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THE GOLDEN BOUGH
A STUDY
IN

MAGIC AND RELIGION

THIRD EDITION

PART V

SPIRITS OF THE

CORN

AND OF THE WILD
VOL.
I

^m^ MACMILLAN AND LONDON . Ltd. Limited BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE • THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK DALLAS • • BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO • THE MACMILLAN CO. .. OF TORONTO CANADA. CO.

FRAZER. Litt. I CO.C.L. D. I MACMILLAN AND ST. LONDON 9 I 2 . FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE.SPIRITS OF THE CORN AND OF THE WILD BY J. CAMBRIDGE PROFESSOR OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL IN TWO VOLUMES VOL...D.. LL.D. G. LIMITED MARTIN'S STREET.

7 .COPYRIGHT 6L f1 V.

into the religious ideas of the peoples and accordingly they too enter largely who live by them. the care of the corn. and potatoes. and among other Passing from the East to Europe we begin with the religion of ancient Greece. Hence the frequency with which the figures of the Corn -mother and Corn -maiden. answering to the Demeter and Persephone of ancient Greece. with her mother and duplicate Demeter. . Now of all the plants which men have artificially reared for the sake of food the . meet us in other parts of the world. and a consideration of them naturally leads us on to investigate similar personifications elsewhere.PREFACE In the last part of this work we examined the figure of the Dying and Reviving God as it appears in the Oriental religions of classical antiquity. taro. which embodies the now familiar conception in two typical examples. the vine-god Dionysus and the corn-goddess Persephone. and not least of all on the harvest-fields of modern Europe. of TJie Golden religions With the present instalment Bough we pursue the same theme in other races. as a subsidiary or even as a principal means of subsistence Yet in . V the case of the roots. such as yams. especially by many in the tropical regions. cereals are on the whole the most important therefore it is natural that the religion of primitive agricultural communities should be deeply coloured by the principal occupation of their lives. Both of these Greek divinities are personifications of cultivated plants. well as cereals have been cultivated But edible roots as races.

fowler. or herdsman to adore the beasts. For the most part he assumes as a matter of course that the souls of dead animals survive their decease of the savage hunter is . birds. the notion of the immortality and even of the resurrection of the lower animals appears to be almost as familiar to the savage and to be accepted by him with nearly as unwavering a faith as the obvious fact of their death and destruction. Having surveyed the variations of our main theme among the enquiry in the agricultural races of mankind. motive which leads the primitive husbandman to adore the corn or the roots. human mind as well I as into the In the following pages have collected . hence much of the thought devoted to the problem of how he can This refusal best appease the naturally incensed ghosts of his victims so as to prevent them from doing him a mischief of the savage to recognise in death a final cessation of the vital process. and pastoral stages of society. we prosecute among savages who remain naore or less completely the hunting. per- haps for the simple reason that while the growth and decay fruit of the one sort of go on above ground for all to see. To him the conception is of the death of these worshipful beings naturally presented it with singular force and distinctness . the similar processes of the other are hidden under ground and therefore strike the popular imagination less forcibly. induces the primitive hunter. this unquestioning faith in the unbroken conis it tinuity of all life. that con- stantly thrusts itself importunately on his attention. or fishes which furnish him with the means of subsistence. The same fisher. And strange as it may seem to us civilised men. no poetical embroidery thrown over the skeleton. a fact that has not yet received the into attention which seems to merit from enquirers the constitution of the history of religion. but the real death. fishing.vi PREFACE Dying and Reviving God appears in the conception of the figure less to prominently than the case of the cereals. since is no figurative or allegorical death. the naked skeleton.

That they should no matter illuminated invest these resources with an atmosphere of wonder and awe. and his thoughts and activities are nearly as much absorbed be said with brother. she reflections apt to mistake the shadowy for real of her In own figure beings moving to in the abyss. and so. line short. vii I must leave it to others to appraise them. with which his imagination peoples the void. Thus on the whole we are concerned in these volumes with the reverence or worship paid by resources from which they table men to the natural draw their nutriment. perceptible elements by which he surrounded —and it is only of these that I . That at least that is not my reading of the history of religion. is for surprise. reason. both vege- and animal." PREFACE examples of this curious faith . so. that divides the it men are sensible of known from the unknown few the sharp . most men tion is a hazy borderland where perception and concep- melt indissolubly into one. I am my is readers under the impression. is by the pale cold light so infinitesimally small. richly coloured beams of her fairy lantern streaming out is into the darkness . and what shadows we pursue in this But having said so much realities book of the misty glory unwilling to leave which the human imagination sheds round the hard material of the food supply. ! by the one as by the " other. tangible. Of him it may perhaps even greater truth than of his civilised What shadows we are. the dark regions of lie human to the ignorance which beyond that luminous ring are so imimagination is measurably vast. Among is the visible. The circle of of human knowledge. natural but erroneous. are hardly less real than the solid shapes which the living animals and men present to his senses . Hence to the savage the ghosts of dead animals and men. that fain to step up border line and send the warm. that man not has created most of his gods out of his belly. peering into the gloom. often indeed with a halo of divinity.

forms. which await the future historian of religion. to drill them into regiments. and so have To contributed to build up the complex fabric of religion. human spirits are . which the religious imagination has clothed with the attributes of divinity. are no less essential than the nutritive and with them we all enter on a very different sphere of thought and feeling. the economic advantages of co-operation. Hence when we for shall consider how intimately humanity depends on society prizes many of the boons which all most highly. as difficult and delicate tasks. one of the most interesting. is has been and must always be. to wit. like shafts of light from high towers. it seems to follow that among the beings. so. the communication of knowledge.viii PREFACE presume to speak tious his imagination — there are others than the merely nutriin which have exerted a powerful influence touching and stimulating his energies. the preservation of the species the reproductive faculties . the relation of the sexes to each other. we open If that probably admit that of the forces to our observation which have is shaped far the human destiny the influence of is man on man by greatest. them marching on the road of progress with a concentrated force to which the loose skirmishers of mere anarchy and individualism can never hope to oppose a per- manent it resistance. real or imaginary. with all the depths of tenderness and the intricate problems which that mysterious relation involves. — these and many other things combine to draw men and to set into communities. The need of mutual protection. in which the sexual one of the most instinct is has moulded the religious conit is sciousness of our race. from exhausting the forces of attraction by which mankind are bound together in society. the great ideas that radiate from great minds. the contagion of example. The study some subtle of the various some gross and palpable. and elusive. But the influence which the sexes exert on each intimate and profound as far indeed it other.

However. which like all predictions is liable to by the event. Cambridge. G.th May 19 12. the numerous facts recorded in these volumes might lend themselves to an exaggerated estimate of their own importance and hence history. say this research . we should find that the majority of them have been nothing but the ghosts of dead men. I believe still that careful examination of the evidence. A. FRAZER. will confirm conclusion . and that could strictly interrogate the phantoms which the mind has conjured up out of the depths of its bottomless ignorance and enshrined as deities in the dim light of temples. . which has this to be if we human undertaken. without some such warning. animals. inanimate objects. to a misinterpretation and distortion of J.PREFACE likely to ix play a more important part than the or spirits of a plants. I have done so only from a fear lest. of to is necessarily if to anticipate it I the result future and in saying have ventured to make a be falsified prediction.

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3 sq. 42 . Dionysus «» myth and Dionysus as a goat. sq. especially 29-33 . 43 sq. Demeter in the Homeric hymn not the Earthgoddess. and Morocco. the Yellow Demeter of the ripe corn at the threshingfloor. ritual. . . custom of rending and devouring animals and men as a religious rite in Greece. v-ix Chapter I. Eleusinian mysteries by Demeter. . use of the winnowing-fan to cradle infants. Demeter and Persephone to Pp. legends of Pentheus and Lycurgus. to explain the foundation of the . . legends of human sacrifices in the worship of Dionysus perhaps based on misinterpretations of ritual. Dionysus as a bull. festival of mourning for the descent of Persephone at the autumnal sowing. . 46 . . 40 sq. 17 12. America. 42 sq. Demeter . . worship of Dionysus. 5 . death and resurrection of . pp. . 11 sq. . 23 sq.16. its aim sq. 1-34 Dying and Reviving gods of ancient Greece. . 22 . revelation of the reaped ear Demeter and Persephone personifications of the corn. 16 sq. 33 •^?- Chapter The Homeric II. . . analogy of these modern ceremonies to the to the festival of the Anthesteria. 37 of corn at the mysteries. sq. 35-37 sq. 43 corn and poppies as symbols of Demeter. . use of the wiimow- ing-fan the in rites of Dionysus. . 5 . 35-91 Hymn Demeter. later misinterpretations of such customs. 25-29 rites .— — CONTENTS Preface Pp. 45 sq. Dionysus a god of trees. the vine-god Dionysus a Thiacian deity. the Green Demeter of the green corn. Dionysus . 24 the survival of Dionysiac rites among modern Thracian peasantry. human sacrifices in the . 5-1 in 1 . portrayed as young corn sprouting from the ground. Dionysus a god of agriculture. 18-22 sq. especially fruit-trees. . i sq. 2 sq. of Dionysus. 39 sq. the cereals called Demeter's fruits. invoked by Greek farmers before the autumnal sowing. 41 sq. . 38 .Pp. . 44 . the winnowing-fan as his emblem. xi . tradition of human life before Demeter's Persephone time.

92-112 \ as magical ceremonies to promote the growth of the crops. date of the offerings. 92 sq. 46-48 to . sacred marriage of Zeus and Demeter at Eleusis. Kayans of Central Borneo. 92 . of the barley and wheat to . 97-99 sq. . the mysteries probably older than the games. 50-53 first-fruits . . . . date of the Eleusinian games sq. . the Kai. 63 ancient and modern belief that the corn-crops depend on possession sq. 87 sq. 90 sq. 88 Demeter and Persephone . . . Varro on the rites of Eleusis. religious significance of the tural Kayan games. 72 sq. 77 . 100 and stories told games played promote the growth of the tare . 71 . their games and masquerades at sowing. . Dr.— CONTENTS thank-offerings of ripe grain presented to Demeter by Greek farmers sq. 59 58 sq. . 88-90 as goddesses of the corn Demeter and Persephone came to be associated with the ideas of death and resurrection. . observed by the Kai for the good of the crops. 48 sq. their ceremonies and taboos at sowing. 93 sq. difficulty of distinguishing between the two corn -goddesses. a primitive agricultural people. . . 94-96 . prizes of barley given to victors in the Eleusinian games. . 96 sq. 74 sq. of many . 73 sq. modern Europe. quadriennial and biennial period of the games. 75-77 . Pp. 78 sq. whose religion is coloured by their agriculture. games at harvest festivals in uncertain. 59 sq. 56-58 the Sicilians associated Demeter with the seed-corn and Persephone with the ripe ears. Triptolemus the mythical hero of the corn. Magical Significance of Games in Primitive Agriculture Games played the . autumn. of an image of Demeter. Nieuwenhuis on the serious . (Haloa) at Eleusis. 53-56 the Athenians generally believed to have spread the knowledge of Demeter's gift of the corn among mankind. the time of year when the first-fruits were offered to Demeter and PerFestival of the Threshing-floor sephone at Eleusis unknown. of the great games of Greece based on the old octennial 79-82 the motive for instituting the eight years' cycle was religious. . the festival of the Proerosia ("Before the Ploughing") . i Chapter III. the quadriennial period cycle. the resemblance between the artistic types of is in favour . the Kayan New Year people of festival. 64 sq. . . of their substantial identity as goddesses of the corn. 70 the Eleusinian games sacred to Demeter and Persephone. an agriculpractices German New Guinea. ably obtained by successive bisections of the octennial cycle. 99 by the Kai in order to superstitious sq. 63 Cornstalks at Eleusis. after the harvest. held at Eleusis in honour of Demeter. because that the season of ploughing and sowing. 77 . . . 65-70 the Eleusinian games distinct from the Eleusinian mysteries. . 47 is the first-fruits offered Demeter in . public offerings of the Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis. application of these conclusions to the Eleusinian games. 60-63 5 the Green Festival and the Festival of the epithets of Demeter referring to the corn. the quadriennial and biennial periods of the Greek 82-84 games prob^ 84-87 . . the Ancestral Contest in the games perhaps a competition between reapers.

158-162 as a bride or as bride and bridegroom. . agricultural in work done by women South America. the corn-spirit as a child at harvest. as among the Californian Indians and the aborigines of Australia. swinging as an agricultural charm. 155-158. 129 Greek conception of the Corn Goddess probably due to . . a simple personification of the corn. . . in many savage tribes women hoe and sow in Africa. Scotland. the Old Wife {Cailleach') . . Highlands of Scotland. New Guinea. 144. identification of the harvester with the corn- 138 sq. and 122 division of agricultural . the Great Mother or the in the last sheaf. Harvest-queen in Russia. 136-138 . The Corn-mother and the Corn-maiden in Northern Europe Pp. sq. Hag (wrach) in Pembrokeshire. 133 sq. agriculture perhaps originated in the digging for wild fruits. or the churn in various parts of . the Sacred Ploughing at Eleusis. xiii 101-104. 1 the ground. 105 sq. tales told by the Yabim as spells to produce abundant crops. 140. . 113-130 personification of the corn as feminine sometimes explained in primitive agriculture. . spirit. 1 33-1 35 the Old Woman or the Old Man Grandmother in the last sheaf. the last sheaf made unusually large and heavy. the discovery of agriculture probably due to women. and Ireland. . 129 women as agricultural labourers among the Aryans of Europe. 144 sq. Woman's Part in Primitive Agriculture . in Aberdeenshire. 146 last sq. 1 31-170 barley her original gi'ain. Chapter IV. 106 sq. 150 the corn cut called the mell. . 135 sq. the Corn-mother the Harvest-mother. 1 29 sq. . 128 . 139 the sq. Chapter V. 108 sq. 140-142 . the corn-spirit in the in the . the connexion of the Eleusinian games with agriculture confirmed by modern analogies. 124 collect the edible seeds among savages in the hunting stage and roots. 131 sq. called the clyack sheaf. work between men and New Britain. . at threshing. England. by woman's part 13-120. and England. women in the women Indian Archipelago. . . . 104 sq. . sq. use of the bull-roarer to quicken the fruits of the earth. . the sacred drama of the Eleusinian mysteries 1 1 1 compared to the masked dances of agricultural savages. 107 analogy of the Kayans to the early Greeks. iioj^. . . Pp. the corn-spirit as the Old Woman or Old Man sq. in India. the Old Woman [Babd) at harvest the Corn-queen and among the Slavs and Lithuanians. . 142-144 the Carley at harvest in Antrim.— — CONTENTS and yams. . sq. 113 . 113. 162-164. 147-150. the Etymology of Demeter's name. the kirn. narrative spells and imperative spells.. in the last sheaf. 151-155 the last corn cut called the Maiden Highlands of Scotland. Austria. 131 Corn-mother among the Germans and Slavs. the cutting of the last the corn-spirit corn. Bulgaria. 107 sq. . 120-122. . 124-128. the Carline and the at harvest in the Maiden in Scotland.

Persotiification of the Corn as Mother and Daughter. among the Mandans and Minnitarees. 188 sq. •s^ Indians. Miami myth of the corn-spirit in the form of an sq. 204-206 old man. recalling the soul of the rice in Burma. pp. . — Old women as representatives of the Corn-goddess . 203 sq. the Rice-mother the rice personified as a . 191 sq. 187 sq. 183 sq. 209 sq. special words used at reaping among the Tomori. 178. pp. 169 Chapter VI. rice. European peasantry. § 2. 206 § 6'. among the Toradjas of Celebes. masquerade performed by the Kayans before sowing. 171-174. their treatment of the soul of the rice. 189-191 . based on a belief that the rice animated by a soul. — The is Indonesian of the rice . 184-186 . comparison of the Kayan masquerade with the Eleusinian drama. 177. Coca-mother. . the . . the spring and harvest customs . securing the soul of the rice among the Dyaks of Northern Borneo. . treated 180-204. § 5. or the Greek mythical conception of the . The Spirit of the Corn embodied in Human Beings. id"] sq. 17 1-2 13 Corn-mother in America. 193 . 193 riddles and stories in connexion 180-183 rice woman. Lands §1. 194 . 197 Rice-child at harvest in the and the Rice-bridegroom husband and wife 199-201 the rice-spirit as and Lombok. the Rice-mother and the Malay Peninsula. Demeter perhaps the ripe crop and Persephone the seed-corn. the — The Maize-mother. 174-177. with the sq. pp. ^ \i to the Corn-mother. pp. which are to be found in these customs. the Maize-goddess and the Maize-god of /the Mexicans. by the Indonesians as if it were a Kayans of Borneo. 204-207. 194 young woman among the Bataks of Sumatra. The Rice-mother in ritual the East Indies. 186 sq. . the Rice-mother among the Tomori of Celebes. the Rice-bride . the Quinoa-niother. 197-199. the 171-177. of Europe are parts of a primitive heathen ritual. the Rice-mother among the Minangkabauers of Sumatra. . 201-203 ^^^ Father and Mother of the Rice among the Szis of Burma. The Barley Bride among the Berbers. . . § 3. p. the Corn-mother among the North American The Mother-cotton in the Ptmjaiib. and Potato-mother among the /Peruvian Indians. pp. § 4.— CONTENTS double form of the Old Wife and the Maiden simultaneously at harvest in analogy of the harvest customs to the Highlands of Scotland. and similar figures in the harvest customs of modern —Analogy of Demeter and Persephone . the spring customs of Europe. T/ie The Corn-mother in many Pp. in Bali '> at harvest in Java. the Harvest-maiden. 164-167 . The Double 207-213. 168 tive ritual marks of a primis//. 207-209. 196 the King of the Rice in Mandeling. 178-180.

243-245 human sacrifices for in these Khond sacrifices the the crops among the Khonds. 241-243 human sacrifices for the crops among the Shans of Indo-China and the Nagas and other tribes of India. 214 sq. The Corn-spirit of these slai7i in Hwnan to —Analogy sq. pp. .— CONTENTS corn XV the original may have been duplicated when conception became purely anthropomorphic. or visitor to the harvest-field. Chapter § I. . Lityerses. 235 the killing of the personal representa- tive of the corn-spirit. . . and Phrygia. 225-227 ceremonies of the Tarahumare . the madder-harvest in Zealand. driven out of . binder. a plaintive Bormus. . and robbed by the reapers. 253 sq. 251. Representatives. Indians at hoeing. a customs in ancient Egypt. 218-220 custom of wrapping up the last reaper. 249-251 identification of the . victims appear to have been regarded as divine. 211-213. pp. 216-236. — plaintive song of Egyptian reapers. binder. similar ideas as 222 sq. human sacrifices for the crops among the Wild Wa of Burma. -Popular harvest and vintage Maneros. 231 232-234 some of the corn left on the harvest-field for the corn-spirit. 214-216. . . . contests . Linus or Ailinus. a plaintive song of Marian- Killing the Corn-spirit. 251 human representative of the corn-spirit slain on the harvest-field. relation of Lityerses to Attis. harvesters in order not to be in corn-stalks work. Pp. sq. perhaps the victim annually sacrificed in the character of the corn-spirit may have been the king himself. 223-225 the corn-spirit represented by a stranger . 236. . Lityerses . 214-269 Songs of the Corn Reapers. traces of the human his victim with the god in other sacrifices. § 2. . 227-229 reapers of killing threshers pretence made by some one with their scythes. the corn-spirit. 230 custom observed at . 2\^ sq. or thresher. human sacrifices for the crops in the Philippines. passing strangers treated as the spirit of the madder-root. . the spirit of the corn conceived sq. sq. the last corn. the corn-spirit supposed to be killed at reaping or threshing. 240 hq. VII. 216. as poor 23 1 . song of Phoenician vintagers. pp. sq. . . 222 to the last corn in India. . 251-269. 236-251. a reflection of a Phrygian custom of killing strangers at harvest as embodiments of . 220-222 the corn-spirit. HiDiian Sacrifices for the Crops. thresher of the last corn. . . Syria. . 234 sq. 236-238 crops — Human . 2 1 6-2 1 8 last at their — The legend of among . . for spirits or gods. human sacrifices for the crops in frica. barbarous rites the harvest customs of Europe. sq. 238 . 252 the victim who represented the corn-spirit or may have been a passing stranger or the reaper. sacrifices for the human sacrifices for the among 239 the Pawnees. pretence made by of choking some one with their flails. § 4. . 245-249 . hence perhaps the dedication of sacred lands and gods and spirits. lives in the barn through the winter. 229 sq. . 216 dynian reapers in Bithynia. and harvest. first-fruits to little fields or gardens cultivated 234 . 254 sq. crops in South and Central America. ploughing. pp.

'y the corn-spirit as a cat killed at reaping and threshing. called why the last corn "the Neck. 262 sq. . 280 sq. 264in Pembrokeshire and Shropshire. sq. . — § 4. The corn-spirit as a cock sitting the cornin the corn. 263 . 280. the corn-spirit as a cat at reaping and threshing. the corn-spirit in Egypt (Osiris) annually . —The . The corn-spirit as a the corn-spirit wolf or a dog supposed to run through the corn. the corn-spirit as a wolf driven out or killed at thresh. I 270-305 corn-spirit in Animal Ejnbodiments of the Corn-spirit. pp. 270 sq. The Corn-spirit as a Wolf or a Dog. 267 sq. The Corn -spirit as an Pp. similarity of the Bithynian Phrygian Attis. 280 sq. 271 sq. § 5. pp. cutting "the Neck" is "crying the Neck" at harvest in Devonshire. the Phoenician Linus identified with Adonis. . to 270 sq. 283 sq. the corn-spirit as a hare —The corn-spirit as a hare at reap- killed in the last corn cut. 273 sq. who may have been annually represented Bormus 258 to the by a human to the corn victim. Chapter VIII. 286 the corn-goat killed at threshing. . 277 sq. The Corn-spirit as a Goat. . the black and green Demeter. . 'threshed. it. the corn-wolf at midwinter. the corn-goat at the corn-spirit as the Cripple Goat field. 282 — § 6. § 3. pp. 281. ." 268. 257 . 276 sq. . 286 the corn-goat passed on sq.— CONTENTS 255 sq. the corn-spirit as a wolf at . . 279 sq. 263 sq. The corn-spirit as a cat sitting in the corn. 269. — reaping. 275 . Animal § I. sq. pp. and to be caught or killed by the reaper or thresher. 276-278. 276 . 272 sq. reaping and binding the corn. . remains of victims scattered the black and green Osiris like over the fields to fertilise them. . . ing. 271-275. 281-288. . corn-spirit in the form of a goat running through the corn or sitting in sq. spirit killed in the form of a live cock. the corn in the barn he expelled by the threshing. 279 sq. . furnished by the lamentations of the reapers for the annual death of the corn-spirit. 261 sq. The Corn-spirit as a Cat. 259-261 assimilation of human victims which they represent. till in Skye. 274 sq. The Corn-spirit as a Cock. pp. represented by a human victim. . pp. the corn-wolf at harvest in France. The Corn-spirit as a Hare. as a dog at reaping and threshing. the corn-spirit killed as a goat on the harvest- 285 is the corn-goat supposed to lurk flail at among . cries of the reapers in Germany. human representatives of both annually slain. the corn-spirit as a cock at harvest. —The last the form of an animal supposed be present in the corn cut or / § 2. 280 . 256 sq. 275 the corn-wolf killed on the harvest-field. 287 . to a neighbour who has not finished his threshing. old Prussian custom of killing a goat at sowing^ 288. 267. 275. the key to the mysteries of Osiris . 281 sq. . ing.

pp. by the Melanesians. or cow at harvest. Sacramental character of the harvest-supper. pp. of Scandinavia and Esthonia. § 10. 298 the corn-spirit as a pig 298 sq. 313-315. 318 . 297. 297 § 1 1. sq. sq. Cow. by the Indians of Paraguay ai(d Brazil. 292. the corn-spirit in the . 308-310. — § 9. the corn-spirit as a 296 sq.. corn-spirit as a quail. pp. 288-290 sq. pp. Indians. 295 . or Ox. 298-303. ox. 307 sq. —The . "crying the Mare" in Hertfordshire and Shropshire. xvii The Corfi-spirit as a Bull. Pp. form of a bull or ox killed at the close of the reaping.CONTENTS § 7. —The Pleiades in Primitive Calendars in primitive calendars. by the Indians of Peru and Mexico. 310 sq. § 8. the association of the Pleiades with agriculture apparently based on the coincidence of their rising or setting with the commencement of the rainy season. 312 sq. . sowing. attention paid to the Pleiades by the Australian aborigines. 296 fox at reaping the last corn. 311 sq. 303 sq.. 313. . the rice-spirit as a quail. pp. 295 the rice-spirit as a blue bird. by the Polynesians. 294. the corn-spirit as a bull supposed to be killed at threshing. —The it. 318 sq. Note. by the \/North American pelago. the corn-spirit as a calf at The Corn-spirit as a Horse or Mare. 291 harvest or in spring. 292 . the Japanese rice-god associated with the fox. The corn-spirit through the corn.. by the natives of New Guinea and the Indian Archiby the Greeks and by the natives of Africa. the corn-spirit as a fox at threshing. 303-305. 303 . 300 . corn-spirit in the form of a bull running through the corn or lying in spirit 288 . The corn-spirit as a horse running through the corn. 290 sq. 292-294 the corn-spirit as a horse in France. 315-317. parallelism between the — conceptions of the corn-spirit in suggested reason for the the corn-spirit. On the Animal Embodiments of the Corn-spirit. § 12. Romans. — The corn-spirit in the form of a it. 304 sq. fox running through the corn or sitting in 296 . embodied in the Yule or Christmas Boar . The Corn-spirit as a Pig. 307-319 Importance of the Pleiades _ 307 . 300-303. the corn-spirit at reaping. . . The Corn-spirit as a Bird. sow at threshing. . The Corn-spirit as a Fox. . human and animal forms. 290 spirit as the corn- a bull or cow at threshing. . 288-292. the corn-spirit as a boar or sow the corn-spirit as a at — as a boar rushing . 296. many animal forms supposed to be assumed by . 295 sq. 292-294. pp. the corn- as a bull. 298 ..

.

In the ancient world. . PT. . . together with the solemn ritual. . though incorrectly. the older civilisation of the Orient the conception of the The Dying -^^^ Dying and Reviving God. however. which had seemed to be menaced by the inroads of winter. suppose that these Western peoples borrowed from pictured themselves the . . ve^gt^tion as episodes in the life of gods. . V.Death and ^^^"''"^'=" nations of western and Egypt ' changes of the seasons. . . but were shared by the races of livelier fancy and more mercurial temperament who inhabited the shores and islands of the Aegean. vegetation c ^^ ancient oi Greece. . whose mournful deathand happy resurrection they celebrated with dramatic rites of alternate lamentation and rejoicing. and Oriental particularly the annual growth and decay of vegetation. I S B . with some enquirers in ancient and modern times. We need not. on the principles of sympathetic magic. g^^ ^f . of Phrygia and Egypt they were not a product peculiar to the religious mysticism of the dreamy East..CHAPTER DIONYSUS In the preceding part of quity the to civilised this I work we saw Asia that in anti. VOL. in which that conception was dramatically set forth before the eyes of the worshippers. But if the celebration was in form dramatic. . to ensure the vernal regeneration of plants and the multiplication of animals. it was intended. the effect of . it was in substance magical that is to say. call a fortuitous coincidence. . such ideas and such rites were by no means confined to the Oriental peoples of Babylon and Syria. More probably the resemblance which may be traced m this respect between the religions the East and the West is no more than what we commonly.

and year by year he hailed with natural fading into the spring. s. and tipsy excess. Kern. and followed the annual fluctuations of their fortunes with alternate emotions of cheerfulness and dejection. epithet 1909) pp. 363^^(7. 23. with the Year by year I bright pomp of summer stagnation of winter. to tinge her cold abstractions with the warm hues of imagination. M. appears to ^ On Dionysus .v.^ His ecstatic worship. in Classical Review. Dionysus.. Mythologie^^ i. H. The Romaines. Bromios bestowed on Dionyand his identification sus. 1010 sqq. Griechische Fr. natural regret. the god of the vine. Rohde. Daremberg and Saglio's Grecqites % 1906). thrilling music. similar causes acting alike on the similar constitution of the human mind in different The Greek had no need of the countries and under different skies. R. ii. s. with the Thracian and Phrygian deity Sabazius. " Dionysus. "Dionysus. 414-426. the transient glory of the golden corn. Mythologie. I sqq. V. Second Edition (Cambridge. 85 sqq. to journey into far countries to learn the vicissitudes of the seasons.2 DIONYSUS CHAP.. . Griechische Feste von religidser Bedeutung (Leipsic. in see L. Dictioimaire et des AntiquitSs (Oxford. Harrison. Nilsson. (1901) p. by the juice of the grape. E. pp.v. in his own beautiful land he beheld. Miss J. Preller. E. Headlam. pp. P. L. originally The god Dionysus or Bacchus is best known to us as a personification of the vine and of the exhilaration produced a Thracian deity. to mark the fleeting beauty i damask rose. 1903). 1029 sqq. v. Harrison. of gladness spirits and elves. Miss J. Psyche"^ (Tubingen and Leipsic. A consideration of some of the Greek divinities who thus died and rose again from the dead may furnish us with a pictures to set side by side with series of companion We begin with the sad figures of Adonis. i." Lenormant. rom. 659 " Bacchus. of of the shifting panorama of the seasons. 1908). E. .v. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. . Roscher's Lexikon der griech. sqq. characterised by wild dances. See W. he fashioned for himself a train of gods and goddesses. xv. in general. clothe her naked realities with the gorgeous drapery of a mythic fancy. gloom and delight the outburst of fresh life in Accustomed to to personify the forces of nature." in W. have been adduced as evidence that Dionysus was a god of beer or of other cereal intoxicants before he became a god of wine. pp. and Osiris." in Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Encydopddie der classischen Alfertumswissenscha/t. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. The Cults of the Greek States. which found their natural expression in alternate rites of rejoicing and lamentation. Dionysus. i. 591 ^llVoigt and Thraemer. s. . 25S sqq. Attis. the passing splendour of the purple grapes. of revelry and mourning. Farnell. u. out and sorrow.

'E. Foucart. The resemblance which his story and his ceremonies present to those of Osiris have led some enquirers both in ancient and modern times to hold that Dionysus was merely a disguised Osiris.v." ^ In Boeotia one of his titles was " Dionysus in the tree. 60. Herodotus. i. i. R. de de Dionyse en Attiqiie (Paris. in C. especially Dr.t/. pp. sacrificed to "Dionysus of the tree. 5^ Quaest. . ^f \osqq^ 2 from ancient vases.. xxxvii. PAcad^mie 3 des Inscriptions et Belles- lettres. 626^^. cit. which had been broken by the ^ Plato. 49 Diodorus Siculus. L. ii. "EXXi^ves dvovaiv.'5e:'5pos. 43 b.^ Its mystic doctrines and extravagant rites were essentially foreign to the clear and sober temperament of the Greek race. 9 sqq. with a bearded mask to represent the head.ra. plates 42. Farnell. 5. Botticher's Baumkiiltus der Hellenen (Berlin. 637 E Theepompus. . 43 A. 97. piutarch. but draped in a mantle. Laws. Ka. 1856). 19 10).^ On a vase his rude eff[gy is depicted appearing out of a low tree or bush. the god whom Homer hardly deigned to notice had become the most popular figure of the pantheon. 159 (M^moires ^ Daremberg et Saglio. Conviv. s. Dionysus. 442 E F . pp.). 43.^ But the great preponderance of evidence points to his Thracian origin. 3. u)s v. «V. Compare W. and the similarity of the two worships is sufficiently explained by the similarity of the ideas and customs on which they were founded.*^ At Magnesia on the Maeander an image of Dionysus is said to have been found in a plane-tree. Le Culte 1904). ^ / . op. Suidas. es- pedaiiy of ^™''"*'^^'- the nature of the deity. he was also a god of trees ° Thus we are told that almost all the Greeks in general.. ^ See the pictures of his images. see the writers cited in the preceding note. Anabasis." * His image was often merely an upright post. p. p. Ridgeway.'. Yet it did to that love of mystery and that pronerevert to savagery which seem to be innate in most ness to religion spread like wildfire through Greece until the men. Die Honnaire des Atitiquith Grecques et Romaines. without arms. iravTes. 3. imported directly from Egypt into Greece.\. drawn 0/ Tragedy (Cambridge.I DIONYSUS 3 have originated among the rude tribes of Thrace.<jKeM^eiv compare Xenophon. and with leafy boughs projecting from the head or body to shew intelligence appealing as Dionysus * ^"'^ °' •' ' trees. . For the evidence of the Thracian . 626. 3 : Aioj-wy 4 Sevdpirri ^ttos d-welv. sqq. cited by Athenaeus. While the vine with its clusters was the most characteristic manifestation of Dionysus. v. 361. i. 4 P. 85 s^^. . x. T/ie Origin origin of Hesychius. who were notoriously addicted to drunkenness. o/. vii. 44 Daremberg et Saglio.

i. chs. 856. 492. ev rrj vol. 31- 4 . Ch. Hist. ^ 3 Pmdar. who set up an image of him. 4 DTOiXVSUS CHAP. Var. was the The Delphic commanded the Corinthians to worship a particular pine-tree the god.. lo Beitrdge zur Geschichte dei. 31. 14. '^ . p.^ Amongst to " the trees particularly sacred pine-tree.T." and " making the fruit to grow. his ctOsins. chiefly fruit-growers.^^. s. amongst which apples and figs are particularly mentioned ^ and he was referred to as " well-fruited. (i8). 1064 17 ^^^_^ ^^^ Philostratus. 3. Athenaeus. pendium. the words may equally well refer to the cereal crops. him that he would make the trees grow ^ and he was especially honoured by husbandmen. 1 P. 8. Conviv. Philosophie 1895) pp. v. . Gi-ciecarum^^ rCiv p. Dictionnaire m des Pausanias. i. However. 2. .^^ Ivy. 700. t^t- . in their orchards. for the prosperity of the fruits of the land. t. 6 sq. figures 489. Bacchae. 79 sqq. 1. Daremberg et Saglio. 14 and 23.* all tree-fruits. 8. 41 MUller-Wieseler. in addition oracle the vine. 023. 435.^^ of Dionysus out of with red faces and a pine-cone. . 11) speaks of it as a mastich-tree.v. 1. lo ' . Lenormant. pll.^^ at Lacedaemon there was a and in Naxos. Aelian. n i pp 78 C 82 D 6 OrpMca. A. Qoxx. 491. in the shape of a natural treeHe was said to have discovered stump. . Athenaeus. iii. liii.TheologtaeGraecaeCom. . Kapwwv tQv 636. Pausanias joes not mention the kind of tree but from Euripides. Compare id. Sylloge Inscrip- p. Pausanias. tipped with commonly carried by the god or his Again. xxxu. ^ . where figs were called ineilicha. 1." " he of the green fruit. Ch. Dissertat. ii. Conviv. 1829). ^ ^ ^ ^. quoted by Plutarch. Denkmdler des klassischen Alter turns. 1.S* 5 Maximus lyrms. -^ Plutarch. x^pa. Wendland und O. Rerue:/ d^ Inscriptions Grecques (Brussels. Dittenberger. is In art a wand. . Denkmdler der '^^^^" Kunst." so they equally with it. Compare F. Plutarch. No. 6.» . '^ I . sqq." ^ One of his titles was " teeming " or " bursting " (as of sap and there was a Flowery Dionysus in Attica or blossoms) and at Patrae in Achaia. vii. '* i. we may infer that it was a pine. vni. Aglaophanius (Konigsberg.^* ^ there was a Dionysus Fig Dionysus . made two images gilt bodies. Hesychius.gricchischen und Religion (Berlin.^*^ to him. 1900). Qtiaest. there was a Dionysus Meilichios. v. No. _ Pausanias. Lobeck. Imag. 495. Kern. Hymn 7 4.^ The Athenians sacrificed to him offered to . 11. 30. wind. 21. . Baumeister. Quaest. tionum ii.^\. 8 *X^4s]. iii. . iii. the ivy and the fig-tree were especially In the Attic township of Acharnae associated with him. though Theocritus (xxvi. g 9 ^ntiqmtjs Grecques et Romaines.^ He was the patron of cultivated trees prayers were . the face of whose image was made of fig-wood. Michel. 78 C. 3. worshippers..

that of Dionysus ' & shovel-shaped basket. tribe.] Mirah. I must refer the reader pp. lO. (Oxford. (1903) pp. * her article " Mystica Vannus lacchi. 1908). 123 sg. which before had been dragged by hand and some people found in this tradition the clue to alone the bovine shape in which. Bekker. which tossing the corn in the air. I sq. ed. in his critical edition G. On iii. 292-324. 166. the variation does not affect the meanto these works In for full details subject. 64. Plutarch. as we shall see. 4. xxiii. R. 35. Berlin (p. there at was his a great and fair sanctuary where festival a bright light shone forth at night as a token of an abundant harvest vouch. 1909) pp. Aiovvcros and admirably interpreted by Miss E. The Cults of the Greek States. 122 842 A. that Dionysus was conceived as a deity of agriculture and the !• 1/-1TT-is spoken of r He as himself doing the work of a corn. ^ [Aristotle. edition)." * At first sight this symbolism might be explained very simply and naturally by supposing that the divine : . few but significant. » among is the emblems i:^ The was the winnowing-fan. yewpyeZ ^ Diodorus Siculus.2 of Further. . Orat. Isis et Georg. there are indications. i.(Cambridge. Harrison in Servius on Virgil. " He of the Winnowing-fan. we are told that in the land of the Bisaltae. safed by the deity but if the crops were to fail that year. Dionysus is said to have eased the labour of the husband: Dionysus ^^ ^ sod of agriculture and the '^°'^"' . Farnell. the agricultural aspect of Dionysus. see L. The and monumental evidence as to the winnowing-fan in the myth and ritual of Dionysus has been collected on the passage of Servius referred to the reading is somewhat uncertain. Im. Auscult. v. 1 i. literary Osiris. darkness brooded over the sanctuary as at other times. Thilo reads Xt/f/i^jTr^c and Xt(f/i6s instead But of the usual ^ikvittiv and TiiKfdv. the mystic light was not seen. Compare her Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. the god was often supposed to present himself to his worshippers." Journal of Hellenic Studies. -. ^ he is reported to have been the first to yoke husbandman oxen to the plough. J. the ing. Thus guiding the ploughshare and scattering the seed as he went. 517 sqq.^ Moreover. down to modern the large ^ open as an emtimes has been biem of '^"y^"^' win"°^^'"g-fan used by farmers to separate the grain from the chaff by This simple agricultural instru.I DIONYSUS 5 Further. man. a Thracian Dionysus. iv. ment figured in the mystic rites of Dionysus indeed the god is traditionally said to have been placed at birth in a winnowing-fan as in a cradle in art he is represented as an infant so cradled and from these traditions and representations he derived the epithet of Liknites^ that is. I -3. Use of the ^'"fa^jo ^"^^ Himerius.

(1876) pp.^ the midwife who places the child in the basket. 279 sq. Next she addresses . Vijfde Jaargang. Social Life of the Chinese. edidit O. 1868). i. ing der Javanen. pen. 109). and they draw omens first of the child's future career from the object which if ." " (two spirits) are watching saying. pp.6 infant DIONYSUS cradled CHAP. he will be wealthy the infant first grasps if he seizes on a book. for Njaf-among and Kaki-among over you. Hood (London. Raffles. * Rev. Paxton sq. i. 1870-1873. i. 4S {Ca//tmac^ea. lest he fall into the river. apparently for similar in reasons. S. and so on. 1875-1884). History of Java (London. such as farmers employ in winnowing grain. lu^ov TO. Veth. vol. been observed. olwift-^bfievoL. Then she addresses the child thus " : " " Cry not. gold or silver ornaments. C. and as she does so she suddenly knocks with the palms of both hands on the basket in order that the child may not be timid and fearful. de kleed- Leipsic. a set of money-scales. 90 . the money-scale. he 1 will 'E:* be learned. F." Mededeelmgen van wege het Nederlaiidsche Zendelinggenootschap. edited and revised by the ^ T.^ spirits should always and everywhere guard On the first anniversary of a child's birthday the Chinese of Foo-Chow set the little one in a large bamboo sieve. such as fruits. Schneider. Doolittle. Bring not your grandchild to the road. and in the sieve they place along with the child a variety of articles. Rev. . 323 C. "Instellingen. Thus. J.^ . Poensen. xx. paper. winnow and urged with reason that the use of a winnowing-fan as a it was a regular cradle was not peculiar to Dionysus practice with the ancient Greeks to place their infants in winnowing-fans as an omen of wealth and fertility for the Customs of the same sort have future life of the children. 1817). i." The object of the ceremony is said to be that these two the child. it handles and plays with. P. p. " lets over 639." Tijdschrift voor Neerlands Indie. and so ^pi(pi) forth. Scholiast on Callimachus. books. Java it or used to be customary to place every child at birth in a bamboo basket like the sieve or winnowing-basket which Javanese It is farmers use for separating the rice from the chafif. in the winnowing-fan was identified with the function of the instrument to which it is the corn against this identification it may be Yet sift. by other is peoples in other lands. these two spirits. a pencil. J. For example.Gewoontenen Gebruiken der Javanen te Soerakarta. Winter. 7ap XeiKvois rb Tra\aLbi> KareKol- Eerste Deel (1843). ^ 695 . ink. TrXovTov Kal Kapwoiis Java (Haarlem. lest he be trampled by a horse bring him not to the bank of the river.^ In the Bilaspore district p.

41. sDh-uT'^ For example. p. pp. 74 . while the midwife scatters wheat. a new baby will sometimes be put at birth into an old winnowing-basket {chhaj) along with the sweepings of the house. See also Panjab Notes and Queries. On the fifth day the sieve. and it is henceforward used only for the house-sweepings. Names. 234. . intention it in the dust-bin. on the seventh day after birth the infant is carried on a sieve through the whole house. when several children of a children. pp. is removed outside the house and then. that being the last place where they would expect to find The same may perhaps be the ceremony observed by the Gaolis of the Deccan.. pease and salt. "'• . Gordon. Bilaspur District. in after life be ." "^°'. ' .^^e winnowing fan in jg^ ^^ich a newly-born child is laid. and so dragged out into the yard such a child may. E. the sieve is thrown away on the of a ^ Rev.^ In Upper Egypt a newly-born babe is immediately laid upon a corn-sieve and corn is scattered around it moreover. § 768. like Dionysus. 2 2 logical Institute. family have died in succession. As soon as a child is born. 1908). pp. -u B. " Opprobrious August 1886.^ and a like "°w'"g-fan *^ sometimes motive is assigned by other peoples for the practice of intended to placing newborn infants in a winnowing-basket or corn-sieve. "Hindu Birth V\m)?Co. (1907) p.^'Journal of the Observances in the Royal Anthropo- (Calcutta. id. Indian Folk Tales (London. (1881) Compare H. C. 1878). 182 7d. 331 sq. 181. who are supposed to have carried off its elder brothers and sisters these malevolent beings are on the look-out for the new baby. The intention of these ceremonies is The winsaid to be to avert evil spirits from the child. 185..I DIONYSUS it is 7 of India born infant in customary for well-to-do people to place a newa winnowing-fan filled with rice and after- wards to give the grain to the nurse in attendance. 1S77). barle}^. n C. it is bathed and then placed on a sieve for a few minutes. . . upper Egypt its People and Products (London. after the worship of Chetti has been performed. Part iii. Temple. known by but they will never think of raking for the hope of the family. Rose. 1903) p. A. Ixxi."y(7«r«a/^//^^ Asiatic Society of Bengal. pp. with a lime and pan leaves on it.. xxxvii.. j^j B!^ Klunzmger^z/^r aus Oberdgypten {SiMiig^xi. x. in the Punjaub. is f^^ ^^e worship ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^f Satwai. M. "Some Notes concerning the People of Mungell Tahsil." Indian Antiquary. This makes it impure. ^ R. the name of Winnowing-basket {Ch/iajju) or Dragged {Ghasitd)? The object of treating the child in this way seems to be to save its life by deceiving the spirits.

