOME. It is quite often used of tribute. and perhaps is closest to the use in the present verse. and accurate. AND THE MEN WERE AFRAID. AND THE MAN BROUGHT THE MEN INTO JOSEPH'S HOUSE. His last words be an old man bowing to the will of fate. where we saw that under this name God protected the very beginnings of his people as they came into contact with the outside world. 3:15. 17:1.The Lion and the Ass 77 The word Israel insists that his not often used as sense of sons take a present with them. prompt. Its final in the book occurs when King Heze kiah suddenly this present presents a gift to whets Berodach-Baladan the King of Babylon. AND STOOD BEFORE JOSEPH. the word for present Bible with is mainly used as an offering to God. 15. TURNED IN OUR SACKS AT THE FIRST TIME ARE WE BROUGHT MAY SEEK OCCASION AGAINST IN. AND BENJAMIN. or a payment given under the force conqueror (Judg. HE SAID TO THE STEWARD AND MAKE OF HIS HOUSE. but there is something strange about its use here since the man is their brother. Unlike his sons. We have already discussed the meaning of the term God almighty in the commentary to Gen. AND OUR ASSES. even in the books of the which we are dealing. This latter sense is implied in the vast major in which ity of cases the word is used. THAT HE MAY SEND AWAY YOUR OTHER MY BROTHER. The complete control that Joseph has of some his servants will be stressed on several occasions and will be importance. 38:27). BECAUSE THEY WERE BROUGHT INTO JO BECAUSE OF THE MONEY THAT WAS RE SEPH'S HOUSE. He appears to PRESENT. THAT HE US. . AND FALL UPON US. l6. AND ROSE UP. AND WHEN JOSEPH SAW BENJAMIN WITH THEM. READY. Jacob does not seem to have are even a seed of recognition concerning Joseph's identity.6 and The word threat to a foreign tribute 10:25). AND WENT DOWN TO EGYPT. 8:2. AND SLAY. AND THEY SAID. I Sam. U Sam. AND TAKE US FOR BONDMEN. AND GOD ALMIGHTY GIVE YOU MERCY BEFORE THE MAN. for present is in the a gift given to a human being. IF I BE BEREAVED OF CHILDREN. but only Aside from the his appetite present which (see commentary to Gen. I AM BEREAVED.4). 32:13-22). FOR THESE MEN SHALL DINE WITH ME AT NOON.

AND GAVE THEM AND THEY WASHED THEIR WATER. that we opened our sacks. but there. The steward. AND HE GAVE THEIR ASSES PROV AND THEY MADE READY THE PRESENT AGAINST JOSEPH'S COMING AT NOON: FOR THEY HEARD THAT THEY SHOULD EAT BREAD THERE. and he your said. and thought brings with it feelings of ularity guilt. they would just have to wait until If their host had as them things would have been more straightfor were ward. Joseph. reminds us of Prospero 's elegant magic which charmed and cured the souls of men. he even want to see them? greeted Well. AND THE MAN BROUGHT THE MEN INTO JOSEPH'S HOUSE. who the whole. and house. . and they came near to the steward of joseph's house. 23. The slightest irreg in their lives causes them to think. as the instrument of Joseph's magic. our money in full weight: and we have brought it again in OUR HAND. but would not necessarily explain their fears. when we came to the inn. Joseph. and Simeon was returned. we came indeed down at the first time to buy food: 21. fear not: your god. and they communed with him at the door of the 20. They speak about their fears in terms of their denial of any guilt with respect to the money. and it came to pass. 25. Are there times been carefully planned the Bible itself when even noble all has men must lie about God? 24. hath given you treasure in your sacks: i had your money. and behold. they were given time to think about why they brought When their fear reached its height the steward spoke kindly to them. peace be to you. and he brought simeon out unto them. knows in minds within what manner the money was returned. said. and the god of father. Why should the man invite them to dinner if they were thieves? Why should noon. The ten brothers arrived in Egypt along with all the others who had come much like themselves to buy food. He which knows that the brothers' strange world of pain and delight by has been working on the the man. 19. every man's money was in the mouth of his sack. it was. ENDER. o sir. and the other money have we brought down in our hands to buy food: we cannot tell who put our money in our sacks. The guilt centers around the money because they cannot face the true ori gins of the guilt they feel on account of Joseph.78 Interpretation are The brothers the money itself bewildered by this strange invitation. Appar ently there planned was never anything to fear. FEET. We again begin to see Joseph's magic at work. 22.

and . FOR HIS BOWELS DID YEARN UPON HIS BROTHER: AND HE ENTERED INTO HIS AND HE SOUGHT WHERE TO AND WEPT THERE. AND SAID. an Egyptian cannot eat with a and he is Joseph. CHAMBER. HEADS. AND FOR THE EGYPTIANS. At the sight of is suddenly emptied. WHICH DID EAT WITH HIM. AND JOSEPH MADE HASTE. 27. AND WENT OUT. It describes the and man performing his perfectly precisely because he bring himself to think about them. Joseph's hide himself in another room. part of constant change magic. but Jo He magi- may brew. Joseph is both seph's men him because neither. AND FOR THEM BY THEMSELVES. AND HE ASKED THEM OF THEIR WELFARE.The Lion 26. his brother. teacher. 31. seems to be an integral Joseph's AND HE LIFTED UP HIS EYES. SET ON BREAD. 32. Joseph cannot his brothers because not eat with Egyptian cannot eat with a Hebrew. IS YOUR FATHER WELL. IS THIS YOUR YOUNGER BROTHER. OF WHOM YE SPAKE UNTO ME? AND HE 30. AND HE WASHED HIS WEEP. the master. Verse Thirty-two eat with raises the gravest an problem of the section. FACE. AND SAID. AND THEY SET ON FOR HIM BY HIMSELF. AND REFRAINED HIMSELF. AND SAID. AND SAW HIS BROTHER BENJAMIN. GOD BE GRACIOUS UNTO THEE. THEY BROUGHT HIM THE PRESENT WHICH AND WHEN JOSEPH CAME WAS IN THEIR HAND INTO THE HOUSE AND BOWED THEMSELVES TO HIM TO THE EARTH. MY SON. For the moment at least they are treated by a man. FOR THAT IS AN ABOMINATION UNTO THE EGYPTIANS. BY THEMSELVES: BECAUSE THE EGYPTIANS MIGHT NOT EAT BREAD WITH THE HEBREWS. AND THEY BOWED DOWN THEIR OBEISANCE. THY SERVANT OUR FATHER IS IN GOOD HEALTH. HE IS YET ALIVE. SAID. sentences. and he must Verse Thirty-one is written in that previous occasions. and the Ass 79 HOME. THE OLD MAN OF WHOM YE SPAKE? IS HE YET ALIVE? AND THEY ANSWERED. Human feelings from deep inside Joseph's soul have begun to break through his wizard's mask. each con taining not more than one or two preparation It is the same style in which the author au described Abraham's tomatic actions of a cannot for the sacrifice of acts Isaac. 28. bag of tricks same curt style that we saw on several It is no more than a series of short words. between anxiety and joy 29. HIS MOTHER'S SON. Benjamin. AND MADE The steward and his lord been entertain the brothers and with all never due formality put as if their guests had not placed in bonds This had been through the anguish of not knowing as men what would become of them.

The com had to be limited. way in they could not accept Joseph his coat of many Jubilee Year. Men cannot eat anything Life is almost else which is part of the simple sense of the a substance like a chemical or a vitamin that can pass from food. It unifies the whole by dependent. food was no longer readily available. but in this early stage only the vegetable making the parts inter kingdom was intended as of In the commentary to Gen. AND HE TOOK AND SENT MESSES UNTO THEM FROM BEFORE HIM: BUT BEN JAMIN'S MESS WAS FIVE TIMES SO MUCH AS ANY OF THEIRS. The Garden. 2:16 it became clear that from the point of view Chapter Two. food (Gen. 3:14 we have already given an food and eating play in the Book of Genesis. the supremacy of man over the vegetable kingdom could not understood be in the same sense as it had been with expressed in Chapter One. Their relationship is almost a perfect image the joys of the which In the commentary to Gen. he was insufficiently fit for life in the Garden. .80 cian. Once merely as the necessary means for allowing the world to ex man had been created. We are the subject in greater detail. second account of Creation began a world that had seeds in it Man press was created itself. which the face of the earth. subject of outline of now the role in a position to review The food first is upon arose in Chapter One when God gave every herb which bearing seed. was an afterthought. and as every tree. magic seems Joseph's to have worked its spell. his superiority to that for the and sake of which he had been formed became evident. in the The author are good as earth food. is the fruit of the tree yielding seed to man stresses the fact that only seed-bearing things rocks or word. however. AND THEY SAT BEFORE HIM. The already. AND WERE MERRY WITH HIM. one living thing to another. min though accept They a are happy and drink together brother Benja had learned to and his portion is five times greater than their own. in this sense. and the consequences eating of again manifested themselves in terms of food. which They of Benjamin in colors. yet what an ambiguous phrase wonder whether that is! Like Man he was alone. When he which was split in two because for him no of trees plete had been thought proper longer his loneliness. When man ate and from the Tree Knowledge he ingested appropriate became one with a knowledge which was no longer to him. 33. and though man was too noble for his position in the world. one of the could be eaten. AND THE YOUNGEST ACCORDING TO HIS YOUTH: AND THE MEN MAR VELLED ONE AT ANOTHER. God planted the Gar den for him. Interpretation eats alone. in the 1:29). 34. of that interplay between Ultimately man did man and eat of the rest of creation that tree. and we are left to that is his greatness or his emptiness. AND THEY DRANK. THE FIRST BORN ACCORDING TO HIS BIRTH RIGHT. The brothers with their now live in an enchanted world. As a consequence.

when he used it to birthright. becomes that which di vides and The subject of brings disharmony. once that had been done he eat seemed to have enjoyed his The act of of down to together became symbolic at this point. The to the whole now interdependence pears as unified and gave completeness ap the weakness and dependence The of the part. would by act. since one part may now eat dependence and independence became another. Food became a bargaining tool for Jacob. which had been the unity. and he to have to labor to obtain even that food which was appropriate him.The Lion and the Ass 81 would Harmony became Food is responsible struggle. they had planned to kill Joseph and claim that a wild beast had eaten . As we re the injustice he incur if he became would was obligated to the Four of the Kings. more involved after the war of the Five Kings against the Four Kings. slight shift was made even more explicit when man was weakness of symbol of the right to eat meat. while Jacob presents himself as having tual been away antagonism was by cold winters in the service of Laban. After the Flood this given parts. but meal. there be nothing Food and eating. for Isaac he He refused further sensitivity towards the act of Laban's offer of food until all of the arrangements had been completed. buy Esau's Ja After the dream cob required and most could at Beth-el food became to the land of one of the simple things which to return his father. of possibility. when Abraham showed his independence from the Four Kings member. of food occurs Four Kings and he already knew that the battle into which he had fought next his The time the notion independence was transformed magnanimity ited his tent. now appears in a slightly different light. play was a many-faceted role first accused of eaten in the relationship between Jacob and Laban. by the meal which Abraham prepared for the three men who vis When Abraham's showed an even servant returned to Haran to get a wife eating. which food represented. in connection with the next mentioned Flood when Noah was made for feeding which the animals during the time on the Ark. But symbols sitting human feelings become ized is proper meaningless and even grotesque when that which is symbol not present. The thoughtless brothers after down to a picnic and ate their bread not long him. The unity of the world. finally concluded when they shared a meal sat but their mu at the monu ment which they erected. that was a complicated refusing Abraham their offer of recognized since food. Food then becomes the lowest It is that without which fundamental foundation else. the part led to a division now of the Food. Laban having eaten their money. and a way of charming a blessing from his father. In this sense the distinction between the proper and im time for eating arises. that his descendants inherit the land own. which in the Hebrew language come from the same root.

SHINER - Edited by Francis Jeffrey Pelletier and John King-Farlow Price: CDN$13. the all-pervasive necessity of man lowest level. MORAVCSIK The Craft of Justice R. ZEMBATY Timeaus 48e-52d and the Third Man Argument W. The when significance of food and its relation to time and change becomes clear the brothers are forced rest of by famine to follow Joseph into Egypt. however. famine and food. Sortal Terms. and Pharaoh himself. McPHERRAN Philebus 55c-62a and Revisionism R.00 (in Canada) US$13. since time is a process through which. Knowledge and Learning in Plato's Middle Dialogues M. Through out the kind on the book. $> Announcing the Canadian Journal Supplementary Volume IX 1983: - of Philosophy's PLATO: New Essays Plato and Pericles on Freedom and Justice J. Canada. The brothers have forgotten envy Joseph.00 (out of Canada) Cheque or Money Order only. and Identity Through Time in the Phenomenal World J. In the dreams. PARRY Plato's Greatest Accusation Against Poetry E. of Order from: The University Calgary Press. will occasion the most fundamental changes in the present verse.82 Interpretation of food as a symbol The importance is next underlined by the author in the the three dreams. PRIOR Plato's Parmenides Theory of Relations M. 2500 Calgary. This Supplementary Volume is free to individual and student subscribers to Volume XIII (1983). MOHR Knowledge in Philebus 55c-62a: A Response R. It is the fundamental symbol in the dreams of butler. MORGAN Plato's Timeaus: Mass Terms. ISSN 0229-7051 University Drive N W ISBN 0-9 19491 -09-X . eating in time the double sense of growth and decay almost becomes synonymous with itself. In the conjured boook. Alberta T2N 1N4. Joseph's magic of food and merriment has the and have accepted up the days of the Jubilee Year. the baker. BELFIORE Belief.


Justice in Translation
Joel B. Lidov
Queens College, C.U.N.Y.


to a familiar story, a freshman in a great books course was asked

translation of the Iliad


class was reading.

No translation, he answered, in that it in
to recreate

the original

Old English.

The Iliad

Lang, Leaf,


Meyers is



the distance between the reader and the supposed context
more and





is to

present a classical author
author can



assume that


read as a contemporary.

contemporary style This assump himself to
a participates


corollary, that the



matter of




having by his being
underlie put





modern reader


a common and


available purpose.




that seem to


of a

Plato's Republic


G. M. A.

Hackett has





generously-sized octavo

format that is easy to Stephanus

read and comfortable




margins with student.

page and section references make


a useful

scholarly apparatus: in all a scant eight the preface, introduction and brief bibliography take up pages. The introduction aims at no more than describing the dialogue's place in
not encumbered

for the




very general historical and biographical survey. There is duction to each book, illuminating the "main thread of the
a and a minimal use of notes



page-long intro (p. v),

in the


of the translation.





bine successfully




author with natural

(p. iv). He


chews paraphrase altogether and


achieves an uninterrupted


of edu

cated, contemporary English. His

Grube has

a good ear

vocabulary are plain in the best for that level of the language which is idiomatic
style and



colloquialisms, which

is free from





has many structure, and which will not be rapidly dated. It is an English that the virtues we would look for in a translation of Plato's Greek.

But Grube's

translation also

has its

share of

flaws. Although

some of these


overlooked raise

as occasional


or minor errors, taken together

these flaws
ent purpose

the question


this translation



its core,


differ indi

from that

in the


Grube's text

often expresses often achieves

vidual turns of the


with great clarity,

but it


Plato's Republic, tr.


G. M. A. Grube (Indianapolis: Hackett

Publishing Co.,




clarity by disregarding the larger arguments which these single episodes consti tute. Not only does he lose the context for the separate discussions, he also does not convey the effects of the book's dialogic structure and hortatory de

These deficiencies





thought or

especially when the text broaches in the modern conception
purpose as

a problem of


thought. Grube's translation thus serves the same




Plato's Thought: "In

each of

the eight chapters of this book the reader



as complete and concise as
. .


can make


of what


said on




of the

chapters, for example,



can, in


question of purpose

fact, be
In the in

asked of




with which


will compare

Grube's. It is

one aspect of

the more general ques

tion, what does an English Plato the Greek text with the English
virtues and



will compare


order to

discover their individual



their relative merits, and attempt to illuminate

the general problem of reading

Plato in




will make no



Old English, but it seems to me that some these translations need to be called into question.


the assumptions of all

In Part I, I

will consider

without addition or


second, how he has
not amenable

first Grube's basic accuracy in rendering the Greek managed some particularly diffi

cult problems of
will consider

Greek idiom


From there I


his rendering

of particular passages

fits in


context, to

what extent

the translation respects the argument as Plato spins




the translation represents the special




the dialogue.


will adduce


comparison two other



translations, that


Desmond Lee in the Penguin series, and the copiously annotated translation by Paul Shorey in the Loeb Library.4 In Part II, I will look at the assumptions and
methods of

the translations


Allan Bloom


A. D.

Lindsay, mostly


reference to passages

already discussed,

and conclude with a


the practical strengths of each of the five
are adaptable.


and the uses to which



while revising the order of the opening four words Republic. The story must give a translator pause. But in English, the or der of the Greek, "I went down yesterday to the (Lee, Shorey), does of the

Plato, legend has it, died

2. 3.

(London, 1935,)
a modern



problem of the



understanding is


primary here,

since the comparison




the Greek text and a modern translation.

4. Plato, The Republic, tr. by Desmond Lee (second ed., revised, New York etc.. 1974). Plato, The Republic, tr. by Paul Shorey (Cambridge, Mass. and London, I, 1930 (rev. 1937), II,


awkward emphasis on

nothing but introduce

a slightly down to the Piraeus

"yesterday"; Grube's "I




English for the Greek it

places whatever


emphasis there


where on


In the

next sentence own

Socrates, reporting

the new

be, on festival,


destina he





sent was no



graciously (Grube). But it is local


that "that which the Thracians
not so simple.

Has Soc

rates gone

down to the Piraeus

as a

or a visitor?

The theories that Plato

has Socrates descend

to the most

feverish district


at that


construct a model of what

is above,
to the

urge a not


Socrates from the


The Greek (32734) has



but "of the local inhabi
confuses with



Lee; Shorey only

"of the



there is a historical problem:





aliens or envoys?

Adam notes,
a sharper or make


that the


was more


So Grube has introduced

distinction between



seems to


(indeed, in
That is the


makes a point of



intention to leave). Grube
of epempon with


to have been led into this


his translation




meaning, but construed
the verb needs a



cognate pompen,



more germane translation.


with'"the show made


the marching of the



tense of epempon,

it precisely right. He also observes the force of the for which Grube implies an aorist rather than imperfect.




perhaps picked


some of


spirit of




the Greek. What is






the verb is that the

of translation are

elementary, and


matters, but along

his forthright


These may seem like small of idiomatic English, he has

gratuitously given dramatic situation do Here is


unlikely historical

more often

he has




hence the

potential significance of


presence. such errors

Grube translates accurately,



than not,


another example.