Thus from children ill India. by the next near female relative at the head of the stairs or of the ladder leading to the house. were ceremoniously upon to called come and is carrj^ the child off. Madagascar. . an infant is observed to distort its limbs supposed to be under the pressure of some one who has stooped over it. but of the parents. The person performing this duty calls out in a loud tone to the spirits to come and take road. to prevent such a calamity. This again for a —an is who forthwith sell it to some eighth or a quarter of a a further guarantee against molestation by the spirits. and in to sickens or feeble the spirit-doctors are called prescribe certain offerings to be spirits made to keep away the very who. nominal sum rupee perhaps. Gaddi Gaoh's of the Deccan. 258 si/. it dies before it is twenty- four hours old. "On Society of - Bombay. but of the spirits. Temples and Elephants (London.DIONYSUS Again. or for ever after to let it alone same moment she stamps violently on the floor to frighten the child. it and prosperous life before it. and in this belief they go through the following formalities.e. honest folk that would are regarded as not stoop to take what has been who apparently bought and paid Use of the winnowing-fan to avert evil for. i. some shape from a same custom. China. and placed by the grandmother if present. strings are round its wrists is on the first night after its birth. These people " believe that an infant is the child. and make it cry. it as if in is and 1 Lieut. come and take the infant away." ^ A child in like is intention of averting evil in " if assigned in other cases of the pain. tied if it If. if not. C. As soon as an infant is born it is bathed and dressed. the same notion of rescuing the child from dangerous spirits comes out very clearly in a similar custom observed by the natives of Laos. 45. If it the child .^ — — away to-day. regarded as being the property no who could have taken it if they had wanted relation it. pp. laid upon a rice-sieve. to relieve which the mother Travancore. to exercise it is regarded as an is follows the ordinary laws of nature its vocal organs. not of its parents. or give it a jerk. 1884). i. only a few hours previously." Journal of the Anthropological the Ghosi or Bock. at the does not cry this other hand. a province of Siam.-Colonel Gunthorpe. but. On the day after its birth the child longer of the spirits. on the and begins supposed to have a happy Sometimes the spirits do evil omen.

8. fastens them to the father's spear. "Tanala Customs. pronounced in the local dialect. or throw into the sea. the things that had been used in ceremonies of purification. 226 3 sq. and mother its evil beans. it be imagined that just as the beans roll off the boy's head. no doubt because the things were supposed to be tainted by the evil which had been transferred to them in the rites. and the water and the other things are buried. F. But call if the parents must in the aid of a who performs a ceremony for averting the threatened The child is placed in a winnowing-fan along with Further. may it not This ceremony. and the father gets the spear to put father away all evil. and on the cloth are laid some parched . 1883). 31. and as moreover the scars by the pustules are thought to resemble beans. is As the name for beans. or deposit at cross-roads." mother. among the Tanala people of Madagascar almost all children born in the unlucky month of Faosa are buried alive in the forest.I DIONYSUS it 9 places it with a nut-cracker on a winnowing fan and shakes ^ three or four times. Altertkiiiner der Griechen"^ [UQideXhtrg. Pausanias. Superstitions. 213. so will the pustules vanish from his body without leaving a 1 appears to core Mateer. " The worn-out spade to the grandchild may its it (the child) not may . Native Life in Travan(London. sort. J. Hergottesdieiistlichen 2 Richardson. pp. " puts an end to the child's evil days. § 23. for they account them evil. Then water which has been medicated with Finally the diviner says . A lad who is suffering from small-pox is made to squat in a large winnowing sieve. 1885). resolve to let the child live. and an axe."^ Similarly the ancient Greeks used to bury." Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Afagazine. p. they diviner. S. : some of the same despoil its father. and sets the spear in the child is bathed up in the ground. ." Again. On his head is placed a piece of red cloth. ii. Reprint of the First Foitr Ntimbers (Antananarivo. K. which are then allowed to roll off. we child then joins its are told. identical with the left common name for small-pox. it not despoil it despoil the children let be good. 132 sq. 25. the diviner takes herbs of the certain herbs.. mann. Lehrbuch der and Beliefs. ill-luck. 1858). same a worn-out spade.^ Another example of the use of a winnowing-fan in what may be called a purificatory ceremony is furnished by the practice of the Chinese of FooChow. herbs. pp. The days are averted.

fan on influence on the paddy bin.^ fertility and * Rev. growth. 2 Servius on Virgil. : . edited and revised by the Rev. Doolittle. original one.'' . The beans used in the ceremony had previously been placed before an image of the goddess of small-pox. cxxxi. Amongst these people "children are supposed to come into the world defiled. saying removed. saying Fan Fan Fan Fan in on power. and unless that defilement is trace behind. the rid may have been same operation being extended by analogy husks to the grain.^ his " The Elder now changes ' motion and fans up the child's arm. and. fan away unskilfulness away slow growth. fan on the paddy on followers. (Calcutta. fan on appropriate barft things. No. Social Life of the Chinese.DIONYSUS Thus the cure depends on the principle Perhaps on the same principle a of homoeopathic magic. winnowing-fan is employed in the ceremony from a notion that it will help to waft or fan away the disease like chaff from the grain. he fans it down the child's arm. It to may men them of evils of various sorts which would otherwise adhere like have been the wish to avert evils to was in this way that and But one motive. Paxton Hood (London. they will : ' Fan Fan Fan Fan Fan Fan away ill luck. . pp. fan on dependants : on good things. 1866). J." fourncd of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. pp. fan away ill success : away inability. fan away wretchedness : Fan away the whole completely. 114 sq.^ " * Among the Thus some of the foregoing instances the employment reasons for the use of the winiiowing-fan in birthrites suggested by the proper use of the implement as a means of separating the corn from of the winnowing-fan the chaff. F. New to the ancients explained the use of the winnowing-fan in the and perhaps the Series. fan away difficulty of growth : away stunted?iess. An Elder takes a thin splint of bamboo. Mason. 2 Rev. and unsuccessful in their undertakings. fa?t away stupidity : away debasedness. "Physical Character of the Karens. 9 sq.. promote mysteries. quod Libert patris sacra ad piirgationem animae pertitubant : et . sic sicut homines ejus mysteriis purgabantur.D.^ Karen ceremony of fanning away from evils children. vannis frumenta purgantur. tying a noose at one end. 1868). i. be unfortunate. D. We may compare a purificatory ceremony observed by the Karens of Burma at the naming of a newborn child. fan away puniness : away drowsiness. Georg. 166 " Et vannus lacchi ATystica autem Bacchi ideo ait.

). With the foregoing evidence before us of a widespread useofthe custom of placing we wmnow'^ * ° newborn children in winnowing-fans ing-fan in clearly cannot argue that Dionysus must necessarily have the rites of been a god of the corn because Greek tradition and Greek Dionysus. 81. have traced between the sowing of seed and the begetting of children. "Kind und Korn. op. cit.^ which many peoples. p. p. also cited by Mannhardt . Mannhardt. cit. and in particular the ancient Greeks. Mannhardt. Mythologische Forschungen (Strasburg. pp. 1867). Mannhardt. PetersThis custom is [I. 1884). The argument would prove too much. Der deutsche Volks3 abergldubische burg. 2 L. We cannot even press the argument drawn from the surname " He of the Winnowing-fan " which was borne by Dionysus. a^er^Aj«3«2(Berlin. Gebrduche (St. Boeder -Kreutzwald. W.I DIONYSUS it II newborn child in a winnowing-fan and surroundwith corn was probably the wish to communicate to the infant. the fertility for setting a ing and especially the power of growth possessed by the grain. 372. 339.§543. 61. art represent him as an infant cradled in a winnowing-fan. Mannhardt He rightly insisted on the analogy gave of the custom. for it would apply equally to all the infants that have been so cradled in all parts of the world. Der Ehsten 1854). citing A. the association of Dionysus with the winnowing-fan appears to be too intimate to be explained away as a mere reminiscence of a practice to which every Greek baby.e." W. 351-374. on the principle of sympathetic magic. Strackerjan. 1869). Wuttke. pp. whether 1 W. Yet when all necessary deductions have been made on this score. since we have seen that similar names are borne for similar reasons in India by persons who have no claim whatever to be regarded as deities of the corn. Aberglaube und Sagen aus dent Herzogthtim Oldenburg [Ol&znburg. 351 * sqq.^ and he confirmed his view of the function of the winnowing-fan in these ceremonies by aptly comparing a German custom of sowing barley or flax seed over weakly and stunted children in the belief that this will make them grow with the growth of the barley or the flax. This was in substance the explanation which W. i. op.^ An Esthonian mode of accomplishing the same object is to set the child in the middle of a plot of ground where a sower is sowing hemp and to leave the little one there till the sowing after that they imagine that the child will shoot is finished up in stature like the hemp which has just been sown/ . p.

We need not wonder. 1900). their faces whitened with chalk. and resurrection were enacted in his sacred rites. P. Vannus . that to the Greek for the mind the powers of fertility in general. that god stood . filled with fruitage of various kinds. that is. death. ^ Miss J. animal as In the thought of the ancients no sharp well as vegetable. ii.-pT^. Sylloge Insc7-iptionum Graecaru/n. and she bore him Zagreus. 2 Herodotus. p. pp. pp. xxiii. The Cults of the Greek States. The prominent place which that effigy occupied in the worship of Dionysus^ hints broadly. the in same coarse but expressive emblem the ritual of figured conspicuously Father Liber. when the babe mounted the throne of his father Zeus and mimicked the great god by brandishing the lightning in his tiny hand. 2930." . .. 34. v. Clement of Augustine. Potter .. ii. Alexandria. Zeus in the form of a serpent visited Persephone. (1903) pp.^ a conception of the god as a personification of the fruits of the earth in general fecundity conveyed and as if to emphasise the idea of by such a symbol there sometimes . vol.'^ No. 518 j-^^. 90 sqq. lacchi. L. Dionysus. But he did not occupy the throne long for the treacherous Titans. Dionysus was believed to have died a violent death. ed. 205. line of distinction divided the fertility of animals from the fertility of plants rather the two ideas met and blended in a nebulous haze. the Italian counterpart of for the Dionysus. i. The Cults of the Greek States. Farnell.DIONYSUS human or divine. 195. 1909) p. if it does not strictly prove. E. appears among the fruits in the winnowing-fan an effigy of the male organ of generation. 21. a horned infant. L. on the monuments which set forth This last emblem points plainly to the ritual of Dionysus. therefore. M. who in return homage paid to the symbol evil. 49 . Harrison. •' (Oxford. but to have been brought to life again and his sufferings. Nilsson. " Mystica Journal of Hellenic Siudies. had to submit. . 48. 32 . 19. That practice would hardly account either for the use of the winnowing. Farnell. id. His tragic story is thus told by the poet Nonnus. Protrept. vii. Dittenberger. R. 296 sgq. attacked him with knives while he was looking . v. 125. Like the other gods of vegetation whom we considered in the last volume. De civitate Dei.fan in the mysteries or for the appearance of the implement. Studia de Dionysiis Atticis (Lund. R.^ of his creative energy was believed to foster the growth of the crops and to guard the fields against the powers of Myth and ol the death resurrection of Dionysus. Scarcely was he born. 243. Frolegometia to the Study of Greek Religion. .

and ate it. Dionys. pp. He was said to have been the bastard son of Jupiter. as they are said to have done round the infant Zeus. to soothe his grief for the loss of his in which he enclosed the child's heart. made an image built a and then temporarily investing the king's son with the royal dignity as a preliminary to 1 sacrificing him instead of his father. and amusing the child with rattles and a cunningly-wrought looking-glass lured him into an ambush. Jupiter put the Titans to death by son. ii. For his father set him on the kingly throne. A. boiled But his sister his body with various herbs. however. Aglaophatnus. in the form of a bull. rushed upon him. Compare Chr.I DIONYSUS 13 For a time he evaded their assaults by turning himself into various shapes. but. a Cretan king. Jupiter transferred the throne and sceptre to the youthful Dionysus. ran thus. kept his heart and gave it to Jupiter on his return.^ His Cretan myth. he entrusted Dionysus to the care of guards upon whose fidelity he believed he could rely.^ Very noteworthy is the legend. Aglaopha?nus. he a horse. that in his infancy Dionysus occupied for a ^^^^^^ So Proclus tells Dionysus short time the throne of his father Zeus. the Titans. cut him limb from limb. In his rage. who had shared in the deed. De errore pro- fanai-um religioiium. and. . revealing to him the whole at himself in a mirror. The guards referred to are the mythical Curetes who danced a war-dance round the infant Dionysus. In this version a temple in his honour. and time the placed in his hand the sceptre. Protrept. 2 Firmicus Maternus. vi. of a lion. knowing that his wife Juno cherished a jealous dislike of the child. Minerva. Orphica. as related by Firmicus Maternus. Lobeck. Finally. Compare Ch. 59. 155-205. Nonnus. Lobeck. * Proclus on Plato. recorded both by Nonnus Legend and Firmicus. 6. and a serpent. and made him king of all the ^^^ f^^^jg^ gods of the world. torture. Cratylus. quoted by E. history of the crime. Going abroad. 228. of a young man." ^ Such traditions point to a custom of Zeus.'^ Euhemeristic turn has been given to the myth by representing Jupiter and Juno (Zeus and Hera) as a king and queen of Crete. A. p. 552 sq. where her satellites. p. 3 Clement of Alexandria. iill sqg. bribed the guards. 17. Juno. Abel. pp. was cut to pieces by the murderous knives of his enemies. assuming the likeness successively of Zeus and Cronus. us that " Dionysus was the last king of the gods appointed for'^^'short by Zeus.

p. ed. ed. 562. pp. ^ i. which is variously related. Diodorus Siculus. ritual. p. iii. Middleton. Origen. G. 12. * S. Proclus on Plato's Zi'waeMj-. 30). SeQ The Dying God. by the French. Contra Celstim. 234. in Somn. The festivals of Dionysus were biennial in many places. and by Abel.^ the command together. See G. 246. A. who thereby conceived : . E. by pieced Dionysus were on Parnassus. see an article by J. ed. ^ Ch. iii. Pomegranates were supposed to have sprung from the blood of Dionysus. the severed limbs of According Thesmophoria.^ Dionysus was at Thebes. again. up and given in a portion to Semele. Protrept. ^ Clement of Alexandria. 22 . Recognitiones. 280.^ The them grave of buried who Apollo. ii. Clemens Romanus. according to another account. Orat. iv. 18 p. Dial. vii. we find that the ^^ festival at which the passion 19. it represented Dionysus as a son of Zeus and Demeter. statue of Apollo. where he is said to of grave the pieces. Aglaophamus. 1834).14 DIONYSUS CHAP. Others said that the mangled p. H. ix. 561 Orphica. i. Aglaophamus. For a conjectural restoration of the temple. ii. (vol. p. at of Zeus. Fabulae. p. ^ i" Hyginus. quoted by Ch. Lobeck. H. him. Orphica. A. in Journal of Hellenic Studies. Protrept.^. Scholiast on Lucian. F. Koetschau). (1888) The ruins of the temple pp. 4.^ In others it is simply said that shortly after his burial he rose from the dead and ascended up to heaven. . have now been completely excavated ed.-^. Theologiae Graecae CoDipendium. 1434). 5. p. as anemones from the blood of Adonis and hence women refrained violets from the blood of Attis pomegranates at the festival of the of seeds from eating to some. body was pieced together. Meretr. Lobeck. ix. but in other versions of the myth According to one version. x. the heart was pounded as mother of Dionysus. based on ancient authorities and an examination of the scanty remains. <. iii. 200 D. 17 p. Clement of Alexandria. 24 (Migne's Patrologia Graeca. P.^ Turning from the myth to the Cretans celebrated a biennial ^ ii. ^ Himerius.']2sqq. Compare id. . 62. 286. Comment. Scriptores rerum mythicarum Latini tres Roniae nuper reperti (commonly referred to as Mythographi Vaticani). 167. i. col. 282 sqq. 8 Proclus. not by Apollo but by Rhea (Cornutus. Abel.* Thus far the resurrection of the torn in been have slain god is not mentioned. quoted by Lobeck. his mother pieced together his mangled limbs and made him young again. 12. Dionysus was shewn in the Delphic temple beside a golden However. Hymn to Minerva.^ who in the common legend figures Or. ^ Macrobius. . 12. Rabe. Bode (Cellis. Scip.® or that Zeus raised him up as he lay mortally wounded ' or that Zeus swallowed the heart of Dionysus and then begat him afresh by Semele. Aglaophamus. H. 235.

H. xiv. G.^ resurrection formed part of the myth. TAe Cults of the Greek States. '° iv. Pausanias. as has happened with other festivals. 5 sq. while they threw a lamb into the lake as an offering to the warder of the dead. 31. Isis et Osiris.. ^ Himerius. 533 sq. 37.^ A different form of the myth of the death and resurrection of Dionysus is that he descended into Hades to bring up his mother Semele from the dead.^ and it even appears that a general doctrine of resurrection. 598. were annual. De Delphico. Quaest. who summoned him from the water by trumpet blasts.id. Ists et Osiris. .. iii. Griechische ii. ii. 491. who are Alterthiimer. Orat. 6.. Dr. De errore ^ Mythographi Vaticani. p.^ Whether this was a spring festival does not appear. 7. rpier-qph. ad iii.^ Schomann. writing to console his wife on the death of their infant daughter.'^ for the festival both terms being included in the numeration. pp. and which would certainly be consecrated by a special ritual attached to the god of the soil. Farnell. Apollodorus. the agricultural processes . and to the wild music of and cymbals they mimicked the rattles by which the Where the infant god had been lured to his doom. in other words his resurrection. it also was acted at the rites. ed. Plutarch. 2 and 37.Deesucarnium. ii. 3. 5. or at least of immortality. Consol.^ .\. comforts her with the thought of the immortality of the soul as taught by tradition and revealed in the mysteries of Dionysus. id. In front of them was carried a casket supposed to contain had done or suffered heart of Dionysus. See W. (The terms were of the series Deities of vegetation. Baumkultus. 10. in accordance with the ancient mode of reckoning. for Plutarch. Some 172. 6. period in many Greek festivals is to be explained by "the original shifting of landcultivation which is frequent in early society owing to the backwardness of that the biennial * Pausanias. Conviv. ) Perhaps the festivals were formerly annual and the period was afterwards lengthened." See L. . 180 sq. was annually celebrated on the spot by the Argives. 5. Plutarch.. Farnell has conjectured E Com^2LXt id. but the Lydians certainly celebrated the advent of Dionysus in spring the god was supposed to . 175. 5.^ The local Argive tradition was that he went down through the Alcyonian lake and his return from the lower world. bring the season with him. was inculcated on the sacred flutes tion of Dionysus T^I^^ sen ted in • his rites. Bode. -^^ .^^""'f^- moments was enacted before the eyes of his worshippers. who tore a live bull to pieces with their teeth and roamed the woods with frantic shouts. 12. All that he Death and '". Bibliotheca. id.']. iii. R. the worshippers .^.. t. Mannhardt. 6. ^ Firmicus Maternus. v. . 246. ^ uxor. 2. 524 5^^.I DIONYSUS in his last 15 of Dionysus was represented in every detail. TpierrjpiKds. however. of the festivals of Dionysus. profanarutn religionum.

. * F. pp 344^^. "a bull. Isis ^ ^^.' >«r««/ </ Zr^//^«?^ Studies. ' .^° portrayed as a calf-headed child seated on a The people of Cynaetha in north-western festival Arcadia held a of Dionysus in winter.. ..* or Types with bull horns ^ and he was painted with horns. '^l . 920 1017 . with Gerhard's v. ''"'" Myt^^ologie. w. . 6 Diodorus Siculus.^ images were often. 1. 2. ^ Magnum. the head. 1. 64.. Tzetc. 197 sqq. ii. Didionnaire des Antiques ^^ Grecquesjt Romaines. Denhndler der '''^'" ^"'"^' "• P'. Lenormant in Daremberg et Saglio. v. Isis et 35 . p. Alexiphai-maca. Kilikian Cities. " Coin-types of some ^^ . '" Gazette ArchMogiqiie. Cambridge. (1879) Nonnus. Alte (Gottingen. 576 Etymologicum . as at Cyzicus. 5 . 16 .. Protrept. r A. 357 Nicander. Pembroke College. 4. 476 a." " .i6 DIONYSUS CHAP. t. applied to .. Perieg. Frogs. Dionysius. xi. 2 Porphyry. . 165. 17. iii49 sqq F. horns. Bacchae. . 619 ^^.- • • ." two-horned.-. Athenaeus. 371-373.^. Graec. Diodorus Siculus. ^ Plutarch. JJ . 57) is etymologically equivalent to the Sanscrit varsabha. 14(10. of a bull. iii. Osiris.''^'""Daremberg Saglio. 3. is that he was often conceived and represented A m . and a calfs head. 2. xxxiii. u. . which at first sight appears inconsistent with his nature as a deity Qf vesfctation. r- Dionysus sented in the form of a bull. . Zeitung. Dictionnaire et Plutarch. 2 J. Wpa^pt^Tr. 3.. i. and hoofs hanging down . t. the horns. .1864)." horn-bearing. A.^ id." On one statuette he appears clad in a bull's hide. lamented friend the R. ' ^. 31 2." "bull^ "bull-faced. 30: Athenaeus.. xxx. „ . on Lycophron. * when men. Welcker. pp. De abstinentia. Imhoof-Blumer. 8 99 Scholiast on Aristophanes. Dionysus {Homeric Hymns. 1849. ix.^ On a red-figured vase the god is woman's 1 lap. Adonis. . Theologiae Graecae Corn- penditun 6 '•o. remarks. .-^.i.. . et Osiris.G. ' zes. pi. . • . . .. Clement of Alexandria.. attached to the back of his head. Orphica. For Dionysus in this capacity see F. or " r at least with . ^ Quaest. The title Lucian. iii. For Osiris. see Second Edition. Attis. xi. 632. naturally come to be regarded as gods of the lower world Both Dionysus and Osiris were so conceived." bull -browed. 631 Philostratus. . . supposed to pass a certain portion of each year under ground. A. Osiris. Cornutus. 12^6 .7 ? 7 r „ ^ Schol. Hymn 2. xviu. 51. Imaptnes. behind.^ or of the dead. Lexikon d grtech." horned. vi." Thus he " spoken of " as " cow-born. Neil of sqq. (1898) p. p. especially "bull-shaped. I." He His was believed to appear. "• Roscher. as a bull. Euripides. iii. Bacchae. 20Q. Bacchus. 7 Muller-Wieseler." horned.^ of the horned Dionysus are found amongst the surviving monuments of antiquity.^ Again. 3 Euripides. Iii. "bull. liii. . he is represented as a child with clusters of grapes round his brow. animal shape. ^ ^. 64. 476 des i. xlv. 371. ." as I was informed by late my Archaeologische . in the is lorm. with sprouting horns. at least occasionally. \> ' . Dionys. made in bull shape. iv. feature in the mythical character of Dionysus. xxxiv. 4.^ ' . 2. Antiqnit^s Grecques Romaines. (1851) pi. Denkmdler taf.

fanaru7n religionum. the belief that he appeared in bull form to his rites. and drinking his blood. we should perhaps read MeXavalyiOi. They sang.DIONYSUS r -' 17 who had greased to pick out a bull their bodies with oil for the occasion. when they acted the sufferings and death of Dionysus. Dionysus. Bacchae. Scholiast on Aristophanes. ATrarof/atci. it was in the shape of a bull that he was torn to pieces by the Titans ^ and the Cretans. 735 sqq. Dionys. ^eXa. PT. 1 Pausanias. 35. and bull form. viii. Aristophanes." ^ At Athens and at Hermion he was worshipped under the title of " the one of the Black Goatskin. . ScAol. eV ry 4>aivl)fxevos. 146. 205. ^g^ where for MeXavdidr. Tzetzes. 3 Tpwi^os Stephanus Byzantius.^ In the wine-growing district of Phlius. „ De ncu?fi ]\Ianm>?i. "Epirpos 6 I ALbwaos. Firmicus Maternus. C . Acharn bcnoliast on .^ of live bulls and calves appear to have been a regular feature When we consider the practice of of the Dionysiac rites. Isis et Osiris. * Pausanias.ai^Sa ^^bvmov . 302. on Lycophron. Compare Conon. 6 . rushing with thy bull's foot.*^ . id. p. xxvii. eating his flesh. '^ . " Come hither. of the god. we cannot doubt that in rending and devouring a live bull at his festival the worshippers of Dionysus believed themselves to be killing the god. and the legend that in bull form he had been torn in pieces. . s. 357. 19. Another animal whose form Dionysus assumed was the goat. errorepro- g^j^^^^ ^_^^_ 'A. VOL. for at his festivals he was believed to appear in The women of Elis hailed him as a bull. prayed him to come with his bull's foot. is a marginal gloss 'iapi 2 Plutarch.5 * Nonnus. t. ! wore horns in imitation of their god. 35. on which there fxiKphs ^'i°^'^ ° al'l. Nonnus.v. O " goodly bull. tore a live bull to Indeed. 6.^ which probably represented the deity himself. the rending and devouring pieces with their teeth.. One of his names was " Kid. 11. Dionys.v. Hesychius. .raToi)p:a and Euripides. to thy holy temple by the sea come with the Graces to thy temple.6. portraying the god as a bull or with some of the features of the animal.^ According to the myth. I J. Narrat." and a legend ran that on a certain occasion he had appeared clad in the skin from which he took the title. 2.. where in autumn the plain is still thickly mantled with the red and worshippers at the sacred Dionysus as a goat. Quaestioiies Graecae. vi. Etymolo1 „. » 6 . '-^ '^'<P^P^[^- . used from the herd and carry it to the sanctuary Dionysus was supposed to inspire their choice of the particular bull. s.. V. Frogs. O goodly bull The Bacchanals of Thrace ' . 18. J2.

i. This I learnt what was to follow Presently two bands of furious wretches appeared.* they must have believed that they were eating the body and himself . s. there stood of old a bronze image of a goat. Bibliotheca. On As fawns appear in to have been also torn Troy the Greeks are said to have found goats and an image of Dionysusin a cave of Euboea( Pausanias.1 DIONYSUS CHAP. iii. an old chicf had ordered a female slave to be dragged to ^j^g beach. ed. Bode. and the two naked men made themselves look as selves into groups at a fear of was from unearthly as stoop. 3 Apollodorus. each headed by a man in a state of nudity. proceeding in a creeping kind of two proud horses. Transfortn. and forming them- good distance away. 30). return from i.v. 19. v. ]Metai7t. Hence when his Dionysus was turned into a goat. Compare alyi^dv. Liberalis. 86. but. he proceeds " I did not see the murder. They gave vent to the most unearthly sounds. immediately as follows after. naiiofies. An English missionary to the Coast Indians of British Columbia has thus described a scene like cannibalism among |. 1 3. 2 I). and thrown into the water. p. rpaytjcpdpoi). rites of Dionysus ve^pl^eiv . But of this there seems no direct evidence.]-jg cannibal orgies of the Bacchanals. ^j^^^ ^^ ^j^g g^^ of tearing in pieces the bodies of animals Custom rending of The custom devouring ^^^ ^f . Vaticani. Arnobius. To save him from the wrath of Hera. it is probable that the fawn was another of the god's embodiments. observance of similar rites among the frenzied of Bacchus. s. 6. golden foliage of the fading vines. Antoninus G. * 28 Mythographi H. pieces at the (Photius. I saw crowds of people running out of those houses : 11. r 1 1 11 near to where the corpse was thrown.^ Live goats d^^ourli by his worshippers. at the same time their Pausanias. Harpocration. s.^ worshippers rent in pieces a live goat and devoured it raw. Fawnskins were worn both by the god and his worshippers (Cornutus. 1 possible. ve^pli^wv). Theologiae Graecae Compendium. "°^ therefore dismiss as a fable the testimony of antiquity to and men as a reigious nte. his father Zeus changed the youthful Dionysus into a kid ^ and when the gods fled to Egypt to escape the fury of Typhon. s. After mentioning that the ^Qj-gi^ippej-s the Indians of British Columbia. Adversus Suidas. 23. 29. like and stepping ii. . murdered. 329 . 4.v.v. 3. Ovid. v. Similarly the female Bacchanals wore goat-skins (Hesychius. . which the husbandmen plastered with gold-leaf as a means of protecting their vines against The image probably represented the vine-god blight.v.^q^ ^nd then devouring them raw has been practised We need as a religious rite by savages in modern times. Lexicon.

284-288. their still more horrid feast. The sight was too terrible to behold. pp. C." ^ Mr. Such instruments are used by . Separating a few yards. and so hid their horrid work. these cannibals apparently seized and devoured living people. causing their long black hair to twist about. In a few minutes them. " which up a growling noise. either from bravado or as a charm.I DIONYSUS 4 19 shooting forward each arm alternately. 1862). human bodies. amid horrid yells. was seconded by a screeching noise made from an instrument which they believe to be the abode ^ of a spirit. on such occasions. the continual jerking their heads back. of the water. quoted by Commander R. seeking the body. and laid on the beach. I have seen several whom he has bitten. Finally they seized it it. that the two bands of savages just alluded to belong to that medicine-men. Mayne. Duncan. Four Years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island (London. Duncan has seen hundreds of the Tsimshian Indians sitting in their canoes which they had just pushed off from the shore in order to escape being Others torn to pieces by a party of prowling cannibals. which he Several persons. I may mention I left the gallery with a depressed heart. of these Indians contented themselves with tearing dogs to pieces. which they held out at full length for a little time in the most defiant manner. present their arms for him to bite. and the instant they came where it lay they commenced screaming and rushing round it like so many angry wolves. they commenced. where dragged it out I was told the naked men would commence tearing it to pieces with their The two bands of men immediately surrounded teeth. is generally supplied with two. Mr. when each of the naked cannibals appeared with half of the body in his hands. The instrument which made the screeching sound was no doubt a bull-roarer.' " class which the whites term The same ' writer informs us that at the winter ceremonials of these " the Indians cannibal." And when corpses were not forthcoming. a flat piece of stick whirled at the end of a string so as to produce a droning or screaming note according to the speed of revolution. added much to their For some time they pretended to be savage appearance. Besides this. three. or four tears to pieces before his audience. the crowd broke into two. and I hear two have died from the effects. while their attendants kept or a whoop.

65 sq.. (separate reprint). his going out and his coming in.?^. id. such as the Bella Coola. see Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. 1897)." Report of the British Association for i8gi... . real or pretended. Boas. which regulate his eating and drinking.. ^ Fr."! Report of the British Association fort f8gj. id. pp. : coast. Boas. When make they issue forth with rite. 10 sq.-7(S'<5*9. 611. 1 Fr. pp. op. National Museum for i8gs (Washington. 1897). one canoe. bite pieces out ^^^ Secret Societies.'''' Report of the British . The cannibals in a state of frenzy. in " Fifth Report on the North-western TrihtsoiC^ndiAa.. " The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. p. National ton. Indians the Cannibals {Hamatsas) are the highest in rank of They devour corpses. Report on the Northwestern Tribes of Canada. 62. the Niska. 536. have killed.." Report of the British Association for i8go. for the purpose. and formerly ate slaves who had been But when their fury has subsided. but men of the cannibal creed and of stout hearts the will resolutely hold out their arms to be of the same region at their cannibal and other rites.^ Haida Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands there is one religion of cannibalism and another of dog-eating. 649 sq. "Sixth "Seventh As to the rules observed after the Report on the North-western Tribes of Canada. his clothing and his intercourse with his wife.20 Religious societies of DIONYSUS Mr. They Panther Society tear dogs to pieces and devour them. 664." Report of the British Association for i8go. 54-56 (separate reprint) . Boas." Report of the Koskimo Indians eating of human flesh. (separate reprint). In the latter case the tariff is fixed sometimes of canoes.. pp. U. they are obliged to pay compensation to the persons whom they have bitten and to the owners of slaves whom they The indemnity consists sometimes of blankets. and Dogamon<^ the Indians of rites has been Among the Kwakiutl borne out by later observation.S. 579. 1 88. See Fr. 537 sq. 610. pp. For some time after eating human one bite. id. "Tenth Report onj the North-western Tribes of Canada.. So among the wear masks armed with canine teeth. 527 sq. j-^jj^ Columbia. flesh the cannibal has to observe a great many rules. pp. Duncan's account of these savage CHAP.1 90.^ Similar customs prevail among other tribes of the same of living killed people. 'p'p..-fw^«a/'/(7«/^. (separate reprint). in Museum for j8g^ (Washing658 sq. 437-443. 58 (separate reprint). p. the Tsimshian. In the Nootka tribe members of the and the Nootka. " The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians.western Tribes of Canada.. pp. 51. bite flesh out of the extended arms of their fellow villagers. cries of Hop-pop to observe this solemn persuasion all who are of a different religious haste to get out of their way .." Report of the U.S. id. in " Sixth Report on the North . cit.

Report on the Museum of Natural History). and an orgy takes place over the raw and quivering flesh. In a few minutes the wretched animals are cut.. R. 501.^ Again. preceded by wild music. the practice of these savage rites among the Indian coast tribes of British Columbia. 539 <?•. 526. — scanty piece of cotton rapid to-and-fro is all their clothing plaits. who is generally on horseback. treal. followers of Mohammed ben Isa or Aisa of Mequinez. iii. The naked savages for on these occasions a . the Emkaddim. with cries by the and is hands reeking with blood. and uttering loud resembling place the bleating of goats. 125 B. lio sq. Dawson.. a sudden rush is made from the sanctuary. see my Totemistn Haida (Leyden and New York. like men delirious. i6os^. — with their long faces black hair. is still proceeding. and carries a long stick. 544. Memoir of the American the Ethnology of the and Exogamy {London. Words can do no justice to the frightful scene which now ensues. pp.. . M. - J. 156. J^. ordinarily worn in tossed about movements of the head. and the dancers. and devour some of the flesh but they have to pay for the dogs which they consume in their reh'gious enthusiasm. The and the people avoid them as much as possible by shutting themselves up in their houses. 537. speed away to a place where live goats are tethered in readiness. pp. 519..-^ In the performance of these savage rites the frenzied actors are beheved to be inspired by a Cannibal Spirit and a Dog-eating Spirit respectively. at his shrine or elsewhere and holding each other's hands " While the mad dance dance a frantic dance round a fire. if such discordant sounds will bear the name. Goats are pushed out from the doors. Swanton. whose tomb is at Every year on their founder's birthday they assemble Fez. 511 s^. 535 545. 542 sq. At sight of these animals the fury of the savage and excited crowd reaches its height. pp. ' Live goats "^^"^ "^ pieces and devoured ^ anatics j^ Morocco. 1880). A Christian or a Jew would run great risk of losing his life if either were found in the street. and then dispute over the morsels of at their mercy. 1905).I DIONYSUS 21 The sect of dog-eaters cut or tear dogs to pieces bitten. in Morocco there is an order of saints known as Isowa or Aisawa. 181 {The Jestip North Pacific Expedition. again enter the town. When they seem satiated. 5155^. tails as to Forde- Qiteen Charlottle Islands. forms a sort of procession. * now G. Contributions to j8j8 (Mon128 B. 521.. 19 10). and these the fanatics tear immediately to pieces with their hands. or rather torn to pieces..

various stories are invented to explain it. 13. we tions of the examine more belongs to a very times to be to strip the custom of ^ early stage of god"in misunderstood. still retain a vague and ill-understood connexion with the anthropomorphic gods who have been In other words. Les Aissdoua a Tlemcen (Chalons-sur-Marne. with ^ indiscriminating rage. and these share the fate of the goats. Compare Budgett Meakin. developed out of them. same order of fanatics also exists . human culture.DIONYSUS bleeding flesh. the animals and plants which were at first the deities themselves. Devised for the former purpose. the town of Tlemcen. 267-269. and is apt in later The advance of thought tends bestial animal old animal and plant gods of their and vegetable husk. These explanations may follow one of two lines according as they are based on the habitual or on the exceptional treatment of the sacred ingly the animal or plant. Morocco and the Moors (London. the myth would tell of some service rendered to the deity by the animal devised for the latter purpose. and only exceptionally slain and accord- myth might be devised to explain either why it was spared or why it was killed. abhorred by the mussulman. p. pp. will try to prevent the desecration of pious But the fanatics sometimes prevail. which in detail further on. or pretended to be devoured. animal purely anthropomorphic. CHAP. as instead of men. They were sacri. and the mouths. 331 sq. The especially at and holds similar orgies in Algeria. Leared. unclean animal. is torn in pieces and devoured. Sometimes a luckless dog." Later mis interpreta- The custom shall of killing a god in animal form. The origin of the relationship between the deity and the animal or plant having been forgotten. 1900). the myth would tell of some injury inflicted by the animal on the god. is seized on. 1876). Doutte. The sacred . See E. and to leave their human attributes (which are always the kernel of the conception) as the final and sole residuum. should any a tumult. though they were ravenous wolves Snakes also are thrown to them as tests of their divine frenzy. ^ A. straying as dogs will stray in Then the laymen. The reason given for sacrificing goats to Dionysus exemplifies a myth of the latter sort. animal was habitually spared. pp. 1902). and plant gods tend to become When they have become wholly or nearly so. The Moors (London. be at hand.

s. Hesychius.v. lycophron. Hist. 52 (compare Scholiast on Oppianus. Hesychius.Rendu de la Commission Imperials Archeologiqtie pour Pantti^e jS6g .* shall find that some savages propitiate dead bears and whales by offering them portions of their own bodies. aiyo4>dyos (compare the representation Hera clad in a goat's skin. Denkmdler der . Graecae Com- 0^70^070?. i. L. 2) Scholia on Kvvoa(payr)s (J.. at pendium. u. compaie id. 194. A^al. 10 . id. Varro. I . 6) kt6vo! (Pliny. xxxiv. Petersburg. 9. Hera aiyo<pdyos at Sparta. the victim is the god's old " self. i.^ Later on All we this. Electra. p. 357. the is god eats of own Hence the goat-god Dionysus . however. the animal in question was originally nothing but the deity himself. i. Now the goat. Cornutus. 19737. ii. tI)fjLO(pdyov x^'P'-"3 * pp. 346 b.v. his when flesh. Rerum ii. as the deity is supposed to partake of the victim offered to him. 233. griech. Kpio(pdyos. 353 -f^^. ^ See below. iii. . 229 B and the similar representation of the Lanuvinian Juno. Elis. Zeus 196.. as we have because they injured the vine." ^ On the analogy of these instances we may conjecture that wherever a deity is described as the eater of a particular animal. pp. H. with the animal's head and horns over her head.^ seen. . 30. Kairpo(pdyo? viii. s. s. Euripides. Stephani. Pauiii. /Vis^T.^8sq. does not explain why a deity of Human . sanias. Etymologicum Magnum. 184. as Dionysus aiyo^oXos (PauRhea or Hecate sanias. Samos. Kairpocpdyos in . . Athenaeus. the object of the god's especial care.. 16-18) Apollo 6^o<pdyos 36. s. it was alleged that this was a punishment inflicted on the goat for injuring the vine. rusiicarum. Mythologie. 2. rom. 27. on Aristophanes. '^ Theologiae 1145^. Thus we have the strange spectacle of a god sacrificed to himself on the ground that he is his own enemy. Apollo XvKOKTdvos Apollo cavpo(Sophocles. ii. Lexikon d. v. W.DIONYSUS ficed 23 to him.-&.. ix. the killing of the goat in his worship came to be regarded no longer as a slaying of the deity himself. it follows that. it was said. 1870). represented as eating raw goat's blood and the bull-god Dionysus is called " eater of bulls.„ ^he vegetation should appear in animal form.v. 118 . But when the god had divested himself of his animal character and had become essentially anthropomorphic. alteii Kunst. 376-381. in Compte. 8. Halieitt. 15.). sideration of that point 1 But the conhad better be deferred till we have aiyo(pdyos. No. 77).:dyp€vij}i' alfia TpayoKTdvov. iii. Meta7iiorph. of M\x\\er-\Nitse\tx. but as a sacrifice offered to him and since some reason had to be assigned why the goat in particular should be sacrificed. p. Divine titles derived from killing animals are probably to be similarly explained. 70). (St.. was originally an embodi- ment of the god himself. Bacc/iae. Georg. Fasti. Tzetzes. with the comments of Servius on the passage and on Aen. Artemis Schol. worship of Dionysus. 19 . 605 sqq.v. Ovid. And . Roscher. Virgil. vol.

the The legendary deaths of Pentheus human victim also represented him. as I have already suggested. pp. I. 55. 344. ^/(5//<?///i?c«. . Bibliotheca. is said to have been doomed by an oracle to be sacrificed at the altar in order to remove the curse of barrenness which afflicted his country. pp. 345. a King of Thessaly or Boeotia. Pausanias. i. 2. instead of an animal. 8. Adonis. it is expressly said that him to be by horses for the purpose of restoring the fertility of the ground after a period of barrenness and dearth. 332 Apollodorus.''^ Have we not in this tradition a reminiscence of a custom of sacrificing the king's son in place of the father ? Similarly Athamas. Attis. " ^ 366 '' sq. for their opposition to and Lycurgus be reminiscences may be. iii. 346. he contrived to evade the sentence and in a fit of madness killed his own son Learchus. As the slain bull we may suppose. for whom a goat was afterwards substituted. Edition. a human being was torn in pieces at the rites of This was the practice in Chios and Tenedos ^ Dionysus. Second sq. De abstinentia. time it remains to mention that in some places.^ Further. Apollodorus. The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings.^ or goat represented the slain god.1. king of the Thracian tribe of the Edonians. distorted horses.^ had been the goat-smiting Dionysus that it At Orchomenus. the human victim was taken from the women of an old royal family. 163 sq. fragments of their broken bodies over the fields for the purpose of fertilising them.'^ There is no improbability in the tradition. mistaking him for a vine-branch. as we have seen. 352. 5. iii. In regard to Lycurgus. the other by the rites of Dionysus. and a at Potniae in Boeotia the tradition ran formerly the custom to sacrifice to child. his subjects at the bidding of an oracle caused rent in pieces ^ Porphyry. however. it is significant that King Lycurgus is said to have slain his own son Dryas with an axe in a fit of madness. We have seen that in Africa and other parts of the world kings or chiefs have often been put to death by their people for similar reasons. 354.* of sacrificing divine may reminiscences of a custom kings in the character of Dionysus and of dispersing the of a custom of sacrificing divine kings in the character of Dionysus. See The Dying God. Osiris. 5. . ii. two kings who are said to have been torn to pieces. so. ^ 3 * ix. mistaking him for a wild beast.24 DIONYSUS Mean- discussed the character and attributes of Demeter. the one by Bacchanals. The legends of the deaths of Pentheus and Lycurgus.

24 (Migne s Fatrolos^ia Graeca. 257 . ." Jounial of Hellenic Studies. Schol. annually performed which reproduces with remarkable fidelity some of the most striking traits in the In a former part of this work Dionysiac myth and ritual* I have already called attention to this interesting survival of paganism among a Christian peasantry ^ but it seems . Mr.. Fabtilae. desirable and appropriate in this place to 1 draw out somewhat Herodotus.s I DIONYSUS this 25 is That eldest legend was not a mere myth made probable by times : a custom observed at Alus down to historical the male scion of the royal house was regularly sacrificed in due form to Laphystian Zeus if he ever set foot within The close resemblance between the legends the town-hall. Vizyenos in a Greek j^-w 'n c -^x.. 1043 Theocritus. 43 sqq. 161-163. % . Pausanias. r> . Idyl. ApoUodorus. . . Vizyenos s only account. . 9.. i sq. • . vii.. pp.^ the very place where according to legend the same fate befell king Pentheus at the hands of the frenzied votaries of the vine-god. late years some confirmation from the discovery is still down to the present time in Thrace. i. ii. the original a drama home of Dionysus.^ The theory kings that in prehistoric times Greek and Thracian Survival of been dismembered in the ^jtes character of the vine-god or the corn-god for the purpose of among or their sons fertilising the earth or may have 1 • the quickenmg the vmes has received that 1 • • 1 r modern 01 Thradan peasantry. Euripides. Aristophanes. Adonis. . xxvi. one number was published at Athens in 1897. Dawkins was able to confirm the accuracy of Mr. (1906) pp. pp. ^ of Pentheus is said to have been perpetrated not at Thebes. 7. 333 sq. a vine-branch fits in well with the theory that the victim in It is these sacrifices represented the vine-god Dionysus. Clouds. ^. Bibliotheca.. R. Hyginus. 1. n Clemens Ti Romanus. of which he was king. Osiris. 197. 21. G. J. the murder . Kecos:nitiones. Tzetzes. xxvi. Scholiast on . "The in Thrace and the Cult oiDiowysns. 1-5. M. 9 ^ X. probably no mere coincidence that Dionysus himself is said to have been torn in pieces at Thebes. of which '' Modern Carnival • • 1 > • \ 3 sqq. M. partly from an account of them published by -^ /^utitr-^i Mr. Attis. Bacchae. but on Mount Cithaeron. ] ^^^'' \ \ See Mr. Strictly speaking. See The Dying God. 191-206. periodical QpaKiKri ETrerT/ptj.^ of King Athamas and King Lycurgus furnishes a ground for believing both legends to be based on a real custom of sacrificing either the king himself or one of his sons for the and the story that the king's son good of the country Dryas perished because his frenzied father mistook him for . Dawkins describes the ceremonies partly from his own observation. Dawkins. on Lycophron. 2. Second Edition. From his personal observations Mr.

which is the Monday At Viza itself the mummery of the last week of Carnival. . of which some fine walls are still . Their shoulders are thickly padded with hay to protect them from the blows which used to be rained very liberally on their backs. parts in drama. performed at the Carnival in the villages round Viza. acropolis. has been shorn of some of its ancient features. while the skin falls over the face. George (Haghios It is to the drama as acted at that village that the following description specially applies. 192. frag. Fawnskins on their shoulders and goatskins on their legs are or used to be part of their equipment. 1 Strabo. Both these actors must be married men. as it is locally called. which may reasonably be regarded as a direct descendant of the Dionysiac rites.^ The date of the celebration is Cheese Monday. an old Thracian capital. 48 . Vizyenos. the goatskins. but these have been kept up at the villages and have been particularly Inscriptions preserved in the of observed and recorded at the village of Gheorgios). The actors in the St. The drama. they are chosen for periods of four years. . Stephanus Byzantius.26 DIONYSUS fully the parallelism more Drama annually between the modern drama and the ancient worship. the ancient Bizya. modern town record the names some of these old kings. vii. One of the two skin-clad actors carries a bow and the other a wooden effigy of the male organ of generation. Dawkins. The principal drama are taken by two men disguised in Each of them wears a headdress made of a complete goatskin. a town of Thrace situated about midway between Adrianople and Constantinople. cit. According to Mr.^ probably in the Asti standing. p. which is stuffed so as to rise a foot or more like a shako over his head. 2 R.7<. forming a mask with holes cut for the eyes and mouth. op. In antiquity the city was the capital of the Thracian tribe of the the kings had their palace there. Bij't'T?. is annually performed at the Carnival in all the Christian villages which cluster round Viza. s. Two unmarried boys dressed as girls and sometimes called brides also take part in the play and a man disguised as an old woman in rags carries a mock baby in a basket the brat is supposed to be a seven-months' child born out of wedlock and begotten by an unknown . M. and another indispensable part of it is a number of sheep-bells tied round their waists.

cries. 1 After a dance hand in hand. who now pretend witness the performance. in which all the actors take part. In this throwing herself across his prostrate body. the mock bridegroom is shot by his His slayer the bow and falls down on his face like dead. One of the skin-clad men and to clamour for a wife. the boys shal-n"^" disguised as girls dance. eggs. man making believe to hammer work the bellows. however. the two skin-clad maskers withdraw aad leave the field to the gypsies. the death and -11 r ^1 troop takes up position on the open space before the village resurrection. join actors other the all himself and lamentation the slayer prethe and burlesqued service is in a Christian funeral grave. and the gypsy man and wife enact mock an obscene pantomime on the straw-heap before the house. . . At this point the old woman's baby is supposed to grow up at a great pace. The morning of the day Thecere- on which they perform their little drama is spent by them |^°. ^nTT^^' pretence of When every house in the village has been thus visited. with stout saplings. bagpipe. clad in quity was applied to Dionysus. the to carried to be as if up lifted tended corpse is At this point. . and a to forge a ploughshare. . where the whole population has already mustered to .I DIONYSUS The basket in which the hopeful infant name of the winnowing-fan and the babe of the Winnowing-fan " {Liknites) is 27 father."'^gjfje going from door to door collecting bread. . church. Such are the masqueraders. paraded conthe very in anti- bears the ancient " {likni. forging of At every door the two skin-clad maskers knock. the the share and his wife to After between the couple. armed faces and blackened rags with others perplay the parts of a gypsy-man and his wife and the and whips armed with swords policemen sonate troupe is completed by a man who discourses music on a . the dead man disconcerts the preparations for his burial by suddenly coming to life : . real of a these nuptials have been performed with a parody with comrade wedding. the dead but knife thereupon feigns to skin him with a loud with husband man's wife laments over her deceased mock marriage is celebrated . to develop a huge appetite for meat and drink. now pursues one of the two pretended brides. tracted from liknoi) title itself receives He which Two other actors. or money.

There a man dressed in sheepskins or goatskins. ac- supposed to have fashioned. goes round the village collecting food and presents. the mockery appears to cease. xxvi. . bells round his neck.28 DIONYSUS and getting up. M. and a third man follows in scattering seed from a basket. The ceremony ends with ! O A 1 R. Finally he casts it on the ground in front of the church. " May wheat be ten piastres the bushel ! Rye five piastres the ! bushel ! Amen. At Viza the plough is drawn by the skin-clad men themselves. not so disguised. While the plough is going its rounds. After the two rounds have been completed. a place in the extreme north of Thrace. The cere- The next on a been act opens with a repetition of the pretence of monies also include a simulation of ploughing and forging a ploughshare. square contrary to the skin-clad way the of the sun. the other guides it front. and at the church two bands of men. Kindred ceremony performed by a masked and skinclad man is who king. again So ends the drama of death and resurrection. receiving a gift in return. that poor folk be filled " This ends the performance. The evening is spent in feasting on the proceeds of the house-to-house visitation which took place in the morning. (1906) pp. man hammers sowing by skin-clad men. near the Black Sea. "The Modern Carnival in Thrace and the Cult of V>\ox\y%ws. and a broom in his hand. tail One of the two the rear men walks in at of the plough. the two skin-clad men still playing the part of ploughmen. O God. Dawkins.'''- Journal of Hellenic Studies. 193-201. the two boys dressed as girls are yoked to the plough and drag it twice round the village is When the implement companied by prayers for good crops. the gypsy and his wife are yoked to the plough. and another boy. one of married men and the other of unmarried men. who carries wine in a wooden bottle and gives of it to every householder to drink in a cup. try each in turn to induce the king to throw the seed on them. that the poor may eat Yea. called a God. followed by the sower sowing the seed. and drag it a third time round the square. The king then mounts a two-wheeled cart and is drawn to the church. a real plough is brought forward. the people pray aloud. saying.^ kindred festival is observed on the same day of the Carnival at Kosti. He is addressed as a king and escorted with music. With him go boys dressed as girls. with a mask on his face. but this time the gypsy real share. He carries seed in his hand.

pp. pp. iii. . 1910). cit. M. who fully recognises the connexion of the modern Thracian ceremonies with the ancient rites of Dionysus. cit. The Origin of Tragedy (Cambridge. op. Compare W. 201 2 They have been clearly indicated by Mr.^ The goatskins in which the principal actors are disguised remind us of the identification of Dionysus with a goat the infant. cradled in a winnowing-fan and taking name from the implement. annually held at and near an Analogy °[o^ern Thracian toThe°"'^^ ancient old capital of Thracian kings. pp. Dialogi Deorum. but also with the symbolism of the winnowing-fan in his worship while the prayers for plentiful crops which accompany the ploughing accord with the omens of an abundant harvest which were drawn of old from the mystic light seen to illumine by night the . R. sq. in the one of his ancient sanctuaries in Thrace. Further.I DIONYSUS him which he resumes still 29 Stripping the king of his clothes and flinging river. ceremony as observed at Kosti the giving of wine by the king's 1 R. 4. 2 . answers exactly to the its traditions and the monuments which represent the infant the Dionysus as similarly cradled and similarly named seven-months' child born baby is a out the pretence that of wedlock and begotten by an unknown father tallies precisely with the legend that Dionysus was born prematurely in the seventh month as the offspring of an intrigue between a mortal woman and a mysterious divine father ^ the same coarse symbol of reproductive energy which characterised the ancient ritual of Dionysus figures conspicuously in the modern drama the annual mock marriage of the goatskinclad mummer with the pretended bride may be compared with the annual pretence of marrying Dionysus to the Queen of Athens and the simulated slaughter and resurrection of the same goatskin-clad actor may be compared with the traditional slaughter and resurrection of the god himself. ix. Apollodorus. M. 203 sqq. : : : first to yoke oxen to the plough. 4. after into the his usual dress. Lastly. fits in well not only with the legend that Dionysus was : : Dionysus. Dawkins. According to the latter writer Dionysus was born in the sixth month. 15 sqq. ^ Lucian. Ridgeway. in which after his resurrection the goatskin-clad mummer takes a prominent part. the points of similarity to the ritual of the ancient Thracian deity Dionysus are sufficiently obvious.^ In these ceremonies. op. Dawkins. Bibliotheca.. the ceremony of ploughing.

. 1 902).30 DIONYSUS is : an act worthy of the wine-god the throwing of seed by the king can only be interpreted. Martin P. As to the festival. (Tubingen and Leipsic. Le Cidte pp. like the ploughand ing. 345 sqq. pp. 1 900). P. op. i. which has been much discussed of late years. Second Edition. The Thracian drama of the mock marriage of the goatskin-clad mummer. August Mommsen. Nilsson. Schoemann. 1898). reigned at Bisya.^ But the Dionysiac nature of the festival was revealed not merely by the opening of the wine-vats and the wassailing which went on throughout the city among freemen and slaves alike on the second day of the festival the marriage of Dionysus with the Queen of Athens was celebrated with great solemnity at the Bucolium or Ox-stall. towards the end of February or the beginning of March. de . the date of the Thracian celeWhile the details of the festival of the Anthesteria bration. Nilsson. Foucart. E. Thus the date of the Anthesteria could not fall far from. id. as a charm to promote the fertility of the ground the royal title borne by the principal masker harmonises well with the theory that the part of the god of the corn and the wine was of old sustained by the Thracian kings who attendant . 1485-^^. . just as in modern Europe and in many still other parts believed to to be of the world the ghosts of the departed are return to their old homes on one day of the year and by their relatives at a solemn Feast of All Souls. whose souls were supposed to revisit the city and to go about the a festival streets. see Griechische Alterthiimei-^ { Berlin. Attis. and it might sometimes actually coincide with. 236 ii. 1 1 . pp. pp. F. . sqq.. Heoi-tologie (Leipsic. corresponds both in date and in character most nearly to the Athenian festival of the Anthesteria.^ entertained . 5 sqq. 384 ^$'17. The modern Thracian celebration If we ask. . his mimic death and resurrection. 301-318. are obscure. It was both of wine-drinking and of the dead. cit. pp. 1903). Feste der 1864). which was celebrated at Athens during three days in early spring. correspond seems to correspond most closely to the ancient Athenian festival of the An- thesteria. To what ancient festival of Dionysus does the modern celebration of the Carnival in Thrace most nearly ? the answer can be hardly doubtful. the last week of the Carnival. Osiris. 2 Tlie passages of ancient authors which refer to the Anthesteria are collected by Professor Martin P. ' As see to such festivals of All Souls Adonis. Rohde. Stadt At hen im Altertum (Leipsic. G. Psyche'^ 516 sqq. its general character is well known. Studiade Dionysiis Atticis (l^vmd. and his subsequent ploughing.

as we have seen. regarded as a type of strength and reproductive energy. Dionysos en Attiqiie (Paris. 32 sqq. V. though a demonstration of it can prove to be correct the sacred marriage of the Queen to hardly be expected the Bull-god at Athens would be parallel to the sacred marriage of the Queen to the Bull-god at Cnossus. 107 sqq. and we know that the Athenians performed a sacred ceremony of ploughing. Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens (London. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion^ (Cambridge. Farnell. see The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings.6 sq. L.^ conjecture that the field of the Ox-yoked Ploughing may have adjoined the building called the Ox-stall in which the marriage of Dionysus with the Queen was solemnised * for .. 12.DIONYSUS It 31 ^ suggested with much probability that at marriage in the Ox-stall the god was represented wholly or partly in bovine shape. uiid Athen 42. R. whether by an image or by an actor dressed in the hide and wearing the has been this sacred for. which went by the name of the Ox-yoked Ploughing and took place in a field or other open piece of It is a reasonable ground at the foot of the Acropolis. pp. should be employed to symbolise and represent more than one of the great powers of nature. Praecepta. As to the marriage of Dionysus to the Queen of Athens. Prolegomena Study of Greek Religion^ p. If this conjecture should in that guise to his worshippers. Harrison. (Oxford. whether a real bull man dressed in a bull's hide. 214 sqq. 536. pp. Harrison. i. Harrison. if I am right. von WilamowitzStates. especially the corn and the vines. 1893). Plutarch. surprising that among a cattle-breeding people in early days the bull. stood for the whereas — — . the bull-god at Athens stood for the powers of vegetaIt would not be tion. E. and afterwards by Miss J. E. 1908). 42. Dionysus was often supposed to assume the form of a bull and to present himself horns of a bull . to the Aristoteles ii. 1904). p. ^ The Dying God. (Berlin. 71. Ihe Cults of the Greek . it or a If is Dionysus did not improbable in that on that occasion his representative. took part . Conjugalia E. indeed figure as a bull at his marriage. 166 . Miss J. 1890). a ceremony of ploughing for we have seen that the invention of yoking oxen to the plough was ascribed to Dionysus. Moellendorff. Sun. * By Professor U. sq. ^ 1909) pp. pp. * Miss J. according to the interpretation which I have suggested Pasiphae and the Minotaur ^ only of the myth of the bull-god at Cnossus.

Chr. Contra Neaer. .32 DIONYSUS is that building known to have been near the Prytaneum or festival of the Anthesteria. Julius Pollux. 398 sqq. 274. 'I'heory Town-Hall Thus on the whole the ancient so far as on the northern slope of the Acropolis. Isis et Osiris. pp. yepalpai * . 42. 505. fourteen Sacred Women that number of the Titans. Lobeck. pp. Athen im Altej-tum. 73. just as the broken body of Osiris was pieced together by a company of gods and goddesses and restored to life by his sister Isis. my p. viii. see ii. Feste der Stadt 371 sqq. s. See Adonis. which is still our principal source for the myth of the god . Foucart. 2 pp. 18.^ features are preserved that the rites of the Anthesteria comprised a drama of the violent by tradition or can be its reasonable conjecture.v. . /sis et Osiris. pp.^ The conjecture is ingenious and plausible. . s. fragments. one for each of the fourteen altars.^ the was the dramatic death and resurrection of They point out that at the marriage of Dionysus officiated at fourteen altars ^ . 1369 sq. p. presents several use of by the restored the modern Thracian to Carnival in analogies important respect of wine-drinking. who wrote before the discovery of the Thracian Carnival. 138 sqq. 3. ^ . The resemblance between and a ceremony of ploughing. Le Culte de Dionysos en Attiqtie. id. Aglaophamns. and whose judgment was therefore not biassed by its analogy to the Athenian festival. Demosthenes. Heortologie. is said to have been rent by Typhon into fourteen fragments. 172). Foucart supposes that the resurrection of Dionysus was enacted at the Anthesteria . a mock marriage of disguised actors. 3 (vol. are right in holding that another important feature of the Anthesteria Dionysus. P. Hesychius. Second Edition. Constitution of Athens. As to the situation of the Prytaneum 18. p. 108 Etymologicum Magnwn. but with our existing sources of information it must remain a conjecture and ' Aristotle. August Mommsen prefers to suppose that it was enacted in the following month at the Lesser Mysteries. 227. P. A. Osiris. yepapal. Plutarch. .^ Hence they conjecture that at Athens the body of Dionysus was dramatically broken into fourteen . and that it was afterwards dramatically pieced together and restored to life by the fourteen Sacred Women. i. but fortunately recorded in native it is Egyptian writings. Attis.. the ancient and the modern ritual would be still closer if some eminent modern scholars. namely seven male and seven female ^ and that Osiris. who tore Dionysus in pieces.v. ® The resurrection of Osiris is not described by Plutarch in his treatise P^ August Mommsen. was fourteen. note on Pausanias. a god who in some respects corresponded closely to Dionysus. death and resurrection of Dionysus.

™^y ^^. may for in flow consequences so far-reaching and imthe light of the rude Thracian ceremony we may surmise resurrection that the high tragedy of the death and of Dion}'sus originated in a rustic mummers' play acted by ploughmen for the purpose of fertilising the brown earth which they turned up with the gleaming share in sunshiny days of spring. v. as a human being. From so simple a beginning pressive . or was acted down to recent years. . it is fair the worto admit that the legends of human sacrifice. Aulus Gellius. we shall see that a play of the same sort is still acted. as they followed the slow-paced Later on oxen down the long furrows in the fallow field. But before we pass from the tragic myth and ritual of Legends of Dionysus to the sweeter story and milder worship of Demeter sacrifice in and Persephone. For example. by English yokels on Plough Monday. VOL.T DIONYSUS more. De A^atnra Aninialiiim . pp. would forge another strong link in the chain of evidence which binds the modern Thracian Carnival to the ancient Athenian Anthesteria . 1 Aelian. which have Dionysus left so dark a stain on the memory of the old Thracian god.' Yet on the other hand it is equally possible.^ Rome a she-goat was sacrificed to Vedijovis as if it were a human victim. for in that case the drama of the divine death would have to be added to the other features which these two festivals of spring possess in common. of the Religion PI". at Tenedos the new-born calf sacrificed to Dionysus was shod in buskins. and the At mother cow was tended like a woman in child-bed. and we should have to confess that Greece had what we may call its Good Friday and its Easter Sunday long before the events took place in Judaea which diffused these two annual commemorations of the Dying and Reviving God and resurrection over a great part of the civilised world. Robertson Smith. 1894). Compare W. and perhaps more probable. Semites- (London. 12. 300 sqq. the true Greek deities of the corn. that these curious rites were themselves mitigations of an older and ruder custom of sacrificing human beings. ^ xii. 33 it nothing Could it be established. and that the later pretence of •^ . mere mis7 may have been nothing more than mere misinterpretations interpretat'onsof of a sacrificial ritual in which an animal victim was treated ritual. I D . 12. V. 34.

p. ^ See The Dying God. sufficed to conceal or erase the deep lines of savagery and cruelty imprinted on the features of this barbarous deity. This interpretation is supported by the undoubted cases in which animals have been substituted On the whole we may conclude that for human victims. nor the glamour which Greek poetry and art threw over the figure of Dionysus.^ neither the polished manners of a later age. . i66 note '. i treating the sacrificial victims as if they were human beings was merely part of a pious and merciful fraud. 249. p. which palmed off on the deity less precious victims than living men and women. and below.34 DIONYSUS chap.

Der Ratib und die Riickkehr der Persopkoiie (Stuttgart. and the complete silence of the poet as to Athens and that the the Athenians. Hymns. the Phrygian one of Cybele of vegTta-^ and Attis. Allen and The of the Pisistratids is assigned to the hymn by A. . In the t'o°Greek fable. more especially the corn. pp. edited by T. Foerster. Sikes (London. as in its Asiatic and Egyptian counterparts. who personifies the vegetation.^ The object of the poem is to explain the origin of the Eleusinian mysteries. E. The oldest literary document which narrates the myth The of Demeter and Persephone is the beautiful Homeric Hymn ^°™^"^ to Demeter. 35 . 37-39. Substantially their myth identical with the Syrian our era. who in after ages it took a conspicuous part in the renders probable hymn was composed still in the far off time when Eleusis was a petty independent state. p. in stately procession 1 R. Greek fancy embodied the same idea in the tenderer and purer form of a dead daughter bewailed by her sorrowing mother. heipsic. 10 sq. one of the decay Aphrodite (Astarte) and Adonis. E. 1904). ritual the only Greek deity whose tragic story appear to reflect the decay and revival of vesfeta' ' ' o In another form and with a different application the Demeter ^"'^^p^''- sephone as Greek ficltioHs of old tale reappears in the myth is of Demeter and Persephone. 280). and the Egyptian one of Isis and Osiris. festival. and before the of the Mysteries had begun to defile. 1S74).CHAPTER II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE Dionysus was not and tion. Bnumeistei {Ifj'mni //o/nerici. a goddess mourns the loss of a loved one. which critics assign to the seventh century before Demeter. Homeric W. later A — date— the age i860. which dies in winter to revive in spring only whereas the Oriental imagination figured the loved and lost one as a dead lover or a dead husband lamented by his leman or his wife. pp.

may. the hymn reveals to us the conception which the writer entertained of the character and functions of the two goddesses their natural shapes stand out sharply enough more spacious that as it : The rape of Persephone. gave her the seed of a pomegranate to eat.^ Mankind would have perished of hunger and the gods would have been robbed of the sacrifices which were their due. Persephone. 302 sqq. so runs the tale. was gathering roses and lilies. crocuses and violets. . Even the Rarian plain near Eleusis. to which the damsels had come to draw water in bronze pitchers In her wrath at her bereavement for their father's house. Her sorrowing mother Demeter. sought her over land and sea. 414 sqq. when the earth gaped and Pluto. over the low chain of barren rocky from the hills which divides the flat Eleusinian corn land Be olive-clad expanse of the Athenian plain.36 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE bright September days. and learning from the Sun her daughter's fate she withdrew in high dudgeon from the gods and took up her abode at Eleusis. grim lord of the Dead smiled and obeyed. which ensured that she would return to him. I sqq. where she presented herself to the king's daughters in the guise of an old woman.. issuing from the abyss carried her off on his golden car to The wrath of Demeter. . with her yellow tresses veiled in a dark mourning mantle. 450 sqq.. 349 sqq. 330 sqq. sitting sadly under the shadow of an olive tree beside the Maiden's Well. The youthful of poetical imagery. But Zeus stipulated that henceforth Persephone should spend two thirds of every 1 Hynui to Demeter. lay bare and fallow. if Zeus in alarm had not commanded Pluto to disgorge his prey. lord of the Dead. he it . vainly fields ploughs fro in the to and oxen dragged the furrows in the brown the sower dropped the barley seed nothing came up from the parched and crumbling soil. the goddess suffered not the seed to grow in the earth but kept hidden under ground. to The restore his bride Persephone to her mother Demeter. be his bride and queen in the gloomy subterranean world. hyacinths and narcissuses in a lush under the thin veil meadow... and she vowed that never would she set foot on Olympus and never would she let the corn sprout Vainly the till her lost daughter should be restored to her.. which was wont to wave with yellow harvests. but before he sent back his queen to the upper air on a golden car.

and vanishes with her Eleusinian mysteries ^^^^^^^^ daughter to heaven. plain is suddenly ' ^ goddess. returned to the sunshine. that the main theme which the poet Homeric set before himself in composing this hymn was to describe Hymn to . and indeed it seems The aim scarcely open to doubt. Metamor- phoses. Diodes. says the poet. . . and moreover she revealed to them her sacred rites Blessed. teaches them her mystic rites. to Triptolemus. the hymn as set forth in the Homeric maybe compared the accounts Ovid {Fasti. who has seen these things. v. The revelation of the mysteries is the This conclusion is confirmed triumphal close of the piece. the traditional foundation of the Eleusinian mysteries goddess Demeter. which proves that the poet has given. 5) and 425-618. Hymn to Demeter. gladly her mother received her and sephone fell upon her neck and in her joy at recovering the lost one Demeter made the corn to sprout from the clods of the ploughed fields and all the broad earth to be heavy with leaves and blossoms. but he who has had no share of them in life will never be happy in death when he has So the two descended into the darkness of the grave. will 6f the the beneficent ruddy corn deity takes the princes of Eleusis. by a more minute examination of the poem. myth ^Vith of Apollodorus {Bibliotheca. 385 sqq. . is the mortal man and mysteries. shews them what she has done. Eumolpus. but also in more or less veiled language mythical explanations of the origin of particular rites ^ which we have good reason to believe formed essential ^losgi/.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 37 year with her mother and the gods in the upper world and one third of the year with her husband in the nether world.). formation scene Eleusinian in The whole poem which the bare t leads 1 1 1 n leafless 1 ' by the up to the transf the expanse of 1 jg to ex- pi^^'" ^he traditional foundation °^/'^'^. i. iv. goddesses departed to dwell in bliss with the gods on Olympus and the bard ends the hymn with a pious prayer to Demeter and Persephone that they would be pleased to grant him a livelihood in return for his song. And straightway she went and shewed this happy sight to the princes of Eleusis. from which she was to return year by year when the earth Gladly the daughter then The return was gay with spring flowers. and to the king Celeus himself. into a vast sheet of turned. at the .^ It has been generally recognised. not merely a general account of the foundation of the mysteries.

A. cit. Allen and Sikes in their ediii. 8. 18 ed. 195 sq. Farnell. a technical one in the mysteries full the iii. just as it is said to have been placed on Demeter's stool in the Honjeric hymn. For discussions of the ancient evidence bearing on the 185 sq. Arnobius. Lobeck. uses to express the revelation (Sei^e. see L. On a well-known marble vase there figured the stool is covered with a lion's skin and one of the candidate's feet rests on a ram's skull or horns. 51 . cit. Contra Andocidem. and the solemn communion with the divinity by participation in a draught of barley-water from a holy chalice. Chr. Farnell. p. Dictionnaire des Antiquitis Grecques et Romaines. Mommsen. (Oxford. As to representations of the 1904). The Cults of the Greek States. Griechische Alterthumer. Schneidewin (Gottingen. with the notes of Messrs. Hippolytus. . Aug. 1 Hyimi to Denieter. 240 note ^). . The Cults of the Greek States. 544 sqq. Akibiades. Hellenica. iii. 387 sqq. P. veiled silence. . as divulged uudcr cover of his narrative. the breaking of ribald jests. 162. Itiscriptiotis. As to the form of communion in the Eleusinian mysteries. des Inscriptions. Adversus p. See Plutarch. soon as she had transformed the barren brown expanse of the Eleusinian plain into a field of golden grain. the Revelation °^rVf^coni the crowning act of the mysteries and in on stools covered with sheepskins. L. ed. verse 474) is . Lobeck. 6 . ) id. G. Foucart. 3.'^ .) s. xxxvii. Hymn to Detneter. G. 1829). Saglio. 2 Hippolytus. v. Pottier.38 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE Amongst the rites as to which the features of the festival.. 22 Xenophon. et F. phrase was SeLKviivai to. 21. . 204 sqq. Lenormant " Eleusinia. Schoemann. L. she gladdened the eyes of Triptolemus and the other Eleusinian princes by shewing them the growing or standing corn.'^ But there is yet another and a deeper secret of the mysteries which the author of the poem appears to have He tells us how. 292-295. the use of scurrilous language. p. Farnell. with 1898). 1907) pp. Lysias. Les grands Mysteres d^ Eleusis (Paris. . . R. plate xv(?. Aglaophajmts (Konigsberg. A.^ we can hardly doubt that all-night vigil. Feste der Stadt Athen im Altertuni tion of the Homeric Hymns (London." in Daremberg ii. R. op. see Clement of Alexandria. Recherches sur POrigine et Nature des Mystires d' Eleusis la (Leipsic. candidates for initiation seated on stools draped with sheepskins. pp. Omnium Refutatio Haeresiu/n.. Protrept. 3 sqq. Heorto1864). P- 51- . pp. poet The word which the 1859). Aglaophamus. 26 . 126 sqq. op.. logie id. When we compare this part of the story with the statement of a Christian writer of the second century. 222 sqq. Eleusinian mysteries it may suffice to refer to Chr. but in two other examples of the same scene the ram's fleece is placed on the seat (Farnell. 1895) {M^moires de VAcadimie xxxv. . 1900) {Memoires de VAcadimie des (Paris. 6 Isocrates.v. the sitting of the candidates. . pp. (Leipsic. L. and E. vi. lepd. v. iii. 191211. the torchlight procession. Panegyriais. that the very heart of the mysteries consisted in shewing to the initiated a reaped ear of corn. Potter nationes. . poet thus drops significant hints are the preHminary fast of the candidates for initiation. F. 47-50. 237 sqq. R. Duncker et F..

. 173 ^<ll\ ^ On Demeter and Proserpine as goddesses of the corn.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE s 39 hymn was well acquainted with this solemn and that he deliberately intended to explain its origin in precisely the same way as he explained other rites of the mysteries. \\\. des Antiqtiites Grecques et Romaines. Kal Tr}v apwayy^v Kal t6 TT^vdos 5q.^lio. kernel of the myth which appears to later ages surrounded and transfigured by an aureole of awe and mystery.v. the riddle is not hard to read the figures of the two goddesses. " Que le drame mystique des aventures de Dimiter et de Cori con578 : stitu&t le spectacle essentiel de Vinitiation. avTotv F. resolve literary authority themselves into personifications of the corn. 1900. see L. we have still to enquire. [Psyche. et " Eleusinia. P.^ ii. E. Thus myth and ritual mutually explain and confirm each the poet of the rite." is nous semble imA similar view F. Mannhardt. ritual. On we may. Mythologische Forschungen (Strasburg. of the most famous and solemn religious the principal o r r r sephone rites of ancient Greece. pp.^ At least this appears to be fairly certain for the daughter Persephone. oldest on the subject. R. Potter: ijdt] At/iI) 5^ koL hgie. Demeter und Persephone (Hamburg. lit up by some of the most art ? brilliant rays of Grecian literature and given If we follow the indications by our . gives us the The poet of the seventh century before our era myth he could not without sacrilege have — revealed the ritual : the Christian father reveals the the whole. Dictionnaire 1895. then. pp. Foucart {Recherches et la Nature des Mystires Kdprj dpa/xa TT^v irXdvrjv iyeveadr)v fivariKof Kal d'Eleusis. that myth of Demeter and Persephone was acted as a sacred drama in the mysteries of Eleusis/ But if the myth was acted as a part. Rohde Paris. c'est ce dont il possible de douter. W. Schoemann (Griechische Preller -Robert Altertkuvier. id. and L. p. other. Protrept.5ovxi1. s. Sa. Paris. the original fications of the corn. 12 ed." Daremberg iii. 289) . Preller. namely by representing Demeter as having set the example of performing the ceremony in her own person. the mother and the daughter. stripped of later accretions. perhaps as 1 Demeter ^nd Perpart. 1884). p. 202 1837). i. 'EXeuffis Compare in Lenormant. 1 ii. Les Grands Mystires d'Eleusis. 12. the author of the Homeric hymn to Demeter. and his revelation accords perfectly with the veiled hint of the old poet. 43 sqq. Clement of Alexandria. . 137). Farnell {The Cults of the Greek States. What personi- was. 793) sur POrigitte . 134. after all. with many the modern confidently accept statement of the the learned Christian father Clement of Alexandria. pp. sqq.. 402). (Griechische Mytho- and especially 315 sqq. expressed by G. scholars.^ i. .

146) it was one half.). nomenhocagerendisfructibusmutiiati": L.) and Apollodorus (Bibliot/ieca. Ar]ib. De errore profanarnm religiomnn. held that Demeter was originally a personification of the regarded as divine. but he admitted that from the time of the Homeric poems downwards she was sharply distinguished from Ge. accepted and clearly stated by L. Preller. 564 sqq. 263 sq." And if the daughter goddess was a personification of the young corn of the present year. which has been variously explained as " Earth earth 7ind Pet-sephone. which is buried under the soil for some months of every winter and comes to life again. and particularly of the corn. This view of the original nature of Demeter has indeed been taken by some writers. for example. No other reasonable and probable explanation of Persephone seems possible. ^ See. s. pp.-qTrip) has been the most popular . ^ This view of the myth of Persephone is. 1022 sq. i. 3) the time which Persephone had to spend under ground was one third of the year according to Ovid (Fasti. which has given birth to the new crops ? The only alternative to this view of Demeter would seem to be to suppose that she is a personification of the earth. Terram ipsam Ccrerem iiomitiant.'''' Francois Homeric Hymn to Demeter (verses 398 sqq. may not the mother goddess be a personification of the old corn of last year. Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecqties et Romaines. if we could be sure of the etymology of her name. -^ Der ErdbodeJt 7iiiyd Deiueter. 1 28. 17." ii. According to the author of the die Vegetation Persephone. The view that Demeter was the Earth goddess rejected is implicitly by the author of the Homeric dead under ground and the remainder of the year with the Hving above ground ^ in whose absence the barley seed is hidden in the earth and the fields lie bare and fallow on whose return in spring to the upper world the corn shoots up from the clods and the earth is heavy with leaves and this goddess can surely be nothing else than a blossoms mythical embodiment of the vegetation.40 Per- DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE three or.v. both ancient and modern. The former etymology pp. . from whose broad bosom the corn and all other plants spring up. the latter . again. six according to another sephone the seed months of every year with the sown in autumn and sprouting in spring. 613 sq. ). 5.^ and it is . The goddess who spends version of the myth. the earth-goddess proper.. — Hymn to 1 Demeter.v. 445 sqq. v.3: " Frugum substantiam vohmt Proserpinam dicere. See Daremberg et Saglio. 128 sq. Mother " (A'^ P-'hT'np equivalent to Vt\ and as " Barley Mother" (from an alleged Cretan word briai " barley ": see Etymologicum Mag7titm. Some light might be thrown on the question whether Demeter was an Earth Goddess or a Corn Goddess. Lenormant. fj. Demeter the old corn of last year. iv. Deineter tind Persephone. . as from the grave. for example.) and Hyginus {Fabtilae. and of which accordingly they may appropriately enough be regarded as the daughters. Metaviorphoses. in the sprouting cornstalks and the opening flowers and foliage of every spring. quia fruges hominibus cum seri coeperint prostait. s. Firmicus Maternus. Preller [Demeter . "Ceres. p.

Griechische Mythologie. 302. pp. the yellow corn is clearly by a still older poet. Mythologische Forschungen. or at all Iliad. i.^ Thus Demeter of the hymn. See Demeter und Persephone. He tells us that it was Earth who. W. the name... writer as With this conclusion all the indications of the hymnseem to harmonise.s n DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 41 one which can be reasonably maintained. 1 ' . Kern. But it appears to have been rejected by the author of the Homeric hymn to Demeter.3^7) 366 sqq. the only alternative apparently is to conclude that she was a personification of the corn. serious philological objections. 279. H. i. satisfactory derivation of the L. He certainly represents Demeter the goddess by whose power and at whose pleasure either . G. of Demeter's name has yet been proposed. But if the Demeter of the hymn cannot have been a personification of the earth. Accordingly I prefer to base no argument on an analysis of syllable Preller-Robert. and to rest my interpretation 747 note ^ . . . . Demeter with the ripe. Moulton informs me that both etymologies are open to of the goddess entirely on her myth. must have regarded that divinity as her worst enemy.-'. and representations in art. b . in Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Encyclopddie derclassischen Altertumswissenschaft. Mannhardt. 2713. ritual. F. iv. Welcker. no when men are first W. Homer events the author of the fifth book of the : There we read about the " And even as the wind carries the chaff is sacred threshing-floors. thg^jpg grain from at^the^ threshing- identification of made even more himself. Mannhardt. maintained by Preller.. Hymn r^- to < 7-1 / c sqq. PP. Professor T. The Yellow ^^™'^'""' dess who grows or remains hidden in the ground and to what deity can such powers be so fittingly ascribed as to the goddess of the corn ? He calls Demeter yellow and tells how her yellow tresses flowed down on her shoulders ^ could any colour be more appropriate with which to paint the divinity of the yellow grain ? The same the corn . 385 sqq. far from being identical with the Earth-goddess. Etymology is at the best a very slippery ground on which to rear mythological theories. since it was to her insidious wiles that she owed the loss of her daughter. Griechische Gotlerlehre. „ Demeter. lured Persephone to her doom by causing the narcissuses to grow which tempted the young goddess to stray far beyond the reach of help in the lush meadow. 281 sqq. for he not only distinguishes Demeter from the personified Earth but places the two in the sharpest opposition to each other. in accordance with the will of Zeus and to please Pluto. But my learned friend the Rev. and that ^ Hymn to Demeter.

dewin. what time yellow Demeter the corn from the chaff on the hurrying blast. 439). 2 3 ^ xiii. 1600 . Aelian. R. 12. Metamorphoses. Nat. Xenophon. v. in allusion to the time of the corn-reaping. for what has the Earth-goddess to do with the grain and the chaff blown about a threshing-floor ? With this interpretation speaks of definitely men it agrees that elsewhere Homer eating " Demeter's corn " " and still more . Cerealia munera and Cerealia dona 121 in sq. so that the heaps of chaff grow white below. 28 . Helknica. xvii. 66. he says that then " the sturdy swains cleave Demeter limb from limb. vi. 1896) p. . Cornutus. more clearly does a later Greek poet personify the corn as Demeter when. Hesiod speaks of " the annual store of food. Ziehen. L. iii. Hesiod. The cereals In Greek the various kinds of corn were called by the general "Demeter's fruits.42 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE sifts chap. 198. 49 Cornutus. Cults sq. so were the Achaeans whitened above by the cloud of dust which the hoofs of the horses spurned to the brazen heaven. Theologiae Graecae Compendium. xi. Cerealia i . ed. winnowing. States. Leutsch et Schnei. so the unripe or green com was personified as the Green Demeter. which the earth bears.^ which no doubt were intended not merely to symbolise but magically to promote the abundance of the . i.504. Pausanias. Fasciculus Leges G}-aecorum Sacrae.'^ No. 499." The 312 ^ an expression Greek 193. 16. 615 ." ^ just as in "^ Latin they were called the 1 " fruits or gifts of Ceres. Quoted by Plutarch. of the i. . Ovid. and the victims included sows big with young. L. i. p. Geoponica. 22. J. 28 Scholiast on Sophocles. Herodotus. Iliad. crops." name of " Demeter's fruits. xxiii. I. In that character the goddess had sanctuaries at Athens and other places sacrifices were appropriately offered to Green Demeter in spring when the earth was growing green with the fresh vegetation. sifts the grain from the chaff at the threshing-floor can hardly be any other than the goddess of the yellow corn she cannot be the Earth-goddess." ^ thus distinguishing the Still goddess of the corn from the earth which bears it. 6 . iv. 3. The Green Demeter dessofthe gieencorn. in Pliny. Oedipus Colon. Farnell. Theologiae Graecae Compendium." ^ And just as the ripe or yellow corn was personified as the Yellow Demeter. Hist. 20 (vol. xxi. (Leipsic. Iliad." ^ Here the yellow Demeter who . 36 Paroemiographi Graeci. Homer. 31 sq. 3 with my note . de Prott et Historia Anifiialiitm. i. Demeter's corn. Isis et Osiris. 322. 76. Sylloge Insn-iptionum ^ Graecartan. Works and Days. Dittenberger. Appendix ^ iv.

524. Theologiae Graecae 5 ! Compendium. 68) that corn grew wild with [ihSivovaa Kal Kvovcra). OVK eir' dWrjXovs dXtrij Kal 6prj yri iiBLvovaa 42 1.Q>v Reiske. Cornutus. 271. n. 260. Eusebius.. 11. cit. 453. * iii. as we learn not only from the testimony of ancient writers* but from many existing monuments of classical art.^ In ancient art Demeter and Persephone are characterised crowns of corn which they as goddesses of the corn by ' the o wear on their heads and by the stalks of corn which they Theocritus describes a smiling image hold in their hands. 523. A7ithologia Palatina. Praeparatio Evaugelii. since it is expressly affirmed that before Demeter's time the earth existed and supplied mankind with nourishment in the shape of wild herbs. pp. Fasti. vol. represents Demeter holding poppies and ears See Farnell. vi. p. iii. 5. Georg. R. 155 sqq. Lang 212.ti>. 1873-1878) 420. 28. ed. KaL H. See the references to the works of Overbeck and Farnell above. Virgil.kv Kol irp6 ATj^Tjrpos al yewpylai ovK ^crav ffCxiT-qpiav ovoi • dporoi. 235 . iv. 505. Theologiae Graecae Compendium. 56. L.vdrj Kal Kvovaa irpb rdv dypia. the other plants before men seed. which no doubt reprethe is sents the common Greek view on That the sheaves which the goddess grasped were of barley is proved by verses 31-34 of the poem. . but that she was different from and younger than the goddess of the Earth. flx^'' avdpihwwv avrocrx^Sia 8. subject. 269 sq. flowers and fruits. (Leipsic.^ of Demeter standing by a heap of yellow grain on a threshing-floor and grasping sheaves of barley and poppies in both her hands. 222. 217 sqq. 237. ed. 226. 502..II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 43 Tradition ran which survives in the English word cereals.^ Indeed corn and poppies singly or together were a frequent symbol of the goddess. Farnell. but roamed the mountains and woods in search of the wild fruits which the earth produced spontaneously from her womb for their subsistence. p. W. J. Mannhardt. iii. i. Praeparatio Evaugelii. Griechische Kiaistmythologie. Oratio Ovk a!>6is yij SoKel yeyovivai J. of corn in her left hand. ^ dW In Theocritus. 'EirXavQvTO p. Diodorus Siculus also says (v. in the style of the age of Phidias. 616. 28. Cornutus. Idyl. &Kapiros 6 17 T\}t.'' The naturalness of the symbol •' Corn and p"pp'^s ^\ symbols of Demeter. 104. C. TTcpLrfaav. 525 sq. riidpwv TO.. 265. Eusebius. Corinth. TAe Cults of the Greek Stales. ^ p. 268. a fine statue at Copenhagen. Libanius. iii. to cultivate it Demeter taught and to sow the 2 Ovid. avrixpvToi 5^ /Sordcat Kal iroai els i) Kal ttoWo. this passage. J. Over- beck. grasses. • o\i TrdXtv Toi irpb Ari/j.7]Tpos eli'ai /3tos . with plate xxviii. 479) 4S0. 220 sq. 522. Mythologische Forschiingen. that before Demeter's time men neither cultivated corn nor tilled the ground. 268. 514. 232. 507. vii. 367. 233. op. iii. 8 . For example. : . iv. ^TjTovvTes avrd/iaTov Tpo<pr]v. the earth plainly personified which points the antithesis between her and the goddess of the corn. with the com- ment of ^ Servius. The tradition clearly implies not only that Demeter was the goddess of the corn.

25. Nowhere.44 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE and who has not can be doubted by no one who has seen a field of yellow corn bespangled thick with scarlet seen ? and we need not resort to the shifts of an ancient poppies — — . 68. On it we see the goddess in the very act " Her face is upraised in her of rising from the earth. the unevenness of its edges to hills and valleys. men if less and the great rainbow-tinted book of nature more . in which wire-drawn theories are set forth with all the tedious by rural Per- sephone portraj'ed as the young corn sprouting from the ground. 56 ed. and . who explained the symbolism of the poppy in Demeter's hand by comparing the globular shape of the poppy to the roundness of our globe. C. identification Complete is : here the she is goddess and her attribute embowered amid the ears of growing corn. and like it half buried in the ground. perhaps. - Cornutus. ." As the goddess who first bestowed corn on mankind and taught them to sow and cultivate it. parade of learning. ^ (Cambridge. 1883). beside rivers rippling by under grey willows. or down green lanes.^ students would study the little black and white books of mythologist. Certainly the artist who designed this beautiful figure thoroughly understood Hellenic religion. and returning again to the face of the earth after lying hidden in of the its depths. Diodorus Siculus. and the hollow interior of the If only scarlet flower to the caves and dens of the earth. they might sometimes learn more about primitive religion than can be gathered from many dusty volumes. they would more frequently exchange the heavy air and the dim light of libraries for the freshness and the sunshine if they would oftener unbend their minds of the open sky . Lang. with grapes others together hand are three ears of corn. with No. walks between fields of waving corn. in the monuments of Greek art is the character of Persephone as a personification of the young corn sprouting in spring portrayed more gracefully and more truly than on a coin of Lampsacus of the fourth century before our era. are springing behind her shoulder. Percy Gardner. Types of Greek C(7?« J' plate X. but she is the corn and vine growing. Theologiae Graecae Comp. p.^ Demeter was ' pendium. 174. where the hedges are white with the hawthorn bloom or red with wild roses. She does not make the corn and vine grow. 28. i. v.