At 589C7, Socrates

to tell the pan

egyrist of


injustice how they would say Grube's translation, "beautiful

xai xa xaXa xai to. aloxQtx v6\ii\ia








ugly traditions have origi is hardly the subject of this






conventional notions of






show, there is
considerable variation

As these


the translation.





in quality through simply and well. In 343c




reader must



the relations





refer also

to The Republic of





used paraphrastic version.

Jowett's translation is been

perhaps still

F. M. Comford (New York, the one most in cir

culation, but it


the penalty now




idiomatic in its





make almost no reference

to it. I have made use of the running commentary and notes of James

Adams, The Republic
references are ad

translators of Plato (Cambridge, 2 vols., 1902). The loc. unless page number is given.





" Even though use "greater" leads well more lems ism of size and number. give . when Adeimantos asks for a dif word only that one must address other cities Grube's ( Lee's) "find a grander literally. and obscures the of Eros a mythological figure. But Grube drops the whole phrase introducing the simile of the drone bee to it in the next observe paragraph that the oversized. becomes "what does the of whom?" craft . Lee imports presentation than is called for. and many terms expressing three basic The Greek takes full justice/injustice. In youth who 57265-5730.ovcbg name for nicely fits the sense and the ironical spirit and vigor of the Greek. . advantage of coordinating particles. by Shorey clearer with an adverbial phrase ("on the and hand"). The beliefs the guardians are set fast. denies the name "city" any other state than one such as "we founding" are (Grube). in 422e2-7. Socrates describes the and tyrannical. and a stock of cor relative particles. For example. . for example. rotfvavriov (34306). a Greek paragraph can go quite a distance without repeating . and to not (cf. Socrates. its at here illustrates exactly to the prob the false value of literal which Grube his best idiom avoids. its resources of parallelism awkward. (57331). Shorey!). the advantages of case and gender. makes the point Lee ("is the contrary. . Because Greek has multiplicity demonstrative third person pronouns. Shorey's vocabulary here is more sexual reference as but cumber some. pett. . When Cephalus sums up the through the awkwardness and another" soap" (Shorey: "detergent abster usefulness of money (33^5-6). "set ting as one thing against (Lee) the benefit. Grube cuts indefiniteness "benefit for of the of."). On the other hand. . For example. rendering the reference incomprehensible. This time one can hardly read Shorey without wincing: "a greater predi and ferent name. and captures correct the "sting of (pothos). the English tends to get But Grube of makes it easy to follow and manages to imitate the exaggerated clarity within English idiom. But the xaraoxevd^OLiev recalls the historical precedent of colonization "construct" or actually mesns (whether buildings or institutions). Grube uses "lust" longing" implanted in the becomes well appropriately. This transition "build" of pleasingly implied in the dialogue.86 of Interpretation contrasts: advantage/harm. to be washed out by emotions which . is nicely rendered with a paratactic addition: xioiv ti. ruler/subject. etcetera. and that is the sense and context needed here (so Lee and Shorey). in 33206 the double question. often But the same passage illustrates both flawed eros "love" and deft translation. . Socrates says "more greatly. about to to wealthy city is disunited. 430a-b. is Greek and other the original predicative in and is laboriously Grube translated as such . are stronger gent ." with Perhaps no small difference in idioms a two languages is of so taxing and that of pronouns. than any "powder or soda or lye"). often call out Small problems of the best in Grube's translation." = them" cation must be applied. idiomatic in Greek but foreign to En glish.

. The question is asked three times. Grube version of his rendering of the first uses no words of "related" uses a somewhat condensed statement). Consider 438. all three . Greek style tolerates a much greater not respond to this degree of inde terminacy tently. Plato balances translator to represent several pronouns against each other. Grube does times leave a difficulty consis Sometimes he other will substitute an antecedent for a pronoun (for example. Socrates paratives offers examples taken greater against from the relation of opposed com and from the field something something knowledge becomes specifically architecture when it is knowl of knowledge edge of house-building. and the interrogative xioiv turns out to be masculine whom?" neuter once. seriously disturb the sense. Socrates expounds the proposition that "in the case of all things that are related to another. calls this passage "a palmary ample of the concrete ideas. than does English. 87 Moreover. defending his method of para- . in Grube's translation. and to whom? It adds flavor to and He has chosen to preserve a verbal pattern that has no logical value. those that are just them kind are selves of only are of things kind. to make Socrates sound awkward. times. saying uses." just themselves only. in a note. . in effect. us: food. Plato takes them as similar rela tions of subject and object. when the first is ified qualified by a predicate. twice." He offers a simplicity of literal version of the Greek idiom in the expression of abstract second statement of the proposition: " . but very et predic Plato sim. . 328e4). When Glaucon fails to comprehend. here for the ideas of "related. has a conversa tional rather than effect. 430d8-9). . Grube actually works against the intended expository tone Here the problem can be met by (Shorey) and does not call for "what" abandonment of the parallel construction." for "qualified" he "of. but object" each in itself is unqual and directed to an unqualified (438a7-b2). at hanging "this" A mishandling of the pronoun idioms can double question mentioned above occurs in the discussion analogous (for example. of all things that are such as to be of something. the second is too. and so even gives "What does cooking give . Grube keeps "to ." . and house. But in the fullest uses of the pronominal such passages idioms. Then he repeats the general proposition with minor smaller changes of clear wording (438dn-i3. marked In the differences between Greek and English are so the Greek closely must that the a failure of the be evaluated in larger context. . a "such than the the genitive and case or Instead he uses correlative pronouns. Shorey.Discussion an antecedent. but things of a certain things of a No wonder Glaucon was confused. But Plato explains Plato. "Than" qualified. as in "greater smaller" "knowledge the of building a are both expressed by ex by preposition ngog. The of justice as a techne to medicine and cooking (332c6-d2). In this last case the difficulty concerned one word." once for each craft. construction. When Comford. to clarify Since the whole discussion here is intended the passage by the use of familiar examples that is.

techne introduces. For he "dialectic" must remember that the casual reference to and here is preparatory to the reintroduction of it as a major in Book VII. where) as "of the powerful" more not ment will get lost. uses the at technical terms once. preparing remarks on to meet women differ in nature from men. Shorey frequently uses alternative styles of translation for two the same idea. statements of . in en he has "its advantage. Shorey once. More impor tantly. little . In their Socrates that the technai ern" "govern have object" power over (Grube). use to "one more concerned to idiom"5 follow Plato's gards some of argument than to relish Greek Plato's intention. which uses modem. but a that in making it he gains of moment and loses foreshadowing 34208 the discussion of how points out just man happily and regulates himself. even for moment. Grube's the version reads well." Cephalos then class. to epithumiai ("appetites. For archein "gov of" is the best choice I found to mediate the meanings of "be the first part "rule. Nonetheless. conversational context in which they are used. as forcefulness in the the to the collective aphrodisia but to the note Grube takes "sex. and generalizes Grube: "desires") in his repetition of Sophocles 's opinion the plural genitive xovxcov appetites. Interpretation Shorey' condemns s version as of . In 454a-b Socrates." own The when combination of consistency a and precision in translation of matters most the words assume. (d2) must refer not it." and For kratein "have power" is also easy and exact. Lee chooses a 5. which the antilogike dialectic. and difference between eristic. indeed. the informal "wrangling" "arguing" and best. the translator confronts the two-fold problem of maintaining both the technical distinction between the two types of verbal investigation and the ap propriateness of both words to the informal. Plato cannot does not write with a post- Aristotelian vocabulary. however. example raises the may overlook what illustrate this problem." This is an error. cal distinction of purpose: "score points P. he ignores Plato's place the student who stand the problem of in the history of he not only disre is trying to under the Western mind. recollection possibility that by translating Plato too clearly is actually happening. but perhaps as he does not offer enough to modern student who persevering Glaucon. the force the objection that technical terms. language Comford ignores Shorey's first version of the proposition. this points out the problem. techni much like Grube's. bear Greek's idiom lemma may This last one well without becoming impossibly is as The di be insoluble. vi. Two more small examples will In of 329c Grube renders idiomatically and directly as a Cephalos's the time he asked Sophocles about his sex life. Grube does the clarity and construction of the argu follow through.88 phrase. but then en one must and else translate the familiar "advantage stronger" of or the (kreittonos. The implied and self-illuminating contrast be the perhaps tween antilegein and dialegein is beyond translation. English burdensome to read. and he must not forget that in English "dialectic" strictly defined topic and be "eristic" long to a technical vocabulary used only in philosophic studies.

drawn mostly from the first half of the Repub This last lic. to be in a state the soul. That note actually applies to this passage."). The series of examples. . points up how the basic ideas treated in the Republic are bound into the de velopment of the dialogue as a conversation. not make it any In the mysterious phrase xcp xvgicoxdxcp overclarifies ip-evdeodcu xai Jtegi xd xvgitbxaxa most vital part about (38237-8." which is to say. intent not to philosophic "ideas". but wherever an idea through note a series of questions and assents "untruth. But this is a vital moment. needs two tries to get it. . . The former is a misunderstanding in the soul about reality. In the end. . sage. compare and Shorey: "that deception in the soul about realities." but it can refer to any representation and often means "misrepresentation from whatever cause. The to hortatory his of the book. Grube's translation one's and this. But it turns that pseudesthai here refers to what is not the verbal falsehood. For this phrase jtegi is xd explained by of a parallel expression a few lines later (bi-2): xfj ipvxfj xai ovxa xpevdeodai xe xai and ixpevodat dfiadfj elvai. Thus Grube provides a passage in clear. requires us respect method. Shorey their most vital it: "falsehood in the concerns") Grube translates pseudesthai most out by an explicit verb of speaking: "to speak untruth with important psrt of himself sbout the most important subjects. But Grube does . the dialogue Grube veloping plain presents in paragraph form. Adeimantos easier. which adds confusion. the accuracy of the pas of the ren dering of statements cannot be considered apart from the translator's Socrates is de appreciation of the dialogic form. as well as the philo sophic. has by focusing individual rather mistranslated a narrowly on the most prominent needs broader reference. removes generally the parallelism reality in from the opening words for to (note the change from of untruth about emphasis "with" "in" the dative. to be ignorant obscures ". Pseudos is a word of much greater range in Greek than is in English. but prepare the reader for In 382 by their "dialectic" very familiarity his English terms fail to in its technical and philosophic sense. deception Socrates rejects the stories of by the gods in popular my thology by distinguishing between the cbg dkrjdcog ipevdog and verbal false hood. "to lie . Plato introduces here the distinction between a world of unchanging perfection and the human world. He makes the distinction in reference to the gods of popular belief. . and in this way he grounds the introduction of the absolute world of thought in com mon religious feeling. smooth English which actually obscures the very point under discus sion. . It frequently "lie" means "deliberate misrepresentation. to have been deceived to be blindly ignorant . really ex 6."6 The distinction which Socrates makes here is not easy. rather than as an exposition. translator. Grube's to 37707 explains that pseudos can mean but it does to the not Socrates's point." Grube attains by contrasting and Indeed. Grube's is probably the simplest and clearest version in the immediate context." a and He loses the reference to technique and to "disputing" the basic meanings of the words which "conversing. .Discussion in debate" 89 "argue seriously. .

It makes no difference whether it exists anywhere or will exist. the water to drink and a Such of inflexibility can obscure the intent of an important passage. The proc lamation compact. the form of dialogue Century." Compare Lee: strict day it's wine. or at convenient least less frequently interrupted. "One diet."7 at another he drinks only women water and is wasting next away. aiixig 5e vdgojvoxcdv (56107-8). but with one exception. on the rest of this passage. I said. 92. . Consider pation: "democratic" man's dissi xai xaxavkovpievog. 6i7d6-e5. It easily tactic additions accommodates extended phrases. for him who wishes to look upon. Grube's style. see 37737 and 401c with Adam's notes. expositions. Shorey's For other examples of is more pejoratively loaded. infra p. he asserts. not of any other. who has had experience the novel before he comes to Plato. Plato chose to maintain that form over continuous. with the Athenian reader could hardly in the early Fourth have been less distracted by the me was chanics of its presentation than is the modern reader. . He would take part in the public affairs of that city Perhaps. and as he looks. Grube's failure to match style. which is one of the longest continuous expositions in the Republic. is that he Socrates's description of the cannot shake off The problem with the ex pository tone. It is an expository setting out an idea fully. indeed. capable of away from oratorical rotundity. At its best Grube can make it both shies dignified and moving: laid up in heaven. but in the translation. it is a model only. It is unnoticeable forceful dramatic bit of mimesis in the original. of the heavenly style a messenger. the as argument (which. (592b2-5 the close of Book IX) The concluding myth of Er. The last introduces further infinitives in indirect discourse. subordinate clauses and but style. is couched in a heraldically the pre nominal (which Denniston derives from the and style of Socratics). is also effectively rendered. The specifics are set out in an extended series of infinitive clauses clause (sometimes elliptical) dependent on dei ("it is necessary"). "do Socrates's However not contribute vi) to the para graphs of statements common by means of a dash. Cf. then the original version con- 7. Grube relies basically on a flexible English period of moderate para- length. encourages As a type of dramatization the dialogue derives its life from the to the intended emotional adaptation of style to the content and force of any given moment of conversation. and song. At the end Book III (4i6d2-4i7b8) Socrates prescribes the ascetic and communal life of the guardians. There is a rhetorical flourish in this which is xaxioxaivdpievog captured by: "At one time he drinks to the accompaniment of the hardly heavily tore /iev Liedvcov xai flute. The style excludes quota tion marks. While Grube's the reader format does form not suppress not to regard the a matter of any substance. set up the government of his soul. it importance.90 Interpretation the time most of sents Grube omits the introductory to the "he said" and attaches p.

by subjunctive condition ("they may substituting the translation of the more common (as English present) for the more emotional future preserve them indicative. gracefulness. di purposes. "thus gives they would be saved and would save the condition. And nor verbal pattern (corresponding necessary to "fine" is hardly the moral term. . harmony. as "poor and proposition "poor goes on From this basic Socrates (40ib4) to the enthusiastic in- . and carries neither the repeated ft)-) needed meaning here. "it is not These infinitive instructions are capped by an emphatic potential whose verb optative phrase is repeated in active and passive: literally. is thereby shifted to the regulations themselves and which Socrates attaches to having these men lead a a which Above all. In 400du-40id2. or when proving that the just man he simultaneously which makes demonstrates dismisses the technical aspect of music. But Grube flattens the by dropping future the repetition of the optative verb and selves and their city"). heightened impersonal expression. development such cases construc But the translator's is most needed whenever the positive of a topic suggests to modern thought more than Plato allows it. by ory (400b). In Grube does tion of the must not always preserve Plato's limitations by observing his argument. fine rhythm are all adapted to a simplicity in Grube's translation for the break in the ity" for "gracefulness. limits its application to the hand. The dialogue which idea from being applied outside the sphere matter at it was raised. But Grube has in fact already risked the vital connection by translating logos as capture here. . city. the intent by translating the opposites. If the ethos is good." And this in turn way to a monitory future indicative change The vigor of the Greek is achieved by the to increasingly forceful types of construction after the accumulation of cli infinitives. Even allowing "simplic rejects translates only that meaning of euetheia which Socrates in the next two the lines. something max not easily imitated in English. And he does not re in d9. the dialogue." (Grube). as ideas are developed. kakologia and kakoetheia "word" language" "content" "speech" (40ia6). and Adam's loc). The basis of the argument is that rhythm. eioxrjpoovvr] xai etigv&pia dxokv- (400dn-ei) "So fine speech. Grube intentionally renders care confused references to Damon's rhythmic the these passages without gain or loss. the xai other qualities will also be present: zbkoyia eiin-i^eia dga and xai stagptooxta &ei . its re form possible. confuses Polemarchos note ad by is a thief (333e-334a. and in d4. The prevents an and conversation. of character pattern . and the logos conforms to the character (ethos) of the soul.Discussion struction 91 lawful" is resumed with a (ou themis). establishes most part a context and within context is for the defining limit in ing. as alogue permits the when introduction of topics for essentially negative Socrates deliberately cf. Indeed. The emphasis away from the importance reformed life. Socrates argues that the city's artisans imitate only the best. and form (the danced ode is the governing example) must conform to the logos. fine music.

has notes same deserves primary of the similarity of Plato to Wordsworth." Grube). natural moral language. but until "disenfranchise" is the most keep alive the political meaning Socrates's climactic who of he reaches the meaning isonomikos Though "legal" of isos. guage." . The translators have Grecian Plato to Greek. (I have already quoted Grube's rendering of the culminating expression of that metaphor at the end of Book IX. The positive notion enters and still with a rural metaphor: the crafts good ability (etcpvcog dvvdpievog) occurrence who tracks down the nature and of the kalon ("beautiful. the moral as a quality purely nega after the soul reflected in the surface features of the "Beauty" aesthetic quality should have no place." Grube ignores this man of Glaucon's assent to disparaging equality. been strictly defined. "equal. mined by its position here. I have already had occasion to cite one of the best-known sections of the Re public. the translation for kalos logos completely obscures the connection of this had led up to it. "a man believes in legal the effect here out is further to obscure the consistency Socrates is books following the dominating metaphor by portraying the condition of the man's soul as the constitution of a city. his "symbols" and though he preserves most of the restraints Plato's lan the artisans a modern bias leads him to call the eikones produced would prefer a by ("images. however. The description of his behavior is loaded with words that have political meanings. and harmony with But philia is deter reason" "beauty climax to what . It must mean the affinity of those which on belonging to the em group (see LSJ). (b5) These level "disdain" (Grube). The argument to look at the work of the craftsman with our eye on work. 6iioioxr\xa xe xai cptkiav xai ovpicpcoviav and renders philia first. And though the in the next use of logos here is tran sitional to the of acquisition of reason paragraph. Finally." first in this passage) works are euschemon ("graceful" but see below). resemblance to." description (56iei). Plato makes this clear by starting only tively man and the simile of the of using clearly harmful pasturage. Grube. Those enjoy his like those living in a healthy place. in which Socrates derides the democratic man who treats all his desires equally (561). not a quasi-erotic passion phasis. in particular also time and its compounds (atimazein obvious). to its now translates euschemon without reference key element. for this same passage.92 Interpretation against artisans who present junction leads of us less than the best always. there he trans lates the difficult heauton katoikizein by "set up the government of his soul. both by context and by pairing with a ew-compound from tion to the "beautiful" "good" the preceding part of the argument. but festation the Athenian would us embrace beauty only as a useful mani of good character. This last is obviously the eulogia that expressed good kalos in this passage may be rather than but it has character. Grube takes the three nouns for the as similation. to get "love of. he covers with which renders this as -nomos. Shorey. and obfuscated the context by his translation of the preparatory argument. and from their perception of the kala erga comes assimila kalos logos.