3833-^. Dictionary of Birds (London. Latin writers prescribe the same date for the sowing of wheat. before the ^"'""^"'''^ sowing. 6). Columella. Works and Days. see Aristophanes. . set in the morning of October 24th of the Julian calendar. Xenophon. thrice But the Greeks also ploughed in £7/.e. At the approach of autumn the cranes of northern Europe collect about rivers and set lakes. Birds. vii. i. which would correspond to the October tells 1 6th of our reckoning.^ But while the ordinary Greek farmer took the signal for ploughing from the clangour of the cranes.^ The month in which the Pleiades set in the morning was generally recognised by the Greeks as the month of sowing it corresponded apparently in part to our October. See W. 254267 . indeed they ploughed in the year (Theophrastus. Hesiod and other writers who aimed at greater exactness laid it down as a rule that the ploughing should begin with the autumnal setting of the Pleiades in the morning. Pliny. iii. Smith's Dictionary of Greek ana Roman Antiquities.11 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE propitiated 45 naturally invoked and by farmers before they oemeter '"voked pitiate^by p'"^^'^ undertook the various operations of the agricultural year. In Columella's time the Pleiades. iioj^. 1893- 1825-1826). Hist. compare Theognis. and after much trumpeting out in enormous bands on their southward journey to the tropical regions of Africa and India. In early spring they return northward. pp. 711. The bird emits its trumpet-like note both on the ground and on the wing. See Virgil. rzV. De re rustica. and all other cereals were sown in Greece and Asia from the time of the autumn setting of the Pleiades. In autumn. 44SDissertationes. ii. 1896). barley. 8 . Historia Piantarum. 462. Nat. See Alfred Newton. . 21. Ideler. 2. This date for ploughing and sowing is confirmed by Hippocrates and other medical writers. ^ Hesiod.). 223-226. us (I. L. Then he guided the ox-drawn plough down the field. while a swain followed close behind with a hoe. i. Handbuch der mathema(ische7i titid technischen Chi-onologie 474 Epictetus. Hist. spring (Hesiod. Phaenomena. which in Hesiod's time fell on the twenty-sixth of October. 49) wheat. when he heard the sonorous trumpeting of the cranes. 13.. Oecotiom. 12. and their flocks may be descried passing at a marvellous heiglit overhead or halting to rest in the meadows beside some broad river.'^ i. xviii. in part to . the Greek husbandman knew that the rains were near and that the time of ploughing was at hand but before he put his hand to the plough he prayed to Underground Zeus and to Holy Demeter for a heavy crop of Demeter's sacred corn. 1197 signal sqq. For the autumnal migration and clangour of the cranes as the for sowing. who covered up the seed as fast as it fell to protect it from the voracious birds that fluttered and twittered at the ploughtail. he (Berlin. Kccording to Pliny {Nat. 1 Hesiod. xviii.i(> . Aratus. turning up the brown earth with the share. Works ami Days. 16) . 234. 241 sq. as they winged their way southward in vast flocks high overhead. Georg. .\()-2. 6 1 5-6 17 .

" and he mentions that a festival of Demeter was celebrated at the time of sowing (Theologiae Graecae Compendium. Isis et Osiris. who scraped the earth and then huddled it up over the seed. 54. fabled to have carried off Demeter's daughter because the seed vanishes for a time under the earth. S.46 Boeotian festival of DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE The Athenians called it Pyanepsion named it significantly Damatrius. (Pausanias. but that the real sadness was for the fruits of the earth. pp. so after he had reaped the harvest and brought back the yellow sheaves with rejoicing to the threshing-floor. Traits d^ Epigraphie Grecque (Paris. Lang). 70. Thankofferings of ripe grain presented by Greek farmers to And just as the Greek husbandman prayed to the Corn Goddess when he committed the seed. 69. Isis et Osiris. See W. pp. who as a Boeotian speaks with authority on such a matter.^ pretation of the custom and of the myth of Persephone is not only beautiful but true. some of which at that season dropped of themselves and vanished from the trees. which seems to have represented the return of Persephone from the lower world. at The escape tells us that the mournful rites which were time of the autumn sowing nominally commemorated the actions of deities. See W. Die Kulte ntid Mythen Arkadiens (Leipsic. Demeter was then in mourning for the autumnal sowing. our November. 2). that . 55 ed. just as if they were Surely this interburying and mourning for the dead. to the furrows. . who are known to have had a sanctuary there 50 sq. The people of Louvre " the ascent (dcajSacrts) of the goddess " is dated the seventh day of the month Dius. In a fragment of a Greek calendar which is preserved is Greek inscriptions found at Mantinea refer to a worship of Demeter and Persephone. 28. the almost inevitable conclusion did not Plutarch. Les Insc7-iptions ^ Plutarch.^ Is it possible to express more clearly the true original nature of Persephone as the ? corn-seed which has just been buried in the earth obvious. Kopdyeif. s. pp. Musie Nationale du Louvre. pp. Froehner. 9. chius. while He held the others in the shape of seed were committed with anxious thoughts to the ground by men. a month Hephaesmonth which seems to be other- Mantinea celebrated "mysteries of the goddess " and a festival called the koragia. Similarly Cornutus says that " Hades Grecques (Paris. loo sq. he paid Demeter after the liarvest. and " the descent or setting (5(''crts) of the goddess " is dated in the the fourth day of the tius. Immerwahr. with anxious forebodings. Hesy1885). C. Reinach. unknown. and they celebrated a feast of mourning because. the bountiful goddess her dues in the form of a thank-offering of golden grain. viii. mourning for the descent of Per- sephone at the Demeter's month. 1891). says Plutarch. . 141 sqq. 1880). descent of Persephone. Theocritus picture Theocritus's has 1 painted for us in glowing wise colours a of a Plutarch. . Boeotians the is.v.

Days. but smelt of smelt of the poet. soft beds of fragrant lentisk they passed the sultry hours singing ditties alternately. Works and September. the buzz of the cicalas. . .The described by home was celebrated '^^ is clearly marked. accordingly scribed 1 it is to this date that the harvest-festival de- by Theocritus must be assigned. lizards. were slumbering in about in the love to bask and run the crevices *^^' of the stone-walls. In this description the time of year when the harvest. and plums. And when they had reached their destination and reclined at ease in the dappled shade of over-arching poplars and elms. and not a lark soared Yet despite the " All everywhere signs of autumn. At the present Theocritus. with the babble of a neighbouring fountain. Ideler." autumn goat-herd who met the friends on their way to the rural merry-making. asked them whether they were bound for the carolling into the blue vault of heaven. the very which was warm. as it 47 rustic some two thousand years ago Cos. Idyl. .^ and Theocritus feii in autumn.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE harvest -home. Apart from the home 1 pears. the reference mention of the ripe apples. i. L.^ The poet tells on a bright autumn day descripGreek island of ^"^" °^ us how he went with two friends home in fell in the little from the city to attend a festival given by farmers. with corn-stalks and poppies in her hands. 247. the ripe apples and pears rolled in the grass at their feet and the branches of the wild-plum trees were bowed down to the So couched on earth with the weight of their purple fruit. a morning star. 2 In ancient Greece the vintage seems to have fallen somewhat earlier for Hesiod bids the husbandman gather . which in age was on the 1 8th of See Hesiod. says things. Handbuch der mathernatischen tmd technischen Arcturus is the poet's the ripe clusters at the time when Chronologie. and press the grapes in the first half of October. to whom the honours of the day were paid." really autumnal for day was a Indeed the too. ^^ 1-T^i Greeks gather The Vto the treading of the grapes is decisive. indeed so hot that sun. who were offering first-fruits to Demeter from the store of The day barley with which she had filled their barns. stood smiling beside a heap of yellow grain on the threshing-floor. while a rustic image of Demeter. and the cooing of doves in their ears. 609 sqq. there were great heat " summer. the hum of bees. treading of the grapes in the wine-presses. vii.

Osiris. p. 190 note ^ 2. yet the sun and Boeotia.^ immortalised by Theocritus was one of those autumn days maize their beauty which in Greece may any time up to the very verge of winter. like modern descendants. I remember such a day at Panopeus on the borders of Phocis It was the first of November. and grey mists hung like winding-sheets on the lower slopes of the barren mountains which shut in the fatal plain of of great heat and effulgent at occur Chaeronea. Attis. the grain being reaped Greece the maize-harvest immediately precedes the and garnered at the end of TravelHng in rural districts of Argolis and September. Next morning the weather had completely changed. 383 sq. who. Second See Adonis. usually from the end of However. sight the for in the " order"to propitiate lateness of the festival in the year is surprising Goddess at the moment lowlauds of Greece at the present day barley is reaped at the end of April and wheat in May. A grey November sky lowered sadly overhead. the At first .^ and in antiquity the time of harvest would seem not to have been very different. 190 note-. it was delicious to repose on a grassy slope in the shade of some fine holly-oaks and to inhale the sweet scent of the But it was summer's wild thyme. day vintage. 2 Hesiod. But or again heaps of the yellow grain beside the pods. Second Edition.^ which in his time lor 1 t t • i i_ • i 111 1 1 • 1 1 1 See Adonis. Works and Days. when Hesiod bids the husbandman put the sickle to the corn ^^ ^]^g morning ° rising ° of the Pleiades. Edition. was unknown to the ancient Greeks. which perfumed all the air. of ploughing and sow- mg. p. we may conclude that the day April till June. reaped their wheat and barley crops much earlier in the summer. shone in cloudless splendour and the heat was so great. that when I had examined the magnificent remains of ancient Greek fortification-walls which crown the summit of the hill. Arcadia at that time of the year you pass from time to time piles of the orange-coloured cobs laid up ready to be shelled. Attis. Osiris. farewell.48 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE in chap. The Greeks seem to Thus we may infer that in the rural districts of ancient •' nave deferred the firsT-'fruit*s till Greece farmers offered their first-fruits of the barley harvest to Dcmetcr in autumn about the time when the grapes were being troddcu in the wine-presses and the ripe apples and pears littered the ground in the orchards. .

heralding by their trumpet-like notes the approach of the autumnal rains. 0iov airo^X^irovtnv. Hattdbuck der mathematischen tind technischen Chronologic. Ideler. i. Oecononiicits. yap 6 fieTOTnopLvbs XP^^°^ wov ol AvOpuiroL wpos rbv oTrore (nreipeiv. by gratitude for past favours as by a shrewd eye to favours to come. to be got out of her. '^ i\drj. which is more apt to be moved by considerations of profit than by sentiment. I E . PT. when he had everything to hope from her good-will and everything to fear from her displeasure. country the summer is practically rainless. and perhaps this interpretation of the custom does no serious injustice to the cool phlegmatic temper of the bucolic mind.s n DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE May/ But if 49 her help took place on the eleventh of the harvest was reaped defer the offerings u74nti of corn to the Corn Goddess until the middle of autumn ? needed. tireiSav -rravTes For in that and during the ^ L. but Goddess was not reaped his corn. he began to scan the sky for clouds ^ and to listen for the cries of the cranes as they flew stubble-field southward. and accordingly it must remain for us a matter of conjecture. When he had after harvest. so far as I am aware. so to say. What could she do for him on the bare which lay scorched and baking under the fierce rays of the sun all the long rainless summer through ? But matters wore a very different aspect when. yriv dcprjafL avrovs VOL. snap his fingers at the Corn Goddess. At all events the reasons suggested for delaying the harvest-festival accord perfectly with the natural conditions and seasons of farming in Greece. On this theory the Greek offering of first-fruits was prompted not so much . 17. why The reason for the delay is not. he might. v. I surmise that the reason may have been a calculation on the part of the practical farmer that the best time to propitiate the Corn when he had got all that was immediately before ploughing and sowing. and the sheaves had been safely garnered in his barns. with the shortening and cooling of the days. ^pi^as rrjv Compare Xenophon. Then he knew that the time had come to break up the ground that it might receive the seed and be fertilised by the refreshing water of heaven then he bethought him of the Corn Goddess once more and brought forth from the grange a share of the harvested corn with which to woo her favour and induce her to quicken the grain which he was about to commit to the earth. explained by any ancient author. 242. in spring or early summer.

When with the progress of civilisation state number of tival of the Proerosia ( Before the Ploughing") held ' ' petty agricultural communities have merged into a single dependent of the for its it subsistence vation ground. in barns. Osiris. Feste der Stadt Athen im Altertum. . comes about that. pp. for all their pomp and splendour. ' August Mommsen. . commonly happens mainly on the cultithat. ^ See Adonis. pp. Attis. the authorities of the Athenian state celebrated about the same time and for the same purpose a public festival in honour of Demeter at Eleusis. In ancient Egypt the religion of and on threshing-floors.50 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE long months of heat and drought the cultivation of the two The ancient cereals. the more stately national festivals of such states are often merely magnified and embellished copies of homely rites and uncouth observances carried out by rustics in the open fields. barley and wheat. 283 sqq. Isis and Osiris furnishes examples of solemnities which have been thus raised from the humble rank of rural festivities to the dignity of national celebrations ^ and in ancient Greece a like development may be traced in the religion of If the Greek ploughman prayed to Demeter and Demeter. though at Eleusis in honour of every farmer continues to perform for himself the simple old rites designed to ensure the blessing of the gods on his Demeter. 193. government undertakes to celebrate similar. 2 See above. is at a standstill. rains of autumn fall about the middle of October. Second Edition. p.^ and was the Greek farmer's great time for ploughing and Hence we should expect him to make his offering sowing. lest the neglect of public worship should draw down Hence it on the country the wrath of the offended deities. and this expectation is entirely confirmed by the date which we have inferred for the offering from the first that Thus the sacrifice of barley to evidence of Theocritus. though and elaborate. the crops. 44 sqq. rites on behalf of the whole people. would seem to have been not so autumn Demeter in the as a bribe judiciously administered thank-offering much a to her at the very moment of all the year when her a services The fes- were most urgently wanted.'^ of first-fruits to the Corn Goddess shortly before he ploughed and sowed. Underground Zeus for a good crop before he put his hand to the plough in autumn.

. Lexicon. pp. on Aristophanes.v. Another name for the festival ^ was Proarc. or before the end of October. (Leipsic. 15 Dittenberger. 192 The inscriptions prove that the ceremonies designed to Proerosia was held at Eleusis and that it was distinct from the Great Mysteries. in the original version famine and not plague must have been alleged as the reason for instituting the Proerosia. They did so. 51 was called the Proerosia. s.II s DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE ." . Fesie der Stadt Athen im ' Scholiast 720.5^ which points to a date either before the middle of September.e. when Arcturus In favour of the earlier date it may be is an evening star.V . " the Great Mvstcrics in'septeniber. that once Hence sent to testify their gratitude for the deliverance people first-fruits the of their harvest at from all quarters to Athens. that the morning phase of Arcturus was well known and much observed. Sylloge Inscriptiomtm Graecanim. tween the similar Greek words for plague That and famine (\oifi6s and Xt-fids). Hesychius. second. n-por)p6<jia . would be quite inappropriate in the case of a plague. and Photius. 194. elpfCTLwvTj and s. . Aug.vv. . . when Arcturus is a morning star. first. Septem Sapientitm Convivutm. s. Suidas. . which signifies " Before the and as the festival was dedicated to her.v. Plutarch. which began on the fifteenth or month corresponding roughly to the^piou^°^- ing in after our September. for these circumstances. r . a Great Mysteries. Ploughing " It Demeter herself bore the name of Proerosia. appears plainly from the reference of the name to ploughing. wporjpocrlai.^ But the exact date which the Proerosia or Festival The ^^"^^"^^^ ' _ is somewhat uncertain. . 1898). because it marked the middle of autumn. ^ ^ . Altertttm sqq. V.'^ No. from the dedication of the festival to Demeter. though quite appropriate to .. and the famine ceased accordingly. vpovpoa-ia.. f. that in an official Athenian inscription the Festival before Ploughing {Proerosia) is mentioned immediately before the Great MysBefore Arcturus.. 29. 2 . 1 . FesU der Stadt P . and enbefore Ploughing ^ ° ° took place seems to quirers are divided in opinion as to whether it fell before or have been after the sixteenth of Boedromion. line 628 .^ r ^ j^ <r.^ said. • • stay or avert dearth and famine. turia. and that to remedy the evil the Pythian oracle bade the Athenians offer the sacrifice of the Proerosia on behalf of all men. 521. that is. I. Knights. Mommsen.. j„„Kt But this version of no doubt the story . and No. Tradition ran on a time the whole world was desolated by a famine. and from the offerings of first-fruits . ' arose from the common confusion be- * August Mommsen. j4 August Mommsen. Some of the ancients accounted for the origin of the festival by a universal » r J f plague instead of a universal famine. being mentioned separately from them. Athen im Altertum. whereas little use was made of the evening phase of Arcturus for the purpose of dating * and. p. Etymologiciim Afagnum. Hesychius.

like the Greek months generally. being determined by the lunar calendar. . whereas the date of the Proerosia. pp. 423 sq. No. 521. pp. before . I . which was It is difficult to held on the seventh day of that month. nevertheless the beginning of each Attic month sometimes diverged by several weeks from the beginning of the corresponding month to which we equate if^ From this it follows that the Great Mysteries. pp. 58 sq. 5 L.S2 teries. 192 sqq. 1864). must have fluctuated in the solar year . Mysteries.^ DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE CHAP. which were always dated by the calendar month.-(7j?a) fell in Pyanepsion is accepted by W. However. second. but on the whole I incline. ' Dittenberger. 2 29 sqq.. Sylloge Inscriptionum lines Graecarum^ No. pp. Dittenberger. oscillating to and fro with the inconstant moon. 628. See W. Chronologie (Leipsic. it maybe said that as the autumnal rains in Greece set in about the middle of October. Athen im Altertum (Leipsic. 1877). Dittenberger. that this date is confirmed by a Greek inscription of the fourth or third century B. and though these variations were periodically corrected by intercalation. 82. 258 Dittenberger. Sylloge Insc7-iptmium Graecariim^^ note 2 on Inscr. Mythologische Forschungen. 238 sq. Antike IVald. in which the Festival before Ploughing is apparently mentioned in the month of Pyanepsion immediately before the festival of the Pyanepsia. 218 sqq.^ decide between these conflicting arguments. The view that the Festival Ploughing fell in Boedromion is maintained by August Mommsen. pare August Mommsen.. id. in favour of the later date. we must bear in mind that as the Attic months.^ However. must have been fixed. must have occupied a fixed place in the solar year. rather than in Boedromion (September) before the Mysteries. ii. Mannhardt. were lunar. i. must have annually shifted their place somewhat in the solar year whereas the Festival before Ploughing. Mannhardt and W.. . found at Eleusis. Ideler. the latter part of that month would be a more suitable time for a ceremony at the opening of ploughing than the middle of September. if it was indeed dated either by the morning or by the evening phase of Arcturus. not without hesitation. . 1898). Arcturus. p. id. 1883). 292 sq.).und Feldkulte (Berlin. . See his Heortologie (Leipsic. Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologic com(Berlin. Feste der Stadt pp. Hence it appears to be not impossible that the Great . being determined by observation of On the other hand. 628 (vol. * See below. to agree with some eminent modern authorities in placing the Festival before Ploughing in Pyanepsion (October) after the Mysteries. p. the date of the Great Mysteries. 1825-1826).^ their position in the solar year necessarily varied from year to year. Sylloge htscriptiontim Festival before Graecamm ^ No. 2 The view that the Ploughing (/'r^(?. when the soil is still parched with the summer drought and.C.

such as the rising and setting of the constellations.) that squills flowered thrice a year. Historia Plantarum. - 6. at For example.^ the ripening of fruits. not merely by every husbandman in Attica. See Theophrastus. the arrival and departure of the migratory of its . but by all the allies and subjects of Athens far and near. the flowering of certain plants. to dates of the lunar spite months that the official Greek calendar. which were presented to the Corn Mother and the Corn Maiden at Eieusis. rather than to the fallacious is by natural timeand not by calendar months. always simply to days of the lunar month and apply equally to every month . they are never to days engaging in certain tasks references are Hesiod. as dates in the solar year. 765 sqq. which apparently always remained At least this possibility. which seems have been overlooked by previous enquirers. Theophrastus notes and that each flowering marked the time for one of the three ploughings. really furnished the ancient farmer with little trustworthy guidance as to the proper seasons for conducting the various operations of agriculture and he was well advised in trusting to various natural timekeepers. and the setting keepers. deserves to It is a corollary from the shifting be taken into account. 383 sqq. and even by many The reason free Greek communities beyond the sea.II s DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE fallen 53 may sometimes have before and sometimes after the Festival before Ploughing. why year by year these offerings of grain poured from far countries into the public granaries at Eieusis. but such . to days of the month as proper times 1 3. were repeated year by year on a grander scale in the first-fruits of the barley and wheat harvest. v\\. It Offeringsof fruits of the barley and Demeter ^"^ p^*"sephone Eieusis. Works and Days. that Hesiod determines the seasons of the farmer's year in the poem which is the oldest existing treatise on husbandry. presented to the rustic Demeter under the dappled shade of rustling poplars and elms on the threshing-floor in Cos. before he drove the share through the clods of the field. true to the constant star. so to say. so the simple first-fruits of barley. was taken up and reverberated. birds. with a great volume of sound in the public prayers which the Athenian state annually offered to the goddess before the ploughing ° ro o on behalf of the whole world. in appearance of exactness. 1 The for poet indeed refers {yi'." Just as the ploughman's prayer to Demeter. in of the rains. was indications of the public calendar. .

men from them of a the life of beasts and blissful eternity beyond The antiquity of the tradition. the gift of the corn and the gift of the mysteries. " And moreover. 6. Again. in which he represented Demeter instructing the hero to carry the seed of the fruits which she had bestowed on men to all the coasts of Southern Italy. Historia Graeca. but quite the contrary it furnished a strong argument in its favour. Dionysius Halicarnasensis. quil. of which the one reclaimed the other held out hopes to the grave. in the fourth century before our era Xenophon represents Callias.54 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE chap. 72. i. Rom." he asked with pathetic earnestness. who travelled over the world in his dragon-drawn car teaching all peoples to plough the earth and to era the legend sow the seed/ In the fifth century before our was celebrated by Sophocles in a play called Triptolemus. the orator pro- ceeds to say. and when any of 1 2 See below. writing a set *' Lacedaemonians isocrates offerino^s of first-fruits in the fourth century before our era Isocrates relates with ^ swcU of patriotic pride how. the goddess Demeter came to Attica and gave to the ancestors of the Athenians the two greatest of all gifts. 2. " we are not driven to rest our case merely on the venerable age of the tradition we can appeal to stronger evidence in its support. vi. in addressing the which he declared that " Our ancestor Triptolemus is said to have bestowed the seed of Demeter's corn on the Peloponese before any other land. And- 3. was no reason for rejecting it. speech. for what many affirmed and all had heard might be accepted as trustworthy. in her search for her lost daughter Persephone. p. 3 Xenophon. the braggart Eleusinian in Torchbearer. .^ from which we may infer that the cities of Magna Graecia were among the number of those that sent the thank-offering of barley and wheat every year to Athens. For most of the cities send us every year the first-fruits of the corn as a memorial of that ancient benefit. 12. can it be right that you should come to ravage the corn of the men from whom you received the seed ? " ^ Again. the widespread belief that the gift of corn had been first bestowed by Demeter on the Athenians and afterwards disseminated by them among all mankind through the agency of Triptolemus." he adds. How then.

^ It deals with the first-fruits of barley and wheat which were offered to the Two Goddesses. Instructions are also given for the building of three of grain from Attica were to be stored. S. exhorting.) . and the harmony of ancient legend with the deeds of to-day ^ ? " This testimony of Isocrates to the antiquity both of the legend and of the custom might perhaps have been set Athenian cernin<T^°" empty bombast of a wordy rhetorician. Can anything be supported by stronger evidence than by the oracle of god. or at least disparaged. Part ii. 33 sqq. ' subterranean granaries at Eieusis. to exhort the other Greeks at the mysteries to offer likewise of the first-fruits of the corn. that is. where the contributions The best of the corn Isocrates. The authority alleged in the decree for refirst-fruits alike quiring or inviting offerings of from Athenians and from foreigners the is ancestral custom and the bidding of Delphic oracle.11 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 55 them have failed to do so the Pythian priestess has commanded them to send the due portions of the fruits and to act towards our city according to ancestral custom. Gardner. so far as it could be done. An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. and the state send officials are directed to receive the offerings from such states in as the offerings of the Athenians the same manner and their allies. them to send the first-fruits in compliance with ancestral custom and the bidding of the Delphic oracle. A. decree was The found inscribed on a stone at Eieusis and is dated by scholars in the latter half of the fifth century before our era. (Cambridge. if it had not happened by good chance to be amply confirmed by an official decree of the Athenian aside. to Demeter and Persephone. the assent of many Greeks. Panegyric.'^ Sylloge Inscrip(vol. people passed in the century before Isocrates wrote. pp. 1905) No. to all Greek cities whatsoever. as the the offerfi"ft-f°uits ^t Eieusis. Roberts and E. tionum Graecarum No. 6 sq. pp. though not commanding. 2 Dittenberger. i. It prescribes the exact amount of barley and wheat which was to be offered by the Athenians and their allies. 20 E. 22 sqq. . and it directs the highest officials at Eieusis. not only by the Athenians and their allies but by the Greeks in general. 9. namely the Hierophant and the Torchbearer. sometime between 446 and 420 B. The Senate is further enjoined to commissioners.c. .

bk. and that corn was said to have grown in the island before else. while giving the precedence to his fellow' Aristides. gift from far countries to Athens.. the rhetorician Aristides records the custom which may the Greeks observed of sending year by year the of the harvest to Athens in first-fruits gratitude for the corn. 4) asserts that wheat grew wild in many parts of Sicily. which the Athenians claimed to have received from the Corn Goddess and to have liberally communicated to the rest of mankind. Verrem. (Leipsic. Even the Sicilians. 2. and £/eusiu. vol. i. they continued to acknowledge the benefit which the Athenians had conferred on mankind by diffusing among them Demeter's of the corn. under the Roman empire. and recording the names of all the Greeks who sent the offerings . but he past. 2 and 4 Cicero. Thus the patriotic Sicilian historian Diodorus. Dindorf sacred to Demeter and Persephone." nevertheless freely acknowledged that the Athenians had spread. with her falling fortunes and decaying empire. Diodorus Siculus. not only to the two Goddesses but also to the God (Pluto). Paiiatheft. G. the homage was no longer paid in the substantial shape of cargoes of grain. with gilt horns. 2 417 ed.56 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE was to be offered in sacrifice as the Eumolpids might direct oxen were to be bought and sacrificed. her proud galleys had ceased to carry But if the terror of the Athenian arms into distant seas. and the remainder of Triptolemus.^ speaks of the practice as a thing of the Even states after We may suspect that the tribute of corn ceased to flow foreign ceased to send firstfruits of the corn to Eleusis. who. 167 sg. iv. Eubulus. The decree ends with a prayer that all who comply with these injunctions or exhortations and render their dues to the city of Athens and to the Two Goddesses. Writing in the second century of our era.. inhabiting a fertile corn-growing island. it continued down to the latest days of paganism to be paid in the cheaper form of gratitude for that inestimable benefit. the useful discovery among the nations. 1829). l/t C. act. chapters 48 sq. to Eleusis. when. . pp. v. worshipped Demeter and Persephone above all the gods and claimed to have been the first to receive the gift of the corn from the Corn Goddess. though they had not originated. and Athena the produce votive offerings the grain was to be sold and with were to be dedicated with inscriptions setting forth that they had been dedicated from the offerings of first-fruits. ii. enjoy prosperity together with good and abundant crops. Both writers mention that the whole of Sicily was deemed where it appeared anyIn support of the latter claim Diodorus Siculus (v.

Etna.. the intimate relation in which they stood to Demeter and the Maiden. but he does not say that the torches were kindled at the flames of torchlight search for Persephone and the use of the torches in the mysteries may have originated in a custom of carrying fire about the fields as a charm See to secure sunshine for the corn. unable to find her daughter. iv. naming the celebrations after them and signifying the nature of the For boons they had received by the dates of the festivals. lit " relate that Demeter. were the first to participate in the newly discovered corn.. See L. they appointed sacrifices and popular festivities in honour of each of the two goddesses. and is remarkable as well for the assigned to the time when 1 Diodorus Siculus. ch. the sowing of the corn begins and for ten days they hold a popular festivity which bears the name of the goddess.. In art Demeter and Persephone and This legend. xvi. Wherefore that people honoured the goddess more than any other folk by magnificent sacrifices and the mysteries at Eleusis. craters of ^ torches at the Etna Those people who received her best she rewarded by giving them in return the fruit of the wheat and because the Athenians welcomed her most kindly of all. 48). v. 1907) plates xiii. xix. xv. xxv. 313. she bestowed the fruit of the wheat on them next after the Sicilians. The author of the Homeric Hynin to Demeter tells us Demeter searched for (verses 47 sq. bk.a. strives to be just to the Athenian pretensions in the following passage. Perhaps the legend of the explain the use of torches in the mysteries of Demeter and Persephone.. was no doubt told to 2 their attendants were often repre- sented with torches in their hands.. xviii. . xxi. they celebrated the bringing home of the Maiden at the time when the corn was ripe.. The Golden Bough. xvii.) that for her lost daughter nine days with burning torches in her hands.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE " 57 countrymen. 4. till they filled the whole inhabited But as the people of Sicily.*^. iii. ii.^ Testimony skiiian historian Mythologists. (Oxford. which for their extreme antiquity and sanctity have become famous among all men." says he. xx. on account of earth with it.- iii. men who But the desired to testify their gratitude for so signal a gift bestowed on sacrifice them before all to Demeter they . which is mentioned also by Cicero (/« C. . xxvii. act. Verrem. R.a. The Cults of the Greek States. Farnell. and roamed over many reasonably expected of the rest of mankind. performing the sacrifice and holding the festivity with all the solemnity and zeal that might be parts of the world. From the Athenians many others received the boon of the corn and shared the seed with their neighbours..

of the first ^ . gradually spread to the ends of the earth. ii. and the 1 •' the bringing The words which I have translated home of the Maiden " down. Panathen. widespread. This proves that they associated. 2 ^ Cicero. Orat. with which they had imparted the blessing to others. 5.s "the bringing would refer to the descent of Persephone into the nether possible interpretation whicli world . Persephone at harvest. enumerates among the benefits the gift of the corn and which Athens was believed to have conferred on the world. Could any association or identification be more easy and obvious to people who personified the processes of nature under the form of at the beginning of sowing. the Mother Goddess with the seed-corn and the Daughter Goddess with the ripe ears.P. 26. 356 sq. and greatest service rendered by their city to mankind so ancient. addressing a Roman audience. Cicero. and persistent was the legend which ascribed the origin of the corn to the goddess Demeter and associated Eleusinian mysteries. Diodorus bears testimony both to the special blessing bestowed on the Athenians by the Corn Goddess.). 1829). until it Again. This interpretation pp. because when Demeter was mourning for the rape of the Maiden she laughed at a ribald jest. for such a descent is hardly appropriate to a harvest festival. Mip-p67roXts vol. 1 906. . costumes then worn in During these days it is cus- tomary for people to rail at each other in foul language. Aristides. accords perfectly with a well-attested sense of Karayiiiyfi and its cognate verb KOiTd-yeiv. Himerius.58 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE its magnificence of pomp as for the imitation of the olden time. if they did not identify. and to the generosity Testimony of Cicero and Himerius. Flacco. floor (^Griechische Feste. Leipsic." TTf)v KarayuyTji') are explained with great probability by Professor M."^ later the rhetorician Himerius speaks of Demeter's gift of the corn and the mysteries to the Athenians as the source ." ^ Thus despite his natural prepossession in favour of his native land. Pro L." I From to the passage of Diodorus which Sicilians celebrated have quoted we seem have learn that the the festival of festival of Demeter associated Demeter with the seed-corn and Persephone with the ripe ears. TuJi' i. G. called The Sicilians it with the institution * of the No wonder that the Delphic oracle Athens " the Metropolis of the Corn. Din- and is preferable to the other dorf (Leipzig. and the its origin in Attic soil cursory manner in which he alludes to it seems to prove that Four centuries the tradition was familiar to his hearers. 168 ed. * Kapirwi'. Nilsson as referring to the bringingof the ripe corn to the barn or the threshing- (t^s K6p7. p.

for example. and reaped the fat fields of Sicily. We cannot imagine that their night's rest was disturbed by uneasy meditations on these knotty problems. he had been closely questioned by a rigid logician as drawn between the two persons of the godhead who together represented for him the annual vicissitudes of the cereals. and accordingly no first-fruits inference can be drawn from the date of the offering as ^g^g as the world. The time of year at which the first-fruits were offered The time of to Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis is not explicitly ^hen^the mentioned by ancient authorities. Hodge might have scratched his head and confessed that it puzzled him to say where if And to the exact distinction to be precisely the one goddess ended and the other began. and at another as the living to its religious significance. totally failed to distinguish Demeter from the seed and Persephone from the ripe sheaves.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE s 59 anthropomorphic deities ? As the seed brings forth the ripe ear. are we to divide exactly the two persons At what precise moment does the seed of the divinity? cease to be the Corn Mother and begins to burgeon out And how far can we identify the into the Corn Daughter ? material substance of the barley and wheat with the divine bodies of the Two Goddesses ? Questions of this sort probably gave little concern to the sturdy swains who ploughed. or why the seed buried in the ground should figure at one time dead daughter Persephone descending into the nether Mother Demeter about Theological subtleties to give birth to next year's crop. and if he accepted implicitly the doctrine of the real presence of the divinities in the corn Difficulty "^^1^^'^" between aiXpeTsephoneas fications of different the corn and the without discriminating too curiously between the material spiritual properties of the barley or the wheat. who looked with blind devotion to the Two Goddesses for his daily bread. It would hardly be strange if the muzzy mind of the Sicilian bumpkin. like these have posed longer heads than are commonly to be found on bucolic shoulders. It is true that at the Eleusinian offered to Demeter mysteries the Hierophant and Torchbearer publicly exhorted and Persephone at the Greeks in general. sowed. so the Corn Mother Demeter gave birth to the Corn It is true that difficulties arise when Daughter Persephone. as distinguished from the Athenians . we attempt How. to analyse this seemingly simple conception.

cursorily the Threshing-floor {Haloa)? reported by writers of no very high authority. is ). other Greeks. cannot be and even if it could. the other hand. (Cambridge. 1 16.6o Eleusis is not known. where commissioners are directed to go to all Greek states exhorting but not commanding them to offer the first-fruits (iKeboLS di /xt] eiriTaTTOVTas. and their allies (who were compelled to make the but only to the offering) Eustathius on . as to the date of Graecarumj^ No. 155. Miss J. lines 25 sqq. Rubensohn. Gardner. Homer. took place at the Festival before Ploughing {Proerosid)^ though that festival would no doubt be an eminently appropriate occasion for propitiating with such offerings the goddess on whose bounty the next year's crop was believed to depend. ii. in favour of the other. 9. still This interpretation no doubt grammatically permissible. Sylloge Inscriptioiitivi . Iliad.vaTripioiS with dirdpxecrdai. to offer the first-fruits in and accordance with custom and the bidding of the Delphic oracle. S. who might make it or not as they pleased . Die Jlfysterienheiligtiimer in Eleusis und Samothrake 534> PGraeca. the foreigners to contribute. taking advantage of the great assembly of Greeks from all quarters at the mysteries. we should implicitly relied upon hardly be justified in inferring from it that all the first-fruits of the corn were offered to Demeter and Persephone at this fruits . 1898).cas Tov Kapirov Kara. The Athenians exhortation to have been made at the mysteries {Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. to invite or exhort. Harrison understands the offering instead of the idv ^oiXwvTaL Kara to. by the mouth of the great priestly functionaries. p. could not less ent states to command free and independmake such offerings. Compare O. By coupling fj. Kekeviro} 5e /cat 6 iepotpdvTrjs kclI 6 5g. instead which nothing is said. All that they could and did do was.8ovxos IJ. not a command. p. Im.. That the proclamation to the Greeks in general was an exhortation (KeXeu^rw). DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE their allies. ix. if not to be absolutely decisive. and the amount of such voluntary contributions to that of the was probably small compared compulsory contributions. . KeXeiJOvras d^ dwapx^o'dai of with KeXeueTd}. to. Introduction to Greek Epigraphy.v. Anecdota 772 i. Bekker. It is to be observed that the exhortation was addressed not to the Athenians could they prescribe the exact date the offerings were to be made. irdrpia Kai TTjv /xavTelav ttjv iy AeXcpwv. 2 August Mommsen. 3 (Leipsic. lines 25 sgq." etc. (Berlin. or a portion of them.. 'AXCoa. but the context seems to plead strongly. 1905) No. 1892). 192 sqq. Roberts and E. On 1 Dittenberger. TrdrpLa Kai t^v fxavTeiav iy AeX^tDc). authority support the view of a modern scholar that the ancestral offering of the first-fruits.^ But there is nothing to shew that the offerings were made Nor does any ancient immediately after the exhortation. is clearly shewn by the words of the decree a few lines lower down.V(TTT] plots dirdpxeffdai rovs "E\\7. E. 384 sq. A. Peste der Stadt when Athen im Altertum pp. "Let the Hierophant and the Torch bearer command that at the mysteries the Hellenes should offer first-fruits of their crops. 20. E. we are positively told that the firstwere carried to Eleusis to be used at the Festival of But the statement. The Festival of the Threshingfloor (Haloa) at Eleusis. Second Edition. s.

Inscriptiomim Graecarum^ Nos. 2 Dittenberger. Meretr. 1906). read of a hierophant who. Anecdota Graeca. than that the Festival of held the Threshing-floor should be on the sacred threshing-floor which bore his name. Iliad. "it being unlawful to sacrifice victims We on that day" (Demosthenes. 38. . InscripSylloge tionuni doubt identical with the Sacred Threshmentioned in the great ing. As for Demeter. we have already seen how intimate was her association with the threshing-floor and the operation of threshing according to Homer. E. deities ^ and while the name seems to connect it rather with the Corn Goddess than with the Wine God.^ We may suppose that the festival or some part of it was celebrated on the Sacred Threshing-floor of Triptolemus at Eleusis * for as Triptolemus was the hero who is said to have diffused the knowledge of the corn all over the world. pp.eph 'Apxa^oXoyiKr]." Eleusinian inscriptions. line 234). from some of which we gather that it included sacrifices to the two goddesses and a socalled Ancestral Contest. For a discussion of the 315 sq. 4). coll. 1907) pp. pp. Miss J. 279 sq.floor Eleusinian inscription (Dittenberger. i. i. and accordingly it deserves our It is said to have been sacred to both these attention. ^ Scholia in Luciaiium. nothing could be more natural festival. Ruben sohn {Die Mysterienheiligtiimer in Eleusis tuid Samothrake. p. Im. Bekker. 'AXcDa. 'E(p7]iJ. the Festival of the Threshingwas intimately connected with the worship both of Demeter and of Dionysus. 1908). 116. Contra Neaeram. pp. p. 192. 640 . (Oxford. at Eleusis (Pausanias. The passages of 1884.). iii.C. . but from such an unlawful act no inference can be drawn as to the place where the That the festival festival was held. 6) is no 534. (scholium on Dialog. 1898). 587. Sylloge of 329 B. 1 Eustathius on Homer. and in Cos her image with the corn-stalks and the poppies . Berlin. "^ G?-aecarum. 587. The Cults of the Greek States. pp. The threshing-floor of Triptolemus . Teste der Stadt Athen im Altertum (Leipsic. 135 sq. Second Edition (Cambridge. ix. 118). Harrison. contrary to ancestral custom. floor . we are yet informed that it was held by the Athenians on the occasion of the pruning of the vines and the tasting of the The festival is frequently mentioned in stored-up wine. 384 sq. probably had special reference to the has threshing-floor of Triptolemus already been pointed out by O. 359 sqq. Farnell. 1384 sq.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 6i Be that as it may.'^ No.v. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. vii. 772. inscriptions and of ancient authors which refer to the festival are collected by Dr.. s. evidence see August Mommsen. 246. H. R. sacrificed a victim on the hearth in the Hall at Eleusis during the Festival of the Threshing-floor. Rabe (Leipsic. 1892. L. 145 sqq. she is the yellow goddess who parts the yellow grain from the white chaff at the threshing. ed. as to the nature of which we have no information.

'^ Festival of the Threshing-floor was quite distinct from the It is said to have included actual threshing of the corn. Meretr.^ and is. ^ Stadt friend p. took over her threshing-floor and compelled the anomaly of a winter threshing festival " {Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion.43. p. Feste der Athen ivi Altertum. ^ Harpocration. like certain obscenities which seem to have formed part of the Great Mysteries at Eleusis. at sponds roughly to our December. though on high ground in Crete it is sometimes prolonged till near We seem bound to conclude that the the end of August. A like association of ^ Seeabove. ed. 147). ' explain the lateness of the festival. possessed The rival - festivals of Dionysos were in mid winter. L. certainly surprising to find a Festival of the Threshing-floor held so late in the year. and as the date rests on t^^ ^'g^ authority of the ancient Athenian antiquary Philochorus. Adversus Natiorus. Harrison suggests that " the shift of date is due to 329. while they broke filthy jests on each other and exhibited cakes baked in the form of the male and female organs of generation. and no victims might be sacrificed at it ^ but special use was made. P. but were deliberately practised as rites calculated to promote the fertility of the ground by means of homoeopathic or imitative magic. as we have seen. 5) that 95 sqq. long after the threshing. of the first-fruits of lasted Date of the corn. which in Greece usually takes place not later than midsummer. note*. AXGia (vol.62 in DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE her hands stood .. 61. To Dionysos. p. lines 124. 35.v. Second Edition. 1906. With regard that it to the dating of the festival we are the Festival ij^fQi-j^ed of the fell in the month Poseideon. 144.^ one day. pp. with the 587. Arnobius. pp. and 20.. Protrept. i. 279-281). .^ certain mystic rites performed by women alone. pp. Myres. 13 and 17 ed. 1900). * recognised by Professor M. Dial. is This ii. Sylloge Dittenberger. Rabe.^ were no mere wanton outbursts of licentious passion. Dindorf). husbandmen were the first to celebrate sacred rites in honour of Demeter at the threshing-floor. festivals He of himself of the p. ^ vii. 15 Potter Clement of Alexandria. * G. ° So I am informed by my Professor J. 39. 2 See above. xxx. editor's notes Demeter. Inscrip- tioniim Graecarum^ No. indirectly confirmed by inscripBut it is tional evidence. V. August Mommsen. . who speaks 4 (Scholia in Lucianum. pp. and his Griechische Feste. 360. See his Studia de Diotiysiis Atticis (Lund.'^ If the latter particulars are correctly reported we may suppose that these indecencies. moreover. H. Scholiast on Lucian. 24. s. p. from personal observation. The festival on the threshing-floor. which corre- Threshing- ^mioa) Eieusis. 25-27. Nilsson. 41 j^. E.* we are bound to accept it. Miss J. ed. Leipsic. who feasted and quaffed wine. Maximus Tyrius observes {Dtssertat.

Orphica. 5. Summer ii. p." " She of the Corn. 2 Dittenberger. and appears to have been a common title of the goddess. p. vi. and that sacrifices were offered to her under that title which plainly aimed at promoting fertility. 17 sqq. Ibid. Anthologia Palatina. 153. 318 note ^". col. a festival of Demeter celebrated by women alone. We shall return to this festival later on. The Athenians sacrificed to her under this title (Eustathius. with vol. /rfj'/. Frogs.^ No. Dionys. cited by Athenaeus. xviii." Fruits. 1883." ^ " Nurse of the Corn-ears. 145. To be exact. I162). and under it she received annual sacrifices at Ephesus (Dittenberger. it does not record the deities to Anthologia Palatina. xl. 1900). 42. which were offered to Demeter and Persephone. xl. xl. Ch. 9. phone at Tegea (Pausanias. at which the character of the goddess as a source of fertility comes out clearly in the custom of mixing sacrificial the remains of the to pigs with the seed-corn in order obtain a plentiful crop. sq. 36." ^ " Sheaf- Epithets of ^^'"^'^'" referring to the com." ^ " She of the Winnowing-fan." ^^ " She of the Seed." ^ " Crowned with Ears of Corn. Farnell. Iliad. vi. * ^ '^ ^^ definitely mentions the sacrifices to the Demeter and Persephone at Green Festival. The Cults of the Greek States. viii. It was applied to her also at Epidaurus ('E07?/x. while the inscription lionum 553. Michel. 640. suppose that the sacrifice at the Festival of the Cornstalks was fairly we may also offered to these goddesses. xl. p. 3. pp. iii. Sylloge Inscrip- Nonnus. 5. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. Theocritus. Apx-. 8. i Polemo. xvii. 135."" •» " Fruit -bearer. vii. '^ Graecartim. 382). 655). Anthologia Palatina. . But their names suffice to connect the two festivals with the green We have seen that Demeter and the standing corn. i. mentioned as it is in immediate connexion with the sacrifices to Demeter Festival '^ '* Orphica. p. p. whom the sacrifice at the '- of the Cornstalks (ttjv rwv But KaXafialuv dvffiav) was oflfered. Fruits.^ Other festivals held at Eleusis in honour of Demeter and The Green were known as the Green Festival and the ^''-^"y^i Persephone ^ and the Festival of the Cornstalks. Orphica. 155. iii. on Homer. 153) and at Athens (Aristophanes." ^^ " She of the Green bearer. herself bore the title of Green. See L. R." ^'* See below. 3 * * See above. Orphica. She of the Threshing-floor. 416 B." ^ ^ " ^^ "Heavy 116.^ Among the many epithets applied to Demeter which mark her relation to the corn may ' further be mentioned " Wheat-lover. 18. No. cornstalks at Eieusis. vi.No. 104..s II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE call 63 what we might indecency with rites intended to promote the growth of the crops meets us in the Thesmophoria. 98. tion Of the manner of their celebra- Festival we know nothing except that they comprised sacrifices. This title she shared with Perse- and Persephone at the Green Festival. Recueil d^ Inscriptions Grecgues (Brussels. 7). 53.