534a. It is notable that Shorey glish or are significantly bound up in 43od. but with great headnotes are only a page. Grube's Socrates suddenly seems to be taking pot shots at a type of po litical theorist. the Creophylos in 6oob is misspelled Creophilos in the note. Since Grube's "legal" is unprepared in the translation. Plato's personal problems also explain 577b. Grube uses both kinds. they contain impli all he has said which undermine it. . All translators. 3~/6e.) For isonomia is a constitutional term in Greek. concise and precise at once:8 on techne. the 375a. But the name fully edited. formally integral. on a cultural context. "formally a but Grube distracts the ity IV. and a new word in this context. I'm not sure whether his method from Plato's presentation. 376b. which It is true that Plato stages the ensuing discussion as an interruption. the are first note in Book V declares that the following books themes. apparently attack on by a Socrates's infamous guage which the spirit of momentary interest in exhibiting democracy. has obscured the lan and never carefully circumscribes that in fact even broaches a political would attack with a concern for the soul. on philosophos. 377e. as seems to be implied there. digression. These on on notes are often pun on skylax. but only formally. headnote to VIII). is aware But Grube of in Socrates's "ris ing to a higher ethic". or has no headnotes. slightly less than Lee. its appearance here in a term for a though nomos is type of character has been well prepared in the Greek by the metaphor. Plato's avoidance of technical terferes. The note to 335d makes sure that everyone terms. beyond And cations applies in the argument. seems all too happy to present a Socrates merely satirizing the "devotee of de caught mocracy. on sophrosyne. but of wives shows and needed from seeing how the example of the communalthat the laws and upbringing mentioned at the close of Book reader produce to the fully just man. The far in Lee's dialogue tracts the edition.Discussion which captures 93 it perfectly.") Grube. Most of the moderation. As a result. the footnotes are explanations of words which lack a precise equivalent in En reader ultimately dis emphasizes it. musike. and only once per book. for example. is never very footnotes in profusion. The "theme" is not only vital. Shorey. apparently unessential. The to 361b misquotes the translation of 362a. 332c. it appear. infringe the voice of integrity of the dialogue in quite another way: notes. excellent. recommendation. creating as it were a with the dialogue. for they contain vitally im Grube opposes form. remind had to Plato if as almost to women too. (Lee was careful to maintain the constitutional metaphor and his translation of isonomikos sistent with "one who believes in liberty equality" and careful is con the rest of the passage. "Socrates reminds his hearers that (p. and the others pretend to describe the tyrant as members of his house full We are informed that "Plato notes are not is here in fact claiming to one speak with 8. as Lee's does. it appears as a new idea." portant are vital. cannot be achieved by conven tional kingship. It reads some notes go interfering himself!" 167. Shorey writes the teacher. to themes. where Socrates hold. also on theos.

It proceeds. e). But in fact Plato does not make things so terweaves the levels nished without easy. the for "form." personation of except perhaps Lee). has a sententious note here on the preferability of gross comedy "play" false romance. In so Plato means. Shorey. He himself VII is makes to his the "Forms" in the Republic. but conception of what neither shows is that in bio-c3 Plato had described his and the perfectly proper man's behavior in potential optatives. entirely distinct from this one. So it is length noting that Grube introduces them in the notes before Plato does in the and goes text (note to 473a in particular. that Grube's use of here denies the superiority of reason to perception. In the occurs simile of the divided line. He smoothly and loss of distinction. intelligible far be as eidos. idea. The proviso "except for the sake of saves with the empirical generalization from challenge and has nothing word to do any ideal notion of play. for the sake of (Grube. he will later call this method noesis. The first time. "So you have two kinds.94 Interpretation based on knowledge" his visit to Dionysios I. Socrates dismisses "jest. their when in fact it is deduced from the logos relations. it is a synonym for genos in the presentation of the two realms which are to be discussed. then. but cf. Their translations of this passage are inaccurate. by the pretense. four times. Grube's lack of respect for the genesis of the argument in the dialogue comes out and for its discursive development the pervasive we problem of especially in model passages which touch on the relation of the apparently find ourselves. too. A fairly clear example closely in is fur by a small remark at 396e2. the the visible and the intelligible. to explain them (notes to 476a. The subjunctive empirical constructions not an extrapolate from present situations and provide an play" model. Justice. the one in which understanding of that relationship is tied up with our notion of the famous I observed above how Plato is careful to ground his first references to "Forms. and they tend to focus our attention on another world. . Beauty. the parts of the soul and on personal "political" For a discussion of happiness dependent observation we could "knowledge" have stopped at Book II. to explain it more fully. is. before the line is introduced. to suggest an example from experience. 509d-5iic. it would need to part of the audience's experience too." narrative containing im "amusement. Critias will do." The second use occurs in 5iob8 where Socrates is discussing that how the soul makes its way in the upper most section of line. to Shorey insidiously lesser men. it is something a moderate man won't engage in. But that makes the passage in of ductive. used subjunctive conditional sentences. though their importance to the in Books VI and description worth of philosopher self-evident. to some His explanations involve capitalization: Form. we need not go abroad. that to 402c).' Notice. in the upper section of the part which repre sents the 9." eidos. Our the world of absolute truth scant reference in common religious feeling." city to the world in which the dialogue takes place. one etcetera. Grube's note points out the paradox that Socrates usually not attaches great importance to play.

of Here the ral of eidos signifies of "visible figures" (Grube) the upper section the lower half about which one use refers resent or imitate. is never sufficient in any given discussion of ethics He is zealous in (II 106. however." the whole discussion the upper line all but in ver comprehensible. Since the assump "figures" tions are based on the visible eide. measured The force says that of Grube's concern can be at where Socrates xr)v xov of all in noesis the logos reaches which [xeXQ1 xv dvvxoMxov m the Jidvxog that and dgxrjv. Plato's vocabulary does not lead to clear and easily understood distinctions here." all" exists" rhetoric" ern dispute can we understand Grube's ptexQi addition of "that as and the essen an tially emotional translation of too dvimoMmv invitation to hypothesis. note a)." the two realms of line's major divisions. in 507 cLj. Leaving that problem aside." that boundless empyrean "beyond "Forms" The concentration on leads to the a further consequence. For this instance of the word Grube a (Lee. anything but the and politics. the section the of the plu lower section of dianoia. and does not justify translating eidos as if its uses in relation to the uppermost sec tion were pared to argue self-evidently distinct from the others.. 95 themselves" aiixolg eldeoi. the idea of tion" the good. in the fourth. in items 5iod5. "that is beyond hypothesis. The third use is in the explanation the upper part. the distinction between "Forms" and as article which Grube insists on here seems unjustified (Grube drops the in 51102. "transcendental separating the significance from the he attempts embarrassment an is "of The thus he chooses that mod to reference to explain away. but 5iib8. sought Shorey tries to lower the ceiling is the starting point of in the discussion.Discussion he says." sion: notes "that which requires no assumption and throughout." shifts to inserts definite article. but the plural the class while the qualifier these eide "visible" here indicates seems particular items within to be in the key to distinguishing not opposition from the ones noesis works through. compare Shorey 's and all. Grube obviously disagrees. where they are but to the assumptions at (hypotheseis) eide as used in the third section (that of dianoia) and. "by forms Shorey). that such a meaning is implied by responds not present an exposition of even if the translator is pre considerations not of immediate to the text. "the Forms the unwarranted He thereby imposes a sharp and distinction in terminology between the two kinds that constitute themselves. "by ideas his uppercase and only. Grube's practice tive concern to to the text Plato. hypothesis than rather first principle exists" (Grube). Grube by its meaning. Grube tends an empha- to skew the whole presentation of upper half of the line towards . although the Greek is virtually identical to 5iob8). By translating renders throughout by its transliteration or "hypothesis. But only by "starting-point. and the forms with which the up of per part of the line is concerned. These latter contrast are once again referred to in the fourth use. In his insists "sanc that the arche." derivative. This talks while reasoning about what they rep back to the first one. of "assumption" "pre supposition. to a presump Platonic Forms. 51 ic2. first.

This passage goes farther in specifying the is ixavcbxaxa "quite existence of sufficient" For it is precisely on the problem simile in 534a. the verbs noesis are basically visual (as Lee notes). achieved and in large measure by a reliance on neuter pronouns. 473b5-6 what one smallest change would make them such as it is the possibility is raised with a potential sure a optative. The cumulative reader not "objects". notion of how Plato the gap between the example of world of real would bridge ideas and this one. In the face of this familiar and substantial "processes" terms to translation. The famous introducing philosopher-king is spoken. The fullest so of does presentation simile that metaphor better. but it is cast as a negative . and compels assent to the notion that thus a verbal construct can himself off the circumstances: be truer than any practical construction. what is there in cities now that prevents them from the question is asked let present being like and the verbal model in the The indicative. metaphor. passive participles vague prepositional phrases. problem of appear. After Socrates finishes describing the way of life of the city. Grube allows more independent Thus in 51 ie2 "the things over which they [the are" (Grube) of the soul] becomes "the content of its particular of a section." partitive The clarity of the discussion is genitive in 51105-6 and of one also clouded of by a mishandling the vague neuter pronouns of c8. 473b? present and C3. change of moods helps in dictum distinction the of conditions now and ideas." Far more than the close of Books IX and X it seems to form the modern. It toward the "Forms" is just this predispo over sition and toward objects that "mathematicals" leads to the debate whether or not Plato conceives of and sensible objects. that simile within a is Glaucon's uses expression of Glaucon Grube's translation than any other for the activity of of them ignores the his understanding in 5iic3-d5. Glaucon challenges him to show how the city is citizen in the in model possible practice attempt (47104). Socrates reminds him that the on whole exercise sprang from the to find the effect of justice happiness. of these that Socrates abandons the the "objects" satisfactory effect of Grube's translations disposes the to strive to follow up Plato's emphases. It will serve as a final how the characteristics of Greek of as a language. Socrates's reply to it not Grube's "very (Shorey). certainly the popular. most famous passage in all the Republic is the introduction of "philosopher-king. the flexibility of the style. but to stay within the confines of the Perhaps the the contemporary classroom.96 sis on Interpretation the objects of the mental process described there. termediate between refers Forms reasoning in Throughout this passage Plato as objects of to objects of the upper half and especially to those of the third section with a maximum of indefiniteness. Having he proceeds to answer the question in terms of hook. effort and the conversational context the dialogue encumber the translator's to convey Plato's meaning. Insofar as Plato does present the "objects" of the upper half he metaphorical extensions of of the visible objects of perhaps only in the lower half.

The context (473c 1-3) leaves no doubt that what last sentence. let alone closest Socrates comes to that is rather with an unconditional with an idiom remarkable than logical force. but the construction unless the practitioners of each Only in part of the apodosis (after the parenthetical expansion of "the cities" to the "human race") does the implied answer to the second question begin to become evident. never by verbal from positively. and in the usual The possibility envisaged is never stated form of a conditional with future reference future indicative. losophers become kings. the is necessary is discussions also sufficient. The instead keep the idea before us purely as an idea. This is consistent with the care with which Socrates entered upon the topic and the turn of the discussion to a definition suggestion activity. then. . he says that no other city would Socrates's statement. The optatives philosopher-king's city is never asserted nor an ticipated. ment destroys the clause). Finally. not is no rest quite long." that the city will not "grow into possibility or see of then explains that expectation he had been infer reluctant to put forward an idea so contrary to "paradox. The sentence explicitly from answers the first question. and translates the present tense esti will the apodosis as future: "Cities have no respite from . " is now wrong. not the second. un less political power and separately the second are constrained. though still in a negative statement: Socrates the light uses an idiomatic Socrates form of emotional negative prediction a (or) lit) with the subjunctive) to add day. evil unless Grube inverts the opening of " conditional. if kings do . and expresses the condition in several alternatives (unless philosophers become kings. which describe the degeneration the city. as and do the diagnoses of of change in Books VIII IX. This shifts and the emphasis away from current conditions. never changes.10 of philosophic His practical in 541a to expel everyone over the age of ten assumes the prior existence of the philosopher-king. The long is as philosophers are not becoming kings. become philosophers. References to mood the actualization of the city are carefully distinguished of present circumstances. The for its emotional (subjunctive apodosis). but the emphasis is on the need. using the be happy. what would effect the change: "Unless phi . and achieve an The restatement in 499 is equally circumspect in regard to suggesting an effective action. force is: "as The protasis there is no rest evil for the there cities . to be small. . philosophy combine." (para doxon the translators use from which the mod ern reader will inevitably a reference to a more substantial or immediate potential kind of internal contradiction). focuses our attention on what is necessary and lacking in our present cities. not its coming into being. ). . and towards fu ture events.Discussion 97 from present condi present general condition: a subjunctive clause extrapolates tions to discuss what now what is. in optative. English easy Greek out the distinctions drawn by the idioms of the three moods of the Such changes appear 10. . contrast with the second part of Socrates's state they (the or) ur) without the meticulously logical structure and with But idiom. .

are the most pressing. The Fidelity questions to the author. take the his insufficiencies. The slightly different and rather less coherent book than Plato's Republic." Mostly. of To this diversity. and his seminal position history of Western phi losophy. he can If. but it does not follow that a primary function of the book is to answer the questions we ask. and define that his own problems The disad vantages of that method do not need to be elaborated. the grounds of persuasion. tells us to be modest in our requests. but also intro dialectical examination. The modem conceptions of what Plato version that still maintains a ought to be teaching and of the nature of his importance have interfered in the translation as surely. diverse questions which we might ask when reading this book. and to disrupt the preceding remarks. But if all we seek is such answers as Plato do gives or suggests to what we a clear rendition of not choose as problems of Comford offers we the substance of the such a doctrine. allow his own must display courtesy in his attention to detail. But a perfect com be impossible. will not be seriously mis- II. The argument expressed and ex political with comparison. the closeness dialectic illuminating and conversation. closing the Socrates actually gap between the two worlds in the way that Glaucon may find the image of our own difficulties. his in the representation the Greek tradition. paraphrase. such as this one by Grube. In the original the transition is Plato preserves the colloquial tone and key-words a duces the specificity and exactness needed for all tend to be heavy-handed. and in consequence there is much in the with book that has to do soul. if not so extensively. and the guest makes place. It is no wonder that there are so many. I remain unconvinced that this represents the best choice. for the resources at hand are those of our lan of the schools of the Twentieth Century. the original force Plato's mind. to be more satisfying than what For in fact Socrates is not concerned with asked. and with the As has often been said. the says. and Lee of continuity. measure of must pliance proves to guage. under the guid with ance of a teacher well-acquainted the original. The Republic seeks to persuade us to Here indeed we believe that certain plained we will achieve the greatest happiness by disposing is our souls in a manner.98 Interpretation answer appears verb. there add are few topics the Republic does of not touch on. as result is a A student they would in a paraphrase. . This passage is the one of the most ples of adroit. "literal" to ignore Plato to degree familiar style. The translator. in Book I 331c. the English demands The make on those of his native time and good translator. the through a manner which is justice. Shorey. politics. and prefer a more however. indeed. then. therefore. who reads it as an exposition of what Plato thought. he to ask and to answer must take a scrupulous first place. for what is familiar usually turns out to be what is expected. and the possible adjustments. wishes however. We read the book to learn something. science and religion. exam quite from small-talk to a philosophical conversation. Republic. Grube. and not wishes to interfere with his guest's pleasures. It is interesting of that Comford handles ordinary with ease and grace the transition. he decides do as Comford did.

but "students natural or only the "general others engaged in academic Dr. Rieu's origi as well. and accept.. it remains a twenty-five-hundred-year-old another language no matter how we present of it. Shorey's a part of notes comment on 71 is only of the fully annotated Loeb edi in Hamilton and Cairns. The (New York. Grube doesn't describe his reader English more but clearly he tieth be the same man. Bollingen series. 1961). consistent. we have to work at it a bit. but the effect is quite the translation to such a degree that they must be considered it. a somewhat laborious undertaking. The text of Shorey's translation is reprinted without notes Collected Dialogues of Plato. conversely. by their very copiousness the notes honor the dialogue's authority to define the subject matter. ed. overall adventitious obstacle it is enough that Shorey's style So the as problem with plan. why. the moderate difficulty. different. and supple. disguise.Discussion 99 led. though perhaps at the end of the Twen well educated.12 Shorey presents his translation apparent expe as interpretive: freedom in order to following bring out the . . Grube's version seems so selfwhy the goal evidently sound. perhaps. If we expect it to to our own and our students' understanding alone will the origin of modem thought and its significance. In contrast. the reader can consider or a lose sight of " . and the translator rides his hobby champions his interpretations throughout the notes. But is serviceable. The versation the awkwardness are a constant reminder that the con Indeed. liii). let original if we wish to preserve some of the good of the not exhortation. is awkward horses never and Shorey's bilingual Loeb edition. in preparing his of revised Penguin edition. to use a precise justifiable meaning of passages which long rience as a teacher and reviewer has taught me are liable to notes and misapprehens (p. the authority of the Greek. Fully to understand it and to feel its persuasive force requires that one leam ancient wonder in the I may lie not of "natural so much in the execution readabilit Greek. had in nal instructions. Century he is not quite so mind not Lee. Put into English the Republic document in contribute requires less work. He version" still aimed at a "swift. the text closely. but he is also not likely a new even to understand that he is being chal lenged to think his questions in to him and foreign way. the translation without the notes is incomplete. and acquire a considerable knowl edge of the cultural background. Though the rendering bit confusing at times. and for some creates an to reading and comprehension. liii). but revised "to bring the English more 12. but he does address "an at (p. ens is this text (though a certain pungency is retained). I should emphasize that my consideration of Shorey tion. it should be easy to read Plato's Republic. Obviously the loss of a literary grace natural to English and corresponding to the original's weak not of our making. II Shorey's tentive and version educated would is difficult than Grube's. indeed.

I have already to the copious. vii. but Lee is more akin steering between the Scylla of Shorey do and the respect to their audience the three not differ to Grube. for "[The Republic] historical situation makes it doubly difficult A translation is for those who will This be do the hard work. 14. paragraph Like Grube he is willing to rewrite." translation". 1968). One. "the true history of political reader from "the tyranny of the if sometimes cumbersome literalness The difference between Lee's two translator" Bloom as proposes a possible al- insofar is Pp." severely close to the Charybdis of Comford. it should mean to make the work available to has the potential to understand it better than does the translator. through the differ thought. who pretend one who must not to have of William reader adequately Moerbeke's Latinization be spared the given grasped the of book's teaching. p. in favor of the goal of "literal a difficult book must not and our hidden. And in this case. of a age rapidly Grube's translation. D. and have a set of pre-established varied and doctrines weakness will the style is overall more lively. Such measures would emulate better allow a to understand ancient authors as reader will they understood themselves. for example. with (New York and London: Basic Books. Allan Bloom is quite willing to forgo the "easygoing style" charms of a more con temporary is in itself for us. But I will turn first to a translation that begins where who addresses my remarks on the difficulty of Plato leave off. notes and an pp. by Allan Bloom xix Bloom analyzes Cornford's apologia at length in his introduction. xii. But he does to exhibit. editions considerable and my com apply only to the second edition. A. nonetheless.100 Interpretation Greek."14 ent meanings of To free the "slavish. Interpretive Essay.9- 56-58. Lee however manages not to stum ble into Grube's excesses and misapprehensions. Both share with Shorey they the starting premise that there are real difficulties of form and substance to be encountered seem to by the English reader who hopes to Grube understand Plato. rather. and have these difficulties in should mind more than the character of the reader. like Jowett's. xiv. Lindsay's version belonged originally in the Everyman series. are to the first edition. The Republic of Plato. even more. '3ments even terms. the easy assumption that we now have terms for Plato's ideas. Plato's Lee's hands. and often his language is freer. His is an excessive and colloquialism of tone this version. he is the opportunity to explore. be grouped with and Lee as a translator the general reader. Note that his references to Lee. Some the lack of that formality style or grace whose presence distinguishes low style plain becomes too annoyed much in readers will also be that he has abandoned the tra pagination are given mentioned ditional book divisions (the book in the margins and numbers and Stephanus in the analytical table of contents). ix.13 In much. merit our attention Two additional translations before I attempt weigh the advantages of the available translations against each other. Bloom Aristotle. the introducing not the philosopher-king. translated. . The samples quoted above are sufficient to show that the two share many qualities. didactic notes.

Bloom pays rigorous attention to the dialogue format. 40od-40id arguments and (above. we be thereby look most closely for for the meaning don't of expect or accept. p. The discussion fect not both merits and of the relation of superficial beauty how to good character. our weariness or ignorance that disparages any of facet the construction. merits of Although Bloom intends the his method to be measured of by the ef of reading the translation through. The dialogues ganically unified. In fact." of "forms" (509d-5iie. though like Grube's it suffers from a certain inflexibility. terms of recent origin are especially eschewed (p. lead them to fine speech with likeness (dative P. Thus the end of Book III. It is. The end of Book IX." As for the lapses. and at the top of every page the speakers on the page listed. p. In one notes that Bloom sometimes handles grammar oddly. 15. vii). hand. if Plato had the reader to determine so easily whether Glaukos or Adeimantos were speaking he could have used their names." the exactness of context. are always p. xviii et passim. 92) is felicitously "the man attached to the law democracy. it is much truer to it in spirit. never The of 561CI (above. every detail deserves the closest scrutiny. and though it lacks the color of the (above. Furthermore. feeling. words p. the life enjoined on the guardians. . on the other lacks the elevation and quiet strength of conviction that Grube captures. Bloom is for the most part more mus quite readable. comprehensible. In general. xiii). despite manages moments. in this case. There is even a separate index of terms of are familiar address. it is unrevealing defects to examine his version of passages already discussed. authors of the tradition". 94). The translation pays meticu lous attention to the turns of conversation. Bloom holds. isonomikos of above. Whenever we should we find the language warned to or construction most strange or cumbersome. Still not as comes over with much more vigor and dramatically forceful original. 91) could stand as a model of care for Plato's his (espe and cially. eu- and logos) can produce a translation both faithful The introduction the thought in its of the philosopher-king in 473 is rendered very strictly. fine not speech.15 easily On the basis this proposal one would awkward look for a rather awkward and bidding text. 40 id the works of the craftsmen should not lead children to likeness with of association. not I think it is fair to violate wonder if the indications of speaker announced on ev wanted ery page do in their way the literalness of the re-presentation. Bloom's style is the one more suitable to a conversation such as as the Plato reports. cular and He to convert cumbersomeness into a style forcible than Grube's.Discussion ways 101 word" using the same English equivalent for the same Greek Meaningful terms are "translated as they have been by the great philosophic (p. 96) Greek. In the discussion "forms. He criti the cizes tendency to discover "Plato the poet" apart from "Plato the philoso are or pher" as a false distinction between form and substance. every argument must be interpreted dramatically and vice versa. it retains the divided line "Forms.

nology it may be if investigated in depth The problem with daimon illustrates a more serious problem inherent in the cause. . In 51 ib. of the understanding cussing dialectic"). but some of which from the point decisions. Bloom translates is required words and sentences according to the sense by taking into "send" consideration the context and the variety of English meanings to which the word corresponds in a procession Greek literature. It is just eralness guage as well seeks that Bloom's judgment is better than he is restrictive and to basic terms style. "dis from the point of view of the the ory are arbitrary. The English a word used turns out to be actually "virtue" or arete. simply and unhelpful. for the lit anyhow. for the stronger" 88). for kratein but retains "of the the connection. symbolically Bloom's Republic applied as a standard transliteration: for "demon" read daimon. the understanding demands respect. must seem "conduct" of view of a ignorant . 87). for read "literalness" works as well as with will it does because in fact a is ing of only Plato's Republic. p. and so does the judgment. adopts Shorey's and ("quarreling in discussing") note or the using the technical "eristic expedient of once. once which "provides first commonsense of [dialectic's] common words dialectic" . the Thracians Bloom had to reader make in the opening paragraph. Thus in the difficult passage about correlatives (above. In 342c (above. it clear that the corresponding Sometimes Bloom's literalness is . Lindsay (see below) makes the oppo site choice. . "related" and some of which arbitrary (for example. As judgment.102 dative Interpretation of means). in 430b "lyes "Chalestrean. . More striking is the adequate use of "de throughout will for daimon. Bloom uses but not "qualified". and no amount of close in this one cure a problem of what goal of literal translation. will To take a small out example. . note dyed and he even needs a note a word which in Burnet's text is mon" given as common. he . his theory. he uses cognate kreittonos. the prep to the arche hypothesis. but nothing in the words each pair are text makes from common stems. be evident judgment based on his the understand to anyone who reads interpretive for in his which essay placed between the translation and the notes. . losing a confusing inconsistencies. Where "literalness" is not called judgment. where the logos reaches the first principle." ositional phrases are skewed: the feminine pronoun which refers is translated matters of as if it were neuter. It reduces lan of gram mar and Is the circumstantial participle always to be translated by the same English construction? Clearly I have commended the vigor of his . p. ." Chalestrean soda alkali" not wash the qualities with which the the guardians are to explain not proper. In 454a view (above. The is is scarcely of context to the trouble this book will really study however revealing of the history of religious termi a mistranslation. and propositions with probably chimerical insignificant developments not. referring to "what is free from not eliminated all "command" In vocabulary Bloom has p. He does not have one. 88). (Bloom's note ad loc).

rhe devices captured all these are also part of the drama. Furthermore. I cite these shortcomings not to carp at the translation but to point out the inherent limitations of the project. dramatic composition. phrasing. The brothers of Plato as interlocutors in this narrated tinguished as Theaetetos and Theodoros in a ness of speech radically dis dramatic dialogue. word within the bounds of literalism. We can note. The translation character derives its fundamen of tal from Bloom's design of the best approach to an understanding Plato. Above all. The a beginning this is in danger of adopting it to dogma. The playful dialogue are as is subordinated. All too often the effect be in English by variation in vocabulary which is taboo to a literalist. The undergraduate presentation will seem arbitrary as a irrelevant. Bloom rates as a citizen-philosopher emphasizes the dramatic The representation of roles of Soc among other citizens. The effect of speech as action (given much credit in the "Interpre tive Essay") is constructed out of this conception of its significance. for example. authors not by by the the of is used by such subsequent as Cicero and William Moerbeke. tue. some distinguishing and features of the translation that be long to the design. then. The great strength of this version is a rigorous and orderly reading of the text. why arete is rendered "vir "excellence. into thinking that Plato concerned accidentally to mis himself with what he It is certainly the translation to be used by readers with some of political experience in the history of Western philosophy or in the analysis in specialists amateur thought. To those without this in fact did experience edge beginners or those approaching it with other kinds of knowl or this may not be a helpful book. be they advanced undergraduates or scholarly or the ideas or practices of medieval or modem times. This repre sents a significant amendment to the goal of presenting the Plato as ancients as they un derstood themselves. Particles. but the translation reduces that to torical must formulae the very of exchange. Of all the translations this is the one least who subjects a passage to close scrutiny. the dialogue are the roles of men as actual or potential participants in the public realm. sturdy handle on right opinion to get him through the course (the "Interpretive rather Essay" augments danger). definitions.Discussion 103 reading of the end of Book III. The Republic is to be approached through the tradition of political philosophy that it and kindred works spawned. Nor will one find the distinction between Bloom's introduction optative and subjunctive of emphasizes the importance rigorously observed." explains. and propositions. but in fact he uses the English future for both the impersonal dej'-plus-infinitive and for the monitory condition. one would need to translate terms one word which which fits into Greek authors from Homer to Isocrates. and least likely likely to disappoint the reader lead the casual reader not. than as a provocation philosophic . Speech is thought therefore leading its to choice among ac tions the value of speech lies in terms." and not To understand his contemporaries would have.

.' In he tries to Such "words like or 'thing in itself. and he He includes in his also has very little to say about his theory of (40 paragraph on Plato's lan pages) a introductory discussion and summary it. Overall. The complete lack of notes also suggests a a whole and a ments. Like Bloom. 89) is handled very much as it is by Shorey. xxxiv. ghostly. tr.' have in gest most cases been so affected by later philosophical usage that they sug tech wrong meanings in Plato. the translation reads well "ordered" and gets points across directly. Lindsay sometimes loses the exact sense. 85). Like the others. as one Unlike the others translation. D. The its similar capturing the form. "men's opinions on what is noble (589c. and discouraging impetus leads to quite different choices." whom or you The notorious correlatives of 438a appear clearly in "whenever which imply something else. angel" (the last in the myth of Er). imply a qualified. by "demon" and "de mi Lindsay raculous. in which he emphasizes The Republic's variety of subjects. however. changes in form. if language not impossible. A. strong emphasis on the disinclination to make much not to experience of of the reading the book as integrity of separate argu course This is say.16 guage. demi-god. without study." uses a word that was alive 'correlative. p. Lindsay. above. and in any case they give an appearance of Republic" nicality xxxv).' 'absolute. that Lindsay its is insensitive to the taken by any particular argument. He obviously seeks the word most vivacious He not only with avoids technical terms. a Dutton Everyman Pa York. and final reliance on the representation of Socrates as the answer to its inquiries. in context. In 342c the Eng have terms lish "subject" word by implying with an publ. more uses: than "god. profound where to reproduce .104 Interpretation thought. he is misunderstandings of the substance.' and meant 'essence. perback The Republic of Plato. by A. conjunction of a "It is hard. English divine. heavenly. lesser deity. 1957. the ambivalent (above. and simple unqualified terms a simple". which is alien to the conversational concerned with form of the (pp. the limitations of this translation will seem most co gent to those readers who would read do with it what Bloom considers an abuse: book among many. p. p. He emphasizes and Plato's use of conversational language for "metaphysical instruction" his avoidance of technical terms. human. The Thracians and their procession disgraceful have the time origins" following double (327a). daemon. Lindsay has nothing to say about his readers. in English the resists of simple and and thought "so he the use "dead technical word particular Plato avoid words something.D. gender of each the pronoun in the question of 332c 86) is resolved by "to what. Not surprisingly. the qualified terms. of terms for the development This procedure accords the understanding advanced in the introduction. originally . the problem of lies in 382 (above. Where Bloom monic" renders daimon and adjective form spirit. (New introduction 1935). I think. Plato's point obscures the explication of it: 16. he undermines any attempt to find a consistent use of a consistent argument.

into but distant that he wanders. The five translations that I have discussed here differ sufficiently in their in tentions and styles for them not to be compared as simply better or worse. with which the urgency Socrates pronounces the regulations on the lives of the and guardians at the end of of of Book III ("This reservation one will be their salvation. It doesn't help at all to call the isonomikos "the laws equal" are beauty to Lindsay is inconsistent in his use of both key terms. "contention arguments. . His version will also serve well in a general sur only the outline can be discussed. never far will ther. disappears. the first everything" further. different discussion. Whatever may have the other consequences produces Lindsay's emphasis on variety. is thus and as often he Lindsay's position one in which he can allow himself a considerable version one controlled freedom. His text not so allow a close analysis. again. the absurdity of the democrat at 561 cj ("fluting down the primrose path of wine"). must with but it never lets him Grube. ." scientific and so fails to prepare the topic ade man to whom all quately. "beauty of What makes this translation work is that in the end Lindsay turns out to be following where Plato leads. but the principle of mind reaches and no "as far as that which uses is not hypothesis. For to know come reader of some general education and what understanding who wishes broadly stand The Republic has to say. He the future in the conditional sentence not that opens the paragraph on the philosopher- king. Lindsay's the version can be neatly to to Bloom's. Lindsay seems to stand at a certain distance from the original. In 509-511 (the divided line) he uses relation of surface (56ie). Shorey. an Bloom's version differs the most and its advantages and weaknesses opposed have al ready been discussed. the moving dignity that closes seriousness of Er's story (with appropriate variation for the her "The responsibility is on him that chooseth. course where not just more . and eristic (454a-b) "discussion . as Grube's often does and Bloom's demands. Book IX. and comprehend how it has to as the high tower one of thought from which men take their bearings. the etymological connection with "of the uses stronger" introduction and of dialectic . Even worse. The contention" and. in 400-401 (the character) eu- = beauty" reason" "classes" "Forms" and very much like Grube. logos and (euphos "the happy gift") and the argument is even harder to trace here than it is in Grube's version. about the salvation the city"). demands more of his reader than Lindsay does. his appreciation of this aspect of it indisputable excellence. but he does always invert the clauses to change the emphasis. But Lindsay himself does not lose the argument: kalos logos is "the principle of not the (Grube). again.Discussion "the 105 their subject" arts govern and are masters of (cf. a that the get so reader can follow an argument with exactness. "subject-matter"). never nearer. Lee. the ald: Lindsay exhibits throughout a wonderful adaptation whether to the varying styles of the original. There is none on God"). from this position he achieves for his very important distinction. Lindsay's is the vey to read.

modem lan educational baggage of a late Victorian. will readers want and some students (particularly in will need a translation that allows closer and than Lindsay's does. but Plato's in our generation in large measure depends on how well such a version in playing his in troduces him. is is more accessible than either of scrutiny Shorey's success and gives more or introductory help Bloom's. other next to each discover important things. Plato thought. and Shorey must be conceded to bersome. Some courses) confusingly idiosyncratic. If the one Alcibiades led. what ment of finally. Lee's is more responsible overall. Shorey's is the version of choice. may take the time to undo some mainly Grube's with se miscon that more straightforward version. but and it does. naturally readable. be given the nod. Bloom. he might also be helpful in a "senior seminar" of mixed readings. their recently gained franchise. and he is certainly more stimulating. though the classroom teacher who is or who can prefer dealing of lected passages. more one can say that a literal translation is a necessary to felicitous renditions which The will yet.106 Interpretation but the a good acquaintance with attention. Such role a beginner's version limited use. We wish them to live lives happier than Polemarchos found. So it any help. Fired by a sentimental attachment to democracy. guages literature. there is no rest from the misunder can standing of Plato in our studies. history. too often. But for those be too cum without the necessary sophistication. structions. Certainly. and in cities of better than the one this ancient constitution means read more is to be than once. our youth exercise. I am partial to the tone and moderation of Grube's rendition. ever aware of difficulties. But there is The text of literal and felicitous version The Republic can no more be the sum of its translations than it be. it will have to be studied. student who puts Shorey or deviate widely from their Lindsay next to Bloom or a more original" (p. sporad ically. viii). which is good that the translations exhibit different strengths and problems. as long as those eager for philoso phy are not pursuing knowledge of Greek. for us. . For the accomplished student of what we now call the humanities. however varied his treat He must the small points may be. remarks that "at the supplement very least. misrepresent how Plato presented his thought so.

that "explanation replace proof as the goal of (p. Nozick an analytic way. My book paper is divided into three In Part I. then. In short. Unfortunately. analytic questions but he asks and answers them parts. I shall summarize Nozick's inter chapter by chapter and largely in his own words.Exploring A Critique the Limits of of Analytic Philosophy Nozick's Philosophical Explanations Nicholas Capaldi Queens College Robert Nozick has Explanations. In Part II. we are offered render Nozick calls a philosophical explanation which is designed to things "coherent and better (p. philosoph tion. the possibilities inherent in the theory. underlies analysis. is a hypothesis. all philosophical questions "stem from ques how precious?" are we valuable and (p. what what Nozick to avoid is "coercive In trying to in answer this which we seek to prove things by providing a knockdown argument. what he is proposing is 14). I shall pret what Nozick is doing against a broader historical background. In Part III. i). is designed conception as a proof intended to reveal necessary conditions (p. upon which performed a valuable By going further than anyone else analytic helped us to see philosophy as an just how untenable that that the in writing Philosophical in articulating the assumptions enterprise rests. . I: SUMMARY OF PHILOSOPHICAL EXPLANATIONS Introduction: one: According wants to Nozick. Whose of transcendental argument is being rejected is not some thing we are told. A philosophical explanation is not a transcendental argument. In its place. To engage in philosophical activity is to formulate and to explore a hypothe sis. As the answers are neither novel which They in are inadequate because asks non- the terms in they are cast are still analytic. and (d) its realizes it discovers and (c) to prove that it is true but what is possible if we act formulation is not intended if the theory is true. the answers usually prevents suggested by Nozick are tious restatements of the modernist such liberal teleology that nor adequate. Nozick asks and answers people preten the kinds of questions ideology of analysis from even asking. 8). which. I shall argue just why it is inadequate. In short. Nozick's goal is not to persuade but "to remove the conflict. A philosophical explanation. we as are told. (a) It relies on imagina tive theoretical constructs. 16). he has inadvertently service enterprise is. to put my own beliefs in alignment" (p. (b) it asks questions like "what might be possible?". 15).