" they said. of her temple." '^ The ^ Polemo. p.64 " DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE " ^ She of the Great Barley be remarked that though all of them are quite appropriate to a Corn Goddess. Modern Gi-eek Folklore and Ancient p. Yet even this degrading situation had not been assigned to it wholly independent of its be followed by no less a calamity than failure of their annual harvests . The inhabitants still the small village which is now among the ruins of Eleusis of situated re- garded degree this statue to with a very high veneration. A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (London. (London. and the fertility of the land the antient history. and in the midst of a heap of dung. 2 E. m. amongst the ruins were impressed with a persuasion that their rich harvests were the effect of her bounty. i. 9. Belief in the corn as the fundamental ancient and modern times that the corn- crops depend on possession of an image of Demeter." be removed. always. Eleusis. C. the inhabitants lamented to him the loss of a colossal image of Demeter. and Africa. " In my first journey to Greece. as a neverfailing indication of the produce of the When the statue was about to soil. cited by Athenaeus." and Loaf. "famous for their corn . They the of their land ." Of these epithets it may turn the scale in favour of attribute of Demeter. situated in the centre of a threshing-floor. D. Asia. iii. who tells us that "the statue was regularly crowned with flowers Greek in the avowed hope of obtaining good Thev believed that the loss of it would harvests." See E. as they assured me. and since her removal. Lawson. Clarke found the image " on the side of the road. and it was for this reason that they heaped around it the manure intended for their fields. a general murmur ran among the people. How deeply implanted in the mind of the ancient Greeks was this faith in Demeter as goddess of the corn may be judged by the circumstance that the faith actually persisted among their Christian descendants at her old sanctuary of Eleusis down to the beginning of the nineteenth For when the English traveller Dodwell revisited century. Clarke. 772Compare J. and they pointed to the ears of bearded wheat. 1814) pp. D. 73. says Dodwell. " this protecting deity was in villagers its full glory." where it still remains. Dodwell. 1 9 10). upon the sculptured ornaments upon the head of the figure. which was carried off by Clarke in 1802 and presented to the University of Cambridge. their abundance." . 80. attributed fertility presence Religion (Cambridge. the women joining " They had been in the clamour. buried as high as the neck. its of superstitious would cease when the statue was removed. some of them would scarcely be applicable to an Earth Goddess and therefore they add weight to the other arguments which She of the Great Loaf. p. 774) 787 sq. 416 c. immediately before entering the village. a little beyond the farther extremity of the pavement of the temple. X. 1819). 583. Travels in various Countries of Europe. 109 A B. Thus we see the Corn Goddess Demeter has disappeared. E.

held by the Greeks down to modern times. century attributed the diminution of their harvests to the loss of the image of Demeter. all more or less vague and indefinite. Sacred ^f^2eus^^ and at^Eieusis.^ If a marriage of West in the later ages of Zeus and Demeter did indeed in the fifth form an important feature of the Mysteries tury before our era. VOL. that Verrem. from various indications.. Athenaeum. as Professor Ridgeway has 1 justly pointed out.u. no mention of Zeus Cicero. V. May 20th. so in antiquity the Sicilians. p. lib. that the corn -crops depended on her presence and bounty and perished when her image was removed ? In a former part of this work I followed an eminent French scholar in concluding. a fair degree of probability. friend Professor which I 2 This view was expressed PT.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 65 standing on the threshing-floor of Eleusis and dispensing corn to her worshippers in the nineteenth century of the Christian era. The Compare early part of loii. It may be. lamented that the crops of many towns had perished because the unscrupulous Roman governor Verres had impiously carried off the image of Demeter from her Could we ask for a clearer proof famous temple at Henna. <i T-L T\^ A 4 and J ^ The Mane Art ^ „. Ridgeway holds. No. act. represented by the hierophant and the priestess of the goddess respectively. a corn-growing people devoted to the worship of the two Corn Goddesses. I V . 51.^ that Demeter was indeed the goddess of the corn than this belief. iv. by my 191 1.iZ^sg.^ The conclusion is arrived at by combining a number of passages. 576. that this dramatic marriage of the god and goddess was an innovation foisted into the Eleusinian •Mysteries in that great welter of religions which followed the meeting of the East and the antiquity. ^o cfKtngs. of late hence it must remain to some extent Christian writers uncertain and cannot at the best lay claim to more than . that part of the religious drama performed in the mysteries of Eleusis may have been a marriage between the sky-god Zeus and the corn-goddess Demeter. ii. •• 4U J? J Evolution the 4- Ridgeway in a paper had the advantage of hearhim read at Cambridge in the ing ° ^ n 'tt. 4360. as Professor W. it cen- is certainly remarkable. In C. precisely as her image stood and dispensed corn to her worshippers on the threshing-floor of Cos in the And just as the people of Eleusis last days of Theocritus.

4. ed. but his 1 Dittenberger. that the Greek ploughman prayed at the beginning of the ploughing ^ and the people of Myconus used to sacrifice to Subterranean Zeus and Subterranean Earth for the prosperity of the crops .^ must bear in mind that. No. marriage to which the Christian writers allude with malicious joy may after all have been of a more regular and orthodox pattern. pp. Diodorus Siculus. ^ * Homer.'^ No. according Dionysus himself was the offspring of the Thus there is no intrigue between Zeus and Demeter. Ziehen. Odyssey. 22 sq. sents the jealous god smiting with a thunderbolt the favoured lover with whom the goddess had forgotten her dignity the furrows of a fallow tradition. Potter. But it seems just possible that the Eleusinian Mysteries. Sylloge Inscriplines tionum Graecarum. confess that he had lost his too susceptible heart. Michel. (Cambridge. Iliad. S. v. Protrept.'' Thus it may be that the Zeus whose marriage was dramatically represented at the Mysteries was not the sky-god Zeus.^ among to Moreover. Works and Days. de Prott et L. Introduction to Greek Epig)-aphy. p. iii. We are positively told that the rape of Persephone was acted at the Mysteries ^ may that scene not have . ii. 9. xiv. Pluto. 125 sqq. Gardner. 714. Leges Graecortifn Sacrae. to Demeter is late and doubtful. No. Sylloge Inscriptioium . 326. pp. A. the evidence for myth is ancient and indubitable. 25 Ch.'^ 2 12. . 1905) No. on the twelfth day of the month Lenaeon. Recueil d^ Inscriptions Grecques. 5 Clement of Alexandria. in a burst of candour. 62.66 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE occurs in the public decree of that century which regulates the offerings of first-fruits and the sacrifices to be made to At the same time we the gods and goddesses of Eleusis. J. if the evidence for the ritual marriage of Zeus and Homer on the the love of Zeus for Demeter. Dittenberger. field. The story was known Homer. 12. been followed by another representing the solemnisation of her nuptials with her ravisher and husband Pluto ? It is to be remembered that Pluto was sometimes known as a god It was to of fertility under the title of Subterranean Zeus. Homer. that is. Roberts and E. ^ ' Hesiod.* intrinsic improbability in the view that one or other of these one unedifying incidents in the backstairs chronicle of Olympus should have formed part of the sacred peep-show in the Zeus the Sky God may have been confused with Subterranean Zeus. 6l5> sq. 465 sqq. him under that title as well as to Demeter. there occurs the name of " the fair-haired Queen Demeter " ^ and in another passage the poet repre. See above. 6. for in the list of beauties to whom he makes Zeus. 20 E. . Gi-aecaj-uffi. 55 sq. No.

frequently represent and Daughter side by side in forms which resemble each other so closely that eminent modern experts have sometimes differed from each other on the question. Demeter ^^^^ ^^^_ fused with 1 IT I ge^phone.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 67 brother Zeus of the Underworld. that they may have confused the two brothers. Zeus of the Upper World and Zeus of the Lower World. which indeed in some is Demeter and which is Persephone distinguish the impossible to quite cases might be it two if it were not for the inscriptions attached to the . would dispose of the difficulty raised by the absence of the name of Zeus in the decree which prescribes the offerings to be made to the gods of for although in that decree Pluto is not mentioned Eleusis . we seem driven to suppose that. This view. both of the archaic could ." and it is ordained that perfect victims shall be sacrificed to both of However. if it could be established. For must be confessed that in doing so we raise another. the Mother . as the editors of the inscription have seen. the bride was his lawful wife Persephone and not his sister and mother-in-law Demeter. under the name of Subterranean Zeus. if we thus dispose of one difficulty. on the hypothesis which I have suggested we are compelled to conclude that the ancient busybodies who lifted the veil from the mystic marriage were mistaken as to the person both of the divine bridegroom and of the divine In regard to the bridegroom I have conjectured bride." while his consort Persephone is similarly referred to under the title of " the Goddess. . and that the writers refer to the who ceremony have confused the two brothers. the mother Demeter standing ° for the old corn of last year and the daughter Persephone standing for the new corn of this year. and of later periods. he is clearly referred to. In regard to the bride. '^ art the types of the two goddesses are often very similar. In short. can any reason be suggested for confounding the On the view here persons of the mother and daughter ? taken of the nature of Demeter and Persephone nothing be easier than to confuse them with each other. In point of fact Greek artists. it them. but the earth-god Pluto. under the vague title of " the God. contrary to the opinion of the reverend Christian scandal-mongers. if the bridegroom in the Sacred Marriage at Eleusis was not the sky-god Zeus. for both of them were mythical embodiments ot the corn.

v. 2. in ritual as well as why in particular the part of the divine bride in a may sometimes have been assigned to the But all this." p. Sacred Marriage as such. Didionnaire des Antiquitis Grecques et Romaines. 1866-1868). even in the beautiful vase of Hieron in the British Museum. R. And even at Metapontum. id. "But it would be wrong to give the impression that the numismatic artists of this period were always careful to distinguish in such a manner as the above works indicate between mother and daughter.'" Compare J. We possess far too little information as to a Sacred Marriage in the Eleusinian Mysteries to be in speaking with confidence on so obscure a subject. which in its own right and on account of its resemblance to the masterpiece of Euainetos could claim the name of Kore [Persephone]. cit.68 figures. We : . On the more ancient vases and terracottas they appear rather as twin-sisters. L. for example. (Oxford. I sometimes to the Daughter. . 263 sq. s. p. iii. " It was long before the mother could be distinguished from the daughter by any organic difference of form or by any expressive trait of countenance. Lenormant. See J. . vase-painters. which seems to represent Demeter giving the corn . of Hermione. . 427 sqq. Overbeck. and there is a certain impression of inner tranquil life in the group. cit. F. iii. 259.stalks to Triptolemus. 357 sqq. Overbeck. a youthful head crowned with corn.. where the divine pair are seen with Triptolemos the style is delicate and stately. that they stood merely for two different aspects of the same simple natural phenomenon. The — and must have been used here to designate Demeter Chthonia who was there the only form that the corn-goddess assumed. close resemblance of the artistic types of Demeter and Persephone see Gerhard. 274. to the p. and engravers must have had some good reason for portraying the two goddesses in types which are almost indistinguishable from each other and what better reason could they have had than the knowledge that the two persons of the godhead were one in substance. and Persephone may have been confused in art. where coin . On the Farnell. 453. R. op. almost as if the inarticulate artist were aware of their original identity of subAnd even among the monustance.engraving was long a great art. is actually inscribed 'Damater. In regard. ii. (Leipsic. Mother and I only put it forward speculation. vol. and mere is a fully admit. E. i. 1907). The Cutts of iii. 1873-1878). op. Griechische Kunstmythologie. the growth Thus it is easy to understand why Demeter of the corn ? . while Persephone crowns his head. one of the most beautiful monuments of ancient religious art. there has been much divergence of opinion among the learned as to which of the goddesses is Demeter and which Persephone. 1049. 1 justified See L.^ DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE The ancient sculptors. iii. iii. further — old idea of their unity of substance still seemed to linger as an art-tradition : the very type we have just been examining appears on a fourth-century coin Gesammelte akademische Abhandlungen (Berlin. Fainell. famous Eleusinian bas-relief. in Daremberg et Saglio. " Ceres. but without the aid of the inscriptions the mother would not be known from the daughter " the Greek States. ments of the transitional period it is difficult to find any representation of the goddesses in characters at once miss this clear and impressive.

" We are told that at these rites the worshippers looked up to the sky and cried Rain " and then looked down at the earth and cried Conceive " ^ Nothing could be more appropriate at a marriage of the Sky God and the Earth or Corn Goddess than such invocations to the heaven to pour down rain and to the earth or the corn to conceive seed under the fertilising shower in Greece no time could well be more suitable for ! " ! . may be 125 sqq. The Ma^iatrg farmer awaits impatiently the setting-in of the autumnal rains. nium Haeresium. Proclus. fitter for celebrating Goddess ''or the Earth Goddess. Odyssey. Kije where Lobeck's emendation of . p. no date m the agricultural year could well Mysteries have been more appropriate for it than the date at which 1 • -1 'Z* ^^p^^J"- the Mysteries in actually fell. namely about the middle of is have been September. iie. the union of the Corn Goddess with her husband the Earth God will or perhaps rather with her paramour the Sky God. iii. What time could be .the Corn ing and sowing. who showers to quicken the seed soon descend ? in fertilising Such embraces of the divine powers or their human representatives might well be deemed. is roKVie {Aglaophavms. The long Greek summer The practically rainless LopHate all and the fervent heat and unbroken drought nature time for a languishes. oftheSky which begin in October and mark the great season for plough. Timaeus. of Kings. which we may say with a fair The date degree of probabiHty is that. indispensable to the growth of the crops. rb ixiya Kai dpprjTov 'EXeiaifit^v fivcrrripiov ve Kve. Refutatio Omv. In this connexion a statement of ancient writers as to the rites of Eleusis receives fresh significance. ' The Magic Art and the Evolution ii. p.a DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 69 One thing. 146. p. 293 on Plato. the fields parched. however. ed. if such a marriage did take °^*^*^ Eleusinian -1 T-i place at Kleusis. v. 7. 782) accepted as certain. F. on the principles of homoeopathic or imitative magic. Famell. quoted by L. confirmed by Hippolytus. as it Homer. At least similar ideas have been entertained and similar customs have been practised by many peoples ^ and in the legend of Demeter's lovein the furrows . The Greek States. c. river-beds are dry. for vie. Cults of the 357. Duncker and Schneidewin (Gottingen. 1859). ^ 3 97 sqq. adventure among the furrows of the thrice-ploughed fallow ^ we seem to catch a glimpse of rude rites of the same sort performed in the fields at sowing-time by Greek ploughmen for the sake of ensuring the growth of the seed which they were about to commit to the bosom of the naked earth.

the son of Cecrops. Moreover. name which late writers applied incorrectly to the Mysteries. 587.. who describes the origin of the Eleusinian Mysteries.. id. and in the great Eleusinian inscription of 329 B. 1900).^ But like the Mysteries the games seem to have been very ancient for the Parian Chronicler. 'EXeutr/i'ta). 587. the games and the Mysteries are clearly distinguished from each other by being mentioned separately in the same inscription. 258 3 sqq. 587. but makes no reference or allusion to the Eleusinian Games. 246. The quadriennial celebration of the Eleusinian Games is was simply Eletisinia (to. 54)."^ No. ^ As to the Eleusinian games see August Mommsen. See Ditten- tiotium Graecarum. note ^''i. the great age of the games is again vouched for at a much . 244 sq. sq. The Eleusinian games of later origin than the Eleusinian Mysteries. 179 sqq. Sylloge lines Inscrip- mentioned by Aristotle ( Cotistitution of Athens. Different both from the Great Mysteries and the offerings of first-fruits at Eleusis were the games which were celebrated there on a great scale once in every four years and on a less scale once in every two years.. whereas the Mysteries were celebrated annually. 179-20^. . See August Mommsen. pp."^ No. pp. in Greek epigraphy. P. P. Great Mysteries of Eleusis were celebrated. carum. . Graecorum. Dittenberger. which according to him were instituted by Eumolpus in the reign of Erechtheus. Feste der Stadt Athen i?n Altertuni. V. Foucart. regular and official name of the The games a in Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Encyclopddie der classischeji Altertumsivissenschaft. lines 258 sgq. cit. which were quadriennial and biennial respectively.70 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE when the the utterance of such prayers than just at the date The Eleusinian games distinct from the Eleusinian Mysteries. pp. No. berger. which is also our only authority for the biennial celebration of the games. 143-147.C. who wrote in the year 264 B. he represents them as of later origin than the Eleusinian Mysteries. Les Grands Mysteres d Eleusis (Paris. in Fragmenta ed.^ This testimony to the superior antiquity of the Mysteries is in harmony with our most ancient authority on the rites of Eleusis.. Marmor i. No. 2 Dittenberger.C. C. Pariuni. the author of the Hymn to Demeter. op. our most authentic evidence in such matters. op. lines 25 sqq. However. coll. at the end of the long drought of summer and before the first rains of autumn.^ That the games were distinct from the Mysteries is proved by their periods. assigns the foundation of the Eleusinian games to the reign of Pandion. Stengel. Sylloge Inscripiiomtni Grae- 544 . after Demeter had planted corn in Attica and Triptolemus had sown seed in the Rarian plain at Eleusis. cit. 2330 sqq. Historicor-um Miiller. However.

cit. 259 sqq. 'Dili^nh^rger. s. tionum Graecarum. 246. mentioned in . Recueil (flnscripSee above. but an old scholiast on Pindar sacred to tells us that they were celebrated in honour of Demeter and fifc^pg^ Persephone as a thank-offering at the conclusion of the cornHis testimony is confirmed by that of the rhetorician Aristides. that both the Great and the Lesser Games included athletic and musical contests. leaping. Panatheii. also in- The Festival of the Threshing-floor. From sacrificed to Demeter and Persephone at the Great Eleusinian Games. Eleusinian the Games are games celebrated every fourth year. i. 417. 678. Sylloge InscripDittenberger.' .C.vv. cit. 609. . with (Dittenberger. pp. 150. they were .games o of the & ° mation is extremely scanty. and a provision is contained in the decree that thehonourshouldbe proclaimed "at theAncestral Contest of the No. Michel. line 2).II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE by the rhetorician Aristides. 587 note 1^1 (vol.Th'ird Edition. We might be tempted to identify it with the Ancestral Contest included in the Eleusinian Festival of the Threshing-floor. 3 No. No. See W. lines 25 sqq. of the third century before our era we learn that at the Great Eleusinian Games sacrifices were offered to Demeter Further. G.^ declares that . we gather from an official and Persephone/ Athenian inscription of 329 B.^ No." same Ancestral Contest at the Festival of the Threshing-floor is eluded the pentathlum (Dittenberger. 587. and wrestling.^ No. 587.^ Unfortunately nothing is known about this Ancestral Contest.'^ No. 260 sq. which are mentioned in the decree of 329 B. and a competition which bore the name of the Ancestral or Hereditary Contest. a horse-race. 71 later date who even games. Graecamm. and Eleusin. 11. ii. The editor rightly points out that the Great identical * Smith. who mentions the institution of the Eleusinian games in immediate connexion with the offerings of the first-fruits of the corn. sephone. 228. op. vol.C. a race in armour. 2 Schol. Aristides.). Olymp. Sylloge Inscriptionum lines Graecarum. which many Greek states sent to Athens ^ and from an inscription dated about the close harvest. who had other Attic inscriptions we learn that the Eleusinian games comprised a long foot-race. 168. op. 246. ed." ^ Dittenberger. lines 46 sqq.'' which was probably held ^ Aristides. Aug. the oldest of all Greek With The ^'^"^'"^'1 regard to the nature and meaning: games our infor. 61. cc. p. on Pindar. See Dittenberger. p. Boeckh. ix. Ch.^ No. ed. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecartwi. and which accordingly may well have formed the original kernel of the games. throwing the spear. Dictionary of Greek and Pomaa "Pan- Antiqttities. Sylloge Inscriptionum lines The identification lies all the nearer to hand because the inscription records a decree in honour of a man p. The Great Eleusinian Games 313). The pancratium included wrestling and boxing the pentathlum included a foot-race. ^ cratium " and " Pentathlon. and a pancratium. Dindorf. tions Grecques. throwing the quoit.

pp. . Kunstmythologie. 30. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. 3 Plato. Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. Dittenberger. had sacrificed to Demeter and Persephone at the Festival of the Threshingfloor.2 . See 'T&cprjfiepls 'Apxai-oXoyiKri. which records honours decreed to a man who Griechische Alyikologie. 1 See above. C. 277 sqq. 135 sg. also above. G. ^ p. . Aletamorph. 20. pp.. zi/. Bibliotheca. 4 sqq. 282 sqq. Gnechische iii. iv. i. p. pp. Theologiae Graecae Compendium. Philopseudes. I . Hyginus. Preller. and from which he is said to have sowed the seed down on the whole world as he sped through the air. As to Triptolemus. 9. S. 782 . . .des classischen Altertums. 15 id. Triptolemus was the corn-hero first and foremost. especially in vase- paintings.^ identification could be proved. Servius.72 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE Triptolemus. SonDiuim.^ His very name has been plausibly explained both in ancient and modern times as " Thrice-ploughed " with reference to the Greek custom of in this capacity. ii. E. in his car. id. 61. 769 sgg. 19. v. ed. i. Denkvidlei. 2. i. on Virgil. v. Cornutus. No. 1905). 18731880). 549 147. on Virgil. viii. Arrian.^ In short. Laws. sow the seed. Ehusin. Baumeister. Fabulae. ^ Diodorus Siculus. on the Sacred Threshing-floor of Triptolemus at Eleusis. 2 Cornutus. i. all men. C. 68 . Apollodorus. vii. 4. Arrian. 28. That Triptolemus sowed earth with corn from his car is . 1884. See Aristides. 530 sqq. . Indie. pp. 28. Sludien iiber den Bilderh-eis von Eleusis (Leipsic. Theologiae Graecae Competiditim. Fabulae.^ At Eleusis victims bought with the first-fruits of the wheat and barley were sacrificed to him as well as to Demeter and Persephone. ed. . we should have If the another confirmation of the tradition which connects the for according to the games with Demeter and the corn prevalent tradition it was to Triptolemus that Demeter first revealed the secret of the corn. Pausanias.No. Georg. 645 sqq. and it was he whom she sent out as an itinerant missionary to impart the beneficent discovery of the cereals to all mankind and to teach them to . Dindorf . Servius. Gardner. 5. C. the 1855^^(7. . founded sanctuaries and erected altars in his honour because he had bestowed on them the gift of the corn. 18. lines 37 sqq. coll. see L. 54. A. iii. he constantly represented along with Demeter holding corn-stalks in his hand and sitting which is sometimes winged and sometimes drawn by dragons. p. 1837). Lang. 53. another Eleusinian inscription.. mentioned by Apollodorus. . the mythical hero of the corn. . if we may judge from the combined testimony of Greek literature and art. Roberts and E. . pp. 2.. i. . Fasti. * 19. 147.^ is On monuments of art. Hyginus. (Leipsic. 24.. Even beyond the limits of the Greek world. Lang . we are told. Defneier und Persephone (Cambridge. Bibliotheca. 53 sq. Georg. i. ed. . 5. 22. 259. 14. A. 7 Lucian. vi. (Hamburg. vol. p.^ ^ i. Ovid. and i. J. Strube. Epicteti Dissertat/ones.'. p. 416 sq. 4. 1870). Overbeck.

vi. 6).56. The custom of ploughing the land thrice is alluded 483 to by Xenophon {Hellenica. continue his kind. 6) have spoken of Triptolemus as " our ancestor" (6 ijfi^Tepoi irpoyovos). specified. F.C. 460. 127) and Hesiod {Theogony. for many Greek families boasted of being people.. H. 1889). that Callias was here speaking. Professor J. L.* 1 This of itself is sufficient said to prove that the Scholiast on . who has paid special attention to Attic genealogy.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 73 ploughing the land thrice a year/ and the derivation is said to In fact it be on philological principles free from objection. but merely as an Athenian. Works and Days. 150. an embodiment of the conception of the first sower. So am friend ^ the informed by my learned Rev. according to an eminent scholar. Iliad. which contains the accounts of the superintendents of Eleusis and the Treasurers of the Two Goddesses. comrade Eumolpus or other founders of Eleusinian priestly families. Toepfifer. ed. actual 138 sq. G. vii. Genealogie Even if he intended to claim descent from the hero. . pp. pp. Homer. Olynip." is ^ appeared. not as to by Homer (Iliad. 3. so he vanishes again from the legend. (vol. for in a speech addressed to the Lacedaemonians he is (Berlin. 971). and accordingly the connexion of the games with the corn-harvest and with sjuj^n But a clear trage of such a connexion may be seen in the custom of rewarding the victors in the Eleusinian games with measures of barley in the official Athenian inscription of 329 B.iii. p. At all events in the local Eleusinian legend. As he divine mission. like his " Tripto- lemus does not. who naturally ranked Triptolemus among the most illustrious of the ancestral heroes of his {Historia I Plantarttm. this would prove nothing as to the historical character of Triptolemus. after he has fulfilled his However. the amounts of corn handed over by these officers to the priests and priestesses for the purposes of the games is exactly the corn-hero Triptolemus must so far remain uncertain. but without leaving offspring is who might perpetuate his priestly office. xviii. games. like Demeter and Persephone themselves. 55. Odyssey. Demeter und Persephone. 2 a direct descendant of Triptolemus. were a purely mythical being. xviii. the Eleusinian Torchbearer Callias apparently claimed to be descended from Triptolemus. Preller. The Scholiast on Aristides ix. Paley on Hesiod. he removed from the scene of his beneficent activity. 286 . Dindorf) men- . and is expressly mentioned by Theophrastus 13." would seem as if Triptolemus. But it is possible See above. descended from gods. * The prize of barley is mentioned by the SchoHast on Pindar. However. Attische Moulton. J. 54. V. p. A. 542. there no sufficient ground for identifying the Prizes of Ancestral Contest of the Eleusinian games with the Ancestral gfjgn^tg victors in Contest of the Threshing-festival at Eleusis.

G. official In the Historicoru7n Graecorian. and it will appear that such competitions are not purely tions ears of corn as the prize without 1 Alarmor Parium. 417. compare p. Eleusis. 31. On the pig my notes 16. on Pausanias. would seem to have been primarily concerned with Demeter and Persephone as goddesses of the corn. the Eleusinian games. When such a pollution accidentally took place. I .^ the usual victim employed in Greek purificatory rites. In the sequel we shall see that similar contests between reapers have been common on the harvest fields of modern Europe. first to be games is stated. though the amount of corn distributed in prizes both at the quadriennial and at the biennial 544. like the Eleusinian Mysteries. a few lines lower down. told whether the corn crops is 2 Pausanias.^ No. so far as the scanty evidence at our disposal permits us to judge. were brought from the same holy fields. According to Aristides (Eleusin. Dindorf. For success in such a contest no prize could be more appropriate than a measure of the sacred barley which the victorious reaper had just cut on the barley-field. C. The grain thus distributed in was probably reaped on the Rarian plain near Eleusis. 587. At least that is expressly affirmed by the old scholiast on Pindar and it is borne out by the practice of rewarding the Perhaps the Ancestral victors with measures of barley. which may well have formed the original nucleus of the games. i.'^ No.8 and v. The Eleusinian games primarily concerned with Demeter and Persephone.. 8. Thus.^ plain was used in sacrifices and for the baking of the sacrificial cakes/ from which we may reasonably infer that the prizes of barley. i. Sylloge That the Rarian plain was the sown and the first to bear affirmed by Pausanias (i. 587. ed. Inscrip- tionum 119 sq. So sacred was the Rarian plain that no dead body was allowed prizes to defile it it. see ii. where according to the legend Triptolemus sowed the first Certainly we know that the barley grown on that corn. lines 259 s^. 3 Dittenberger. lines In the same inscription. Contest. p. Sylloge Inscriptionutn Graecarum. 6. to which no doubt a certain sanctity attached in the popular mind. was expiated by the sacrifice of a pig. Graecartwt. in Fragmenta specifying the kind of corn. in Greek purificatory rites.74 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE Eleusinian games were closely connected with the worship of Demeter and Persephone. Mtiller. vol. The Ancestral Contest in the games may have been originally a contest between the reapers to finish reaping. we are not was barley or See Dittenberger. cd. i. mention is made of two pigs which were used in purifying the sanctuary at Eleusis. was a contest between the reapers on the sacred Rarian plain to see who should finish his allotted task before his fellows. Athenian inscription of 329 B. 6).C. 38. 168) the prize consisted of the corn which had first appeared at wheat. 38.

.The jectures (for conjectures they are and nothing more).. were passed on to Demeter with corn and Greek threshing-floors. . i_ motive agam has not been simple emulation between sturdy swains for the reward of strength and dexterity it has been a dread of being burdened with the aged and outworn spirit of the corn conceived as present their threshing. on the threshing-floors of shall see ^ .. conceived as the embodiment of the vigorous grain.. It is possible that the Eleusinian games were no more Games than a popular merrymaking celebrated at the close of the festivals harvest. also • been 1 between t^e threshers to finish common. See below.. sq. and .^ neighbours who had least the supposition not yet finished threshing the corn. 1 sqq. p. conceived as an embodiment of the effete and outworn energies of the corn. presently. ^^^^^ t' 1 Perhaps termine in like manner was originally a competition between Threshingjj°°g threshers on the sacred threshing-floor of Triptolemus to de- ^gg^ who ' should finish threshing his allotted quantity of rest. 155 ^ 223 See below. 43. pp. which rewarded the victor in the Ancestral Contest. ^ See above. have been supposed to house in the ripe ears no less a personage than the Corn-maiden Persephone herself? And if there is any truth in these con. 221 s^. place at it the Eleusinian Festival of the F Threshing-floor. 75 aim is not simply to demonstrate the superior and skill of the victors it is to secure for the particular farm the possession of the blooming young Corn-maiden of the present year.^ May it not have been so at Eleusis ? may not the reapers have vied with each other for possession of the young cornspirit Persephone and for avoidance of the old corn-spirit Demeter ? may not the prize of barley.^ compare 218 sqq.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE . as representatives of the old Corn-spirit. as we modern Europe. This view of their character might be supported by modern modern analogies for in some parts of Germany it has been . we may ^"^jg^j^* hazard a guess as to the other Ancestral Contest which took in the athletic their strength. originally corn before the Such competitions have . 164 sqq. At is in harmony with modern customs at in observed on the threshing-floor. 147 sgg. and to pass on to laggard neighbours the aged Corn-mother of the past year. in the bundle of corn-stalks which receives the last stroke at threshing. 140 s^^. pp. activity." We know that effigies of poppies in her hands stood on Perhaps at the conclusion of the threshing these effigies.

in which athletic sports figured prominently. in the villages near Furstenwald at harvest the young men from the wood.^ Among the peasantry of Silesia. when the harvest was over. . great cakes were baked at the harvest -festival.^ Yet it seems probable that all such sports at harvest were in origin not mere pastimes. Kuhn und W. both men and women. to who reached them first received not only a cake. pp. and the He or labourers. ran races for them. and all the young women were obliged to run a race. Younger men amused themselves with running in sacks. near Nimptsch. 400. Thus. a scythe. In the central parts of Silesia a favourite amusement at harvest was a race between girls for a garland of leaves or flowers. at Besbau near Luckau business of harvesting. Again. at the close of left the rye-harvest. a garland was hung up and the harvesters rode at it on horseback and tried to bring it down she He who with a stab or a blow as they galloped past succeeded in bringing it down was proclaimed King. and a hay-fork or pitchfork were fastened to the top of a smooth pole and awarded as prizes. a few sheaves used to be field standing in the after all the rest of the rye had been carted home. we are told. the girls ran a race in a field for aprons as prizes. a flail. handkerchief or the like as a prize. 1848). 1903- 1906). for example. At Prauss. and A handkerchief and other prizes were fastened to the top of the pole and the men clambered up for them. high jumps. but that they were serious attempts to secure in one way or another the help and blessing of the used to fetch a it fir-tree set up like a mast in the middle of the village. NordSagen. ' A. which have at first sight no very obvious connexion with the For example. 398. peel the trunk. to the men who displayed most agility in climbing the pole. Branch vnd Volksglaube in Schlesien (Leipsic. but a Again. Thus in some parts of Prussia. StUe. in order of merit. a rake. engage in athletic competitions of various kinds. corn-spirit. 70 sq. 399. Drechsler. customary for the harvesters. the harvest-home broadened out into a popular festival. These sheaves were then made up into the shape of a man and dressed out in masculine costume. of which the corn-man Schwartz. at Jarischau. at Bergkirchen. ii.76 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE chap. when their work is done. in the Strehlitz district. and so forth. Mdrchen U77d Gehrduche (Leipsic. detitsche ^ P.

3 Scholiast on Pindar. Heortologie {Leipsic. p. Mommsen. we should have to suppose that the games were celebrated at barley-harvest. 77 was the the evening. Boeckh. id. as Date Eieu^inian have conjectured. for. 1843). Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecartim. 2331 sq. See o^^y every Aug. . Kuhn. ed. 263 . who tells us that the Eleusinian games were celebrated after the corn -harvest. coll.* However.. See below. and those who assign them to Boedromion (September) are divided in opinion as to whether they preceded or followed the Mysteries. * The games are assigned to Metageitnion by P. immediately followed the Mysteries.) and to Boedromion by August Mommsen and W. ii. his and August Mommsen formerly thought the conjectural of an inscription and the conjectural dating of a certain sacrifice particularly restoration so too. jectures. but he afterwards changed to Democracy. Feste der Stadt ^^^'f' ^^^^ Athen im Altertiim (Leipsic. Aug. How games intended to the annual growth of the crops games to be Year by reconciled with the annual growth of the crops ? how year the barley and the wheat are sown and reaped ^ ^ the quadriennial or the biennial period of the . so far as am aware. Stengel (Pauly-Wissowa. 341 sq. 2. the evidence is far too slender and uncertain to allow of any conclusions being based on it. is in harmony with the evidence of the scholiast on Pindar. 228. Olymp. 1898).^ I games No other ancient authority.^ If the Ancestral Contest at the Eleusinian I games was. Real-Encydopddie der dassischen Alter- view and preferred to suppose that the be held games preceded the Mysteries.. ix. have variously assigned them to Metageitnion (August) and to Boedromion (September). pp. which in the lowlands of This theory Greece falls in May or even at the end of April. Dittenberger. dating of the games in Metageitnion or in the early part of Boedromion depends on little more than a series of conpp. Dittenberger. The last-mentioned scholar supposes that the games 182 sqq. tumswissenschaft.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE goal. pp. mentions at what time of the year these games Modern authorities. The note ^"^ (vol. pp. . Mdrkische Sagen und Mdrchen 2 (Berlin. 150. 587. and to some extent conjectural data. arguing from certain slight were held. But there is a serious difficulty in the way of connecting Why the Eleusinian is games with the goddesses of the corn. v. 133 sqq. a contest between the reapers on the sacred barley-field.^ She who won the race Here the aim of the is led off the dancing in foot-race among as the young women in clearly to secure the corn-spirit left embodied the last sheaf standing on the is is field . the last sheaf commonly supposed to harbour the corn-spirit and treated accordingly like a man or a woman. 313 sq. we shall see later on.No. p. ^ A.). second or 1864).

and accordingly. In short. it becomes probable that in some form or another they were annually held at Eleusis long before the practice arose of celebrating games there every fourth or every second year. men thanked by forbidding the seed to sprout. and rendered them their dues in the shape of offerings of the ripe barley and wheat. not merely of Eleusis.yS DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE chap. and would anticipate nothing but dearth and famine in any year when he failed to satisfy the just and lawful demands of the divinity on whose good pleasure he believed the growth of the corn to be directly dependent." he would second or fourth year. just as she did at Eleusis when she mourned the loss of her daughter. of in the barley held and the the solemn state ritual but also in rustic festivals by farmers The M^sterks" probably ^^ than the Eieusinian ™^ The pious Greek husbandman on their threshing-floors. say to himself. held only every fourth or every second year. which is the one taken by the old scholiast on Pindar. would no doubt have been shocked and horrified at a proposal to pay the Corn Goddess her dues only every " No offerings. her feelings likely to be in the blank years when she She might naturally got no thanks and no games? resent such negligence and ingratitude and punish them was received at the every year. Now we '^"ow that the Mysteries of Eleusis were celebrated every year. That would indeed appear to be the view generally taken by the ancient Greeks for we have seen that year by year . have been regarded as thank-offerings for the annual harvest ? On this view of their nature. Accordingly we may regard it as highly probable that from the very beginning of settled and regular agriculture in Greece men annually propitiated the deities of the corn with a ritual of some sort. the Eleusinian mysteries were in all prob- . men could hardly expect to reap crops in years in which they offered nothing to the Corn Goddess.fruits wheat to Demeter. In short. if I am right in interpreting them as essentially a dramatic representation of the annual vicissitudcs of the com performed for the purpose of quickening the seed. though the harvest hands of the Corn Goddess punctually her for her bounty only every What were second year or even only every fourth year. no crops. they presented the first . then could the games.

the penteteric celebration of the games. M.. or at least of the author of The Constitution of Athens. de Candolle. Die 1907). Sylloge Inscriptionutn Graecarmn. 1 A. . pp. tity . Hirt. R. 354 367 sqq. biennial (trieteric) festival of the Eleu- 1901). especially if the growth of the crops is deemed dependent on the celebration. pp.C. and the Heraclea. O. as in accordance with Greek idiom he calls it. Sprachverglei- chtmg icnd Urgeschichte (Jena. Constitution of Athens. 497 sqq. 1906H. T. But in order to clear our ideas on this subject it is desirable to ascertain. . Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde (Strasburg. Schrader. 640 sqq. lines 259 sq.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 79 How old they ability far older than the Eleusinian games. Die Heimat der Indogermanen (Jena and Berlin. sinian Games is mentioned only B.^'iio.. and Melbourne. . 587 note i"'. 273 sq. The Lake^<l-i of Europe (London. 1904).. pp. second or every fourth year ? The reason for such limitations is by no means obvious on the face of them. pp. Peet. Munro. p.).^ Now the custom of holding games at intervals of fourth year. Origin of Cultivated Plants (London. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. appears to have been practised in Europe from the Stone Age onwards. id. No. Much. 362. but from the testimony of Aristotle. The the Brauronia. which were celebrated only every That these were the principal games appears not only from their name. The many of year reason for holding a harvest festival and thanksgiving every Lmerof is obvious enough but why hold games only every Greece. if Quad"g^^Jfof possible. who notices only the quadriennial or. whether by propitiating the Corn Goddess with offerings of first-fruits or by dramatically representing the prehistoric sowing and the growth of the corn in mythical form. ii. ^ Aristotle. 246 note ^ No. i. 8 sqq. 54. the two cereals specially associated with Demeter. probably dates from an extremely remote antiquity. the reason for holding the Eleusinian games at intervals of two or four years. dwellings . The Stone and Bronze Ages in Italy and Sicily 254 sqq. But when we consider that the were we cannot even guess. Indogermane?t (Strasburg. 221 sqq. cultivation of barley and wheat.^ we shall be disposed to admit that the annual performance of religious or magical rites at Eleusis for the purpose of ensuring good crops. . 1909). in the inscription of 329 (Dittenberger. 276 sqq.. In order to find an answer to this question it may be well at the outset to confine our attention to the Great Eleusinian Games. . 1884). 185 sqq. . E. 1905-1907). Paris. of the Great Eleusinian Games with the quadriennial games see Dittenberger. where the quadriennial (penteteric) festival of the Eleusinian Games is mentioned along with the quadriennial festivals of the Panathenaica. 1890). the Delia. ii. (Oxford. As to the iden587.

ed. 366 sq. like the Pythian. Fyth. Die Cassias. or at Plataea ^ called scale. 1898) Censorinus. penteteric time when Augustus instituted.e.. See The Dyittg God. 18 I . 6. the Pythian games at Delphi. Daremberg " Actia. "Octennial Tenure of the Kingship. 9. Plataean games see 21 . pp. et Saglio. der mathematischen und i.^ and probably of the Olympian games. I have shewn reasons for thinking that they were originally celeat games favourite Antinous. 80. die natali. Elementa Astrotiomiae. tonius. Boeckh. and their ordinary year consisted of twelve lunar 1 harmonising solar and lunar time. De 6. Sueli. § 4." Pausanias. Dictionnaire p.. L. ix. 25 sqq. the games at he followed a wellestablished Greek precedent by ordaining that they should Still later the "emperor Hadrian instituted be quadriennial. ii. Compare Boeckh's commentary on Pindar (vol. 68 sq. as the Greeks periods rather and at a later renewed on a more splendid . dragon at Delphi.^ Actium to commemorate his great victory. 2-6. ment.^ which added together make up eight solar years. technischen Chronologic. ArguAug. were lunar. Geminus. Manitius (Leipsic. xviii. on Pindar. 6. 7. 98. 35 Aug. ripe fruits after ^ in their he had slain the hands to Apollo. ^ * viii. Ideler. . brated at intervals of eight instead of four years this is attested for the Pythian games.) the change from the octennial to the quadriennial period was occasioned by the nymphs of Parnassus bringing viii." especially pp. on Pindar. Boeckh ed. p. games may have been octennial The was octenin- nial cycle stituted Now we know from the testimony instead of quadriennial. 298. seems to prove that the Olympic cycle of four years was really based on a cycle of eight years. C. the Panathenaic games at Athens.8o DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE was very common in four years Greece . quadriennial Old octennial period of the Pythian Mantinea in honour of his dead But in regard to the two greatest of all the Greek games. ed.. 8.. xviii. . Scholiast (20). from which it is natural to infer that in the beginning the Olympic. and the Eleutherian games at quadriennial or. the Olympian and the Pythian. sqq. Pausanias. chapter ii. to the Plutarch. 2 Strabo. Sg sq. Handbuch 605 6 138 of his edition) . IIO sqq.. Scholiast p. As 2. to take only a few conspicuous examples the Olympic games at Olympia. ^ According to the scholiast on Pindar (I. 325 . certainly mode of Olympiads by alternate periods of fifty and forty-nine lunar months. were all celebrated them.* and the calculating the . .^ of the ancients themselves that the Greeks instituted the by eight-years' cycle for the purpose of harmonising solar and lunar time. s. De die natali. des Antiquitis Grecqties et Romaines. iii. Aristides. iii.^ servation of the the Greeks at a very early era for the purpose of They regulated their calendar primarily by obmoon rather than of the sun their months . Augustus. Oly?np. vii. Censorinus.v. p.