14). "the we are still phi losopher's (p. For a hypothesis may suggest detailed investigations to the sci further elaboration of the meaning of Nozickean pluralism book where we are we are referred to the end of the told that philosophy is an art form. the first and the second concerns related and reveal cerns the problem identity through time. that hypothesis formation is be further explained. what kind of entity is The "capacity for reflexive self-reference . Let treated me elaborate. de is. reflexivity as one of the dominant themes of the book. more adequate. However. x . But plu is not. And 'closest' means closer than all others. the notion of reflexivity. what this amounts to is the familiar claim that philosophy is hypothesis formation. existential entist" 13). to be confused with relativism. and that theory construction tion are a creative act which cannot and methodological innova indistinguishable. what he calls philosophical pluralism. 34). at to arrive told. It is not yet clear which of these two either exploration or models of expla is to predominate. The damental shall order seems at first to be questions odd because we have been told that the fun retrospect what we notion of a self- questions are of value. two main chapters: The the book is divided into Identity The Identity of the Self. partly be which are not al cause we believed" ready nation may be led to consider "explanatory hypotheses (p.108 The Interpretation foregoing "radically conception of a philosophical explanation is intertwined with and contrasted with a second and more radical goal.] the introduction. and Value. understood as presenting a shaped view or vision (p. However. and Why Is There Something Rather Than Nothing? con of the Self: This of chapter is divided into two parts. Epistemology. it appears. in see is that Nozick's methodological innovation is the subsuming explanation. 647). of How close x pends on the kind entity something must be to x to be x. No immediate explanation is given for this or Following der. general philosophical of issue identity through time is the closest continuer theory. the book is divided into three parts: Metaphys ics. Self-creation is The an example of reflexivity. [As far as I can make it out. as do the dimensions along which closeness is a self? measured" (p. lead to new and surprising truths insights" and Exploring hypotheses may (p. . "something at time t2 is not the same entity as x at tt if Nozick in terms it is not xs closest continuer. something may be enough to the closest continuer of without being close it to be x. 12). These two parts are intimately time. replacing what we believe by to something A distinguishing tolerate alternative ralism characteristic of Nozick's presentation is his willingness hypotheses. Metaphysics: This and this can only be made clear self- initially by reference to the metaphysical problems of part of identity. Nozick's aim is the truth. As a by necessary but not sufficient condition. Well. . Nozick subscribes to the closest of personal con- tinuer theory identity through a theory of that invokes the notion of self-creation. Although philosophy itself may not be a science.

literally Philosophy is in as meaningful. merely self-subsuming referring? (p. and refers to itself. What of we need. the ultimate and most few possibilities. however. It is a self-subsuming explanation in it both to itself and justifies itself. this conception of the self satisfies the explain original able impulse to 109). is onto a fundamental without expla the totality reality loops back brute fact. namely. fundamental explanatory laws. yields itself. but also reflexively Why as Is There Something Rather than Nothing?: Nozick treats this question meaningful. are unexplainable there or is a finite chain. This primordial act is self-reflexive (seen from the inside) and refers to itself at the same time. But as we all know the with attempt to push explanation to its outer limits seems to present us the following we reach dilemma: I admit. is created by a primordial act of self-reference which is also a decision about what to be. and as an part an attempt issue about the nature of ex to explain everything. Reference is here The self made by Nozick to Fichte's notion of self-positing (p. Given the traditional and seemingly intractable we are problem of justifying first prin ciples within a deductive explanation. and Can the fundamental explanatory principle(s) be selfnecessarily self-applying. 91). way a principle turns back on itself. a Self-subsumption is self. then it necessarily will apply to itself.Discussion is essential 109 self" to being a (p. itself circularity and without an unexplained residue of What might such an explanation Nozick discusses several. Nozick speculates on "nothed" and nonexistence to a nothingness force that going itself . planation. a feat of legerdemain. 120). There we also discussed an even more restrictive mode of self- referring. 136). engage in philosophy. applies to it If the principle necessarily has the features it speaks of. to how how is we are valu (p. 76). there Either there is an infinite chain of different laws and theories. act of craftsmanship" (p. two of them because I think that these two thinking. brought to self-subsumption as the only way nation of out. 79). not reflexive self-referring. indicate the direction beyond existence of Nozick's First. The foregoing refers explanation of reflexive self-knowledge possible now becomes that a prototype of all explanation. appears quite weird Explanatory When are self-subsumption. the endmost laws are facts laws of a certain sort at all under one of the other possibilities) if there necessary truths or the only laws there can be (the fact that there are laws of that sort is classified or the endmost laws are self-subsuming (p. I select be like? Without endorsing any of them. Parenthetically. act of "The self which self-reference" reflexive is reflexively referred to is synthesized in that very (p. and it is also described as a "reflexive no). whereby something re fers to itself in all possible worlds where it refers. is like the Godelian kind of the previous chapter. If a finite chain. or each explaining the next. This mode of self-reference. according to which Nozick.

and how 'truth' remains . barring a reflexive account (p. Later.110- Interpretation reality. Second. than of won't there be many different equally coherent and unified worlds? If each is equally in truth. Notice how this unanalyzed. Not all derived in this S: self-subsuming explanations are true. we shall have to do so. 149). Therefore P is true (p. has five words. self-subsumption: P: any lawlike statement having characteristic C is true. and let in This hypothesis considers would seem to give nonbeing a power of facts" its own. But Nozick to complete the pic ture in this way (p. 1. why one put then does one hold rather another? . example too is true. Many false way. Being self-subsuming state self-subsuming is a purely formal characterization. . 1 . self-reference may be sentence exemplified as follows: This 2. (This question parallels the familiar to coherence theories I see no reason to think there is only one principle capable of undistinguishable generating in fundamentalness. At this argue point all of it seems as if there are enough resources in Nozick's book to in the way that the why he refuses to that the alternative explanations or hypotheses are themselves mo ments within one great organic self recasts unity. 149). 3. "one that best fits in the other and which "would be explained by its facts" mesh with other (p. P is a lawlike statement with characteristic C. other facts within a structure of self-subsuming organic unity high organic unity why one par so the question would remain of ticular one holds. but not all self-subsuming that all reflexively ments are self-referential. reflexive self-reference: "I am Nicholas Capaldi" (when uttered by the au thor of this article). The following example is Nozick's own: words statements are susceptible to being Every sentence of exactly eight S has exactly eight words. For the moment. 119). Nozick the possibility of a self-subsuming principle of with organic unity. In summation. all being reinterpreted refuses itself in Nozick's theory. Nozick does not claim true or acceptable proofs. there cepts: appear to be three key and interrelated Nozickean con self-reference. This hypothesis would seem to reinstate particulars within the universal concept. Still. reflexive self-reference. and all self-sub statements are statements are referential. and self-subsumption. we shall note Nozick's speculate on reservations. already contains the word 'true' within it.) accord with a principle of organic unity. S is true (p.1 All reflexively suming self-referential statements are self- self-subsuming. 119). 20). Therefore.

How is knowledge we Beginning do" the skeptic do not know (p. Value vided 283-87). It with answers the who question. is compatible with the mind-body identity theory tory value (p. is the positively. not claim does to provide "procedures to determine knowledge" whether or not any of particular case is a case of (p. It is even possible to imagine that 317). as 300). . 178). It is disposition of human be havior both ous cognitive and evaluative. The only question is how this to Nozick's A free action. skepticism is. 339) out and with a notion of contributory but not origina- (ruled by determinism). the allegedly. ble? think we and Evidence. defined. point of and tracking is construed as a subjunctive relation. Free Will: Nozick does to argue that man's will is free. comprises the third. relates this is a familiar other themes. Nozick is clari 'tracking'. There is a great deal of formalistic parapherna lia thrown about. Nozick which offers a speculative hypothesis about knowledge tracking is compatible with evolution. determin purposes" for our value (p. In drawing his the parallel fying concept of between epistemology and value. a coherence logically coherent position which cannot be of refuted. and the meaning of life. Jargon notwithstanding. of skepticism does not entail the denial the possibility of knowledge. In fact. Nozick takes the that epistemology is not and cannot be an autonomous discipline. such free action exhibits tracking by tracking value value or bestness (p. not the choice is self-subsuming (p. only as and probability. 287). 167). (p. foundations not attempt of of ethics. a but in fact tracking is not a teleological concept. the evolutionary process the capacity to vary beliefs with the truth of what is be lieved (pp. Tracking is lieve it if it were would false" world. By as signing the the weight to itself. we are told. position. Instead with he tries to formulate ism and sufficient a theory free action that is "compatible 292). epistemological principles at best can achieve self-subsumption 278). This theory. Second. can give organisms That is. Although is itself causal it is compatible with reductionism. final. This allows for explanation of choice explanation something other than a random event. inductive logic." a true. So knowledge is Nozick's explanation possible. in that his discussion position evidence. and "real factual who wouldn't connection be to the as Finally. and largest section of the book. First. case where having "a belief that tracks the Tracking "to know that p is to be were someone who [subjunctive conditional] believe it if it (p. Nozick proceeds to show two things. 178). a disposition connected with certain obvi facts but deductively inferable from those facts. It is subdi into three chapters: free will.Discussion -111 Epistemology: This section of the book has three "argues that subdivisions: Knowledge. choice is a choice which weighs both the of which reasons for and against an and it weighs the principle in terms it assigns weights. possi what we Skepticism. truth" Knowledge is (p.

"the relationship that there value brings not our (some) facts into an organic value. As is to be expected." unified enough This tight organic unity is brings together epistemology." Nozick his posi values. ("tracking" Nozick is reintroducing teleological concepts in value theory) but trying to do so in "organic with in epistemology.112 The Interpretation reader should recall nature with and at this point that teleological concepts lost their standing in the advent of modem physical science construed deteranalytic philosophers ministically. be and puts it into effect 560). There identity theory) then have our it are a number of antecedents for this modem philoso phy. or in his "the push" the moral 401). He defines the task of ethical theory in words terms of the dialectical relation moral pull and between (p. justifies choice with itself. we can mould Foundations of Ethics: Nozick's ethical theory is an attempt to show how the world into an embodiment of human purpose. but choice their character is independent itself (p. as to Aristote to be lian teleology. unifying these but perhaps obscured identifying facts have what them" (p. this time of push and (p. compatible what a way that is but not deducible from determinism. metaphysics. 449). right and mo rality. "we choose that there be us" unity. Is it really to resolve autonomy and an unconditioned end without . Nozick still answers. Anglo-American officially eschewed their use even in discussing deavors. but I shall discuss them later. no! (p. this to find value subsumes self as something valuable. 524). Quine now thinks that dispositional terms will eventually be dropped from science when the enterprise of science is "com In technical discourse this has made it difficult (some of us would say pleted. face with the issue of an ultimate synthesis. If these two tiers we could functionally intellectual in approach identical (like cake and eat mind-body too. that they exist. 449). Moreover. to achieve any epistemological consensus on the status of laws. There was in the 1960s a whole literature devoted to trying to man or man's have generally intellectual and en show that teleological explanations were replaceable by causal explanations. Early on. possible and a by adopting I can only describe There is a level of conscious understand where ing where tracking is not deterministic level were teleological con cepts do appear." impossible) etcetera. but all extension- this was abandoned. and ethics (p. 555). calls Value is tion understood "realization". Quine himself thought that dispositional terms could be defined ally. Doubtless frightened urges by the collectivist im plications of such a resolution he that "there not be the highest new and even organic unity in the values" realm of unities" so as to leave "room for radically different organic possible (p. This unification is "because not been organically yet. but he takes the supplemented deontology needs by some end for So we come once more pull face to 421). that teleologically as "organic is. He does this as a two-tier approach. 568). Nozick attempts to do justice to Kantian deontology as well predictable view that organization. of (p.

State. 498-99^). and we are now in a leads us back to Hegel. although he does not think at explanation but at the explanation that it is possible to prove that reductionism backs away from an So what does this The way ultimate synthesis is impossible. working back from the view. 6 1 8). or by starting at the very foundations of moral that this phi There is also the risk. antipsychologistic enterprise. the individual finally. I presented a political philosophy One might attempt to provide any moral foundations for that view. Ironically. State. finding free Nozick hesi that he is and dom by having this fully integrated into the his community? tates and then not pia declines to view of explore these issues. but did such a not present foundation either by by a step. II: THE HEGELIAN BACKGROUND (FROM CORRESPONDENCE TO COHERENCE) Contemporary anism. 635-42). In his artistic reshaping. 647). There is a tension between the philosopher's tracking is scend of as a tight unity. philosopher aimed at truth states a theory that presents a possible truth and so a understanding the actual world (including its value) in its matrix of possible neighbors. . and Utopia. in the sense that it is "a choice to connect and accord with limits" something external. and Utopia. however. the world Still. foundationalist. reassessment its goals. that Nozick is aware of a lack of perfect congruence between Philosophical Expla nations and Anarchy. the philosopher must be true enough to the world. to be transcending it (p. Nozick finally concludes aims not philosophy is a part of the humanities pre cisely because it of value only and meaning. with Specifically. 2. This enterprise has failed to the achieve period of reassessment. State Uto (p.Discussion resort 113 to a self-developing absolute spirit? Can we avoid. if not tran value altogether. (pp. that a choice to transcend one's own (p. presenting a possible (though shaped) view. desire that his philosophy track the world and his desire that it depict a world worth tracking. and he is once again make of academic philosophy? Philosophy an art form. analytic What was philosophy began with Russell's rejection of Hegeli inaugurated was a realist. 499) and the Philosophy what gives Meaning It is of Life: The meaningful choice that there be value is also life its meaning. the The inadequacy I believe of the correspondence theory inherent in foundationalism. in the direction of political philosophy to be do not pursue the con able to see if there are two lines or one (pp. he also may lift the mind from being totally filled of with the actual world in which it happens to find itself. he claims linking morality earlier book Anarchy. Moreover. step losophy and working forward. he proclaims that his self-subsuming explanations are nonreductionist and preserve value and meaning. forward motion from the foundations struction will lead to enough here extensively We completely different view. In Anarchy.

the by phenomenal world as the self-presentation of the noumenal reconceiving the world. but it is motivated This is the Some whole point behind the desire to replace argument by (1) and (2). a gap accentuated and aggravated under by scientistic. mind. however. of science itself (p. cumu Quine's wholism. First Rorty and now Nozick ever-widening hole in the dike. Nozick's book is heralded as a bold new step into the future. the human striving for value.1 14 Interpretation of desertion Wittgenstein. is signaled by Nozick's conception of a self-subsuming explanation. Whereas Russell rejected internal relations. There is for taking anyone else's perspective or hypothesis seriously other than Nozick's per assurance that he does so. a Hegel developed and dialectical logic to Nozick develops of overcome the dualism of and to a me thinking being.3 has not fully understood the past that is being The return to idealism. It is ironic that seems to which one of the most glorious achievements of the modern no room leave seems for its own glory. where members are only understood when is the understood. 627). (i) There is a gap between how we understand ourselves (self-consciousness) and how we under stand the world. that the reduced image of man toward of it inexorably to lead a mean and pitiable plaything forces beyond his control seems to leave no room even for the creators. 559). by explanation. science. expressions of the motivation are the following. tion in purely formal (3) The attempt to construe the (mathematical) terms independent of the in terms of subject who does the explaining renders meaning unintelligible. Noz ick restores them via self-subsumption. so an organic as opposed and chanical paradigm of logic in the form self-referentiality gap. the disequilibrium Kuhn and Feyerabend have latively have undermined Russell's an original program. and the creation. Nozick is 3. The Hegelian background to contemporary analytic philosophy's current cri sis can be expressed in terms of three intertwined problems. no argument sonal views no logical provision in Nozick for paying attention to the views of others. here understood as the belief that to be real is to be system. reductive at tempts to subsume the former reconcile science as the study of a (2) It does not seem possible to nonteleological fixed external structure and logic of explana the latter. no indication of how he would rank other from within his own. those who deny value sometimes see as itself valuable their tough-mindedness of in refusing to succumb to (what they view as) the illusion value. self-subsump tion. this comfort is not legitimately Just to unite as available to them (p. But whereas Hegel solved the first problem. and the failure of positivism's program of of verification. What is being proclaimed as a new di system as a whole rection a member of a rational in disaffected analytic circles is in part a return to an older position in the light of the failure of mainline twentieth century analytic philosophy. but in reality it is a reactionary return to Hegelianism accompanied by all of the fumblings and put their fingers into thrashings about of someone who revived. Nozick's task is expressed (3). There is . He offers.



content with a mere

formal analogy between

self-consciousness and the world

in terms
refusal shall




arguing for the analogy between
with a we


self-articulating reason, Nozick's enterprise is Hegelian but

to follow it through to the Absolute Spirit. Just why is


discuss in Part III.


for Nozick to

express and to explain what

his theory is about, he is

key junctures to play God or to talk from a point of view sus piciously like Hegel's Absolute Spirit. In his discussion of epistemology, Noz ick imagines a God who creates organisms that would have true beliefs in a
at several

changing world, beings "able to detect




in facts, who to Nozick such beliefs are

will change



true. But

the evolutionary process which Nozick champions gives beings the


for true


This capability is


to be superior.
the truth
of what



(sometimes) vary

somehow with


believed; it

makes their beliefs somehow


to the facts.

of status and a


capability instilled by the evolutionary diate between a belief that (merely) is true in the

process will yield




belief that

the truth in

all possible worlds





words, the evolutionary epistemology is


to the God hypothe


But is it

to Hegel's Absolute?


it is like the Absolute but


the Absolute. How's that? Well it
perspective of




the Hegelian Absolute

invoked in


to explain


existence of value

subject to



is up to him, but the character of value is independent, not In God's relationship to value (under this view) or choice

his autonomy is preserved, for it is his choice that there be value, yet also there is an independent standard of value according to which his existence and choices are
valuable, a

fixed simply by his own preference or approval. Although he founds the country club, its membership conditions are not up to him (pp.
standard not



Nozick is




the similarity of his


to things said


Hegel. But


version of



apparently, gleaned





That Nozick fails to






from the



such theories

(do not) find it easy to
process of


why the

perfect and all-inclusive



is undergoing the

coming to

complete self-knowledge

(p. 606).


note 5.


Nozick is guilty

of the usual analytic caricature of the


of philosophy, and


even ar

for the

value of such caricatures


and arena;

"Hegel's theory leaves
that needs us as the



Geist's little helper it

but how awe-inspiring is


Geist be



achieves self-consciousness, you

ennobled can we



connected with such a

Geist? Would




club that needs you as a mem

ber? (pp. 6o6-6o7n.) Notice the
same metaphor of a



116 Let

us at this point spell out the within

to see

argument and

locate Nozick


cisely lytic philosophy.

it. This

will also permit us

his difference

with previous ana

The Hegelian








through nine

(i) There is



of objective truths.

(2) This multiplicity of truths forms a coherent system (S). (3) a. any statement about S is, if true, a part of S. b. our understanding of S is, if true, a part of S. (4) Statements of the kind (3a) and (36) cannot be established by
dence because
we the establishers would


have to be

outside of

the system S in

order to use correspondence.

(5) Therefore,
lished in formal (6 Coherence


fundamental explanatory






some other way, alone


coherence understood organically. not a sufficient condition. a



necessary but

It is

a mere



(3a) is

hypothesis to


there are


(7) How

can we tell which version of coherence

is the true (correct)






(see 4)



extra-systematic means. system which

(8) There



a of



must also account

includes the
of al


itself. It

for the how


ternative expressions of (3a). How can a system know itself? This is only pos sible if there is a unity of thought and being.