^ But these corrections were doubless refinements of a later age they may have been due to the astronomer Eudoxus of Cnidus. who introduced the nineteen years' cycle to remedy the defects of the octennial cycle. octennial cycle. 3 De die natali. 27. to intercalate three days every sixteen years. Eleinenta Astrouoi/iiae. supposed to have instituted the octennial cycle. I. so to say. Censorinus. some sixty or seventy years after Meton. pp.e. next. See below. but not before. Accordingly the Greeks equated eight solar years to eight lunar years of twelve months each by intercalating three lunar months of thirty days each in the octennial cycle they intercalated one lunar month in the third year of the cycle.* the first systematic attempt to bring Indeed. or to Cleostratus of Tenedos. if the solar and the lunar time into harmony. or improvements of the ancient century B. made the sun and moon keep time together by reckoning ninety-nine lunar months as equivalent to eight solar example.C. 1 2 viii.a DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE s 8i months. so that in eight solar years the excess amounts to ninety days or roughly three lunar months. xviii. The equation was indeed not quite exact. cannot be dissummarily . as a well-informed Greek writer tell us. 5. for summer solstice in . who seems PT. . years the . who were variously. but incorrectly. first. Geminus.^ There are strong grounds for holding that in its simplest form the octennial cycle of ninety-nine lunar months dates from an extremely remote antiquity in Greece that it was in fact. But the solar year of three hundred and sixty-five and a quarter days exceeds the lunar year of twelve lunar months or three hundred and fifty-four days by eleven and a quarter days. the claim of Eudoxus to have instituted the latter cycle may at once be put out of court. the full moon coincided with one year. a second lunar month in the fifth year. and. The claim of Cleostratus. 86 sq. so that if. and a third lunar ..C. to have lived I in the sixth VOL. Geminus. V. it coincided with it again after the revolution of the eight years' cycle. Eleinenta Astronomiae. G . month in the eighth year. 36-41. 2-4) supposes that the octennial cycle was produced by the successive duplication of biennial and quadriennial cycles. and in order to render it so the Greeks afterwards found themselves obliged. century B. but for tlie reasons given in the text he can hardly have done more than suggest correcor fifth missed so As Eudoxus flourished in the fourth tions ^ viii. xviii.^ In this way they. to omit one intercalary month in every period of one hundred and sixty years. Geminus. With far less probability Censorinus {De die natali..

6). Handbuch der viatlie- the wide diffusion of the octennial matischen ii.^ may have been handed down among the inhabitants of these countries from ages that preceded by many centuries. the octennial cycle has left of itself in certain ancient Greek customs and superstitions. the king's tenure of office was formerly limited to eight years. that the which led the Greeks to adopt the eight years' cycle was religious rather than practical or scientific: their aim "motive ^^^^ "°^ ^° We refeiour not pracscientific. Compare . Cnossus and other cities. L. 58 sqq. the year with which And when we bear in the reckoning by Olympiads begins. 605 G. 1S8S.^ The motive tut'^'^^A eight years' are informed. 605. 2 und technischen Chronologic. Ideler.. 61 who suggests that have owed something to si/ij. and may readily believe. for which nothing but good eyes and almost no astronomical knowledge was necessary. much to cnsurc the punctual despatch of business or to solvc an abstract problem in astronomy. based as was on very simple observations. Phaenomefia. Jena. Speaking of the octennial cycle Censorinus observes that " Ob hoc in Graecia multae religiones hoc intervallo temporis suninia caerifnonia cohmtttr " The Dying God. this of itself suffices to place the origin of the cycle not later than yy6 B. namely Cnossus and Sparta. The great age and 255 sq. xviii. op. with whom the inhabitants of Greece are known to have had relations from a very early time. cit. civilisation in Greek lands appears to date. ii.C.^ and accordingly if they had dated their religious festivals simply by the number of the month and the day of 1 L. 733 sqq.82 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE calculated. the cycle may {De die natali." in I wan Miiller's HandUnger. Handbuch der matheniatischen und technischen Chronologie. Ideler. For the Greeks regularly employed lunar months in their reckonings. pp. biich schaft. on the eight years' cycle. i. the astronomy of the Egyptians. as they appear to chap. 3 Aratus. period from very remote which. . possibly by thousands of years. Tiryns. sq. . it seems it reasonable to suppose that the octennial cycle. F. Schmidt {Handbuch der griec/iischen Chrono/ogie. cycle in Greece are rightly maintained by A. Olympiads were have been. ). pp. " Zeitrechnung der Griechen und Romer. i. the great period of Greek literature The supposition is confirmed by the traces which and art. as to ascertain ^^^ exact days on which they ought to sacrifice to the gods.2 der classischen Altertumswissen732 sq. the judged by the mind wonderful remains of Mycenae. Ideler. particularly by the evidence which points to the conclusion that at two of the oldest seats of monarchy in Greece. L.

Julius Caesar. and on the contrary ceremonies which were only appropriate to summer would come to be held in winter. of religion. at Rome the method of determining the months and regulating the festivals was a secret which the pontiffs for ages jealously guarded from the profane vulgar and in consequence of their ignorance and incapacity the calendar fell into confusion and the festivals were celebrated to astronomers. as that it endangers the welfare or even the existence both of individuals and of the community by interrupting their normal intercourse with those divine powers on whose favour men believe themselves Hence in states which take to be absolutely dependent. Geminus. naturally entrusted to priests rather than astronomy is regarded merely as ancillary to the deeper mysteries of theology. of a disordered calendar .II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE would have had the that 83 the month. until the greatest of all the Roman pontiffs. Elementa Astronomiae. on a principle precisely the reverse of that followed by the ancient Egyptians. is not so much . as one of their writers justly pointed out. In doing so they acted. it disturbs . this view of the deep religious import of the calendar its superintendence is . and to ensure that festivals dated by lunar months should fall at fixed or nearly fixed points in the solar year. I5-45' .. to so properly belonged winter lunar calendar for the purpose of allowing them gradually to revolve throughout the whole circle of the seasons. . who deliberately regulated their religious festivals by a purely circle of the seasons.. 1 remedied the confusion and viii. the excess of eleven and a quarter days of the solar over the lunar year effect of caus- ing the festivals gradually to revolve throughout the whole in time ceremonies which would come to be held in summer. out of their natural seasons. For example.^ an early stage of culture the regulation of the it is a means of maintaining the established relations between gods and men on a satisfactory footing and in public opinion the great at Thus in early re^^iation of the largely an =^^''' calendar is largely an affair of religion : . evil and disarranges the ordmary course of busmess and the various transactions of civil life. To avoid this anomaly. the Greeks adopted the octennial cycle by the simple expedient of intercalating three lunar months in every period of eight years. because the science of . that .

2 . was originally founded on elementary religious and astronomical considerations of the same kind. Livy.. 46. xi. mus. See further The Dying God. that is. it appears probable that the octennial cycle. Macrobius. De 12. 92 sqq. Divus lulius.. were celebrated in honour of the dead ^ but there seems to be nothing in the beliefs or customs of the ancient Greeks concerning the dead which would suggest a quadriennial period as an appropriate one for propitiating the ghosts of the departed. ii. ii. to conjecture that the quadriennial period in normal period for the celebration of great games and festivals. it stands to this day.^ On the whole. sqq. Saturnalia. . period of based on considerations of religion and on elementary games and festivals in Greece was probably arrived at observations of the two great luminaries. Now we have seen reasons to hold that the well have taken different ing an older octennial period. festivals certain or probable that some of these quadriennial . were both based on the ancient cycle of eight years. 5.84 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE tion The quadriennial placed the calendar of the civilised world on the firm foundaon which. pp. if this dead 2 after eight years were pp. Pro Muraena. 81 A-C . Boeckh. indeed. dated from a very remote period among the ancient Greeks if they did not . i. the Pythian and Olympian. 98. then. ed. iii. Frag. . 9 See Plato. therefore. 25 id. . with little change. and sages. It is hardly rash. the souls of the dead who had been purged of their guilt by an abode of eight years in the nether world were born again on earth in the ninth period . 29 . Suetonius. two most famous of the great Greek games. they may predecessors of it over from their civilised blood and different language whom they found leading a settled agricultural life on the lands about the Aegean Sea. bring it with them when they migrated southwards from the by bisect- oakwoods and beechwoods of Central Europe. Plutarch. 69 iq. pp. It is. on a somewhat crude attempt to harmonise the discrepancies of solar and lunar time and thereby to ensure the continued favour of the gods.^ belief in the reincarnation of the ^ Now God. for year as glorious kings. 40 Caesar^ 59. Pindar. Aug. regarded as the cycle. Valerius MaxiCicero. ix. legibus. athletes. and that the quadriennial period at which they were regularly celebrated in historical times was arrived at the by a subdivision of the older octennial general. At first sight it is different with the octennial according to Pindar. 623 sq. The Dying p. 15. vol. . 3 Meno. 5 .

Pausanias. obtained through the bisection of the octennial cycle. . it will of reconciling solar and lunar time.s II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 85 primitive. the answer can the old pedodTnto two quadperiods and that mtervals. primitive. 6. kings P^"^y We formerly held office for periods of eight years only. Yet the period of eight years thus to be really rigidly applied to the life of disembodied spirits appears too arbitrary and conventional and we may suspect that in this was nothing but an inference drawn from the old octennial cycle. and at at Actium Mantinea in honour of Antinous. well have religious rites. for no positive information appears to be given us on the subject by ancient writers. ix. and merely because that period had from time immemorial been regarded as the proper and normal one for the celebration of certain solemn tion in the state of the dead. it might certainly furnish an excellent reason for honouring the ghosts of great men at their graves every eight years in order to facilitate their rebirth into the world. 21 ^ . Now with the gradual growth of that democratic 1 Plutarch. for example at Plataea ^ in honour of the slain. application it like the similar period of other religious festivals. to commemorate the great victory. which had been instituted for the purpose If that was so. have seen reason to think that at two of the oldest seats of monarchy in Greece. p. 1 it was desirable to propitiate the deities at shorter may have t)een partly !• 11 But it is possible that political as well as religious. after which their sovereignty either terminated or had to be formally renewed. -r» • • Mil • 1 religious motives may have operated to produce the change. and that games and festivals were instituted at quadriennial intervals. 80.'jse°t'j'n/°' octennial period into two quadriennial periods for purposes only be conjectural. Aristides. If we enquire why the Greeks so often bisected the old The [. and hence that it was ultimately derived from astronomical considerations rather than from any beliefs touching a quadriennial revolu- Yet in historical times it may happened that these considerations were forgotten. of religion. 2. Perhaps they thought that eight years was too long a time to elapse between the solemn services.^ without any conscious reference to the sun and moon. See above. namely Cnossus and Sparta. follow that the quadriennial period of funeral games was.

Gilbert. und (Leipsic. where the victors race would seem to have personated in the Sun-god and perhaps held office the capacity of divine kings during the intervals between successive celebrations of the games. Ideler took of the origin of the quadriennial and biennial festivals respectively. compare 2 See The Ideler. Handbuch der 92. ^ l Handbuch der mathetechnischen Chronologic. and thereby of the general welfare. which ultimately dominated Greek political men would become more and more jealous of the kingly power and would seek to restrict it within narrower limits. sentiment. the repetition of the test at intervals of four instead of eight years might be regarded as furnishing a better guarantee of the maintenance of the The bien- orsome Greek ° havTbeen^ obtained ing the quadriennial period. and one of the most obvious means of doing so was to shorten the king's tenure of office. through a bisection of the octennial period. 10 ." If at Olympia and elsewhere the games were of old primarily contests in which the king had personally to take part for the purpose of attesting his bodily vigour and therefore his capacity for office. so we may surmise that the biennial period was produced by a bisection of the quadriennial period. 122 sq. This was the view which the admirable modern chronologer L. origin of the ally Olympic games at first this political revolution actuin the chariot- took place at Olympia. which is often supposed to be sympathetically bound up with the health and strength of the king. such as the Nemean and the Isthmian. life. G. I . Constitution of Athens. iii. 606 sq.^ and it appears far more probable than the contrary opinion of the ancient chronologer Censorinus. 1 Pausanias. i. iv. pp. 5.^ It is possible that else- where the king's reign was cut down from eight years to and if I am right in my explanation of the four years .2 matischen ii. 89- Aristotle. 1893) pp. . Dying God. where the dynasty of the Medontids was reduced from the rank of monarchs for life to that of magistrates holding office for ten years only. others.86 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE chap. But while many of the great Greek games were celebrated ^^ intervals of four years. were celebrated at intervals of two years only and just as the quadriennial period seems to have been arrived at king's efficiency in primitive society . griechischen Staatsalterthumer. We know that this was done at Athens. that the quadriennial period was reached by doubling the biennial. and the octennial period by doubling .

unless indeed it be an annual one. the sun and moon. To admit this is not to decide the question whether the Eleusinian games were agricultural or funereal in character but it is implicitly to acknowledge that the games were of later origin than the annual ceremonies. In other words. was too glaring to escape the observation even of simple farmers. crops within the year. Ideler.^ of the agricultural year by reference to so very inaccurate an almanac. matiscken i. . games. 2. it cannot but be that ^ men Censorinus. including the Great Mysteries. Whatever the origin and meaning of these games may have been.^ the discrepancy which it leaves between the two great celestial clocks. if they had attempted to regulate the various operations the quadriennial. 1 For xviii. xviii.II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 87 The theory of Censorinus was that the Greeks started with a biennial cycle of twelve and thirteen lunar months alternately in successive years for the purpose But as the cycle so of harmonising solar and lunar time. which furnished the starting-point for the preceding jr & dis° ^ cussion. on that blend of astronomy with religion which appears to be mainly responsible for such Greek festivals as exceed a year in their period. die Hawaii. that the sort. 270. which can scarcely be said to have any cycle at all. It is unlikely. to be more exact. neither the needs of husbandry nor the superstitions relating to ghosts furnish any natural explanation of the quadriennial and biennial periods of the Eleusinian games. De De die natali. who would soon have been painfully sensible that the times were out of joint. nor with the worship of the dead. which is annual." produced exceeds the true solar time by seven and a half days. and that they had nothing to do directly either with the agricultural cycle. 2-4. Handbuch der niatheund technischen Chronologie. we may surmise that the quadriennial and biennial periods at which they were held were originally derived from astronomical considerations. and to discover such an explanation we are obliged to fall back on astronomy or. Greeks ever AppikaV°" "'^ '^^ foregoing conclusion Kieusinian made much use of a biennial cycle of this Now to apply these conclusions to the Eleusinian games. ' Censoiinus. L. which were designed to propitiate the deities of the corn for the very simple and practical purpose of ensuring good . therefore.

to quote Augustine's report of his opinion. Varro on the rites of Eleusis. and therefore had given rise to the opinion that the daughter of Ceres. and to Proserpine (Persephone). quae nisi ad fruguni invent ionem non pertineant. the Festival of the Cornstalks." The close ^ resemblance between the artistic types of of nature Demeter and Persephone I have for the most part assumed an identity between Demeter and Persephone. . and I pointed out that this view of the substantial unity of mother and daughter is borne out by their portraits Thus far 1 Augustine. On rites the whole. whom Pluto had carried off from her. Oreo perdidit. nisi quod at tine t ad fruinentuni. who. qulbjis iste [ De ipsam dicit seminum. we shall probably incline to agree with the most learned of ancient antiquaries. if. the Roman Varro. there was gladness at the return of Proserpine and solemn rites were instituted accordingly. After that he says. " that many things were taught in her mysteries which had no reference but to . in we adhere to the evidence of the ancients themselves regard to the of Eleusis. long before they attempted to reconthe discrepancies of solar and lunar time by a series of observations extending over several years." mysteriis ejus . . fecundity itself. the divine mother and daughter personifying the corn in its double aspect of the seed-corn of last year and the ripe ears of this. Ethane significare foeciinditatcm Dicit delude multa in . the discovery of the corn. Varrd\ nihil interpret atitr. the games. had been ravished by Pluto and detained in the nether world and when the dearth had been publicly mourned and fecundity had returned once more. the Green Festival. quod tradi. ''In Cereris ante/n sacris praedicantur ilia Eleusinia. 20. " interpreted the whole of the Eleusinian mysteries as relating to the corn which Ceres (Demeter) had discovered. the Festival before Ploughing Festival {proerosia). he said. et ad Proserpinat7i. the of the Threshing-floor." continues Augustine.88 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE observed and laid their account with the annual changes of the seasons. that is. then. including under that general term the Great Mysteries. especially as manifested by the growth and cile maturity of the crops. the failure of which at a certain time had caused the earth to mourn for barrenness. guam rapiejile Athenieiises nobilissi?na fiierunt. De civitate Dei. signifies the fecundity of the seeds. vii. and the offerings of first-fruits. ignoring theories. quae apud Ce7-es iiivenit. reporting Varro. And Proserpine herself.

Mythologie. .^ Not only so.* And if Demeter did in able. . but they sometimes set the two types of the Earth Goddess and the Corn Goddess (Demeter) side by Thus side as if on purpose to demonstrate their difference. r. b. Fasti. . 673 sq. ir. ilia locum. L. scarcely distinguishable from each other. surely have devised types of and Persephone. i. The Cults Greek States." .v. .Mother and of Green Demeter (Pausanias. vii. 27. . 1574 sqq. . stand at full height behind her. Drexler. Athens there was a sanctuary of Earth the Nursing .^ picture. but we xxi. they could them which would have brought out the deep distinction That they were capable of doing between the goddesses. at Patrae there was a sanctuary of Demeter. tations seem to prove that the artists clearly distinguished Demeter from the Earth Goddess. ttiid rout. while Demeter and Persephone.militates Such a close resemblance between the artistic types theorrthal of Demeter and Persephone militates decidedly against the the two c^oddcssGs view that the two goddesses are mythical embodiments of personified two thins^s so different and so easily distinguishable from '^o things so different each other as the earth and the vegetation which springs as the that view of Demeter ^f^^"^ ^"'^ Had Greek artists accepted from it. while Earth was represented by a seated image " and on a vase-painting the Earth Goddess is seen appropriately emerging from the ground with a horn of plenty and an infant in her uplifted arms. we see grouped together the principal the Earth Goddess. ^ the corn. of^ the Roscher's Lexikon der griech. looking down at her half-buried figure. s. which are often so aHke as to be indistinguish. 256 with plate •» H. : ^ A. and the hero who is said to have been sent forth by the Corn Goddess Such represento sow the seed broadcast over the earth. iii. R. 3). des sq. Denkmdkr dassischen Altertums. and Triptolemus in In this instructive his wheeled car sits directly above her. The Cults of the Greek States. . . accordingly. 577 " Gaia. i. " Officium commune Ceres et Terra The (Ceres) : ttientur Haec praebet causam frngibus. Farnell. . Farnell. simple the fact that they regularly represo is proved by Goddess by a type which differed widely Earth sented the both from that of Demeter and from that of Persephone. Baumeister. (Oxford. in which she and Persephone were portrayed standing. i. do not know how the goddesses were represented." in W. 22. ^ l. distinction between Demeter and the Earth Goddess is clearly marked by Ovid. the personages in the myth of the corn two Goddesses of the old and the new corn. iii. At 21. 2 Pausanias. .II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 89 Greek art. . 1907) p. . . iv. .

we are that. though their of the . in Pauly's Realeiicydopddie der classischen Aliertumswissenschaft. she personified the corn which was so commonly called by her name from the time of Homer downwards ? The essential identity of mother and daughter is suggested. with the Scholiast's note. Welcker.90 DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE not personify the earth. 532. 720. pp. Greek the two goddesses were essentially personifications of the corn. in Daremberg 1047 Demeter recognised and Persephone has been by some modern scholars. 2. G.^ Nos. F. sqq. 652. not only by the close resemblance of their artistic types. but also by the official title of " the Two Goddesses " which was regularly applied to them in the great sanctuary at Eleusis without any specification of their individual attributes and titles. vi. Sylloge Inscrip- tionum 408. from the offerings of first-fruits which were presented to them. This simple and natural reflection seems perfectly sufficient to explain the association of the Corn Goddess at Eleusis with the mystery of death and the hope of a blissful immortality. 411. L. Fkoenissae. from the titles which they bore. 647. See F. Dictionnaire des Atttiquitis i. Above all. ii. from their ritual. fairly entitled to associated with the ideas of conclude that in the mind of the ordinary death and resurrection. 587. . Griechische Gdtterlehre (Gottingen.^ Surveying the evidence as a whole. the thought of the seed buried in the earth in order to spring up to new and higher life readily suggested a comparison with human destiny. 2 myth do not altogether agree with the one adopted in the text. For that the ancients regarded initiation in ^ Dittenberger. But to maintain this is not to deny that in the long course of religious evolution high moral and spiritual conceptions were grafted on this simple original stock and blossomed out into fairer flowers than the bloom of the barley and the wheat. and that in this germ the whole efflorescence of their religion finds implicitly its explanation. Graecaruni. and from the names applied to the cereals. Lenormant. 1857 -1862). from their representations in art. 646. Grecqiies et Roniaines. 683. The substantial identity of 106 et sq.^ as if their separate individualities had almost merged in a single divine substance. Preller. Compare the expression duhvvfioL diai. can there be any reasonable doubt As goddesses of the corn Demeter and Persephone came to be Hke her daughter. we may say that from the myth of Demeter and Persephone. 789. applied to them by Euripides. 20. and strengthened the hope that for man too the grave may be but the beginning of a better and happier existence in some brighter v/orld unknown. interpretations Saglio.

But drowning men clutch at straws. 36 . should not have stopped to weigh with too nice a hand the arguments that of told for and against the prospect that satisfied Saint human immortality. 17. p. G. standing by the deathbed or the open grave of their loved ones. looked darkness of the unknown.^ No doubt it is easy for store us to discern the flimsiness of the logical foundation on which such high hopes were built. ed. 35 sqq. with the taper of forward into the life burning low in the socket. Dindorf. — ^ Homeric Hynnn . 1903). Pindar. human nature. audie7idis poetis. and the verdure of spring. i. 421. of his inflexible logic. quoted by Plutarch. and. yet eternally affecting aspects of nature. was good enough to pass muster with ancient pagans. See Psyche^ (Ttibingen and Leipsic. The cruel act. - does not always act in strict accordance with the impulse of the syllogistic Rohde. vol. by Clement of 3. The reasoning Paul ^ and has brought comfort to untold thousands of sorrowing Christians. 480 518. while it proves the hardness of the professor's head. Potter. Aristides. like ourselves. A learned it German professor has 290 ^ j sqq. Eleusin. Cicero. quoted Alexandria. which Panegyricus. to the melancholy gloom and decay of autumn and to the freshness.. Therefore we do no indignity one of the few to the myth of Demeter and Persephone myths in which the sunshine and clarity of the Greek genius are crossed by the shadow and mystery of death when we trace its origin to some of the most familiar. 5/row. ed. thought worth while to break the Corinthians xv. to Demeter. i. the brightness. 14. 4 . . Erwin machinery. 6 p. Isocrates. when they too bowed their heads under the burden of grief. De legibus. . iii. and we need not wonder that the Greeks. with death before them and a great love of life in their hearts. says little for his knowledge of De ii. Sophocles.s II DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE 91 the Eleusini'an mysteries as a key to unlock the gates of Paradise appears to be proved by the allusions which well- informed writers for the initiated among them drop to the happiness in hereafter. poor butterfly argument on the wheel sqq.

Such communities may be found at the present day among the savage tribes of Borneo and New Guinea. who subsist mainly by tilling the ground. They are essentially an agricultural people. ^ See above. the goddesses of the corn. ordinate importance. such as '^ r foot-raccs. p.CHAPTER III MAGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Games played as magical ceremonies the^CTwvth of the *^'^°^^' In the preceding chapter we saw that among the ' rites ^^ Elcusis wcrc Comprised certain athletic sports. the _ The ofTemrai Borneo.^ But to discover clear cases of games practised for the express purpose of promoting the growth of the crops. 74 si/i/. and devote themselves mainly to the cultivation of rice. 71. we must turn to more primitive agricultural communities than the Athenians of classical antiquity or the peoples of modern Europe. a agricuiturai people. and boxing. Hence agriculture. leaping. Among them we ^^^^ ^^^ Kayans or Bahaus of central Borneo as typical. : we are told. dominates the whole life of these tribes their year is the year of the cultivation of the rice. pp. and strange as such an association may seem to us. and they divide it into various periods which are determined by the conditions necessary for the tilling of the fields and the manipulation ^ See above. horse-races. with the footnote''. . which were rewarded with measures of barley among them by the priests/ These sports the ancients themselves associated with the worship of Demeter and Persephone. wrestling. it is not without its analogy among the harvest customs of modern European peasantry. which furnishes their staple food all other products of the ground are of subvictors in distributed .

Cere- Not only the a consecrated chief's family . in the name of the whole tribe. and the girls come behind them and . 164. and reaping the solemn actions there per: formed have a symbolical significance. Nieuwenhuis. i. 93 whose thoughts are so much enis no wonder that they associate with it their ideas of the powers which rule them for good or evil. Nieuwenhuis. Ill GAMES IN PRIMITIvi AGRICULTURE rice. live in a world under ground. cit. among the Kayans has such its field every family possesses one of own. i. As the people are in an unusual state of affluence after harvest.on which luma lali: here the chief's family ushers J in ceremonies requisite ^^^ '*^i'g'?"s every fresh operation in the cultivation of the rice. of the tribes "In grossed by agriculture it all the great popular festivals coincide with the different rice. The spirit. according to the belief of the Kayans."^ ture^frT" performed. who.world stands in close connexion with the agriculture of the Bahaus. W^.. The two Buring Une. to see to that the prescribed con- jurations are carried out by the priestesses. These little fields : are never cultivated for the sake of their produce they serve only as the scene of religious ceremonies and of those symbolical operations of agriculture which are afterwards performed in earnest on the real rice -fields. at the festival before sowing a priestess sows some rice on the consecrated field of the chief's family and then calls on a number of young men and girls to complete the work the young men then dig holes in the ground with digging-sticks. " A. dominate the whole of the tillage and determine the issue of the harvest in great measure by the behaviour of the owner of the land.CHAP. An important part in till the New Year spirits festival at the mighty Amei Awi and his wife agriculture falls to the chief : at the festivals it he has. "^°erved at the fesu'vfi. 156^17. 1 A. place in a small rice-field specially set apart for that pur. Quer diurk Borneo (l^eyden. hoeing. all family festivals which require a large outlay are for practical reasons deferred periods of the cultivation of the end of harvest. All religious The sacred ceremonies required for the cultivation of the ground take called pose. without the consent of the spirits no work in the fields may be undertaken. * ' yf^"^*^'^^. \V. not so much by his moral conduct. such as sowing..^ For example. as by the offerings he has made to the spirits and the attention he has paid to their warnings. 1904-1907). Moreover. op. .

banqueting on a favourite species of rice and other dainties. here and there Taboos observed at the sowing festival. The motive assigned for the exi. For which. 1902). wrapt in banana-leaves. by sacrifices of all sorts. must refrain from bathing follows a period of rest for eight nights. which are invoked. W. except the very old and the after that there very young. have really in the minds of the people a much deeper significance. Borneo. i. during which the . H. 160 sqq. other in different tribes. W. see W. the ideas at the bottom of them." says Nieuwenhuis. festival the whole population. Quer durch 164-167. reason for excluding strangers from is sowed. people may neither work nor hold intercourse with their is neighbours. because these latter might frighten and annoy the spirits festirites. while the religious ceremonies which accompany the cultivation of the rice differ somewhat from each ." On the periods of seclusion and quiet observed in connexion with agriculture by the Kayans of Sarawak. where the real crops are raised. and But then sprinkle the water on the consecrated rice-field. are everywhere the same the aim always is to appease and propitiate the souls of the rice and the other : spirits Games played at the sowing festival. the tenth day the prohibition to bathe again enforced great rice-field is and during the eight following days the of the village. clusion of strangers at the sowing val applies equally to all religious Nieuwenhuis. during this obligatory period of seclusion and the rest Kayans employ themselves first in various pursuits. cit. ness. Fur- " In Dr. which are half drowned in the clashing music of the gongs. Nieuwenhuis. The ceremonies connected with sowing last several weeks. It is a fear lest the presence of strangers might frighten the spirits or put them in a bad humour. and during this time certain taboos have Thus on the first day of the to be observed by the people. and so defeat the object of the ceremony for. the presence of strangers.94 GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Afterwards the priestesses plant the rice-seed in the holes.^ The the village at these times a religious one. might seem to serve no other purpose than that of recreation. lay offerings of food. Home-life of Bo7-neo . we are told. On . 2 A.^ However. all religious observances. op. though at sight they 1 A. On another day women gather all kinds of edible leaves in their gardens and fields. "the Kayans fear Head-hunters (Philadelphia. while they croon prayers to the spirits in soft tones. 163. pp. on that and other days of the festival the people attend also to their own wants. on the holy field. boil them in water.

pieces of several pounds. his neighbours and continues to revolve triumphantly. They danced silently. in Again. they uttered none of the wild war-whoops which usually . accompany these the dances martial exercises. They were followed by other figures. time the men flat often play at spinning The tops are smooth. which conceal their real features. every evening the young men assemble the open space before the chief's house and engage in of strength and agility.Ill GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE this 95 example. and their bodies are swathed in masses of slit banana leaves so as to imitate the hideous faces and hairy bodies of the demons. When darkness fell. keeping time to the beat of the gongs. while the women watch them from the long gallery or verandah of the house. at tops. while they exhibit to the spectators grotesque human faces formed by stitches on pieces of white cotton. On the occasion when Dr. the day on which. As the day draws towards evening. and were replaced by a little drama representing a boar brought to bay by a pack of hounds. who ran about on all fours and ceased . It takes place on the evening of the tenth day. some of whom executed wardances but the weight of their leafy envelope was such that they soon grew tired. The part of the boar was played by an actor wearing a wooden boar's head mask. the first to appear on the scene were some men wearing wooden masks and helmets and so thickly wrapt in banana leaves that they looked like moving masses of green foliage. masquerade. All the maskers at these ceremonies represent evil spirits. for the New tops are commonly carved use heavy tops The older men sometimes of iron-wood. and though they leaped high. it Each man tries to spin his wood weighing own top so that itself knocks down those of festival. the people are forThe scene of the performance is again bidden to bathe. which are fastened to the baskets. The young women wear on their heads cylindrical baskets. the open space in front of the chief's house. Nieuwenhuis witnessed the ceremony. Another popular pastime during the festival of sowing is a contests Masquersowjnofestival. the villagers begin to assemble in the gallery or verandah of the house in order to secure good places for viewing the masquerade. for the second time. The men wear ugly wooden masks on their faces.

: they invited these beneficent beings to come to the chief's house and to stay there during the whole of the ceremonies. To lure the good spirits from the spirit land Nieuwenhuis. A. Offerings and addresses to the spirits. they joined hands and crooned another long address to the Then a basket spirits. and what were its wishes. not forgetting to implore the vengeance of the spirits on the Batang- Lupars. After that the holy field is again sprinkled with a decoction of herbs. Nieuwenhuis. Two days afterwards one of the priestesses harangued the spirits for three-quarters of an hour. But the crowning point of the Kayan year is the New Year The harvest has then been fully housed abundance reigns in every family. .^ Rites at hoeing. 169. girls danced. - the cit. and for eight days the people. snarled. one behind the other. they are inaugurated by a priestess. and made dashes at him play was watched with lively interest and peals of laughter Later in the evening eight disguised by the spectators. The harangue was couched in rhyming verse and delivered in sing-song tones. lid i. what the tribe was doing. to the glimmering light of torches and the strains of a sort of Jew's harp. ^ it and invited the W. Five days later eight priestesses ascended a sacrificial stage. while the hounds. with slow steps and waving arms. dressed out in all their finery. yelped. and one of the priestesses opened basket. and the priestesses made long speeches. The festival was witnessed by the Dutch explorer Dr. There on which food was daily set forth for the spirits. give themselves up to mirth and jollity. acted by The young men. W. from whom the chief's family was descended. telling them who the Kayans were. A. in which festival. Nieuwenhuis. marking the time with their hands. Like the sowing ceremonies. op. 167-169. spirits to enter the so.96 GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE grunted in a life-like manner. When they were supposed to have done op. containing offerings of food was handed up to them. baskets filled with precious objects were set out before the windows.^ The Kayan New Year festival. who hoes the sacred field round about a sacrificial stage and then calls upon other people to complete the work. The rites which accompany the sowing of the fields are no sooner over than those which usher in the hoeing begin. cit. the hereditary foes of the Kayans.

HI GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE 97 was shut down on them. appropriately offered to the is spirits. . and exerting all their strength danced with the squealing porker to and from the sacrificial stage. 171-1S2. while their material substance pigs consumed by the worshippers. dancing composedly. As we saw. H . PT. seized the smallest of them by the hind legs. the omen was evil. and the basket with the spirits in As the priestesses it was conveyed into the chief's house. Nieuwenhuis. the omen was good but if it was dark. in the performance of the sacred ceremonies might not touch the ground. New Year festival is the sacrifice of pigs. planks were cut from a fruit-tree and laid on the But the great feature of the ground for them to step on. In carrying out this highly satisfactory arrangement. the danced solemnly round a sacrificial stage.^ Thus." says Dr. intent on disturbing the sacred ministers at their . the animals were slaughtered and their livers examined for omens if the under side of the liver was pale. reviewing the agricultural which he witnessed among on the Mendalam ° the Kayans ^ river. Quer durch Borneo. By their gesticulations the priestesses indicated to the powers above that the pigs were intended One of them. each of them arrayed in a war-mantle of panther-skin and wearing a war-cap on her head. V. rushed at the pigs. i. Nieuwenhuis. holy work. spinning-top games rites ^ " Dr. danced round the sacrificial stage. of which the spiritual essence is sacrifice °fp'gs. VOL. not content with this too ideal offering. and on either side two priests armed with swords executed war dances for the purpose of scaring the live priestesses away evil spirits. making passes with her old sword as if she would heave the whole structure heavenward while others stabbed with spears at the foul fiends that might be hovering in the air. : . before darkness fell. I W. In the evening. seemed by her courteous gestures to invite the souls of the pigs to ascend up to heaven but others. a fat but dignified lady. On the last day of the festival one of the chief priestesses. during which the community had always to observe taboos for several nights and to play certain definite games. while lay tethered in a row on the ground. in martial array. for their benefit. Nieu- y"'^"'^ the ^"^ games played by [u'coiT-^^"^ nexionwith ^^"^" A. " every fresh operation on the rice-field was ushered in by religious and culinary ceremonies.

and properly speaking they attain their full significance only on ." " ^ The influence of religious worship. sq. 1 A. but in former times sham fights took place with wooden swords while during the . This holds good chiefly of pastimes in which all adults take part together. which dominates the whole life of the Dyak tribes. W. Nieuwenhuis give his answer. op. high leaps. i. long leaps. they are followed on the Mahakam river with livelier interest.GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE and masquerades were played during the sowing at the first festival bringing in of the rice the people pelted each other with clay pellets discharged from small pea-shooters. Nieuwenhuis. Mendalam river. cit." Serious religious or magical signifi- cance of the games. 169 163 . Pastimes of the former sort are very rarely indulged in at ordinary times. W. op. perhaps a religious or To this question it will be well to let magical significance ? " The Kayans on the Dr. account of the frequent failure of the harvests. Yet although these festivities are celebrated more regularly on the Mendalam river. i." he says. sq. Mendalam river I came to the false conclusion that the popular games which take place at the festivals are undertaken quite arbitrarily at the seasons of sowing and harvest . can celebrate a New Year's festival only once in every two or three years. 2 A. cit. mostly on definite occasions it is less applicable to more individual pastimes which are not restricted to any special season. using bamboo vessels full of water for their principal weapons. on year . What is the meaning of the sports and pastimes which Are custom prescribes to the Kayans on these occasions ? they mere diversions meant to while away the tedium of the holidays ? or have they a serious. manifests itself also in their games. Mahakam the priestesses. ^ The women also fight each other with great glee. and running. and their agricultural festivals accordingly take place every whereas the Kayans on the Mahakam river. I observed that even the masquerade at the sowing festival is invested with as deep a significance as any of the ceremonies performed by but on the river. and the meaning of all ceremonies On the and games can also be traced much better there. on the contrary. New Year festival the men contend with each other in wrestling. Nieuwenhuis. " enjoy tolerably regular harvests.

ii. of ground is All their crops are root crops. all ^ nevertheless. for in the case of one of the most important games played by men I was able to prove directly a religious significance and although the beginning of the reaping. pp i86j^. the villages are not tropical climate the ' much more permanent wooden houses soon . In six or eight years. No patch cultivated for more than a year at a time. though the more inland people also make much use of sweet potatoes.GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE religious stamp. Borneo. . similar games which another primitive agricultural people avowedly play for the purpose of ensuring good crops. bamboos. Thus the area of cultivation shifts from year to year and . densely wooded mountains inland They subsist mainly on the produce from Finsch Harbour. for in the damp into rot and fail Nieuwenhuis. of the Mahakam river. and at the Is this . it is deserted for another and is quickly overgrown with rank weeds. or is it based on a real affinity? The latter seems to me the more probable view. that a religious idea lies at the bottom of other games which are connected with definite festivals. W. The people in question are the Kai of German New Guinea. where disguised men personate spirits and pretend to draw home the souls of the rice from the far countries to which they may have wandered. and bushes. but definite at the at the Even then the recreations are not left to games belong to definite festivals thus sowing festivals other amusements are in vogue than . when the undergrowth has died out under the shadow of the taller trees which have shot up. Quer dtirch The game as to 130 sq. . connexion between festivals and games merely an accidental one. the land may again be cleared and brought under cultivation. As soon as it has yielded a crop. Nieuwenhuis has no doubt is the masquerade performed by the Kayans A. the religious significance of which Dr. 99 the occasion of the agricultural festivals which bear a strictly choice. The Kai. who inhabit the rugged. I conjecture. little harvest festival or the great harvest festival at New Year festival." If the reader should entertain any doubt on the subject. I failed to do so in the case of the others. these doubts and ^ew suspicions will probably be dispelled by comparing the Guinea. See below. of the taro and yams which they cultivate in their fields... and should suspect that in arriving at this conclusion the cuitura'i Dutch traveller gave the reins to his fancy rather than people of followed the real opinion of the people.

1 Ch. they may not eat young bamboo shoots. the contagion of would be conveyed through him to the fruits and would manifest itself in a pungent disagreeable flavour." in R. Kaileute. on a large and heavy block of stone. "Aus dem Lebender Neuhauss. whether wild or tame. were such an enchanter to eat any of the edible kinds of locusts. they touch the shoots with the bone of a wild animal that has been killed in the recesses of a cave. believing that the stone will communicate its valuable properties of size and weight to the future Moreover. as surely as the night does the day. are the most deadly enemies of the crops. just like the long thin brittle legs of a dead crab. which are a favourite article of diet the strike many make superstitious practices. before planting them. . to promote the growth of the crops. they place the shoots.GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE ruins. great use is made of spells and incantations fruit.. imagining that just as the creature penetrated deep into the earth. which cause itching and irritation . which they grub up and destroy from which it follows. the Kai in resort to observed by the Kai for the good of the crops. For example. Above all. that if you eat pork while fields . on practices which they depend for their subsistence. of the skin The reason is that the young shoots are covered with fine prickles. and all persons who utter such magical formulas for this purpose have to abstain from eating certain foods until the plants have sprouted and give promise of a good crop. it seems obvious to the Kai that locusts would devour the crops over which the imprudent wizard had recited his spells. from which the Kai infer that if an enchanter of field fruits were to eat their prickles bamboo shoots. people who are concerned in planting .^ To this happens the site of the village is procure good crops of the taro and yams. so the shoots that have been touched with its bone will descend deep into the ground. deep roots. 12 sq. Again. buperstitious and when changed. Deutsch 9 sq. And in order that the taro may bear large and heavy fruit. order to yams with the people. iii. 3. For example. must on no account eat pork because pigs. For a similar reason no charmer of the crops who knows his business would dream of eating crabs. 191 1) pp. Keysser. Neti-Guinea. (Berlin. because he is well aware that if he were to do so the leaves and stalks of the plants would be dashed in pieces by a pelting rain.

' the Pig.' 'the Flying Fox. while a song sung which : ^ is afterwards often repeated in the village.songs.' 'the Two Mother Cousins.' the Canoe. Thus to swing on a long Spanish reed fastened to a branch of a tree is thought to have a good effect on the newly planted yams.' 'the Kangaroo. upward growth of the plants.' the Lizard and the Dog.geIowaineja. the Kai people play cat's cradle. Each of the intricate figures has a definite meaning and a name to match for example the flock of pigeons {Hu/ita). on which a wooden flag adorned with a feather is made to slide down (the Kai the fields work on the has ! ' ' ^ call the instrument tawataivd).' 'the Sago -palm Fan. contain only the names of the kinds of yams that have been planted.' the Sentinelbox in the Fields.' the Rat's Nest.' the Little Children. by men and women. are beginning to wind may only be used when the their yams is up about props.' the Wasp's Nest in the Bamboo -thicket. cit. Keysser. together with the joyous harvest-cry repeated with variations. they cry Kakulili T By calling out the name of the yams they think to draw their shoots upwards out of the ground. kiki tambai^ kiki tainbai! is The meaning to cause a strong The is unknown. Therefore swinging is practised by old and young. The It tender shoots are then touched with the bow.in GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE loi you are at work on the farm. pp. No one who has an interest in the growth of his crop in the field leaves the swing idle. the Ch. of the yams been done. . As they swing These songs often to and fro they sing swing. A small bow with a string.gelowaineja .' 'the Araucaria.^ However. people the'^g°owth are . to Kewa and Imbiawa. your fields will be devastated by inroads of pigs. these precautions are not the only measures Games which the Kai people adopt for the benefit of the yams and [jJe^K^-^^ " In the opinion of the natives various games important for a proper growth of the field -fruits hence these games may only be played in the time after the taro.' 'the Spider's Web.' Rain and Sunshine. 'the Star.' : ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 'the Pig's Pitfall. yams may sprout luxuriantly In order that the foliage of the and grow green and spread. 123-125. of the words runs thus intention JSIauia gelo. I have found a fine fruit In leaping from the swing.' 'the Fish -spawn. ^ carrying their dead <?/.

of wild fig By spinning large native acorns or a sort they think that they foster the growth of the . namely.' etc. . op. " Shoots (for the new are budding and sprouting. who sit down opposite to each other at a dishis adversary's stalks first is tance of three or four paces. op. The game is played by two each.GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Grave. iii. By Tales and legends told piercing the leaves they think that they incite the plants to set tubers. cit. on the principles of sympathetic magic. to promote the welfare of the yams planted ancient is in the to field. sets of charms appear to be based playing the cit. partners. and these leaves are brought into the village. Keysser. In the villages it is always only a few old men who as good story-tellers can Thus among these hold the attention of their hearers. By reviving the origin memory of the beings. tion of these is by the to Kai Almost more remarkable than the limitagames to the time when work on the fields going forward is the custom of the Kai people which permits to cause the fruits of only fruits the earth to thrive. newly-planted taro the plants will ' turn about and broaden. 161. they imagine that they influence the planting is the growth of the fruits for good. whom When the of the field-fruits referred. A number of taro stalks lie beside all He who has speared then they change stalks and the game begins again. victor . unfolded themselves. 125 jjt. The same This is holds good of spearing at the stalks of taro leaves with the ribs of sago leaves used as miniature spears.' The game must the taro is therefore only be played at the time when planted. the telling of legends comes to an end. over." ^ Thus with these New Guinea people the certain playing of to New games and the in recital . and especially when the young plants begin to sprout. 2 q\^ Keysser. but when any tubers. A single leaf done when the taro leaves have the plants have not yet set is cut from a number of stems. legends the tales of the olden time or popular be told at the time when the newly planted ^ At the end of every mentions the names of the various kinds of yams and adds. of certain legends are alike Guinea people magical their intention they are charms practised In games are played and ensure good crops." such tale the Kai story-teller planting) and fruits (to eat) in abundance ! " " From their concluding words we see that the Kai legends are only told for a quite definite purpose. ^ Ch. Both iii.

pp. in old serious When meaning was forgotten. see The Magic Art and the Evohitioti of Kings. . is practised also by the Bakaua. the sugar-cane to ^ On the principles of homoeopathic Koch-Griinberg. i. . and the Guts of the Tapir." Golden Bottgh. See Th. For example. Haddon. crops among peoples so distant from each other as the Esquimaux and the natives of New Guinea.^ iii. we may reasonably surmise that it has been put to similar uses by many other peoples. The Esquimaux play cat's cradle as a charm to catch the sun in the meshes of the string and so prevent him from sinking below the horizon in winter. the game played as a magical rite to stay the sun or promote the growth of the or imitative magic. not far from the Kai. even as the players spread their hands and twine the string about their fingers by spinning fruits they make the taro plants to turn and broaden and by spearing the taro leaves the plants .^ to It The recitation of tales as a charm promote the growth of the crops is not peculiar to the Kai. Zwei Jahre unter den Indiaticrn (Berlin. another tribe of German New Guinea. ^ Bow. and the mere mention of the their names avails. the Caterpillar. ii. the Spider. invoked under " various more or less figurative designations. 224-232 . i.^ In telling the legends the story-tellers mention the names of the power- beings who first created the fruits of the earth. 191 1). Africa. i. The Study of Man (London and New York. See The Magic Art and the Evohition Cat's cradle is of Kings. 127. 131. they induce ful the plants to set tubers. they continued to be practised simply for the amusement they afforded Another such game seems the players. good crops. the Armadillo. each of which has its special name." that they would be pleased to cause countless shoots to sprout. including the Torres Straits Islands. and America. the Moon. to reproduce the effect. See The to be the "Tug of War. the Pleiades. See A. such as the thus originated their Probably many games have magical rites. 318 sqg.Ill GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE acts all 103 stories told games the players perform or at which are supposed to mimic events to stimulate the corresponding processes in : j^ ensure^ by swinging high in the air they make the plants grow high by playing cat's cradle they cause the leaves of the yams to spread and the stalks to intertwine. 1909-1910). 252. the Andaman Islands. such as " a man or " a cricket. 120. Cafs Cradles from ^a«y Zaw^j (London. though civilised observers have commonly seen in it nothing more than a pastime. C. gee Taboo and the Perils of the Sotil. Finding 123. 189S). pp. 52 sqq. and the stories always end with a prayer to the ancestral spirits. the Indians of North-western Brazil play many games of cat's cradle. who inhabit the coast of Huon Gulf. Miss Kathleen Haddon. 253. . played as a game by savages in many parts of the world. the great tubers to swell. These people tell stories in the evening at the time when the yams and taro are ripe. 95. on the principle of magical equivalence of names and persons or things. 316 sq.