(9) If

such a




we cannot yet articulate


where are we


those of us who


clearly understand this? We are at development toward self-articulation. This Absolute (3b). The Absolute, in short,

one stage of a process un

explains needs us.

why stop




relate to the



philosophers of the



step (2).



to talk about talk about the world. When analysts are criticized for


considering the big questions it is the refusal to go beyond (2) that their have in mind. Nozick goes beyond (2), and that is why he appears to some to be progressive. But Nozick stops at (6). He refuses to discuss how we




philosopher not satisfied with

just deductive



self-subsuming explanation, Nozick is engaged in a total concep tualization of the world. In order to do this, knowledge must not only explain but be like the world. Ultimate reality and self-articulating reason must be iden
who wants a

tical. In some way we must explain that logic


is derivative from self-conscious in Nozick's terminology). Nozick's discussion of self-syn

thesis and the closest continuer



identity, for


uses analytic and el


it boils down to is is thus


annuls, preserves,
a static


nation of

thought must

developmental activity, not be itself developmental. Once


so an expla

the explanation of




thinking (for example, progressive self-redefinition, trackings, for organic unity) then the explanation must itself be subject to movement. This would explain pluralism and maintain
of or Teachings






possibility of absolute truth. The important difference is that Hegel can envisage saying everything (a final synthesis) whereas Nozick will not go that far and so is left with a possi ble plurality of self-subsuming explanations. Nozick thus fails to reconcile this with a belief in objective truth. He plurality parades his


truth as well as

problem nevertheless

support of certainly priding himself on his open-mindedness, but the logical remains. Absolute truth is replaced by the model of selfone of

subsumption, and curiously truth is Nozick's book. Self-subsumption is

the few concepts

not analyzed


another word


a coherence


organically understood. But such a theory is only successful, I would ar gue, if there is a single organic whole of mind and reality and if it is under going a self-development that requires ultimate consummation. Short of that, Nozick is going to be left with an implausible historicism. Nozick's theory is indistinguishable from historicism.6 Suppose two philos
ophers, N

H. N believes

or says

that he

believes in

an absolute and objec radical par

truth, but he is

At the

open to new same




and so on.

time, N

refuses to commit

himself to any

specific criteria



we can

tell that later is better


are ever

closer to the absolute truth.
an absolute and objective






denies the

existence of


or refuses to

be drawn into


it. In

stead, H

argues that

later thought

evolves out of earlier

thought but is



objective sense closer to


truth. H even seizes upon N's point

thinking involves
arguments can

speculative assumptions or



that cannot

themselves be

objects of proof:


means when

he denies that de



themselves. How could

distinguish in

empirically between N
without an act so


H? What difference is there between Nozick's

quasi-Hegelianism and an out and out

historicist? The


is that there is



Nozick) become just
never explained

Alternative self-subsuming theories (a la many incommensurable discourses (a la Rorty). It is



we are

to choose or compare or to coordinate those alter


6. For

an elaboration of

this very important point see Hilail

Gildin (ed.), introduction to Politi
p. xiii.

Philosophy: Six Essays On he


Leo Strauss (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975),


[Leo] Strauss



affirming that if

positivism understood

Ernest Nagel's The Structure of Science to illustrate what itself it would necessarily transform into


Nozick aptly

expresses the


of this




"However, just

as empirical


underdetermine a scientific

theory, is

so actions


uniquely fix the life
the same



flow. Different life


plans are compatible with and might yield



If so,

they really different life

plans, or

one of the plans

(at least)


expression of


mind dependent. the second with the politics liberalism. to the belief that science gives Analytic us philosophers subscribe to the ultimate truth about the whole of reality. On the con only do analysts believe that reality is independent of mind but that is itself explainable in the same way that we explain the rest of reality. My examination is not losophers ought to embrace misunderstanding that I want to brief for Hegel. But before ad dressing these questions there avoid. I the questions of why it fails is a that failure implies. would not em with brace Hegel and if they understood of him. I am not arguing that all phi Hegelianism. That it does do so is. early are like Russell knew very well what they were re jecting in idealism. scientism. not the latter takes reality to be Thought is nothing but the It might appear to some reflection of an external structure. To the extent that they fail to be lian (ultimate synthesis). just like Rorty's incommensurable discourses. two reasons why analysts. the more dangerous analysis becomes. in part. especially like even There Nozick. in the end. Nozick's they lack the capacity or the to be philosophical to as understand They fail insofar they fail to be self-conscious. The On the contrary. the failure of many contemporary professionals to study their own tradition or story. that Nozick does not subscribe to scientism because he criticizes reductionism. Nozick always writes under the great fear is that whatever independent realm we . either retreat into silent nihilism or at consistently Hege best em Ill: THE LIMITS OF ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY In the ophy in raise previous section general can I argued that Nozick in particular and analytic philos now want to be best understood as and what failed Hegelianism. But this is not the analysts whole In fact.118 Interpretation shows us What Nozick embrace is that fully not self-conscious analytic philosophy of must not Hegelianism. and speculations Goodman's world visions. shadow of reductionism. My purpose is to expose the inade one potential quacies of analytic philosophy. Quine's theoretical multiplicity. to teach it to subsequent generations. It is kind failure. the a peculiar assumptions. The first has to do scientism. Scientism as such entails materialism and reductionism. Why is analysis failed Hegelianism? It would be easy to argue sheer histori cal ignorance. At the conclusion of this paper I shall argue given that the more consistently Hegelian the analyst becomes. are. Rescher's pluralism of metaphilosophies. they brace historicism. result of being fully self-conscious of what an argument it is doing. not to follow backwards to its implicit are at No matter how bril liant individual analysts developing will the implications of a the roots of a hypothesis. his other limita tions. hypothesis. sense that Scientism is mind opposed to ideal ism in the trary.

I shall introduce as a distinction and among: (a) philosophy we as exploration. 642). valid commonsense world which science itself is abstracted The fundamental commitment to scientism has two important of consequences: and it leads to Let a peculiar conception of the practice philosophy. as explication of meaning. Explication is the serious to clarify an intuition have of ourselves as we act. But how do we know that we have is derivative from the correctly understood science? This question is postponed indefinitely. losophy as the exploration model of follow out the implications of some hypothetical thought and practice in order to realize its inherent possi bilities. hypothesis formation is everything. exists For example. that is. In Nozick. all independently it of self-referring". (c) philosophy of meaning. There is first (p. there is an explicit sub stitution of new ideas for our everyday ideas. 654. In order to clarify further what hypothesis formation means in Nozick. Nozick does not rule out the possibility of reductionism. Reductionism is a form of re placement. other away" Nozick that we must "explain (p. to get us to see things in a up way "the view that the self suggests and to give our old ways of thinking. much concern over who arrived at what hypothesis But what is the in point of these hypotheses? Sometimes times. playful analytic Nozick philosophy exem plifies the preoccupation of contemporary with methodo logical innovation. the practice of phi losophy practice of science. 12). Nozick goes to great pains to point out that reductionism must any attempt to prove that fail is futile (pp. (b) philoso phi phy replacement. In philosophy attempt explication. cast and the ultimate embarrassment in analytical philosophical circles is to be into the position of people who refused Galileo's telescope or who opposed evo lution. hypothesis new of n. Nozick denies from that there is an intersub (p. what we get is a scientific approach to philosophy. in his of all acts handling hand. norms are fundamen the sense we tal. it leads to normlessness. us look first at the practice of philosophy. We are constantly besieged by what the book dust jacket calls "new concepts. In philosophy as the replacement of meaning. Nozick predominantly and self-consciously engages in theory exploration. 94). jectively 627). and we should recall that in his treatment of free dom he does not argue that man is free but strives instead to formulate a compatibilist position.Discussion carve out 119 is in imminent danger to look through of for man being replaced. rigorous reasoning. 570. the point of these seem to be seems mere exercises cleverness. More important. At other the to be theory replacement. In (a). Both exploration and replacement rely to do upon imaginative theoretical from constructions and ask the question "What is possible if extract In philosophy ous practice a as explication what we seek of is to our previ applied theory that practice. daring hypotheses. As in sci ence. On the . Instead of attempting to un derstand science. a theory as that may be reflectively in deciding what to do next.

what of the things the skeptic says which my own beliefs in alignment. are no privileged a context of if we all- are to avoid nihilism. But he specifically refuses to embrace this as the aim of philosophy. Dealing with the skeptic involves an egocentric perspective. My I task here is to remove the conflict. Practically very feel speaking good one at methodological alienated philosophy remains a form of historicism. not a that. to put how those accept. To his credit. I take very seriously what the skeptic says. knowing what world they inhabit (the pretheoretical or the Absolute)? . no way to compare them. What analytic philosophers confused have finally come to reject is phenomenalism. Such we are background for Nozick is So. we get a picture of man as a rational animal stop but not as a person. back to foundationalism." as opposed to action and on the appears to subject as On the surface this take the subject an object seriously. and nate them. If there must by rejecting the notion of the contexts. the 16). then there a be the whole. Moreover. How are we to tell it is appropriate to replace a view and when not? Sometimes Nozick is brought to the brink to square science with of explication as when as meaningful he wants our view of ourselves beings. Nozick responds to the skeptic's demand for total justification that is by now fa miliar move of rejecting foundationalism. way to coordi It's all just talk until science normless plurality brings home the final verdict. a pervasive science. in fact. then there will be no way to de cide short of explanation possessing total knowledge (Hegelianism again) which alternative is correct. ironically.120 forms when Interpretation of reductionism are examples of theory replacement. if the widest back if science is normless. Nozick does not use mechanical models but organic ones. or of all" how correct values are possible at (p. But by ping at the organic level. and this is why it continually degenerates into an orgy of innovation. for I acknowledge he says creates a problem for me and my beliefs. but as it develops we interacting in an environment of other come to see the objects. 435)as exploration Philosophy point of is committed to the traditional "I think." So right from the "I" "I" beginning as opposed Cartesian starting Nozick's emphasis is on thought to the "we. Is it any wonder that many analytic philosophers analytic not (p. not a social one. no way to decide which among com no peting hypotheses is correct. but they have this with the rejection of idealism. 578). ground They have not is science. "Showing that certain values are immanent in certain activities does not constitute an explana tion of why those values are correct. In thus trying to explain how knowledge is possible. and really rejected idealism. Nozick's pluralism is ultimately normless. Nozick's analysis of skepticism is typical. inclusive background. Such is a pointless multiplicity. There is. to show I accept can be fit in with other things that to In this way. and existence of privileged contexts. what myself is relevant is what I accept (p.

Autobiographical doubt are not enough. What I am arguing is that once we as the explication of abandon philosophy What is with peculiar about the subject. specifically implicit norms. is total To conceptualize the interaction the subject and the object is to make the subject or self a self-conscious concept. If so. individual's mental The fact is that before anything can become life it must first have existed externally or more people. but making this would involve a recognize totally different the social conception of what an explana at tion is. by his cites philosophy one must a part of the humanities. cannot be derived "only from non-reflexively self-refer formalistically. Moreover. It is catastrophic in the social sphere is not conflicts there be some way of handling among competing versions of political and social life. is comfortably as and marketably liberal. Failure to provide for a social frame of reference however where nice and polite pluralism must only problematic in epistemology. into humanity" Nozick's whole part a desire to would ralism correlate a final organic unity with a final scientific and that plu be Marxist. So that we are left with an unexamined. 74). he is part of a cultural matrix a rational animal implict norms. Nor is there on "against its grain. least implicitly. and suppose. is completely lost. But of course this treatment is inadequate. they are just in bad taste. primarily interested in explaining what we mean or Nozick. objective of all analytic of Nozick's objective. you cannot challenge indefinitely and contextlessly. It will not do to say. any ideas. Nozick does of dimension. 627). Man is not just acting with nature. One cannot just say it. ence whereas science itself is itself a norm-governed a function organically (teleologically) at the upper normless. that thought is a reflection on practice action. a func as a re of sult of an exchange and between two We are ourselves because idea of through others. and the formal properties ultimately to (self-subsumption and self-reference) make the subject and the object indistinguishable. To take the subject seriously would be to to the normative social mi lieu. unexaminable. Specifically he the need to share our experience. Contrary to Nozick. as op posed practice. and let us suppose further that contains to what I think alone. the inter Surely in the case of self-identity we exist in a social setting (for example. Let us do it asides and admissions of embody it in one's philosophy. family) long before we develop a personal identity. that "I" statements" ring tion of the (p. contrary to social Nozick. There is no possibility of making sci activity. then those limits would be underscored. is not the . conceptualization. Nozick is opposed to transforming science (p. then. All of Nozick's expla to the formal properties of the appealed nations refer thing explained. is the philosophy. refer the self is not an idea is it deducible from ideas. then there are existential limits on thought. What Nozick has confused is an account of the the nor self with an account of the self. you are not en titled to hold any old view. but a being in a culture in nature.Discussion All norms -121 in Nozick's view level. if thought were a reflection on what you and I do together. namely that meaning we inevitably lose the self. may be.

Ana lytic philosophy. The most radical version of liberalism of aggregate actually invokes demand by Keynes' transcendence. Bentham). synthesis of right and and the notion that the ends of the morality in the ethical life of the individual are both satisfied and dangerous collectiv transcended in the social organism would be rejected as ism. (c) the Enlightenment (d) the belief that freedom is the absence of arbitrary ex From this point of of of ternal constraints (defined relative to b). Despite his protestations to the contrary. There is a level (we political it the and an organic-teleological 8. Ostensi ple of this is the treatment of the self. It is this pretheo retical context of was what meaning and value that he is trying to explain. and its last has been enshrined in text the view that each books with by Samuelson 's social neoclassical synthesis the macroeconomics of Keynes as expressed integrating the microeconomics of Arrow and Hahn by Hicks. by the exploration of certain hy of By Nozick's own account there is a pretheoretical context in terms which arguments function. The underlying commitment to scien tism underscores the major and most ironic failure of Nozick's book. Liberal theory is directly Nozick use analogous to of liberal economic theory. Conse quently. and be defined within determinism follows: (a) the assumed congruence of teleology the individual (such as Hobbes. any social individuals. eventually disappears in Nozick's theory. Arguments are not self-certifying. failure of analytic philosophy to consistently to total Hegelianism. Spinoza. What Nozick has reductive offered us shall call is a two-tier system micro level). to individual has a built-in end. for our purposes. where we end The with clearest exam the self being up idea-of-the-self.8 of explanation. . and (teleological-organic component). This its other explains its entrenchment in Anglo-American uni and can home in Anglophiliac Vienna. and it can be seen in the sole hypostatization Cambridge disciples such as Ms.122 Interpretation have of ourselves. In the pretheoretical context eliminated short. (b) set of consistent ends the assumption that each individual has built-in end or belief in progress. Nozick's philosophy represents loss of the self. But what he is doing is trying to ex plain it by totally conceptualizing the of the pretheoretical context. after all. the Hegelian community. Its first articulation was in Adam Smith's hidden hand thesis. as Liberalism. is culturally bi We come now move ased toward versities to the second reason for the liberalism. Joan Robinson. a Smith. sense we At the same time within Nozick needs philosophy as ex plication of mean meaning because it is only valuing the context of what we already our previous of ourselves that we are going to be asked to repudiate ourselves and emerge reconstructed potheses. Mainline ML postulates a double teleology. in favor bly committed to preserving the dignity of man. That. the whole logical thrust of Nozick's argument is to collapse the distinction between the subject and the ob a ject. he told us in the introduction. collective is judged in terms its serving the ends view. This reason is purely political. Locke. economics. It is thus The no acci dent that both Rawls version of and the vocabulary contemporary most extreme CL is found among Austrian economists who still subscribe to homo economicus. which has its origins in Hobbes and Locke.

but the macro has its own. modem Whereas Rawls is liberal. . This explains why Nozick redefined compatible with freedom We so as to make determinism. that this approach is anything but novel. It is in Hobbes. which are not themselves specific drives but parts of an elaborate homeostasis to keep the entire system functional. so that no without individual more inclusive organic unity in the organic individ ual can achieve his full unity every other individual achieving his as well (but there is a no notion of social transcendence). their tion freely from choosing) having an integrity of their own. Nozick is a clear case of a classical liberal. and here the macro. variety of liberalism. It originated with Hobbes who. wherein each level has an integrity of Of course. the micro is responsible for emergent properties (teleological) on the micro whose explana tion properly utilizes organic concepts not found level. Classical liberalism (CL) Classical liberalism is no ultimate conflict finds the ultimate teleology in assume the individual per se. therefore forced to that on the social level there is one between the em unity Liberalism (ML) finds organic of individual. a rationalization which allows them to wrap themselves in the flag of scientism and in the belief in human value as ment it. comes the scientism. interac must not correct functioning rather would not would it merely as the involve the intricate integrity explicable be product of the simple of the whole. and calling it an hypothesis does not disguise the fact that it is a carpeting together of personal intellectual commitments. in Adam Smith. and is it true in precisely the way that Nozick says it is? There is not one single piece of evidence offered nor is there even an argu for why anyone should believe it. whether question we can ask is this coincidence of micro and macro levels is true? Is it true. as Such a view would and have to present people's valuable traits as (such being a self. describes the human and social world as that Hobbes was the first liberal. claims to be a determinist and physicalist and must stress coincidentally operating with principles such as self-preservation. 635). Nozick's dualism is an expression of are at a particular Within liberalism there least two possibilities. It is in no sense a se rious argument. Mod any any a double teleology: both in the individual and a and other social world as a whole. It is whistling in the dark. on the other hand. but it is purchased at the price of invoking a new dualism that is no more and no less plausible than any other form of dualism. can be taken by us . Although these traits emerge component processes and are shaped by outside factors. on the one hand. it must be the ontologically What we have is level a deterministic it system that coincidentally operates on the self- conscious as a teleological system. seeking value.Discussion level (we 123 shall call it the macro level). It is The also no accident who. Adopting a form of they would like to construe compatibilism to solve some problems may appear to be a neat solution. be merely a view that view (p. in Nozick and in everybody else in between.

or we should put plurality Nozick's pluralism of possi and If. In and fact. in Here define equal passing. are a instances. 441. the distinction beyond. only that the value you respond to their value as value. and Utopia rations never offer proof of them or evidence for them. then strains which moulded borderline between CL should expect and ML. 504). This leaves us with a bilities and no in a proper way to decide among them. his liberal theory of organic have alternated on the issue of an unity allows for a drift to the left. There in which "there is (p. State. but the pur pose of the punishment is to wrongdoer with correct rules (p. recognizes a context into something like the New Left.124 . so to execute to jeapardize our own connection with some are while own moral intuitions in favor of capital punish ment. Nozick's reputation as the arch de fender of individualism will not survive a careful I think that now we can begin to appreciate reading of this book. to specify criteria for when all barriers have been for specify sufficient conditions barriers I suggest that teleological explanation will come back to haunt Nozick. that you treat them as having they do have. as I have argued. conclusion" reach a clear stable (p. (c) Nozick's how all treatment of capital punishment is the most glaring example of to this talk about organic unity can drift toward modem progressive liber alism. is purely arbitrary. that rights possibility transcended" (b) He talks. still so while it is immune to tation so is every other possibility. As he doubt reply that a teleological theory cannot be given solid says (pp. agent. 515). your own harmonious hierarchical development. Both depend rest. both are explo Rawls's Theory of Justice (not explications). him is both to value. punishment reconnect as an is the a form of retribution. 541. even a murderer has. Both would unities of these positions are see ad hoc. This light. why Nozick's book has received . in to see strains Nozick's analysis. According But So Nozick. . Between such responsiveness and your own value. it would be to removed. such theories provide nec (this is true no essary but against not sufficient conditions of all self-subsumptive explana argument can tions and even tracking). Nozick empirical backing. 577). would no and hence they are contextless. destroy intrinsic Nozick's value and intrinsic value. both your own harmonious hierarchical development does not However. we are reminded of or how difficult. easily indicate that his much touted libertarianism is three such (a) Nozick can be 514). upon the whim of where we like to but the organic unity Both assume or postulate such organic any Nozick's Anarchy. there is no conflict at all (p. "I myself institution of capital punishment. when all opportunity Remember that for Nozick are removed. if we cannot not impossible. 374). In short knock-down be offered refu any teleological argument or hypothesis. Interpretation there is no guarantee of a path to maximize and also that of others. of the possibility of barriers to self-development (p. ethical responsiveness demand you most (sic) enhance the development of others. unable to 378).

125 By pursuing the preconceptions behind technical analytic philos Nozick lays bare the progressive liberal motivation that sustains and ophy. That leaves only politi only Marxism. Even those will welcome on the left find Nozick bit politically his book. and some cases it will mean who just doing a more methodological retarded innovation. for it are provides the opening wedge. Marxism and progressive liberalism are the cal positions compatible with analytic philosophy.Discussion such plaudits. in philosophy conclusion. Hegel is out because of his rejection of scientism and materialism. There are two ways to avoid nihilism: either embrace some oneself on radical form we teleological consummation or put historicist hold. What. seriously? the alternatives available to those who take analytic analytic Either or philosophy of embraces reductionism and hence becomes nihilistic. Solving and dissolving all of the technical issues eventually is sup posed to liberate in man for higher I suspect things. we either embrace vague progressive liberalisms or we can argue for ul timate consummation. fuels it. Ultimate consummation can only mean Hegel or Marx. . In short. it seeks to avoid nihilism. If take teleological consummation seri ously. Just what higher things we are never told.

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the author clearly re flected in his Up have until not very recently. devices better idea all This the author's complex and revelatory sys subject of the tem of naming characters of is the book under review. all the necessary information about Dos background of pertinent toevsky's naming of characters against a historical. We no longer have to With these gion of attempt these mental acrobatics. author could not imagine the would characters their particularity the way the imagined them. concise presents. to trying. enriching the translations with the colorful illustrative details provides. imagine reading Dickens proper thinking like in the names simply names. We would. In the best tradition of useful. and historical attitudes name choices.50. at the same keep in touch with the narrative flow. Passage.: cloth By Charles E. additions to understanding. 140 pp. in short.N. 1982. It would be as if to offer a parallel in not stance. literary details. this highly organized.U. po a litical. We have difficulty remembering appear in the and recognizing the host of personages as they disappear and re narrative.: Ardis. as personal. text. readers of Dostoevsky's work in English translation had a very important part of the text one of the central narrative available to them. $27. political. sense of and Readers unity the English translations will now be able to enjoy both the "system" and coherence belonging Dostoevsky's of onomastic the personal. C. being We unaware of the range of denotative and connotative additions carried by each of them.50. objective scholarship.Book Reviews Character Names in Dostoevsky's Fiction. using mythology equally distant in different ways.) (Ann Ar Joan Richardson La Guardia Community College. Character Names in Dostoevsky's Fiction is a well-honed. Passage's contribution allows English-language readers an to an immediate level of of meaning previously to reserved only for a Russian audience. Mich. carefully fash ioned instrument for interpretation. To give a the difference this book makes. though reasons for wholly different to the text the there were a translation of the Odyssey that restored associations and connections of its metaphors so that we could . the reader can begin to enter the re Dostoevsky's a mythology. Using this excellent reference tool. reader of any one or all of Dostoevsky's works will be able to illuminate the Passage access it were. It would be somewhat Homeric characters without epithets. bor. paper $6.Y. in remarkably and thoroughly researched and documented text form. have the experience most of us have had our own while when mnemonic trying to invent reading Nineteenth Century Russian novels devices for each character paired with his or her name time.

or read through the translation. III. Short Novels 1866 and Short Stories. meant to be used incisively a that we can make reader would interpretations automatically. seeing a name not simply as an as an arbitrarily appended tag or epithet. it works like the instrument Ta Neatly bles will . that its etymol eye. Passage also points out Dostoevsky's carrying plot summaries over of Hoff- manian mannerisms very important in studying some of the earlier works. II. and its relevance to Dostoevsky as a Nineteenth Century European In the Intro context duction. subsections 1846- following Dostoevsky's development of I. . 1881. but integral part and necessary expres sion of an organic whole. writer. once we have the information Russian have had A fine example of what a scien precision tific. for example. those unfamiliar to the section the entire the Dostoevsky novels. It is separated into as a writer: four ries. This is our own tool. Part One is been woven diachronic. divided into three main sections Part One. the scholar or general reader problem finding exactly what he or she is looking for. if we knew. Having that kind of sense guage and the interconnectedness of words and names heard by original ers of the of lan speak language allows us to perceive fully what a different world-view and under means and allows us to move freely in that other world. the images evoked by the poet's words. The nonspecialist in Dostoevsky these discussions. through its to Nineteenth Century's archetypal name-giver its closer as links in the Russian tradition to Pushkin and Gogol. Comedy" of the Fourth Century b c . Works actually appeared in between the allows the long novels. Passage accomplishes of this task for Dostoevsky a with the ease and economy to ex that grow out his excellent sense of order and his assiduous attention cluding any so personal interpretation. We would have a very different perception of the sea. IV. not corpus can sim ply go directly dealing with long distracted by the material about the shorter works. presenting brief meanings of each of into which have Sto the the character's names. objective critical it was designed to be. and placement of this kind of work. In addition there are a Preface and Introduction tersely covering Russian and the intention. Part Two and subdivided no have into clearly labeled categories. approach can offer. Passage is very brief. feeling standing its complex system of relationships. Early Various Kinds. Also appropriate is Passage's pertain greater attention to the analysis of names and their allusions as they to the plots of the long novels. in the same ogy ties it to the word for a pregnant woman.128 see with Interpretation the mind's way as the original audience. The only place where the chronological order is interrupted is in Section III dealing with the short novels and stories change which 1849. Dostoevsky's ranging from the Greek "New ties to Dickens the English "name-giving" is seen in a broad . well.1865. 1857. Here and else where. will naturally be interested in less-known pieces. for example. The Long Novels. For the shorter. This ex in ordering is appropriate because it with larger works to be amined as a group. personal and historical genesis.

objectively into the workings of Dostoev ." the latter section French. Germans. VII. II. the tone implicit in Dostoevsky's For ex ample." Characters. Types Family Names. Settings. he masterfully leaves the threads the facts hanging. he points out the difference between calling "Johnny" someone to communicate something like "my dear Dostoevsky's playfully disparaging or named John." "Doctors." Or. figures from the historical past. in a well-chosen ex name choices. however. subdivided into various nationalities." VI. piece attitude in farcical towards two characters gests Pyotr Ivanovich and Ivan Petrovich. III. Passage offers Century Russia. he provides. tapestries of In all cases. Part Two and offers even the anthropologist or so a portrait of ciologist the necessary in Dostoevsky's Nineteenth various important information to build society lists. figures from his no point illuminatingly of all At does Passage draw interpretation of a name and a particular fact. as have the major novels. in another a instance. not yet be interested in these doubt be minor works should simply be presented with the raw material and so allowed will no to begin themselves the more expansive analyses that suggested by Passage's elliptical presentation of the facts. It is divided into all the possible categories appli and Part Two is synchronic. and This is as it unfolding been thoroughly analyzed in the specialists in Dostoevsky who will the of the plot. in showing how the various diminutives function in Russian to indicate degrees of intimacy or affection.Book Reviews giving only the should 129 meanings without names' making all the connections to the characters' movements and functions in be since most of these works have English." "The "The "The Jews". Russia's relationship to France. V Narrators. we can Effectively useful punctuating each of the subsections of Part One are extremely biographical details. Orthodoxy. suggesting certain changes in Dostoevsky's attitude be reflected that might in his name choices. look forward to new. VIII. to Germany. he sug that the effect of their names is similar to the effect Americans get from Tweedledum cable to and Tweedledee. personal past and present are all a one-to-one as well as gested. equivalence. rather. Also. The and such as Social Classes. IV." With its structural approach. In addition. Dostoevsky's system of naming: of I. Russians has Names"). Dostoevsky's feelings her about Russia. names. Special Groups "Non-Russians. for examples. following what Passage economically but enticingly has given us already. with Names (this and section also "Servants' useful subsections Non-Russian Names. In deed. the class system. sug problem with minorities. ample of these Dostoevsky's and his readers can weave together into their own meaning. Given "Nick covering "Patronymics. In this way. by cataloging the names in literary theorists interested in processes of compo captured sition a rare glimpse sky's mind. Animals. Passage brings to bear his easy erudition about the various editions of Dostoevsky's work and about the broader influences impinging on his namings." "The English. expanded analyses of the longer novels as well.

that the weather and newspaper sto referred to in Crime and Punishment correspond to the stories of a summer real weather and feature in St.130 Interpretation never mentions Though he it. allows us to participate in the kind of response his original audience would have had. their transliterated forms. it might be possible that he had learned this system as part of his own education. Indeed. if necessary. from ries as derived. In any case. with Names. and it is the sort that makes true scholars of others. be tempted to the nonspecialist looking at only one particular section will soon read more of become and a specialist as well. the names his characters were linked in some that. Fomushka" "Tom. and that he composed the greater part of work under sure of meeting serial deadlines. and again cross-refer enced. categories of Within the for Part Two. to some de kind of per in sonal associative pattern that would allow him." dicating Names. as Francis Yates points out in The Art of Memory. wanting to prompted both Dostoevsky's fiction Passage's illuminations. contributing. their meanings (for . we can hardly escape speculating that Dos that toevsky was used his taxonomies as mnemonic devices. system naively." in which works they of cross-references. this is the kind of speculation that is generated by the material collected and presented in schematic form in Part Two of Pas the sage's handbook. to the order and imagery of Dante's Divine Comedy Though as well as to that of Giordano Bruno's Hermetic doubt have devised his his religious message. Passage provides all the specialists and nonspecialists alike. he gave often enough having a seizure from he would recover with little or no short-term memory. for exam learning. Knowledge of this sort belongs only to order: the true scholar. Knowing his Dostoevsky the pres which epileptic. Russian forms. "Non-Russian appear. Tommy")." their English equivalents and translated meanings (for "Foma Thomas Biblical = twin" beneath it its diminutive in forms. "Fomka. waiting for the next installment of the novel to appear the same hot summer." "Bird. to recognize them through their names and to reconstruct their personalities and their actions the context of the narrative "Animal. as Passage lists. The preponderance of names. neat with volume three tables listing. reading at their various details necessary levels. monkish methods of the Middle Ages being preserved until very late in the Orthodox tradition. The sense of reality ple. Petersburg when Dostoev sky was feverishly during this writing. will prompt fanciful readers personal with to reconstruct for themselves Dostoevsky's in memory scheme a scheme of that seems to have a great deal in common schemes continued use the memory schemes Antiquity. and "Family with indications the works in which their they appear. in response to Dostoevsky dealing with could no the more terrifying also aspects of condition in relation to his work as a writer. These through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. as we by the concrete sense of writer and work that emerges from Passage's erudition. are Closing "Given example." "Plant" he had already completed. suggests gree at least. described and do from Passage. and in alphabetical Names.

) Lon Nihilism: A Philosophical Essay. attention Hoffman riched or any of the other figures to whom additions. When on occasion they have "emotivism. Wher prefaces the offered possibili ties. there section of not this wonderful guide is turned to. Charles Passage's death is worked with loss not only to those of appreciation and us who and knew him the and him. paper $7. He traces the .T.Book Reviews example. native the meaning that is automatically available to the the derivation is not certain. Maclntyre traces this destruc tion to the Enlightenment. is no bit It is no matter which of a Russian reader. "Brok -131 Belyavski Ecjijibckhh to any ever reader could go immediately find." The language stroyed. leaving us morality have been de with today's farrago of petty calculation and arbitrary self-righteousness. gentleness translated composed he read and with which careful sentences. Morals are said to reduce to the sentiments of individ uals.: cloth Notre Dame Press.95. researched and information that is useful at all thoroughly and should carefully presented. 1969." alytic' and existentialist philosophers echo simply have failed to "utility" endorsed overcome "rights" both 'an it. of Nihilism University and of By Alasdair Maclntyre. In this they that the nineteenth-century debate on versus "matching pair of incommensurable fictions.95. 95. one book levels be on the shelves of any having even one Dostoevsky a novel. A. xx pp." seems to be no rational way not of securing moral agreement in our cul Maclntyre writes. To these tables most direct and concise form. albeit and even the "integral substance" of slowly and often quietly. E. into the sensitivity with His generos ity shows itself his to anyone whose enjoyment of reading Dostoevsky. a question mark In short. in the "white hare"). paper $6. because there will be no more of his work.: cloth $22. Two Critiques After Virtue. His gentleness ence the of texts that show us generosity the qualities most apparent to those who knew " him His he were the features his that made his scholarship fit for which the category "best.50.) Will Morrisey "There ture. Indiana: 1981. (New Haven University Press. 252 pp. don: Yale By Stanley + 241 Rosen. (Notre Dame. but a loss to all those who love letters know differ best of scholarship makes in our how to live and what to do. Si 5. wherein philosophers attacked religion but in effect En- judged philosophy morally incompetent to replace religion. he devoted has been en by Many more than those who knew him will miss him.

"[Ojnce the appears as as notion of essential purposes or functions dis from morality. approve of 'synthesis' Thus the first two-thirds of the book contain an outline of our current moral dilemma moral and of reasons for it. devoting his two longest chapters to an between of the He attempts a compromise a rationalism and can produce "core the conception" the virtues.' biology" and repeats the defense of slavery and a telos Aristotle's refusal to provide a sense of for all mankind." of a last "belief" only as a member "is open to being view. . calls Maclntyre tice": the "first stage" of the virtues' logical development a "any coherent and complex tivity through which goods socially internal to that form of activity form of established cooperative ac are realised . in what sense embodies history this " of which it is the outcome" sense. They that do not contain an explanation of why sentimentalism is false Nor do they contain an account of blame of Western intellectual history's is.132 Interpretation and lightenment's failure to Protestantism victed reason of moral upheld to Jansenist Catholicism. he endorses Soph- oclean tragedy's presentation of an "objective of order" moral that avoids the harshness Maclntyre cal Homer's tribalism Hegel's the too-optimistic ethical harmony that ascribes to Aristotle. just before turning to Aristotle. He does phronesis. he rejects Aristotle's "metaphysi complaints about 'History. Maclntyre account of returns to this moral virtues. requires some standard of by which one can correct and transcend current beliefs. can a of "conception" embody conception's a history?]. told with more care and at least accuracy by several earlier writ Maclntyre began to discuss these cussed knowledge" more fundamental matters while he dis Sophocles. . after various aspects. all. why moral the foundation(s) as much chaos of is a true dilemma." in turn corrected and transcended by some more adequate point of "adequacy" This. a conception historicism whereby he that "in some [italics added. Discuss ing virtue as conceived by Homer. Sophocles. a his tory ers. (In addition. one might add. one regards sentiment or faith a reflection of morally significant fact. Maclntyre's "theory of allows him to call "each particular set of moral or scientific beliefs and . statements" Maclntyre observes that older writers understood ethics differently. and and Aristotle. obviously. it begins to appear implausible to treat moral judgments factual unless. three cal? by the way.) He ends the historical survey with a chapter on the medieval of Aristotle and Christianity in which he carefully leaves Christianity in limbo. discussing Aristotle and sidestepping Christian problem. After ity. intelligible historical justifiable But even insofar the as it is justifiable in the series series. He describes the hence not "stages" "logical" only histori "prac in the "development. which con incompetence (except for the only trustworthy human calculation of source of means) and divine revelation as man's teleological en lightenment. praise and Maclntyre's This is.

that form activity." but the goals themselves are transmuted by the history of the activ Of the of several problems here. physics. "a grasp of those future to the "argument." needs. bricklaying systematically is not. a science's telos may not at least insofar as it is a science and not an art." Maclntyre it "tradition. become anything Of course. first. two stand out. It cannot else. for acknowledging this. following his camp distinction between be the better "human farming He planting turnips. . The purpose of physics remains knowledge not can of physis. is the background of come to aspire to truth? Maclntyre life for man "history. then. Credit him. "Practices never have a goal or goals fixed for all time painting has no such goal nor has physics ity. with the result involved. "My negative and positive evaluations of particular ar guments do indeed presuppose a systematic. and powers that human to achieve excellence. flute-playing." Such and notions as with a "the "grasp" leave Maclntyre lot of explaining to do. could mitigate of this consequence by the goods and ends involved" putting in a practice. see purpose of acquiring Maclntyre does that his definition of a practice could own include evil activi ties. a teller whereby "the story-tellers a quest What. a concentration would example. War. Maclntyre forgets that. Architecture is a practice." After Virtue "the best book philosophy in of stories years. and geometry are all practices.Book Reviews course of 133 trying to achieve those standards of excellence of [that] are appropriate to. second." partly definitive of. . again. (This may who called a whose account inten for the enthusiasm of of the late John Gardner." this story calls it a quest for good. He mentions torture and but. By defining an art. painting. socially One in part about the goods which constitute it. his "second extra weight on conceptions of virtue's stage" logical development does in fact Man is attempt a definition of humanitas." the virtues sustain. not truth. as practices." possibilities [that] the present. while an art's telos may change." He promises one in a subsequent book. it has knowledge become anything and has changed. planting turnips is not. This leads to a somewhat tautological good formulation: "the man. credit Maclntyre for seeing one a them. although here unstated. "an sense" of one's tradition and of any other tradition(s) that confront(s) past one and." good is the life spent in seeking the life for On to the "third calls stage. but becomes through history. Virtues are acquired human qualities needed to achieve the goods internal to a practice. account of rationality. stories combine animal" "essentially and tions. beliefs. embodied argument adequate Here we get something that begins to look a A tradition is "an historically extended." "sense. novelist story-telling settings.") Man "is that aspire to essentially. and human conceptions of the goods and ends are extended." bit more like philosophizing. farming is a practice. the else and remain phys ics." "adequacy. and science. household manage ment." has made available undefined good.

a This quasi-political consideration ends leads to purely political consideration. nature and theory mythological. with a nail about speech stated or Any "theory fully [that] is itself a denial that as such a formulated" theory may be as yields nihilism. He "teaches but file. This is true of Heidegger it is . by conventionalist tion of sense to nonsense. Rosen observes that nihilism "reduces reason to nonsense by sense of significance of speech to silence. one will conclude that reason alienates man from his own desires. Imagining himself surrounded by barbarism within which us. it will surely be read as an endorsement of some Lindisfamesque communalism. events. Maclntyre fails to distinguish between barbarians and who tolerate Lindisfames begin barbarians who don't. Maclntyre has the tion of many intellectuals his book who may never hear Rosen. of Maclntyre community with a call for "the construction local forms of civility and the intellectual and moral life can be sus tained through the new dark ages [that] are already upon However he in tends this." definition. Wittgenstein believes tion and practice. definition reduces to "an arbitrary attribu Unlike Nietzsche. whose arbitrariness partakes of prides grandeur. which reason. He concludes the book two chapters contrasting He nihilism with Platonic philosophy. his project will If Maclntyre does not come to see the links between historicism and such lesser and existentialism doctrines That as would philosophy be unfortunate. Rosen shows the nihilism implicit in the then discusses the of West's two dominant contemporary philosophic ancestors of philosophic schools.134 The of Interpretation unresolved problem of this book its insufficiently results defined in part combination logic. changes insists that the physics constantly to no purpose. those schools and the political consequences with their teachings. To show what emergence from the have to postvirtuous age would mean with in practice as well as in theory. storytelling." us to philosophize. "Today philosophy and historical existence are both threatened was by the nihilistic consequences a purification of of the denaturing of reason.' pure and simple." Dividing ostensibly his book into six chapters. for a analytic collapse." sively on the model of and defines the mode of ex pressing Newtonian physics." 'small-is-beautiful. he will that distinction. Wittgensteinian arbitrariness itself on a verbal not with a microscopy that sledgehammer. atten number of reasons. limits it to triviality." If one conceives of reason mathematics as nature equating the "exclu describes mathematics. and social forms from Macln tyre's failure to see the significance of historicism (as distinguished from his tory) in have modernity. celebrates conven ends His 'analytic' 'linguistic' or philosophy in circularity some because he cannot make his conventionalist claims without interpreting thing. Maclntyre omits from his prevented this failure: Nihilism: A bibliography one book that could Philosophical Essay by Stanley Rosen.

thymos cannot without reason. visibility. Historicism. which concern the good and wis dom. With no measure regards refer to. Nihilism denies the goodness of reason by denying nothing. creation ex nihilo for historicism's publicists." would use all of nature to satisfy human desires. from justice. This is "not just self- refuting but Both doctrines alt and self-canceling. it human life. and not in contingent historical avoids a even Rosen events This insight underlies his final two chapters. Heidegger differs from Wittgenstein in that he does not simply deny Being but regards it as so radically temporal/historical that it cannot be said to be a thing 'His' at all." offer us the curious spectacle of attempts to present. cannot madness what it wants. Religion the existence . "the and inability man. best exemplifies it on the This politics destroys cruelly in order to bring the forgetfulness ostensibly needed in order to create. a divine gift. "in the is ab unintelligib suggesting that historicism may be fully explained by a his tory. good that the good exists. After can aim only at utility. or being itself is Plato indicates that the lars. Being is rather but in fact is no-thing. Heidegger's perhaps notorious endorse partic Nazism exemplifies this on the 'Right'." present "on behalf of an unknown and unknowable yet hoped-for future. reason of Rosen traces their genealogy to the Christian (as he to divide nature into prelapserian and postlapserian phases. whereas under transrational." and Undirected wilfulness. shipwreck Nihilism "is doomed to because it sunders courage from wisdom. a celebration of not-words. political or philosophic. If it did. know moderation. a cel 'ontic' ebration of acts that is. acting Historicism ment of finally yields poeticist politics. Although nihilism has become easily no ticeable today because a series of thought-events have encouraged it. to distinguish between being theory existing and practice. results from this attempt at a vast subsumption of nature to restless. "the self-preservation of 'Left. by history of philosophy. It therefore to distinguish divine can sustain no mere madness. Plato the good as intelligibility." God' chaos. at standing lieve the ism that the primary good is said to be existence of divinity and one will secondary goods.' memory. in Rosen's striking The poeticist politician negates the phrase." Historicism thus exalts those aspects of the present that tend toward the de struction of the present. ularly in his book Humanism and Terror. respectively. "nihilism has its origin in the nature of man. being's source is noth ingness. he produces a sort of like Wittgensteinian convention. dissolve the simultaneously ex calls the it) effort Fall. This belief gives Heidegger ing to speak silence. Merleau-Ponty. the unenviable job of try he calls poetry speech. "To be reborn means to recur to the level of beasts through the loss of one's Nietzsche's 'death of is.Book Reviews of 135 Wittgenstein. the illuminates but does not generate posits the particu good would be identical to God. Disbe invent a sort of imperial utilitarian time. sence of a creator Unfortunately God.

Socrates may often mono playfully suggest that he is a god. speech. at that he leaves to more hubristic souls. To deify the human. "In effect. the sanctioning of man's desire to become a god. Much less does he believe it may be thought wise in that he par himself into wisdom. least in the the attainment of a comprehensive speech about the whole. in 'History' Rosen's estimation. Of all the historicists. Marx would and Nietzsche attempt to do away body. literal-minded self-deification theistic self-deification. he does means not believe it achievable by the best characteris tically human achievable of achievement. one must destroy its nature in an attempt to achieve a different and superior nature if godliness can word be said to be a 'nature. is. Socrates regards the whole as intelligible. by human He action.' But the love at of wisdom sense of embodied in the "philosophy" is not wisdom itself. cannot make one may say that Hegel or as makes the suppression of nihilism dependent The upon hybris. At most. Rosen had much in passing that Hegel's solution is not so excessively elitist for democratic souls. they "replace the church with the They in nihilism because the comes body has nothing to come say. Hegel decides that comprehensive has to an end in his own work. . obviously. A philosopher takes of wisdom. a link between the retain good and life." with God but end the link. the assertedly noted able speech about being. He refutable as unbear self- now contrasts Hegel's deification to the teaching of Plato's Socrates." suppression lasts only long as the would-be god can imagine himself successful. Earlier. Hegel the closest to overcoming nihilism.136 of Interpretation that God.

the reasoning of the soul must avoid misleading analogies. liberation begins myths by not body of too seriously. "bondage to the physical. and undermining it." essential In attempting to discover this essential truth. hours. Also. the body is "the realm of not reality is proximally though inadequately made be liberated from the body by denying the body any as manifest. If well-made. itself a symptom of nature are Reason. they also abstract from the desires body. as modeled on such as conceiving relationship of body and soul the relationship of cause and effect in the physical can yield world. whose basis is "the good." misology. about the way few men can be liberated from myths and the way others may be partially liberated "dramatic" by to the right myths. they can moderate unphilosophic souls." the Phaedo is that "pre-eminently a bondage and libera is." lation tends toward circularity because the theory of the forms posits something ("the good") that it cannot clarify. the accumulation of knowledge. the bases of the logoi in Dorter knows that this formu the forms. xi + 233 pp. (Toronto: Toronto Press. Thus the forms 'lower' are problematic both in respect to the 'higher' (the are one good) and the (the many particulars). The a soul bears the consis forms to the tent tific body the preliminary aid of mathematics theory with neither the religious notion of ex nihilo creation nor the modem scien notion of entropy.: cloth.) fact may point to for children. $28. mythologizing. the theory of the forms does not ac count for physical causation. sanctifying it). comes first through words. logoi. "resolves the antago an ordered between form and corporeality truth of by placing them in relationship form is the corporeality. logos. the de-mythologizing. Myths are University 1982. em-body ideas. Not myths but numbers between the forms with and the particulars.' that attempts to that myth. if refuted.50. interpret the dialogue. nism where the subordination to reason. Dorter combines the "analytic" and method 'time. Dorter absence of suggests that this Socrates' the signif icance of Plato's during last. of By Kenneth Dorter. Too many misleading analogies. Mere will not suffice. in some traditions.Short Notices Will Morrisey Plato's Phaedo: An Interpretation. . Dorter with finds "the scepticism" problem central about to "themes most associated the theme of Plato". avoiding the describe Platonic dialogues as reflections of their methods Dorter observes that Platonic myths guard reason ruled instead Everyone begins life where by the body's desires." Thus one can more than by indulging taking the it (or. tion. Only wis While of all other motivations dom.

" translated by Charles E.: State University New York Press. not coincide with as seek merely useful. Aristotle's Topics concerns dialectic. perhaps. any more than in all the products of the (Nichomachean Ethics. Dialectical demonstrative training "seems unnecessary for Rhetoric ranks still the perfection of the Aristotle regards rhetoric lower in the hierarchy. toward the thinking subject." has "intrinsic impute ex can reason to The well-ordered. noble or otherwise.) associated Averroes' name. Averroes tolerates imprecision less. Averroes measures not only the Koran's teachings in accordance to a logical hierarchy. induction cannot demonstrate. not soul as both energy and mind (itself combin Unlike the appetites. the istence independent of a perceiving consciousness". reason orients us toward the "object considered. might better be with coherent scepticism's of certainty. examining "the ultimate bases or grounds of each [ioia25-ioib2]. $30. I094b3). this may "as much clearness sought his well-known advice that one should the subject matter admits of. as it does for Aristotle. not That "it is He a persistent theme in the dialogues that wisdom that wisdom is mortals" wholly accessible to concludes does not mean itself is lie." "world-soul." "Rhetoric. Averroes also goes so far as to cast doubt on rhetoric's . "one the natural order without ness." ener By reenacting Plato's thought Plato's continuing presence. Butterworth. synonymous 1977. cloth. toward "the getic "world-soul" good. he Aristotle's teachings. for precision is not to be for alike in all discussions." and "Poetics. not how objects affect us. (Albany: 206 pp.138 Interpretation refuses to allow Dorter his readers to confuse this problematic theory a with scepticism. conceiving this reason as personality or conscious erotic individual soul maintains the body while present" that links it to the achieving that "consciousness of the eternal both striving. as well. induction cannot yield such cer proven tainty because the necessity some or of the universal cannot be by collecting arts. only basis: a rigorous standard for the establishment These commentaries form part of a series of commentaries on Ar istotelian treatises. with scepticism. Whereas Aristotle measures regarded dialectic as a means of even as a means of truth. In them. the book with what he calls a speculative chap ter." even all the particulars. Dorter enhances Averroes' Three Short Commentaries Edited of and on Aristotle's ix + "Topics. Averroes regards dialectic's materials (opinions) too weak and bringing the many partial opinions up to the standard of scienc to support philosophic certainty. it wants to understand what is true. in which he defines Platonic ing reason and sensation).00. Energy. and extending its action. perhaps because in his day certain "dialectical defended Islam crafts" theologians" with enthymemes. But based on enthymeme as at least partly reasonable. In particular. the majority of which concern logic.

By E. Dissidence et philosophie au moyen age: and Dante et ses antecedents. tracing their kind of writing to Plato. Does the or who celebrates reason and can anyone Christianity subvert Christianity baptize find Fortin poetical majority of today's medievalists. and extensive notes.") to bring fewer teaching out? problems in this But he respect than. Aquinas. and of technical words). (Although esotericism. Etienne Tempier. and Maimonides. Averroes does not poetry to history. all provides a careful of English translation. More than one-third of the pages here opposes the who regard consist of Dante as a philosop surances that such a thing as "the politic mode of scholarly as exists. 201 pp.) self-contradiction and even syllogisms left incomplete enable philo poetic writ sophic writers to suggest unpopular thoughts to some readers. But ing poses a dilemma for careful readers. for example.: paper. (Montreal: Bellarmin. He recounts the condemnation of Aristotle's works in 1277 by the of Paris. their excessive candor almost invited the Bishop's represents revenge. astute introduction serves not merely to introduce the reader to the texts but to illuminate them in their entirety. appears . Fortin." He that. also celebrates Christianity. Is the self-contradicting poet rational? Does he I aspire to reason? put (Walt Whitman Dante Or does he believe something it with equanimity: "Do I contradict myself? . Artful Paris: J. poet reason? the that philosophic wisdom is folly. he three indices (of names. Vrin.50. testimony the basis of most theol ogies.) Fortin dis cusses al-Farabi. In Paradiso. 1981. Butterworth's candid. This is one of several Dantean teachings that might stir malevo- . Dante founded in How part on celebrates reason. Dante susceptible Siger's sole wrong envy as the teaching of "truths to stirring up the malevolence or of his contem in Fortin's words. 'because' it is absurd? Very well then contradict myself." cellence here Aristotle. L. ra contemporary tional scholars readily accept the existence of mystical esotericism seems much more improbable to many of them. dialectical Poetry ined serves are not "[S]peeches [that] cause something to be imag speeches [that] make its essence Butterworth ob that Moslems often regard the Koran as "the best example of poetic ex ranks below rhetoric. "had not sufficiently reflected upon the human and social conditions of philosophy". titles. . Averroes. Shakespeare does. unlike contrast entirety. Aristotle's ill-fated medieval apologists.Short Notices "most powerful" 139 nonsyllogistic or otherwise. or very close to their might add in Arabic. the Arabic texts: thought in the assistance contemporary readers will need to renew Averroes' their own minds. He prudently observes that Siger and Bishop Boethius. $13. poetry has no inferior. In addition. understood. In this hierarchy. technique.

and more scepticism.140 Interpretation envy against lence or Dante. . Fortin were they not seemingly overwhelmed by far more numerous pieties. puts all in quest Nonetheless. show or He recognizes that a conclu interpretation would have to how the whole poem works. will surely not force "apologists for the orthodox admit their impotence before this opaque resi Christianity of the poem [to] coupled with the . induce another to write one. litical philosophy is the "master of public political things. perhaps he will write such an interpretation. Fortin's Commedia sive with more strength will force some readers to look at the care. due that ceaselessly comes to trouble our [!] repose and Those apologists have their own reservoirs of ingenuity." writing that Dante regarded necessarily selective approach to evidence that the brevity of his interpretation requires. of refuses to be overwhelmed even to the extent discipline" philosophy as "this master less than twenty pages after quoting Dante's slightly different assertion that po Such well-shaded imprecision. .

educating its love of justice. Jr. relating conception. Gildin shows.) LEGISLATURE California's School for Politics William K. Pangle.Chicago ROUSSEAU'S SOCIAL CONTRACT The Design Gildin of the Argument Hilail Gildin provides a step-by-step development the argument's parts of Rousseau's argument in the Social overall Contract. IL eOMi . and politics. At its best. theory of the Also A Chicago Original Paperback $24.00 available in cloth $10. are not only coherent but follow "The product of a long-meditated and intimate familiarity with the text and with great themes the nature of the contract. to each other and to the work's Rousseau's conclusions. Muir proposes public of science in the policy and the art of members good school. . the Rousseau's thought. does What is a legislature and what do its members do? Under what circumstances observations of the 1975-76 a legislature make its members competent? From his that a good legislature is a session of the California State Legislature.95 176 pages THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 5801 South Ellis Avenue Chicago. .50 the relation between sovereign and government. wisdom.The significance of the are General Will Cloth $22. . Cloth thereby shaping its 232 pages members into true statesmen. 240 pages (est. it also provides an education in patriotism. the authors lay the foundations tor a birth and subsequent diffusion of the state. $19. Drawing on historical materials by Arthur Goldhammer argue that the state Birnbaum peculiar sociohistorical context of bringing sociological strikingly original insights to bear. Muir. from a conscious design. University of Toronto legislator.00 THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE STATE Bertrand Badie Translated Badie and and and Pierre Birnbaum is a social fact and that it arose within the Western Europe. the illuminated here in ways and to a degree that I think is Thomas L.

6% $1-75 Postage & Handling TOTAL . Included are essays on issues. $22. .CA.MARSHALL COHEN. Name Institution Street City Please enclose payment State . $20. THOMAS SCANLON. Paper. A Philosophy & Public Affairs Reader Cloth. NJ 08540 Please send me. THOMAS NAGEL. $6. with order.5%. Subtotal Tax: NJ. copies of Medicine and Moral ISBN 0-691 -07268-X. $6. health policies. and euthanasia.95 Princeton Box EX University Press 41 William Street Princeton. this of essays addresses questions of justice and in justice in the conceptual medical delivery and distribution and social of medical care and patient rights. .50. Zip. paternalism.95. Paper. Philosophy Cloth.00. (check or money order) . Editors Responding to increased public interest in the collection moral aspects of medical practice. ISBN 0-691 -02020-5.

Churchill by Harry V. G. How Capitalistic is the Constitution? by Robert A.Forthcoming Robert Sacks Articles The Lion and the Ass: a Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Chapters 44-50) Kent Moors Justice Nature and of a Philosophy Definition of in Plato's Republic: the Mario Lewis. Thompson . Utopia Discussion Laurence Berns Spiritedness in Ethics Aristotelian and Politics: a Study of Psychology and Ernest Fortin Rational Theologians Irrational Philosophers: a Straussian Perspective Stanley Corngold Walter Benjamin / Gershom Scholem What are the and & Michael Jennings Charles M. Goldwin & William A. Sherover Political Implications of Heidegger's Being Book Reviews Will Time? Morrisey Algeny by Jeremy Studies of Rifkin the American Constitution: How Democratic is the Constitution? by Robert A. An Interpretation Plato's Euthyphro (Introduction. Jr. Schambra. State. Sections 1-3) Jack D'Amico The Virtii Clizia of Women: Machiavelli's Mandragola and Jim MacAdam Rousseau's Contract of with and without his Inequality David E. Part 1. Boucher The Denial of Perennial Problems: the Negative Side Quentin Skinner's and Theory a David Schaefer Libertarianism of Political Philosophy: and Critique Robert Nozick's Anarchy. Jaffa Winston Churchill's World View: Power Statesmanship and by Kenneth W. Goldwin Statesmanship: Essays in Honor of Sir Winston S.

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