332 sq. of taro porridge." in R. 191 1) pp. and above the plants already in the ground. " From this we see. that people always remember them which reason they ought to be all to bestow their blessings on the shoots which are ready to be planted or on . at the entrance to Huon Gulf. but of a narrative. Zahn. 1911) p. cii. into the field. 4 See Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. for instance. yams. fruits and bananas. not of a command. in order that the ghosts may deck themselves with the souls of these ornaments.^ Similarly. "Die Jabim.^ They subsist chiefly by the purpose to obtain of the earth which they cultivate. tell the purpose of obtaining a plentiful harvest of yams. (Berlin. iii. long clusters. p." As the story-teller utters the prayer. a neighbouring tribe of German tales for New Guinea also tales tell New Guinea. 1 Neuhauss. pp." who is reports the custom. the Yabim utter spells for the same purpose. the balum. . op. for favourable to their descendants. 290. taro.^ . H. Detitsch Neu-Guitiea. Later in the season they whirl bull- Specimens of as Yabim charms tales told and call out the names of the dead. Before they plant the first taro in a newly cleared field they invoke the souls of the dead to make the plants grow and prosper and to propitiate these powerful spirits they bring valuable objects. " that to prove to the ancestors. " Bukaua. on sugar-cane. 386. as they call them. while at the same time they minister to the grosser appetites of the disembodied spirits by offering them a savoury mess taro. the Yabim. and these spells someroarers in the fields to procure a good harvest.* But besides the prayers which they address to the spirits of the dead for the sake of procuring an abundant harvest. the object of telling the stories whose spirits are believed to be present at the recitation of the tales which they either invented or inherited. he looks towards the house in which the The Yabim of German young shoots ready for planting or the ripe fruits are deposited.I04 GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE and the bananas to hang says the missionary in thrive. 478 sq. and sugar-cane supply them with their staple In their agricultural labours they believe themselves to be largely dependent on the spirits of their dead. (Berlin. R. ill. is one of their spells a man laboured in his field and complained that he had no : Stefan Lehner.Guinea. times take the form. Deutsch Neu. Zahn. food. believing that this makes the crops to thrive. such as boar's tusks and dog's teeth. and among which abundant crops. " Once upon a time Here. 2 ^ H." in Neuhauss.

" the taro will not bud. cit. narrative spells Such tales ^^^^j^ narrative ^^^ ^' among the natives of this part of German For example. iii. the Yabim will have recourse to the " A muraena lay at ebb-tide on the shore." : twigs bud. though great .^ of a certain tree {kalelong). Then came two doves flying from Poum. which the sorcerer mutters while he is performing his magical rites. addressed to the spirits. that divides it from the other. "Bukaua. addressed to nobody in particular. Deutsch H. on. 191 1) p. been used much more extenhave it seems probable that they sively * among mankind than op. or Guinea. if able to sell some of them to other people. and during the night they vomited all the taro up. that here the distinction is drawn re- between narratives narratives and requests . After that the taro sure to Apparently the mere recitation of such simple tales is thought to produce the same effect as a direct appeal. in Neu-Guinea. rather than theory. in which the enchanter expresses his wishes in the form Much use seems to be made of such of direct commands. may melt into each other almost imperceptibly. 333.Ill GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE 105 taro shoots. Thus the man got so many taro shoots that he was even Or. among the Bukaua." R. Such incantations may be called narrative spells to distinguish them from the more familiar imperative spells. . while the enchanter is smites the ground with them. who attribute practically boundless powers to sorcerers in every department of life and nature. following spell Then the tide flowed It seemed to be at its last gasp. whether in the shape of a prayer or a command.ehner. and they perched on a tree in the field. 448. Even the priest or the enchanter who utters the one may be hardly conscious of the hairbreadth In regard to narrative spells. (Berlin. : New they are short narratives. between of a and quest from a commands but the command. and the muraena came to life again and plunged This spell is pronounced over into the deep water. the evidence at our disposal perNeuhauss.^ It is true. 2 Stefan l. Zahn. again. the spells by which these wizards attempt to work their will assume one of two forms either they are requests made to the ancestors. They had devoured much taro. p. difference in may in be the very slight in practice ordinary so that prayer and spell. sense of the words.

C. the bull-roarer is looked upon as an instrument that can be used to promote the growth of garden produce. sweet potatoes. " The Dieri and other kindred Tribes of Central Australia. an island at the mouth They think that by whirling bull-roarers they produce good crops of yams. the tribe destitute of snakes. and Brown (London. Native Tribes East Australia (London. instrument by savages who Thus among the Dieri of central Australia. A. of the The g^j-^-j^ bull-roarer to quicken jg the fruits of the earth. Head-hunters. when he went in search of game before his wounds were healed. xx.ro6 GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE . The first. 219.^ Indeed a fertilising or prolific virtue ture. he used to be given a bull-roarer. an island in Torres Straits. Black.. See his essay. ^q^ peculiar ^ Guinea the instrument is employed for the same by ^he natives of Kiwai. 104. New use of the bull-roarer to quicken the fruits of the On the other side of to the Yabim. lizards. in Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. 1904) pp. mits us positively to affirm that to in particular many ancient narratives. . (Cambridge. I believe. C. Haddon. such as yams and sweet potatoes certain spirits were supposed to march round the gardens at . night swinging bull-roarers for this purpose.. 1904) pp. 2 A. snakes. to v. when a appears to be attributed to the are totally ignorant of agricul- young man had undergone the painful initiatory ceremony of having a number of gashes cut in his back. (Cambridge. p. 1901) p. would ever afterwards be and other such food. pological Institute. White. v. used to be regularly recited magical Use rites as spells for the purpose of actually producing events like those which they describe. he had power to cause a good harvest of lizards." Journal of the Anthro- 1 A. to point out the fertilising power ascribed to the buU-roaier by some savages was Dr. Haddon. of South- 1904)." ^ puj-pogg of the Fly River. Mabuiag. whereupon it was believed that he became inspired by the spirits of the men of old. 660. On the other hand. (1891) p. id. Howitt. C. which we may conjecture we have been accustomed in treat as mere myths.^ It may 3 a. 83. chap. and and in accordance with this belief they call bananas Similarly in the implement " the mother of yams. Compare id. and that by whirling it. Haddon. in Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition Torres Straits. . W. 218. 346 sq. and other reptiles. the Dieri thought that to if a woman were to see a bull- roarer that had been used at the initiatory ceremonies and learn its secret.

Ill

GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE

107

very well be that a similar power to fertilise or multiply edible plants and animals has been ascribed to the bullroarer

by many other peoples who employ the implement
it

in

their mysteries.

Further,

is

to be observed that just as
fro

New

Guinea swing to and
in

branches of trees in
crops,
like

the Kai of Swinging on reeds suspended from the ^j^^^f"' order to promote the growth of the charm,

in Russia devote swinging in spring and early summer for the express purpose of making the flax grow as high as And we may suspect that wherever they swing in the air.^

manner Lettish peasants

their

leisure to

swinging
not so

is

practised as a

year, particularly in spring

ceremony and at

at certain times of the

harvest, the pastime

is

much

a mere popular recreation as a magical

rite

designed to promote the growth of the crops.^ With these examples before us we need not hesitate to
believe that Dr. Nieuwenhuis
is right when he attributes a deep religious or magical significance to the games which the Kayans or Bahaus of central Borneo play at their

various agricultural festivals.
It

remains to point out

how

far the religious or

magical
original

Analogy

of

practices of these primitive agricultural

peoples of Borneo

and

New

Guinea appear to
rites

illustrate

by analogy the

o'j^Bo^ngo^ to the

nature of the
religious
in

of Eleusis.

So

far as

we can recompose,
picture of the

EkusTstn
the early

from the broken fragments

of tradition, a

condition of the Eleusinian people appears to tally fairly well with the picture which Dr. Nieuwenhuis has drawn for us of the Kayans or Bahaus at the present day in the forests of

and

political
it

the olden time,

central Borneo.

Here as there we see a petty agricultural by hereditary chiefs who, while they unite religious to civil authority, being bound to preside over the numerous ceremonies performed for the good of

community

ruled

"The

Bull-roarer," in

The Study of
York, 1898), work Dr. Had-

Man
pp.

(London and
277-327.

New

In this

asian Association for the Advancement of Science for the year igoo {VL€^\)0\!,xxit., 1901), pp. 313-322.
^
.

don recognises the general principle of derivation of many games the possible '^
from magical
roarer
,

A..i-1-ii As to the bull,.^ compare my paper " On some
,
.

rites.

r\ /t-.j Ostseeprovmzen and Leipsic, (Dresden . o f 1841 ^ " 11- 25.
,

^^

^
-^

.^

deutsch-russischen

jt-

Ceremonies of the Central Australian Tribes," in the Report of the Austral-

* For the evidence see The God, pp. 277-285.

Dying

io8

GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
nevertheless
raised
in
little

chap.

The Sacred
at^Ekusif

lead simple patriarchal lives and outward dignity above their fellows that their daughters do not deem it beneath them to fetch Here as water for the household from the village well.^ there we see a people whose whole religion is dominated who and coloured by the main occupation of their lives believe that the growth of the crops, on which they depend for their subsistence, is at the mercy of two powerful spirits, a divine husband and his wife, dwelling in a subterranean world and who accordingly offer sacrifices and perform ceremonies in order to ensure the favour of these mighty beings and so to obtain abundant harvests. If we knew more about the Rarian plain at Eleusis,^ we might discover that it was the scene of many religious ceremonies like those which are performed on the little consecrated rice -fields (the luina lali) of the Kayans, where the various operations of the agricultural year are performed in miniature by members of the chiefs family before the corresponding operations may be performed on a larger scale by common folk on their fields. Certainly we know ^^^^ ^^^ Rarian plain witnessed one such ceremony in the year. It was a solemn ceremony of ploughing, one of the three Sacred Ploughings which took place annually in various parts of Attica.* Probably the rite formed part of the Proerosia or Festival before Ploughing, which was intended

the crops,^
are so

;

;

to ensure
priests

a plentiful crop.^

Further,

it

appears that the

the

who guided the sacred slow-paced oxen as they dragged plough down the furrows of the Rarian Plain, were drawn

from the old priestly family of Bouzygai or " Ox-yokers," whose eponymous ancestor is said to have been the first man to yoke oxen and to plough the fields. As they performed this time-honoured ceremony, the priests uttered many quaint curses against all churls who should refuse to lend fire or water
to neighbours, or to

shew the way
and
their

to wanderers, or
was performed
;

who should
Sciruni,

^

On

the

Kayan

chiefs

ings
at

at

and
of

religious duties,
huis,
2 ^
*

see A.

W. Nieuweni.

the third at the foot of the Acropolis

Quer durch Borneo, See above, p. 36. See above, p. 74.
Plutarch,

58-60.

Athens

for

in

this

passage
the

Plutarch
editor,
*

we
read

must,

with
for

latest

hvo

Tr6\Lv

the

vwb

42.

Praecepta Conjugalia, Another of these Sacred Plough-

TriXiv of the manuscripts.

See above, pp. 50

si/^.

GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
leave a corpse unburied.^

109

execrations
occasions,

fulminated
find

we might

If we had a complete list of the by the holy ploughmen on these that some of them were levelled at failed to

the impious wretches

who
call

keep

all

the rules of the
primitive

Sabbath, as we

may

those periods of enforced rest and

seclusion which the

Kayans of Borneo and other
good of the

agricultural peoples observe for the
Etyinologicum lifagnutn, s.v. p. 206, lines 47 sqq. ; Im. Bekker, Anecdota Graeca (Berlin, 18141821), i. 221 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 199 ; Hesychius, s.v. Bov^vyrjs Ka6l<Ttovs iepovs raro di trap avrots Kai
1

crops.^

as the

"Bov^vyla,

slightest

An
is

crops remain ungarnered, the incontinence might ruin all. omen of the prosperity of the crops

taken by a

mock
the

contest,

the girls

pulling

against

men.

In

some

oLpbrovs

iirtreXuiv

Bov^vyr]?

;

Paroeniio-

graphi Graeci, ed. E. L. Leutsch und F. G. Schneidewin (Gottingen, 18391851), i. 388, Boi'fy777S- i-rclTGiv iroWa '0 yap 'Qov^vyqi 'AOrjvrjaiv 6 apwfj.iv(j3v. &\\a re Tov lepbv dpoTOv fTriTeXu)i' TToXXd dpdraL Kal tois /xrj KOivwvovffi Kara
rbv ^iov
ocles,
iiSaTO-;
•^

gennas last for ten days, but the tenth day is the crowning day of all. The men cook, and eat apart from the women during this time, and
villages the

the food

tabus

are strictly enforced.

From

the conclusion of the initial crop

genna to the commencement of the genna which ushers in the harvest
time,
all
all trade, all fishing, all

wvpos
;

fj fj.7]

vTro(paivov(nv

hunting,
trees
is

oSbu Tr\avwij.&OLS

Scholiast on

Soph-

cutting grass and

felling

Antigone, 255, X670S 5e 6tl rots Bov^vyqi 'AdrjvTja'L KaT-qpdcraTO wepLopQaiv dracpov ffCiixa. The Sacred Ploughing at the foot of the Acropolis

forbidden.
alise

Those

tribes

which speci-

was specially called bouzygios (Plutarch, Compare Praecepta Conjugalia, 42). Genealogie (BerJ. Toepffer, Attische
lin,

in cloth - weaving, salt - making pottery-making are forbidden the exercise of these minor but valuable industries. Drums and bugles are

or

silent all the while.
initial

.

.

.

Between the
the
harvest-

crop genna and

1889) pp. 136 sqq. 2 Such Sabbaths are very commonly and very strictly observed in connexion
with the crops by the agricultural hill The native name tribes of Assam.
for

home, some tribes interpose a genna day which depends on the appearance

See T. such a Sabbath is genna. C. Hodson, "The Getma amongst the Tribes of Assam," Journal of the Anthropological Institiite, xxxvi. (1906) " Communal tabus are pp. 94 sq.
:

AH celeof the first blade of rice. brate the commencement of the gathering of the crops by a genna, which It is mainly lasts at least two days. a repetition of the initial genna and,
just as the
first

gennabura,
village, so

seed was sown by the the religious head of the
is

he

obliged to cut the

first

by the whole village. Those which are of regular occurrence are for the most part connected with
observed
.
.

.

ear of rice before any one else may begin." On such occasions among the Kabuis, in spile of the licence

the

Even where irrigated made, the rice plant is much affected by deficiencies of rain Before the crop is and excess of sun. sown, the village is tabu or genna. The gates are closed and the friend
crops.
terraces

accorded to the people generally, the
strictest

are

chastity

is

required

of

the

religious
itiates

head of the village who inthe sowing and the reaping,

without has to stay outside, while the stranger that is within the gates remains till all is ended. The festival is marked among some tribes by an outburst of licentiousness, for, so long

and his diet is extremely limited ; for example, he may not eat dogs or tomatoes. See T. C. Hodson, "The Native Tribes of Manipur," Journal
of the Antlu-opological Institute, xxxi, (1901) pp. 306 sq. ; and for more details, id., The Naga Tribes of Mani-

GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
The
connexion

Further,
practise

when we

see

that

many

primitive

peoples

of the Eleusinian games with agricuhure,
attested

what we call games but what they regard in all seriousness as solemn rites for the good of the crops, we may be the more inclined to accept the view of the ancients,

who

associated

the

Eleusinian

games

directly

with

the

by the
ancients,

worship of Demeter and Persephone, the Corn Goddesses.^

confirmed by
is

modern
savage
analogies.

One of the contests at the Eleusinian games was in leaping,^ and we know that even in modern Europe to this day leaping or dancing high is practised as a charm to make Again, the bull-roarer was swung the crops grow tall.^ so as to produce a humming sound at the Greek mysteries * and when we find the same simple instrument whirled by savages in New Guinea for the sake of ensuring good crops, we may reasonably conjecture that it was
;

whirled with a like intention by the rude forefathers of the

Greeks among the cornfields of Eleusis. If that were so though the conjecture is hardly susceptible of demonstration it would go some way to confirm the theory that the
vol.
xi.
1).

pur (London, 191 1), pp. 168 sqq. The resemblance of some of these
customs to those of the Borneo is obvious. We
jecture that the

Nos.

1-2,

January- April,

191
1

Kayans of

"tug of

may conwar" which

between the sexes on several of these Sabbaths was originally a magical ceremony to ensure good crops rather than merely a mode of divination to forecast the coming harvest. Magic regularly dwindles into
takes place
it degenerates into a simple game. At one of these taboo periods the men set up an effigy of a man and throw pointed bamboos at

divination before

it.

He who
will kill

hits

the

figure
;

in

the

an enemy he who hits it in the belly will have plenty of food. See T. C. Hodson, in Journal of the

head

Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) 95 ; id.. The Naga Tribes of Alaiiipur, p. 171. Here also we probably have an old magical ceremony passing through a phase of divination before it reaches the last stage of decay. On Sabbaths observed in connexion with
p.

agriculture in Borneo and
further
versity

Assam, see Hutton Webster, Rest Days, a Sociological Study, pp. 1 1 sqq. ( UniStudies,

Lincoln,

Nebraska,

See above, p. 71. See above, p. 71 note*. 3 See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, i. 13 7- 1 39. * See the old Greek scholiast on Clement of Alexandria, quoted by Chr. Aug. Lobeck, Aglaopha>nus (Konigsberg, 1829), p. 700; Andrew Lang, Custom and Myth (London, 1884), p. 39. It is true that the bull-roarer seems to have been associated with the rites of Dionysus rather than of Demeter perhaps the sound of it was thought to mimick the bellowing of the god in his character of a bull. But the worship of Dionysus was from an early time associated with that of Demeter in the Eleusinian mysteries and the god himself, as we have seen, had agricultural affinities. See above, p. An annual festival of swinging 5. (which, as we have seen, is still practised both in New Guinea and Russia for the good of the crops) was held by the Athenians in antiquity and was believed to have originated in the worship of Dionysus. See The Dying God, pp. 281 sq.
2
; ;

Ill

GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
rustic

in

Eleusinian mysteries were in their origin nothing more than

simple
fields

ceremonies designed

to

make
in

the

farmer's

wave with yellow corn. the Kayans, whose worship of the
to

And

the practice of

rice offers

to the Eleusinian worship of the corn,

many analogies may we not detect a
?

hint of the origin

of

that

rule

of secrecy which always

characterised the Eleusinian mysteries

May

it

not have
their

been

that, just as the

Kayans exclude strangers from
engaged
in

villages while they are
rites, lest

the celebration of religious

the presence of these intruders should frighten or
spirits

annoy the shy and touchy

times, so the old Eleusinians

who are invoked at these may have debarred foreigners

from participation in their most solemn ceremonies, lest the coy goddesses of the corn should take fright or offence at the sight of strange faces and so refuse to bestow on men their annual blessing ? The admission of foreigners to the privilege of initiation in the mysteries was probably a late innovation introduced at a time when the fame of their sanctity had spread far and wide, and when the old magical meaning of the ritual had long been obscured, if not
forgotten.

Lastly,

it

may

be suggested that

in the

masked dances

The

sacred

and dramatic performances, which form a conspicuous and popular feature of the Sowing Festival among the Kayans,^ we have the savage counterpart of that drama of divine death and resurrection which appears to have
figured
If

^^?^^^
Eleusinian

^^f^^rej
to the

so

prominently

in

the

mysteries

of
is

Eleusis.^
correct,
it

dali^ce^s

of

my

interpretation

of that

solemn drama

agricui-

represented in mythical guise the various stages in the growth
of the corn for the purpose of magically fostering the natural
processes which
it

savages.

Kaua and Kobeua
chiefly

simulated. In like manner among the Indians of North-western Brazil, who subsist

by the cultivation of manioc, dances or rather pantomimes are performed by masked men, who represent spirits or demons of fertility, and by imitating the act of procreation
growth of plants as well as to to promote the multiplication of animals. Coarse and grotesque as these dramatic performances may seem to us, they convey no suggestion of
are believed to stimulate the

quicken the

wombs

of

women and

1

See above, pp. 95

sq.,

and below, pp. 186

sq.

2

ggg above,

p. 39.

112

GAMES IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
the

chap, in

indecency to
spectators,

minds either of the actors
all

or

of the

who

regard them in

seriousness as rites des-

tined to confer the blessing of fruitfulness on the inhabitants of the village, on their plantations, and on the whole realm

of nature.^

However, we possess so
all

little

exact information

as to the rites of Eleusis that

attempts to elucidate them

by the ritual of savages must necessarily be conjectural. Yet the candid reader may be willing to grant that conjectures supported by analogies like the foregoing do not
exceed the limits of a reasonable hypothesis.
^ Th. Koch-Griinberg, Zwei Jahre unter den htdianern (Berlin, 1909As 1910), i. 137-140, ii. 193-196.

to

the

cultivation

of manioc
ii.

among

these Indians see

id.

202

sqq.

I
CHAPTER
woman's part
If
it

IV
agriculture
of
the
corn, Theory
pgrsVili^

in primitive
a

Demeter was
is

indeed
ask,

personification

natural

to

why

did

the
?

Greeks personify the

corn as a goddess rather than a god

why

did they ascribe

ficaiion of

the origin of agriculture to a female rather than to a male

power

?

They conceived
?

the spirit of the vine as masculine

feminine was sugcrested

;

why

did they conceive the spirit of the barley and wheat as

by

the part

has been answered that the personiwomen in feminme, or at all events the ascription primitive agriculture. of the discovery of agriculture to a goddess, was suggested by the prominent part which women take in primitive agriculture.^ The theory illustrates a recent tendency of mythofeminine
this
it
. .

To

p'ayed by

fication of the corn as

logists

to explain

many myths
its

as reflections of primitive

society rather than as personifications of nature. reason, apart from

For that

intrinsic interest, the theory deserves

to be briefly considered.

Before the invention of the plough, which can hardly be Among worked without resort to the labour of men, it was and still ^^^ge is customary in many parts of the world to break up the tribes the labour of ... -11 r soil for cultivation with hoes, and among not a few savage hoeing the peoples to this day the task of hoeing the ground and sow- ground and sowing the -1 .1 ing the seed devolves mainly or entirely upon the women, seed desolves on while the men take little or no * part in cultivation beyond ' women. clearing the land by felling the forest trees and burning the fallen timber and brushwood which encumber the soil.
.,
,.

1

,

:,

,,,

1

Thus, for example, among the Zulus, " when a piece of land has been selected for cultivation, the task of clearing it
' F. B. Jevons, httrodtiction to the History of Religion (London, 1896),

p.

240

;

H.

Hirt,

Die Indogermanen
i.

(Strasburg, 1905- 1907),

251 sqq.
I

PT. V.

VOL.

I

113

114
Agricui-

WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
If the

chap.

belongs to the men.

ground be much encumbered,

done by'^^

women
ZuiuslmcT
other tribes
Africa.

^his becomes a laborious undertaking, for their axe is very small, and when a large tree has to be encountered, they

can only lop the branches
necdful to remove the trunk.

;

fire

is

employed when

it

is

The

reader will therefore not

be surpHscd that the people usually avoid bush-land, though As a general they seem to be aware of its superior fertility. rule the men take no further share in the labour of cultivaand, as the site chosen is seldom much encumbered tion
;

and frequently bears nothing but grass, their part of the work is very slight. The women are the real labourers
;

for (except in

some

particular cases) the entire business of

digging, planting, and weeding devolves on

them

;

and,

if

we regard
the hoe
.
. .

the assagai and shield as symbolical of the man,

be looked upon as emblematic of the woman. rude and heavy instrument the woman digs, Digging and sowing are plants, and weeds her garden. generally one operation, which is thus performed the seed first scattered on the ground, when the soil is dug or is picked up with the hoe, to the depth of three or four inches,

may

With

this

;

the larger roots and tufts of grass being gathered out, but the rest
left

all

term of contempt is applied to any Zulu man, who, deprived of the services of his wife and family, is compelled by hard necessity to handle the hoe himself"^ Similarly among the Baronga of Delagoa Bay, "when the rains begin to fall, sometimes as early as September but generally later, they hasten to sow. With her hoe in her hands, the mistress of the field walks with little steps every time she lifts a clod of earth well broken up, and in the hole thus made she plants three
in

or on

the

ground."

^

A

special

;

or four grains of maize and covers
finished

them

up.

If she has not

clearing

all

the patch of the bush which she contilled

templated, she proceeds to turn up again the fields she
last
soil,

year.

The crop

will

be

less

abundant than

in

virgin

but they plant three or four years successively in the
the

^ Rev. J. Shooter, The Kafirs of Naial and the Zulu Country (London, 1S57), pp. 17 sq. Speaking of the Zulus another writer observes " In
:

women

plant, weed,

and harvest"
Philadel-

L. Grout, Zulu-land, phia, N.D., p. 1 10).

(Rev.

gardening, the

men

clear the land, if
it

need

be,

and sometimes fence

in

;

- A. Delegorgue, Voyage dans PAii. frique Australe (Paris, 1847), 225.

IV

WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE
field

115

same

before

it is

exhausted.

As
it."
^

for

enriching the

soil

with manure, they never think of

Among

the Barots^,

who
in

cultivate millet, maize,

and peas to a small extent and
alone are occupied with the

a rudimentary fashion,

women

and their only implement is a spade or hoe.^ Of the Matabel^ we are told that " most of the hard work is the whole of the cultivation is performed by the women They plough with short spades of native done by them. manufacture they sow the fields, and they clear them of Among the Awemba, to the west of Lake Tanweeds." ^ ganyika, the bulk of the work in the plantations falls on the women in particular the men refuse to hoe the ground. They have a saying, " Is not each male child born for ^ the axe and each female child for the hoe ? " The natives of the Tanganyika plateau " cultivate the Chastity No y^quiredm banana, and have a curious custom connected with it. the sowers man is permitted to sow but when the hole is prepared a of seed. She little girl is carried to the spot on a man's shoulders. first throws into the hole a sherd of broken pottery, and then
field-work,
;

;

;

'

;

scatters the seed over

it." ^

The
it

reason of the latter practice

has been
natives.
"

explained

by more recent observers of these

Young

children,

may

here be noted, are often

employed to administer drugs, remedies, even the Poison Such acts, the natives Ordeal, and to sow the first seeds. say, must be performed by chaste and innocent hands, lest
a contaminated touch should destroy the

potency of the

medicine or of the seedlings planted.

It

used to be a very

upon the islands of Lake Bangweolo to watch solve the problem of her own moral unfitness by carrying her baby-girl to the bananaplot, and inserting seedlings in the tiny hands for dropping
sight

common
how
a

Bisa

woman would

into the holes already prepared."

^

Similarly

among

the

Lower Congo " women must remain chaste while planting pumpkin and calabash seeds, they are not allowed to touch any pig-meat, and they must wash their
people of the
^

H.

A.

Junod,

Les

Ba-Ronga

(Neuchatel, 1908), pp. 195 sq. 2 L. Decle, Three Yeats in Savage

Great Plateau of Northern Rhodesia (London, 1911), p. 302.
^ ^

L. Decle,

op. cit. p.

295.

^r2Va (London,
3 *

1898), p. 85. L. Decle, ^/. cit. p. 160.
C. Gouldsbury

and H. Sheane,

Z'/^*

and H. Sheane, T)^;? Great Plateau of Northern Nige?-ia (London, 191 1), p. 179.
C. Gouldsbury

ii6

WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE

chap-

If a woman does not hands before touching the seeds. observe all these rules, she must not plant the seeds, or the she may make the holes, and her baby crop will be bad girl, or another who has obeyed the restrictions, can drop in We can now perhaps the seeds and cover them over."^ understand why Attic matrons had to observe strict chastity when they celebrated the festival of the Thesmophoria,^ In Attica that festival was held in honour of Demeter in the
;

the

month of Pyanepsion, corresponding to October,^ the season of autumn sowing and the rites included certain ceremonies
;

which bore directly on the quickening of the seed/ We may conjecture that the rule of chastity imposed on matrons at this festival was a relic of a time when they too, like many
savage

women down

to the

present time, discharged the

Woman's
part in agriculture

important duty of sowing the seed and were bound for that reason to observe strict continence, lest any impurity on their part should defile the seed and prevent it from bearing fruit. Of the Caffres of South Africa in general we read that " agriculture is mainly the work of the women, for in olden

among
South

the

days the

Caffres of

men were occupied in hunting and fighting. women do but scratch the land with hoes, sometimes
long-handled instruments, as
is

The
using

Africa in general.

in

Zululand, and sometimes

short-handled ones, as above the Zambesi.
thus prepared, the

When

the ground
it

women

scatter the seed, throwing

over

the soil quite at random.

They know

the time to sow by the
that of the Pleiades.

position of the constellations, chiefly

by

They date

their

new year from

the time they can see this
^

constellation

just

before sunrise."

In

Basutoland, where
V\\x\.2iXQk\,

1 Rev. J. H. Weeks, " Notes on some Customs of the Lower Congo

mophor. 80;

Detnosthene<:^'>,o;

People," Folk-lore, xx. (1909) p. 31 1. 2 In order to guard against any breach of the rule they strewed Agiiits

and other plants^ which were esteemed anaphrodisiacs, under their beds. See Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, i. 134 {135), vol. i. p. 130, ed. C. Sprengel (Leipsic, 1829-1830); Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxiv. 59 Aelian, De Natwa Aiiimalium, ix. 26 Hesychius, s.v. Kviwpov Scholiast on Theocritus, iv. Scholiast on 25 Nicander, Ther. 70 sq. ^ Scholiast on Aristophanes, Thescasttis
;
;

Aug. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen ini Altertum (Leipsic, 1898), pp. 310 That Pyanepsion was the month sq. of sowing is mentioned by Plutarch {his et Osiris, 69). See above, pp. 45 sq. * See below, vol. ii. p. 17 sq. ® Dudley Kidd, The Essential ComKaffir (London, 1904), p. 323. pare B. Ankermann, " L'Eihno^rnphie
de I'Afrique meridionale," Anthropos, i. (1906) pp. 575 sq. As to the use of the Pleiades to determine the time of sowing, see note at the end of the volume, " The Pleiades in Primitive Calendars."
actuellft

;

;

All other crops are reaped by the women only. but the bark is stripped off for about and and the trees are then left to die. : salt is mixed with it. ii. When seed sown. fifth year. trees are not felled. 2 A. pounded and winnowed by the women and 1 Rev. after which millet is sown. which is the first month of the year. Ak o-siek-u After fresh This ground has been cleared. 1861). but the Nandi know by the arrival in the fields of the guinea-fowl. The corn is who are at times assisted by the children. . The eleusine crops are harvested by both men and women.IV WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE women also till 117 the the fields. girls. eleusine grain is planted. in people of British East both fields men and women work the pp. . done durmg the first half of the Kiptaino moon (February). Most . an attempt is made to determine the time of sowing by observation of the moon. that the planting is season is at hand. and in harvesting some of the crops. P-I9' However. 1904). mi-i tokoch (Plant. C. as he sows. there is luck in the first it). 162-165. 1909). and finally sweet potatoes or some other product." ^ Among Africa. and the sower sings mournfully o-cliok-cJii (And grow quickly). The planting is mostly. assist in sowing Nandf and As a rule other tribes the seed. The Basutos E. crop is generally repeated the second year. 0-kol. Western four feet from the ground ° Africa. though the lands of chiefs are dug and sowed by men. (London. whose song is supposed to be. and back upon the state of the weather and of vegetation as better evidence of the season of sowing. (London. pp. and when the Iwat-ktit moon rises The chief (March) all seed should be in the ground. 143 (with plate). plant . Casalis. fields are allowed to lie fallow every fourth or The Nandi manure their plantations with turf ashes. solstice. however. if not entirely. The Nandi (Oxford. amongthe Bantu See Sir Harry with large iron hoes. an essentially agricultural . Intelligent chiefs rectify the calendar at the summer which they call the summer-house of the sun.^ Among the Nandi of British East Africa "the rough Agricuiwork of clearing the bush for plantations is performed by ^^^^ ]^y' the men. medicine man is consulted before the planting operations begin. The Uganda Protectoraie Johnston. o-kol. Hollis. The men. Kavirondo. 738. but the people generally find themselves out after much dispute are forced to fall in their reckoning. after which nearly all work in connexion with them vvomen is done by the women.

1). 91 sq. Beech. on bananas. provide food for the household. the tilling of the soil is exclusively the work of the women. ins Herz von Afrika (Berlin. who are an reap the crops. p. 36. a district immediately to the south of Uganda.. 5."* In Kiziba.^ The Baganda of Central Africa o^women'' among agan the a. Rev. compare pp. op.. Stuhlmann. but leave the rest of the labour of weeding. p. J. 33. reserving only so much as she needed for firewood.W. F. if these did not give her a garden and a hoe to dig it with were denied her. . In initial clearing of . by which it was fastened to the handle. Mit Emitt Pascha 1894). cit. make holes in the ground with digging-sticks or their fingers. and she would under no circumstances allow her husband to do any digging or No woman would remain with a man who sowing in it. They turn up the soil with hoes. A hoe was the only implement used in cultivation the blade was heart-shaped with a prong at the base. The grass and the trees she heaped up and burned. 38. 1911). 427. 75. 3 4 jr.. but the women sow and So among the Wanyamwezi. Stuhlmann. the East Africa it is the women who cultivate the fields and milk the cows/ Among the Wadowe of German East Africa the men clear the forest and break up the hard ground. 426. 268. » M. Roscoe. she would seek an early opportunity to escape from her husband and return to her relations to complain of her treatment. the men cut down the bush and hoe the hard Agiicui- ground. 95. The hoe-handle was never more than two feet long. H. and to obtain justice or a divorce. the land it was customary for the husband to take part he cut down the tall grass and shrubs. and reaping to the women. and drop a few seeds into . and so left the ground ready for his wife to begin her digging. When a man married he sought a plot of land for his wife in order that she might settle to work and subsist chiefly . sowing.ii8 WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Suk and En-jemusi of British chap. .^ essentially agricultural people. to the south of Lake Victoria Nyanza. and among them " the garden and its Cultivation have always been the woman's departj^gj^|Princcsses and peasant women alike looked upon cultivation as their special work the garden with its produce was essentially the wife's domain. . 93. 94. so that a woman had to stoop when using it. The Siik {OySoxdi. pp. 191 2 p. The Baganda (London.

" whilst the women attend to the tillage of the soil and the gathering of the harvest. Rehse. 'M//«^//««^^« der Anthropologtschen Gesellschaft tti Wie>t. sweet potatoes. logical Rev. (Stuttgart. 40. trees. p. cit. Land unci Leute G."7. put in a seed. Torday. and while she supplied her husband with the vege- had to supply the fish and meat and share them with his wife or wives." Journal of the and T. Agricui*"''^' ^^'^'^^ of women the towns. 1) p. felling the on . (1905) p. 53. yams. Joyce. the women and cutting down the undergrowth worked with them. manioc.^ Gaboon. in West Africa. Royal Anthropological Institute. 6 Torday . xxxv. the men cut down and burn the trees. put in the crop. and helping generally. unless they are absent either for war or hunting. ^/rjVflS (London. is performed by the women.^ a Bantu tribe between the rivers Inzia and Kwilu. J. 3 * 281. They dig the soil with a hoe and plant maize and So with the Ba-Mbala. xxxix. The men did the clearing of the bush. whose only tool is an iron table food. 198. heaping up the grass and brushwood As a rule the ready for burning. a tribe of the Congo State on the equator. Kiziba. plantains. all the field labour. 2 The Heart of i. When new clearings have to be made and ground nuts. "Der Tofoke. ii. Schweinfurth. cultivate manioc (cassava). maize. and cover it women 1 H. and leave the culture of the soil to be carried on exclusively " ^ and among the Monbuttoo of the same region in like manner." ^ " large farms were made around the read that Congo we ° ° by the women . planting. with which they turn up a sod. and the The Mpongwe of the The only tool they use is a dibble. Fresh ground is cleared for cultivation every year."* Amongst the Tofoke. "Notes on the Ethnography of the Ba-Mbala. 405. and weeding. 1878). H." Journal of the Anthropoe." tribe " the food °°^°' belonged to the woman who cultivated the farm. Schweinfurth. 128. but all the rest of the work of tillage falls to the women. except the clearing away of the forest. 1910). op. xli. in the forest. but the men In this did not so despise this w-ork as never to do it. = E. he hoe. spend the As to the Bangala of the Upper entire day in idleness. (1909) PP.IV WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Among the 119 " each hole/ Niam-Niam of Central Africa the men most studiously devote themselves to their hunting. " AnthropoNotes on the Bangala of the Upper Congo VAx^r. (191 G. the men. A. women did the hoeing. A field is used only once. the men clear the ground for cultivation. Weeks. logical Institute.

and prepares the food. cultivates gathers the collects Such is. eminent authority on aboriginal South America. and bananas wherever they found room among the tree-trunks. 417. which the Indians cultivate in clearings of the the trees. thus creating forest open patches in the which are covered with white ashes. 2 P. they did not use hoes but simply pointed sticks. de . op. du Chaillu. ^ A. potatoes." says an South America. cut fire The men down the undergrowth. makes the the garments. 1839). " In the interior of the villages. bread. partially modified for these customs ^ . 16S4). du Chaillu. women came and planted manioc. the respective condition of the two sexes among almost The Peruvians alone had already. roots. L Homme A?niricain (de l Amcriqtie Mt!ridionak) (Paris.I20 WOMAN'S PART IM PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Among the Ashira of the is chap. in all the Americans. among them the man shared the toils of the other sex or took on himself the most laborious tasks. if* Recueil de divers Voyages fails en Afrique et en r Amerique (Paris. we are told. 21-23.^ similar division of labour between men and women in the work done by tural prevails among many primitive agricultural tribes of Indians women among Indian the tribes of South America. he fashions his weapons. In digging the ground to receive the seed or the shoots The men. to take Indies the examples. busies herself fruits. generally at least. among the Caribs of the West men used to fell the trees and leave the fallen trunks to cumber Then the the ground. p. 1861). 198 sq. B. while the woman rears the children. 22. la Borde.* Again. over. yams. * Le Sieur de I'Origine. Guerres et Voy. would rather have died of hunger than undertake such agricultural labours. and he always He fells the trees in the places where he goes alone. the staple vegetable food is of the Indians of British Guiana cassava forest. Coustiimes. * P." pp. p. burning off only the smaller boughs. made fell from the roots of the manioc or cassava plant. "Relation Mceurs. cit. he digs out his canoe. with the the interior. and in dry weather set to the fallen lumber.^ same region the cultiva- tion of the soil Agricul- A in hands of the vvomen. Religion. field. i. wishes to make a field for cultivation. When the rains B. " the man often absents himself to hunt or to go into the heart of the forest in search of the honey of the wild bees.iges des Caraiiies Sauvages des Isles Antilles de I'Amerique. Explorations and Adventures in Eqiiato7-ial Africa (London. D'Orbigny. their semi-civilised state." Thus.

1867). 1892) pp. the women cut down the plants and dig up the roots. also dig The women it the bread which is is is up the mandiocca. of tropical South by women America. sqq. 2 250 sqq. are burnt and the mandiocca is then planted by the .. their main sub- . when The women thus have plenty to do. and prepare from sistence. Martins. 486-4S9. " the men cut down the trees and brushwood. sugar-cane. little patches of cane. The bread it made fresh every day. sweet potatoes. 1 E. together with and various fruits. and so forth. the women do just much weeding necessary to prevent the cultivated plants from being choked by the rank growth of the tropical vegetation. economic importance of the manioc or cassava plant in the life of the South American Indians. These roots they afterwards peel. scrape. the repair to these clearings. after they have lain some months to dry. as gets cold and dry far less palatable. (Leipsic. . Phil. see further E. but as they are required. heavily laden with baskets of cassava sticks to be used as cuttings. seeds. to fetch the root. im Thurn. who insert the tHb«"of sticks in the ground after the fashion already described. women. A»iong the Indians of Guiana (London. wherever there is room for them. and bake into cassava bread. red and yellow peppers. in the America. pumpkin yams. which. History of the i. and bake the bread as it forms by far the greater part of their food. and they often pass days without eating anything else. pp.«o- New World grnphie Amerikds.^ tropical For example. . F. for every other day at least they have to go to the field. and in doing so they plant bananas. 312 sq. in the soil. prepare. These field is they insert at irregular intervals formed. sweet potatoes. wherever the plant will grow and the cultivation among the of it is altogether in the hands of the women. Zz<r^//. especially . pp. when the seeds appearing on the straggling branches of the cassava plants announce that the roots are ripe. often a mile or two distant. C.^ In like manner the cassava or manioc plant all is cultivated Cultivation generally among the Indian tribes . among the tribes of the Uaupes River. Payne. zutnal Brasiliens called America. who are an agricultural people with settled abodes. F. J. as and so the While the cassava as is is growing. On the 310 sqq.. upper valley of the Amazon. 1883). and every day to grate. (Oxford. it .I IV WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE women full 121 set in. 260 V. not all at once. At last in the ninth or tenth month.

" Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen GesellGriinberg. J. Southey. ii. 203) that these Indians determine the time schaft und C. 1846). Gallen. by observing especially certain con- ^ A. Peru (St. India the men employ themselves chiefly in hunting or in making forays savage tribes in on their weaker neighbours.^ left A similar distribution of labour between the sexes prevails work done by tural women among among some savage tribes in other parts Thus among the Lhoosai of south-eastern of the world.* sticks and inserting the shoots the Indians of Peru. but they clear the ground and India. 2 vol. (London. ' Indianern (Berlin. New However. Guinea. 1889). i. 1822). See Th. the wives " had something more than their due share of labour. 336. R. often remaining away from home for weeks or even months together. B. 1823-1831). Zicei Jahre 253. (1908) pp. Similar accounts appear to apply to the Brazilian Indians the men occupy themselves with hunting. i. (Munich. von den den Nattirvblkern Zentral-Brasiliens (Berlin. Unter Steinen. 6 J. the cultivation of the fields arrows and blowguns Agricul- women. women . Koch- The season begins when the Pleiades have disappeared below the horizon. * K. they fetch water. 381. J. 337 [The Mineti)a Library). scraping the soil clear of weeds with pointed earth. p. von Tschudi. sowed and gathered the maize. but they were not treated with brutality. Second Edition (London. unter den 1909. . and New of the bodily labour by which life is supported falls on the Britain. hew wood. when men are engaged in clearing the forest. Mr. Ph. a tribe of Brazihan Indians. the main burden help to carry home the harvest. and their condition was They set and dug the mandioc they on the whole happy. while the women ^ plant and reap the crops. . in general : An and the manufacture of their weapons. 214. F.19 10). Wallace." ^ Among the Tupinambas.122 WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE the chap. above all they cultivate the manioc. and search for fruits in the forest . ^^-i " Frauenarbeit bei den Indianern Nordwest-Brasiliens. xxxviii. See Note at end of the rainy volume. 214. in IVien. pp. war. cultivate the ground. Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro for planting stellations. R. that if a ^ men. while the men hunt with bows and in the woods. 202-209. von Spix Brasilien Reise in von Martius. ii. the Pleiades. History of Brazil. 1894). odd superstition prewhich the Portugueze earth-almond. Wallace's account of the agriculture of these tribes is entirely confirmed by the observations of a recent explorer in north western Brazil." by the was planted call amendoens. sort of vailed. ii. Jahre unter den Indianern. it would not grow. This writer tells us [Zwei 172-174. p. in the Similarly to the among who cultivate maize is in clearings of the forest.

while the women. T. Dalton. 1878). 255. pp. 1862). But they are deterred by superstitious fear from breaking . 159. and bananas. crops of rice. 227. maize. and dig with. Der Malayische Archipel (L. men down the long grass. millet. von Rosen\)^x^. Thus the bulk of the labour of cultivation devolves on the women. cit. the it. millet. cut. A. 333 E. H.* So among the natives of Kaimani Bay in Dutch New Guinea the men occupy themselves only forest. yams. Descriptive Ethnology 1872). and is they with fishing and hunting. dig up the soil the banana shoots. p. with sharp-pointed sticks. Die Kiistenbewohner der Gazellekalbinsel {\i\\\. but it is the women who sow and reap them and carry home They cultivate rice. E. and in the intervals between the bananas insert slips of yams. 226. it is the men who lay out the fields by felling and burning the it trees and brushwood in the who enclose the fields with fences. adapted solely They use their long straight plough nor even to a hoe. and But they seldom possess any implement for tillage they have never taken to the arrows. 119. weed the ground.x\\Y> . Wild Races of Sozith-Easlertt India (London. and enclose Then the women plant the land with a fence of saplings. cit. sweet potatoes. ^ P. and help then suffer it to lie fallow for four or five. ethnographisch en natnurkiindig onderzocht en beschreven p. Lewin. H. or ginger. 2 (Amsterdam. Their principal crop pulse {Cajaniis Among the Papuans of Ayambori. They raise sweet potatoes. a swords to clear. op. Dalton. They cultivate a patch of ground for two successive years. 433. of Bengal (Calcutta. when burn the natives have decided to convert a piece of grass- land into a plantation.€\'^%\z.^ savage hill tribe of Bengal. Kleintitschen. ^ Op. T. near Doreh Indicus)? in Dutch New Guinea. they carry sugar-cane. p. dig for wild roots. the produce in sacks on their backs. p. or is cull wild vegetables. p. * Nieuw Guinea. the men hunt with bows and . while the women till the fields. it to the village. When the produce is ripe.IV WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE 123 Among the Miris of Assam to reap the crops/ almost the whole of the field work is done by the women.® 1 Captain T. new ground so they dread to long as the fallow suffices for their needs offend the spirits of the woods by needlessly felling the trees.^ In all the field work falls on the Gazelle Peninsula of cut New Britain. Among the Korwas. iS^o).

672 E. 6sq. pp.n.^ Sometimes the custom of entrusting the sowing of the seed to women appears to be influenced by superstitious as well as Thus among the Indians of the economic considerations. ii. H. Vetter. . Keysser. Tweede Serie. while the men contribute their share to the common food supply by hunting and fishing. for which their superior strength. so the seeds Among savages who have not learned to till and roots planted by them bore fruit far more abundantly than if they had been planted by male hands. and then huddling the earth over seldom sow broadcast.124 Division of agricultural WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE Among some chap.. 1911). shoots . Kruijt. the work of planting and sowing is divided between men and men and women in the Indian Archi- women. pp. 166 sqq. Nias. 324 1 sq. xxxix. Gumilla. insert holes and dig agricultural labour between the sexes is adopted by various tribes of Celebes. Cb. pp. "Korte schets der noordkust van Ceram. Un Viaggio a Nias{}.132.. preface dated Christmas.." Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskuiidig Genootschap. and breaking up the ground with wooden instruments hardened in the fire. ander maat- Heft 2 herliber und hilf tins! (Barmen. . Seventeeji Years among the Sea Dyaks E. J. K.^ Even among savages who have not yet learned to the ground the task of collecting the vege- any plants the task of collecting the edible seeds and digging up the edible roots of wild plants appears to devolve mainly on women. they received for answer that as women knew how to conceive seed and bear children.D. J. 1906). in the ground with pointed and the into for women following them. and New Guinea. Art and 139 sqq. D." in R. x. putting the seeds or pelago. peoples of the Indian Archipelago. (1895) PP. the Evolution of Kings. and courage especicultivate bei Miinster. 1890). 191 1) pp. who with an infinitude of pains cleared the jungle for cultivation by cutting down the forest trees with their stone axes. 46 Modigliani.Boot. the men digging holes sticks. Melanesians and Polynesians (London. 1898). (Berlin. agility. burning the fallen lumber. after work between the land has been cleared for cultivation by the men. they laboriously savages them This division of the seed in them. Civile et G^ographique de POrMoqiie (Avignon. 14. (1893) p. 19 10). .\\\3. of Borneo (London. Gomes. pp." Mededeelingett van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelingoenootschap. iii. 85. the task of sowing the maize and planting the roots was and when the Spanish performed by the women alone . 590 sq.. 134. Brown. 183 sqq. G. Ceram. 2 Compare The Alagic i. the holes. " Aus dem Leben der Kaileute. Borneo. Orinoco. Deutsch Neu-Guinea. Komin A. C. missionaries expostulated with the men for not helping their wives in this toilsome duty. " Een en aangaande bet geestelijk en schappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer. p. 60 sq. Neuhauss. Histoire Naiurelle. 1758).

IV JVOMAAPS PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE qualify ' 125 table food '" '^^^ Z'^''"' Indians of of agriculture. containing directions as to the seasons for collecting the diiTerent seeds and produce of the earth. " for at by observation of the the conclusion of the moon in December. and upon the writer observes of these "they neither cultivated abundance of game " (pp. that is." " for cooking. for the they reason. they did his reaching the tropic of Cancer. the women were them well as the obliged to gather seeds in the prepare and to perform all the meanest offices. with their infants hanging upon their shoulders. 287. 1846). . nor planted any kind of grain. at the conjunction. Robinson's] Life in California (New York. among the entirely y isjnorant California. while the women dug most of the vegetable and brought in though the men helped them to the devolves on Examples furnished gather acorns.' They observed with greater attention and celebrated with more pomp. . p.^ Among the Indians of San Juan Capistrano their in California. For example." in [A. as they were situated ten degrees from the were pleased at the sun's approach towards . p. menced. 285). fields. the 25 general division of labour between the sexes in the search ally them. . Elsewhere the same well-informed Indians that the ground. time in fowling. to behold them. as most laborious. and lounging. the knowledge of the calendar was limited to ihe pupleni or general council of the tribe. and exposed as they frequently were to the inclemency of the Yet these rude savages possessed a calendar weather. sun from the tropic of Capricorn . them for it returned to ripen their fruits and seeds. and berries. In their calculations they were assisted by a pul or 1 S. "Chinigchinich. dancing. the fruits of the forest. p. than latter. 1S77). who were & > of Wild seeds and Leneraii for food was that the men food. Tribes of California (Washington. the Indian saying 'the sun has arrived at his home. 2 Father Geronimo Boscana. the sun's arrival at the tropic of Capricorn . groping about in search of herbs or seeds. 23. It was painful in the extreme. and enliven again the fields with beauty and increase. they calculated the return of the and another year com. while the men passed " caiifornian ^nf^'ans. killed the game and caught roots the salmon. Powers. cit. that. but lived upon the wild seeds of the field. to give warmth to the atmosphere." However. who sent criers to make proclamation when the time had come to go forth and gather the seeds and other produce of the earth. The calendar consisted of lunar months corrected solstices. fishing. nuts.

in proportion to the amount obtained. see pp. H. ^ Father Geronimo Boscana.^ Again. But the labour. pointed the right hand. 81 sq. and in this manner they dig with great rapidity. along with his express statement that their be understood loosely to denote merely the gathering of the wild seeds and fruits. destitute arts of civilised life. Meyer. pp. op. cit. While the men hunted game. Australia " it is generally for this in women and children searched among the natives of Western considered the province of women driven firmly to dig roots. they "neither cultivated the ground. the for roots and plants. 125 note-)." in Native Tribes of South Australia 3 (Adelaide. Thus with regard men hunted. pp. where is is shaken. opossums. fields" (p. astrologer. the division of labour tion of food appears to women provided the vegetable food. 191 sq.126 WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE who observed the aspect of the chap. yet themselves a calendar based on observation both of the moon and of the sun. To get a yam about half an inch in circumference and a foot in length. sion " to cultivate their fields " must As to the puple?!!. E. nor planted any kind of grain " (p. p. therefore. 285. the labour of gathering and preparing the fell while the vegetable food to the chiefly to the tribe of women. 264. . and so forth. p. The writer says that criers id. this expres- See above. " Manners and Customs of the Encounter Bay Tribe. the females are left in charge of one who is .^ Among the aborigines of Australia the Among the equally rude aborigines of Australia. moon/ When we consider that these rude CaHfornian savages. between the sexes in regard to the collechave been similar. passed in this employment. they have to dig a hole above a foot square and two feet in depth a considerable portion of the time of the women and children is. informed the people " when to cultivate But taken 302). 302-305. according to the season. see above. 1879). we need not hesitate to ascribe to the immeasurably more advanced alike of agriculture and of the other for succeeded in forming Greeks at the dawn of history the knowledge of a somewhat more elaborate calendar founded on a cycle of eight solar years. is great. to whom agriculture in every form was totally unknown. and it which which held into earth. A. the ground. kangaroos. so as to loosen the scooped up and thrown out with the fingers of the left hand. stick. and is purpose they carry a long. Encounter Bay the South Australia we are told that while men busied themselves. If the men are absent upon any expedition. either with fishing or with hunting emus.

36. Lower Lachlan. 127 and in traversing the bush you often stumble old or sick on a large party of them. the root of which is a favourite article of food with the natives.* or carrying wooden vessels filled with seeds." ^ In fertile districts. we could with George Grey. digging roots and collecting the different species of fungus."y(7?/. ^ (Sir) Two of Victoria (Melbourne. the ground may sometimes be seen riddled with holes made by Thus the women in their search for : George Grey " We now crossed the dry bed of a stream." ^ Again. ii.^ But the women gather edible herbs and seeds as well as roots and at evening they may be seen trooping in to the camp. and Proceedittgs of the Royal Society of Nerv South Wales for i88j. each with a great bundle of sow-thistles. Brough Smyth. 292 sq. This was the first time we had yet seen this plant on our journey. like the sweet potato. . literally perforated with the holes the natives had root . whilst this tract extended east and west as far as we could see. quite overrun with warran [yam] plants. 1884) p.^ Among the aborigines of central Victoria. cit. The root is small and of a sweetish taste and grows throughout the greater part of Australia outside the tropics on the alpine pastures of the high Australian mountains it attains to a much larger size and furnishes a not unpalatable food. 1878).IV PVOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE . vol. when the roots were dug up out of the earth by the women and children. 12. 209. . while the men hunted. Brough Smyth. dandelions. and now for three and a half conthese edible roots. ^ (Sir) George Grey. and Lower Darling. 296). and from that emerged upon a tract of light fertile soil. i. i. ii. which they afterwards grind up between stones and knead into a paste with water or bake into cakes. to quote Sir secutive miles we traversed a fertile piece of land. The Aborigines of Victoria. where the yams which the aborigines use as food grow abundantly. the women dug up edible indeed difficulty . Beveridge. ^ R.-«a/ ii. made to dig this walk across it on that account. ^ R. " Of the Aborigines inhabiting the Great Lacustrine and Riverine Depression of tlie Lower Murray. /otir/ials of Expeditions of Discovery in North. or trefoil on her head. The Aborigines 214. scattered about in the forest.West and Western Australia (London. The yam referred to is a species of Diascorea. (Sydney. xvii. 1 841). The women also collect the nuts from the palms in the month of March {id. * P. in the valley of the Lower Murray River a kind of yam {Mtcroseris Forsteri) grew plentifully and was easily found in the spring and early summer. Lower Murrumbidgee. op.

the soil and so to increase the crop of roots or and such an increase would naturally attract the larger numbers and enable them to subsist for longer periods on the spot without being compelled by the speedy exhaustion of the crop to shift their quarters and wander away in search of fresh supplies. the winnowing of the seeds on ground which had thus been turned up by the digging-sticks of the women would naturally contribute to the same result. 291. 22. Stanbridge. and Mythology of the Tribes in the Central Part of Victoria. called offence. The implement which they used to dig up roots with was a pole seven or eight feet long. Native Tribes of Central Australia (London. the sow-thistle.128 WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE chap." Transactions of the Ethuo- .l^. " Some Particulars of the General Characteristics. which large quantities and winnow by pouring let black seeds from one vessel to another so as to the wind blow the loose husks away. roots and gathered succulent vegetables. South Australia. J. 2 Baldwin Spencer and F.^ Among is the tribes of the seed of Central Australia the principal vegetable food the the women little gather in by white men mmijeru. culture search for roots has probably been in many cases to enrich and fertilise . which also served them as a weapon both of defence and of a species of Claytonia. For though savages at the level of the Californian Indians and the aborigines of Australia have no idea of using seeds for any purpose but that of immediate consumption. p. such as the young fig- tops of the immya. 1899). have fallen on the upturned soil and borne fruit.^ The ^'SS'ng of for wild In these customs observed by savages who are totally ignorant of agriculture steps by which we may perhaps detect some of the mankind have advanced from the enjoyment the earth to the systematic cultivation havMecTL °^ ^'^^ ^^^^^ fruits of the origin For an effect of digging up the earth in the of plants. nomy. and several kinds of marigold. Gillen. (i?>6i) p. being wafted by the wind.\.S. though neither operation herbs natives in 1 W. Thus by the operations of turning up the ground and winnowing the seed. and it has never occurred to them to incur a temporary loss for the sake of a future gain by sowing them in the ground. hardened in the fire and pointed at the end.. Astro- hgica/ Society of LoJiiion. yet it is almost certain that in the process of winnowing the seeds as a preparation for eating them many of the grains must have escaped and. Moreover.

of masculine strength.rsoniof hoeing the ground as a preparation . : the corn. savage distant target. On the whole. i. and Iberians of Spain the ever. 1. the plough IS very ancient in Europe. 15.. from a natural to an artificial basis of subsistence. . 62. Schrader. Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte^ ' of a plough drawn by oxen and guided by a ploughman it is believed to date See H. op. ^^ ^ ^ j^. hit a greater and more aimed of hunger. which would enable them to multiply and to abandon the old migratory and wasteful manner of life for a more settled and economic mode of existence.201 sqq. 251 sqq. practice women as Among the Aryan peoples of Europe the old for sowing appears to ^fp^i" have been generally replaced at a very remote period by labourers the far more effective process of ploughing ^ and as the Aryan's of labour of ploughing practically necessitates the employment Europe.. 1 • • 1 1 1 1 . PT. .• r suggested by such a division ot labour between the sexes. Bie Indogermanen. VOL. 274.. . V. 6 sqq." 33. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Ponticus. namely.1907). Fragmenta Historkorum Graecorum. cit. it per . (Jn the rocks at Bohuslan in Sweden there is carved a rude representation (Jena. pp. Hirt. aiming his shafts at a near but petty mark. j^ "De jj_ ^g^ Heraclirebus puhlicis.-j.^ and that among the ancient Germans the care of the fields was But these indications of The Greek left to the women and old men. it appears highly probable that as a The disconsequence of a certain natural division of labour between agrTJuimre the sexes women have contributed more than men towards due mainly the greatest advance in economic history. So curiously sometimes does man. Hirt.^^^ Tacitus.. 1905.simple .. H. Reallexikon der indogennanischen Altertiimskunde (Strasburg. from the Bronze Age. . . then. The use of oxen to draw 263. Germaiiia. fication of O. we are told that among the Athamanes of Epirus the women tilled the ground.0 sgq.^ an age when the cultivation of the ground was committed ofthe'^""" mainly to feminine hands are few and slight and if the Corn Greek conception of Demeter as a goddess of corn and probably agriculture really dates from such an age and was directly originated in a . 286. the transition from a nomadic to a settled life. 1901). id. . it is hardly to be expected that in Europe many traces should remain of the important part Howformerly played by women in primitive agriculture. 1 K . ii.IV IFOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE at 129 anything beyond satisfying the immediate pangs man or rather savage woman was unconsciously preparing for the whole community a future and more abundant store of food.

Such simple and natural comparisons. 313. in July. as will appear abundantly from the instances which I shall cite in the following chapter. but in July she sinks her head and dies and the child is taken away from her. and the ripe ear on the stalk being likened to a child borne in the arms or At least we know that similar on the back of its mother. Die Ewe-Stdmme (Ber- Expeditions of Discovery in North-tvest lin. but has been shared by them with many other races. 2 (Sir) G. which may occur to men in any age and country.^ Apparently they think that respect and regard are due to the plant as to a mother and her child. naming the particular kind of plant. they call it the Mother of So-and-so. Spieth. Grey. somewhat sights suggest similar ideas negroes of West Africa. Be that as it may. 292. perhaps long before the segregation of the Greeks from the common stock and their formation into a separate people. . but by a direct observation of nature. and I prefer to supfar-fetched and improbable pose that the idea of the corn as feminine was suggested to the Greek mind. It may be so. and we need not cast about for more recondite theories. to be afterwards multiplied at the next sowing. and ^Vestern^usiraiia (London. iv seems clear that its origin must be sought at a period far back in the history of the Aryan race. Journals of Two ii. but to me I confess that this derivation of the conception appears .I30 WOMAN'S PART IN PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE ch. say that the maize is an image of a mother when the cobs are forming. 1906). not by the position of women in remote prehistoric ages. ^ J. the conception of the corn as a woman and a mother was certainly not peculiar to the ancient Greeks. to some of the agricultural Thus the Hos of Togoland. the teeming head of corn appearing to the primitive fancy to resemble the teeming womb of a woman. the mother is binding the infant on her back. and they will not allow it to be dug up.^ When the rude aborigines of Western Australia observe that a seed-bearing plant has flowered. suffice to explain the Greek personification of the corn as mother and daughter. p. who it plant maize in February and reap . 1S41).

Mythologische Forschungen (Strasburg. Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte'^ (Jena. or as arising ' ' (Berlin. 969 Lenormant. Compare V. Schrader. 292 sqq. iv. you are bound to regard her as a Cretan goddess. Pauly . in Real . Saglio. in Dareniberg sqq. lines 12 sq. name is derived from an alleged Cretan word and that accordingly Demeter means neither more nor less than " Barley-mother " or " Corn-mother " ^ for the root of the word seems to have been applied to different kinds of grain by different branches of the Aryans. Ktiltnrpflanzen 1902). Hehn. 422. pp. 58 sq. p. " barley. id. . 1 90 1). F. ^ Hesiod. 264. 289 . Professor J. * 2. ti>id Haiisthiere ^ in ihrem Uebergang mis Asicti Demeter's name. p. if oi]ai = ^€iai.).CHAPTER V THE CORN-MOTHER AND THE CORN-MAIDEN NORTHERN EUROPE It has been argued by of Demeter's deal. Be that as it may. id. coll. Grecqiies some other area where the dialect changed Indogermanic y into 5 and not f since Ionic and Attic have f. Mannhardt that the first part Suggested ofthe^name Demeter. tlie two crucial letters of the name tell in : Dictionnaire des Antiquitds et different tales " (Professor J. dated 19 December 131 1903). II.* and it is safer therefore to lay no stress on it. Theog. Moulton tells me that there is great doubt as to " the existence of a word ^t\a'i. and of the two species of corn associated with her in Greek . pp. See above. et . 2.Encydopddie . and that the common form of 1890). H. ^ W. 1884). 1029 Kern. i.. note ^. pp. der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. But the etymology is open to serious objections. 1 905. H." IN W.^ it would not be surprising if her name were of Cretan origin. in a letter to me.1 907). Reallexikon der indo- gerniattischen Allertiimskuiide (Strasburg. 2720 sq. 409. we have found independent reasons for identifying Demeter as the Corn-mother. Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte ^ (Jena. Romaines. Ddmater (except in Ionic and Attic) is inconsistent with i) Finally in the supposed Cretan form.Wissowa's p. Moulton.^ As Crete appears to have been one of the most ancient seats of the worship of Demeter. " barley My friend {Etymologicutn Magnum. Mannhardt. ii.. pp. 40. 188 sq. * O.

'^ ii. p. In Norway peas. pp. of Cultivated Plants (London. 296. The Lakepp. 497 sq.x^'sowxg. pp. 297. in the corn and will catch them. 191. Mannhardt from the folk-lore of modern Europe. Volkskunde. Mannhardt. de Candolle. Herabkunft ." or " The Corn-mother is running over the The Corn-mother is going through the corn." ^ When children wish to go into the fields to pull the blue corn-flowers or the red poppies. Mythologische 189. the barley has perhaps .^ Or again she according to the crop. (1897) 3 W. 1884). Hist. 353. 1884). when under the name of the Corn-mother. xviii. sit des ." or " field. Die 68 s^. Paris. Vereins fitr 150. The following may serve as specimens. the peas by threats of the Rye-mother or the Pea-mother. 297 sq. but there are grounds for believing that it one of the oldest. and Melbourne. which is known to have been practised by the lake-dwellers of the Stone Age in of the ancient Europe. Indogermanen (Strasbuig. p. Schrader. the corn waves in the wind. H. for not only the better claim to be her original element would it seem to have been the staple food of the Greeks in the is Homeric age. 2 W. Sprachvergleichung uitd Urgesckickte. Mythologische Forschtingen {^X. For evidence that barley was cultivated in Europe by the lake-dwellers of the Stone Age. According to Pliny {Nat. Origin Forschungen (Strasburg. . Oldenberg." Zeitschrift des p. R. Reallexikon der indogermajtiscken Altertumskunde.* also the Pea-mother is said to expressions are current 1 A. see A. 369 dwellings of Europe (London. 368.132 religion. Die Religion des Fi?^a(Berlin. 1886). O. 197 sq. 72) barley was the oldest of all foods. if not the very oldest. because the Corn-mother is is sitting called. p. Feuers among the among the Slavs. 1890). * Ibid.. 289. . CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN namely barley and wheat. 276 sqq. pp. 1905-1907). Hirt. Hartung. the Corn-mother. In Germany the corn is very commonly personified Thus in spring. See H. cereal cultivated race. pp. " There comes Germans and the Slavs. id. Munro. Die i. Ii. 1894). and children are warned against straying in the rye or among the Rye-mother or the Pea-mother. 12. they are told not to do so.^ Analogies to the Corn -mother or Barley -mother of ancient Greece have been collected in great abundance by The Cornmothcr among the W. " Zur Volkskunde aus Anhalt. titid des Gdttertratiks ^ (Guters- loh. 1884). Mannhardt. Compare O. Similar The Poles and Kuhn. by the Aryan religious ritual Certainly the use of barley in the Hindoos as well as of the ancient Greeks furnishes a strong argument in favour of the great antiquity of its cultivation. In the oldest Vedic ritual barley and not rice is the cereal chiefly employed. the peasants say. vii.

^ W. ^ 316 sq. 281. She is believed handful of corn which is left be present in the and standing last on the field to . Dinkelsbiihl. down to the latter part of the nine- teenth century." In some parts ^ Ibid. Andree. Brazinschweiger Volkskimde (Brunswick. 299. 1896). Mythologische Mannhardt. cit. the last sheaf as a divine carried joyfully is home and honoured It placed in the barn. Ibid." ^ Again the Corn-mother is believed to make the crop grow. Compare R. I. . or is killed.V CORN. Mannhardt. the grain is com- pletely threshed out then the Corn-mother believed to be driven away. '° op.^ in In the Hanoverian district of Hadeln the it reapers stand round the last sheaf and beat with sticks call to order to drive the Corn-mother out of " " it. Forschiingeit. in Bavaria.e.MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN 133 the corn. p. They each other. which she fertilises by passing through them but if she is angry with a farmer. * Ibid. 310 sq. in the shape of a female puppet made out of the last sheaf of corn and dressed in white. Ibid. " It will be a good At year for flax the Flax. Czechs warn children against the Corn-mother who sits in Or they call her the old Corn-woman. ^ W. p. Forschungen.^ In a village of Styria it is said that the Corn-mother. with the cutting of this last handful she is caught. or driven being. 316. pp. and say that she sits in the corn and strangles the children who tread it down. In the first of these cases. pp. " The Old Ryewoman sits in the corn. may be seen at midnight in the corn-fields. which is called the Corn-mother or the Old Woman and is brought home on the last waggon. people believed that particular when the crops on a farm compared unfavourably with those of the neighbourhood. Mythologische Mannhardt. 2 W. p. . away. 300. Hartung. customs.^ In the neighbourhood of Danzig the person who cuts the last ears of corn makes them into a doll. she withers up harvest all his corn. 316. p." . the Corn-mother plays an important part in The Corn"j^°iasV° sheaf.mother has been seen. the reason was that the Corn-mother had punished the farmer for his sins. catch you ! There she is ! hit her ! Take till care she doesn't is The beating goes on . p. p.* Further.^ The Lithuanians say. 310. and at threshing the corn-spirit appears again. Thus in the neighbourhood of Magdeburg it is sometimes said. Compare O.

195-197. is carried on her head by the prettiest girl of the village to the farmer or squire. where she is the centre Afterwards she is hung of the harvest supper and dance.^ is doubtless a In water with drenching the It The the district of Bruck in Styria the last sheaf. woman The finest ears are keep off the mice. the last corn cut is made in the . and carried through the village. till so that the figure moves as threshing-floor. thoroughly then waggon. waggon keeps waving the pole. p.W. if alive. * 318. 1 It is placed on the is and stays there As to the threshing p. . of fifty-five years. in Saxony. At Westerhijsen. At Christmas the straw of the wreath is placed in the manger to make the cattle thrive. up in the barn and remains there till the threshing is over. o J I-' Second Edition. pp. old girl and scattered Fertilising power of the Cornmother. Jotd. 1 p.^ In other villages of the is same district the Corn. and while he receives the wreath and hangs it up in the hall. Mythologische • tu-j ». the Corn-mother is placed on the top of a pile of wood. while the Corn-mother is laid down in the barn to in the village. shape of a woman decked with ribbons and cloth.134 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN is of Holstein the last sheaf called dressed in woman's clothes and last home on the is carried Corn-mother. and on dedicated in church on the following Sunday Easter Eve the grain is rubbed out of it by a seven-yearsson of the Corn-mother . The man who gives the last stroke at threshing . Osiris. carried by two They march behind the girl who wears the wreath to the squire's house. at the close of harvest. is made up into the shape of a woman by the oldest married an age from fifty to plucked out of it and made into a wreath. Mannhardt. lads at the top of a pole. which. • 317. is called the he is tied up in the Corn-mother. pp.'* Ibid. such rain- Forschungen. The wreath is beaten. rr 317 j / i Ibid. >. Attis. drenched with water. called the Cornmother. It is fastened to a pole and brought One of the people in the home on the last waggon.» SQ. charms see Adonis. and rain-charm. . twined with flowers. done. 317.mother.^ Here the fertilising power of the Corn-mother is plainly brought out by scattering the seed taken from her body (for the wreath is made out of the Corn-mother) among the new corn and her influence over animal life is indicated by placing the straw in the manger. amongst the young corn.

A branch is of a tree is stuck in the breast of the puppet. In some parts of Westphalia the last sheaf. The but the Harvest . called It is wreath made out of the or last siavs and^ stalks is the Wheat -mother. or Mother of the Oats. Mannhardt. .^ Here power of the Corn-mother is indicated. In the "o^'hefor province of Osnabrlick. Sebillot.mother. of it.mother. Mother of the Barley. it is made double and consists of a little corn-puppet placed inside of a large one. op. the '° "j^f f^^t Barley-mother. leave it standing in the field till the last waggon is Then they make a puppet out about to wend homewards. as Mannhardt observes. who was all the first to finish reaping sets fire to the and pray that Ceres is may give a fruitful year. in girl's head and kept till spring. the girl pile. Hanover. sheaf at the rye-harvest is made especially heavy by fastening Upper Brittany the . mixed with the seed-corn.^ Sometimes the last sheaf is called. la 2 W. district of the last sheaf the is known - as the The Corn- Wheat . the Oats mother. dress it with clothes belonging to the farmer. along with the flowers with which it was adorned. not the Corn-mother. and so on. who unties it and gives drink-money in return. though the name Ceres In a bit of schoolmaster's learning.mother or the Great Mother. placed on a when some of the grain again the fertilising In France. and adorn it They with a crown and a blue or white scarf. 306. and place it on the pyre. In the sheaf Tarnow. according to the crop. Then Ceres. is Pea- '" France. ^ Ibid. After the a is made.^ sheaf is always made into human shape but if the farmer is a married man. 1886). pull it to pieces. each wearing dance pyre the a wreath. 3 P. sq. 318 de p.the Great mother it is made up in female form. strip the puppet. mother.Bretagne (Paris. also. the neighbourhood of Auxerre. and then the reapers jj^g [^^ dance about with it. the last sheaf goes by the name of the Mother of the Wheat. which now called the At the dance in the evening the Ceres is set in the middle of the floor. last . Here. the old custom has remained intact. Coufumes populaires Haute.V CORA-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN Slavs the also 135 Amongst the Rye . Galicia. and the reaper who reaped fastest dances round it with the prettiest girl for his partner. it is called the Harvest. Mother of the Rye. All girls. pp. This is called the Mother-sheaf It is delivered to the farmer's wife. cit. Rye-mother.

p. p. " Mythologie p. ^ Ibid. 323 . Fotschungen. It is not cut in the usual way. p. and is carried on the last waggon to the barn. and a woman's apron. § 403. 320." largest rest. — — formerly fashioned into a rude likeness of the human form. " who out to him. ribbons." In the neighYou of Magdeburg the men and women servants strive bourhood who shall get the last sheaf. In East Prussia. in Swabia. he will marry an old crone. He \ by the has the Old Woman and jeered at must keep ' The woman who binds MytJioIos^ische " the last sheaf is W. 321. 219. 319. the reapers stand in a row before the strip all each cuts his " share rapidly. Panzer. which is the and thickest of her. p. and the person who cuts it or binds it is said Woman. Mannhardt. the call reapers " out to the woman who binds the last sheaf. Ibid. Whoever gets it will be married in the next year. goes by the Whoever The Old gets it will last marry sheaf in the course of the year. and is adorned with flowers. in Mother. (Munich. ' Mannhardt p. last waggon do not fashion into any In the district of Erfurt a very is heavy sheaf. 325. the corn of a farm has been cut except a single strip. when . 325 sq. she will marry a widower if a man gets it. called the Grandmother. ii. at the rye or wheat harvest. but his or her spouse will be old if a girl gets it. the person gets hold of the all Old Woman. W. Reit7-ag Mannhardt AlythoIogiscJii- ziir Forsckttngen. and he who gives the last cut has the Old is Woman. get the Old woman. W. It is plaited and kept till the (next ?) autumn." *" the sheaves.136 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN in it it. . as a " In Germany it is frequently shaped and dressed to all Man in the last sheaf. but all the reapers throw their sickles at it and try to bring it down. pp." * At Altisheim. though they special shape. In Silesia the Grandmother a huge bundle made up of three or four sheaves by the person who tied the last sheaf was are getting the .^ Sometimes again the last sheaf is called the Grandmother. 321. cit. dentschen 184S-1855). called the Great The Grandmother the last sheaf.^ is Oftener the or called the Old Woman or the Woman the Old Old Man. 2 Ibid. op. ^ When who call the sheaves are being set up in heaps. 323. . where all hands lift it down amid a fire of jokes.^ In the neighbourhood of Belfast the last sheaf sometimes name of the Granny. F. stones They bring it home on the and it call the Great Mother. not necessarily the last. Old Grandmother.

Mdrckett und Gebrduche aus Meklenburg (Vienna.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN it 137 is sometimes herself called the Old Woman. p. Together they are brought home on the last waggon and are drenched with water." In West Prussia. . . a puppet made out of the last sheaf. W." Probably the puppet is or used to be made out of the last corn cut. Schwaitz.. Sagen. Zeitschrift i. 1879-1880). when the last rye is being raked together. Haiipt. as " the old Michael. pp. 1848). No. the other reapers dress up the last man or woman. " Glaube und Brauch A. to the farmer and deliver it to him while he recites some verses. the bystanders call out to the laggard. Prussia. 186 sq. for none of them likes to be the last and to get " the Old Man. Sagenbuch der Latisitz (Leipsic. adorned with ribbons. " Now we are bringing the Old Man. ii. p. Ibid. The last to jump over it has to carry a straw puppet. 323. It was then known as " the Old Man. 277 note. 309. which must be carried carries the '^ The Old ^g o?d woman i shLr before the ^ other reapers by the person •* who was the last pp.^ In many districts of Saxony the last sheaf used to be adorned with ribbons and set upright so as to look like a man. Of the person who thus binding the sheaf in the form of goes by the laggard's puppet it is said that " he has the Old Man. 233. ° H." and the young women brought it back in procession to the farm." " the idle Trine. when a man a or woman lags behind the rest in corn. W. cit." ^ In Brandenburg the young folks on the harvest-field race towards a sheaf and jump over it.^ said jacket. i. hat. Prahn. Bartsch. 396 sq.1863). Kuhn and Sagen. which is dressed up in and ribbons and the woman who binds it are called the Old Woman. 399 K. 1862. § 1494. near Tiegenhof (West Prussia). Norddeittsche Mdrchen des Vereins fiir (189 1) Gebrduche {l^t\i^%\c.. ATannhaidt. 323 2 ^ Ibid •^^.^ In various parts of North Germany the last sheaf at harvest is made up into a human ^^gy and called " the Old Man ". ^ K." It is brought home on the last waggon." that is. both the last sheaf West — — In Neusaass. as it nears the house." Volkskiindc. op. and this figure name." ^ At Hornkampe. and that she will be married in the next year. and. pp. the women and girls hurry with the work. tind in der Mark Brandenburg. and the woman who bound it is said " to have the Old Man. " You have got the Old Woman and must keep her. singing as they went.

Couttimes des Arabes au pays de Aloab (Paris. . saying as they do so..^ is At Wolletz in Westphalia the last sheaf at harvest into the likeness Old Man. the largest portion. Arabs of Moab bury the last sheaf in a grave in the cornfield.. ^ 252 sq. Gebrduche und ii. Krause. pp. Sit/en.. Volksthum p. 1802).y D 1906).spirit. t^ t' ^ /> h ^ ' Branch und Volksglaube im deutschen (Prague.. they say.^ or the Old Man and the . . Jaussen. identifica- harvester^ with the corn." ^ Among the Germans of West Bohemia the man who cuts the last corn is said to " have the Old Man. iv> r . who in in return prepares a feast for the harvest increase is About Unna. and at the harvest supper he was given to finish. near Reichenbach.. . 51. is called the Old Woman theme of many jests it is made unusually large and is sometimes weighted with a stone. < A.. and stones are inserted to its It is called de is Mother?). „.. it Westphalia. when this heavy sheaf is lifted into the waggon. A. 1905)." A puppet is likeness of made out of the wheaten straw and ears in the The person a man and decked with flowers. At Girlachsdorf. ." In former times it used to be customary to put a wreath on his head and to play all kinds of pranks with him. 514.V (Lc\\>s." ^ In some of these customs. 1908). Sitte.^\'^%\c. made unusually weight. and when greaute meaur (the Grey brought home on the waggon or water is thrown on the harvesters Among the Wends the man is who accompany woman who binds the to " it.. j. -m c u 1 1. the person who is called by the same name as the last sheaf and sits beside it on the last waggon is obviously identified 1 R. John. 184. Kuhn." or " The Old Man is dead. Drechsler. 147. p. Westbohmen A. and being made up of a man and decorated with flowers it is called the presented to the farmer.* last sheaf at wheat harvest said have the Old Man. " That is the Old Man whom we sought for so long. ^tr Wendisches W. ^ 11. the last sheaf must carry the Old who bound Man home. von Schulenburc:. as Mannhardt has remarked.\%'^(^). The puppet is hung up in the farmhouse and remains till a new Old Man is made at the next harvest. reapers. f . rz tl ^u . Gebrduche und Aberglatiben in Westpreusseii (Berlin. " We are burying the Old Man.^ At the close of the harvest the while the rest laugh and jeer at him. \ ' IQOT. 65 sqq. preface dated March 1904).ic.138 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN In Silesia the last sheaf is chap.' yol/isglatihe in Scnlesien ^f . Sagen. p..t. Branch und Mdrche7tauslVestfalen{'L. Sitte. ^ P.00^? (Berlin. the last sheaf at large. 189. §§ 512 b..„.

Branch und Volksglaube im deutschen Westbohtnen (Prague. it the woman who had bound it. 139 he or she represents the corn-spirit which has been caught in the last sheaf in other words. German p. ^^^ ^j^^p^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ j^^^hj^g ^^ ^^^^^ ^f the . not the binder. designated as the The last distinguished from the other sheaves ^^^''5^21^^*' inrge and ^^^^' Samland. pp. -. working by sympathetic magic. and is called the Old Rye-woman or the Old BarleyIn woman. * .sheaf. 324. . called the Old Woman. should be made large in order that . 1905). is made large with the express intention of thereby securing a good crop next in to year. by a human being and by a sheaf. cit. 2 -< ^ .V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN it . is made up in human shape. The author Die 188. Rockenphilosophie (Chem891) the Forschtmgen.^ is the cutter. p.. Thus in some villages of West Prussia the Old Woman is made twice as long and thick as a common sheaf. with head. ^ wi -Kf u j^ op. 1759) mentions (p. 5 -ji^sqq. p. and a Sometimes it is made stone is fastened in the middle of it. because whoever does so be sure.* Old Woman. is often by its size and weight. ensure a large and heavy crop at the following harvest.^ The last sheaf. p. t_ r all the sheaves next year may be of ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ . grumbles at its weight. The identification of the person with the sheaf is made in still clearer by the custom of wrapping up in the last sheaf the Silesia person it who cuts or binds it. ^ ^. to marry an old man or an old woman. and the man who sets it up At Itzgrund. eight or nine sheaves are often tied together make the Old Woman. op.^ sents the corn-spirit.. the . called the Old Wheat-woman. 1 W.^ with .iJ_ Mannhardt. so heavy that a man can barely lift it. of the last sheaf who is tied Here the person wrapt up in the corn repreup in it. superstition that the last sheaf .. Mythologische gestriegelte nitz. Sometimes the last wheat-sheaf. At Alt-Pillau. 220.'^ large or heavy to Thus the custom of making the last sheaf unusually is a charm." the last sheaf. ^ W. in Bavaria. exactly as a person wrapt in branches or leaves represents the tree-spirit. See Tht Mag2C Art 11. will No one likes to bind it. in Saxe-Coburg. Mannhardt. cit. 321. Ibid. . . and . 325. Ji. p. 324. they think. Compare A. W. John. Mannhardt.. Evolution of Kings. Sitte. p. Denmark also the last sheaf is made larger than the others. of ® Ibid. Thus at Hermsdorf used to be the regular practice to tie up in the last sheaf At Weiden. ^ 324 sq. the corn-spirit is represented in dupHcate.

J. W. to feed till next harvest. Rye-woman. which was called the old wife. with the reaping. when ready." The Old Wife [Cailleach) in the last To on the 1 illustrate the custom the by examples. minister of " The Harvest Old the remote Hebridean island of Tiree Wife {a ChailleacJi). gische Forschungcn.''. is arms. on the whole the former name seems to and the latter in the central and eastern districts. CHAP.^ sheaf it is Of is the person who binds the The Carlin in and the Maiden Scotland.' and Maiden in the western . — : ' ' . Mannhardt. passed last to another still ' less expeditious. ' sent it to his nearest neighbour. "Maiden. when the last corn was cut after Hallowmas. Highlanders of Scotland the either as the last corn cut at harvest or as the prevail known Old Wife {Cailleach) harvest in the Highlands of Scotland. pp. s. G. In harvest. it He in turn. p.* and when tillage in common existed. the west of Lewis. in the shape of an imaginary old woman {cailleach). instances were known of a ridge being left unshorn (no person would claim it) because of it being behind the rest.v. \V. Much emulation and amusement arose from the fear of this old woman. the female figure made out of it was sometimes called the But if cut Carlin or Carline. it was called the Witch. . of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow. . The Old Wife(Ca27leach) at luck. remained with had ^ the old woman ' and the person it to keep for that in year. 3 J. 243 sq." ^ In Scotland. 327. . Dictionary of the Scottish (Paisley. Of the Maiden we shall speak presently The following here we are dealing with the Old Wife. 328. if cut after before Hallowmas.^ Among the is . cii. 1 900). 1879-1SS2). p. Campbell. the Old Woman. 326. general account of the custom is given by a careful and well-informed enquirer. Superstitions J. " She or he the Old . The fear entertained was that of having the famine of the farm {govt a hhaile). while the harvesters sit beside drinking and huzzaing. the Rev. and being dressed in clothes carried home on it the last waggon. being supposed to bring bad last said. Jamieson. iJ/i////^?/^?- 2 Ibid. Bernera. ^ Rev. that is. Language. New iii. * That is.J40 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN and legs. G. Mannhardt. The first done made a doll of some blades of corn. p. Campell. it was called the Maiden sunset. harvest rejoicing goes by name of the Old Wife {Cailleach) from the last sheaf op. Edition 206. there was a struggle to escape from being the last done with the shearing.

R. and on the first day when the men go to plough she is divided among them by the mistress of the house. Wife is ready to bear a hand in the work of harvesting. C. however.V cut. the Old Wife first." . and as the whisky goes round each of the company drinks to her. or croft. Then she is taken down. for ordinary purposes. and so Some people have the Old Wife before his neighbours. (1895) pp. usually prevail. A sickle. the last sheaf is dressed up to look as She wears a white cap. pocket. They take her in their pockets and give her to the horses to eat when they reach the field. the Old Wife is shorn of her gear and used . one of the lads leads out and if the night is fine the Old Wife and dances with her the party will sometimes go out and march in a body to a considerable distance. Where is there sheaf at n^g islands of Lewis are a number of crofts beside each other. Maclagan. When the corn has been insf is still done with the sickle. singing harvest-songs. a like an old woman as possible. in order that they may have More neighbourly habits. saying. I49 s'i'- in Argyleshire. "Notes on folk-lore objects collected vi. till the whole crop is cut. and a little shawl over the shoulders fastened The apron is tucked up to form a with a sprig of heather." cleared away and dancing begins. stuck in the string of the apron at the back. CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN whether in 141 a township. " Here's to the one that has When the table has been helped us with the harvest. completes her This costume and outfit mean that the Old equipment.^ In the island of Islay the last corn by the name of the Old Wife {Cailleach\ and when she has done her duty at harvest she is hung up on the wall and stays there till the time comes to plough the fields for the next year's crop. When the HarvestHome is over. and as each finishes his own fields he goes The reapto the help of another. dress. This is supposed to secure good luck for the next harvest. even go out on a clear night to reap their fields after their neighbours have retired to rest. the Old Wife is placed at the head of the table. farm. cut on all the crofts. while one of them carries the Old Wife on his back. there first always great rivalry as to who shall finish reaping. and is understood to be the proper end of the Old cut also goes 1 Folk-lore. an apron. At the feast which follows. which is stuffed with bread and cheese.

J. but on the reaper who is the last to finish. and when done could be to there the field was a race to get off. and is not to the last corn cut. were several on there The unfortunate winter was the subject of a good deal of teasing. these are cut *' left standing. Macdonald. " for the purpose of preventing the In the north-east of Scotland death of horses in spring. Maclagan. This was where the reapers were still busy at their work. which is afterwards hung up. 149. not on the last corn cut.142 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN In Kintyre also the The Old Wife at harvest in Argyleshire. Great was the excitement among the reapers when the last patch of standing corn was reached. from six to twelve inches long. and was dressed up in all the old clothes that could be gathered about the farm. ' 2 * * R. a long sheet of water. winding among soft green hills. R. generally done by the ploughman but he had to be very . He bears it as a term of reproach. All in turn threw their sickles at it. 151. op. p. 141. cii. . and out of them is his spagh or strip (literally fashioned the Maiden. the harvest custom is somewhat different. above which the giant Ben Cruachan towers bold and rugged on the north. c/. Maclagan. is plaited and goes by the name of the Hag iwracli) and quaint old customs used to be practised in . " the winter. p. Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-East of Scotland (London. 182. Rev." * sheaf is called So in Caithness the person who Winter and retains the name cuts the last till the next harvest. C. and placed on the bink to eat the stackyard was called the ' ' ' ' his supper. 1893). Religimr and (London. Thus North Pembrokeshire a tuft of the last corn cut.^ The Hag {wracli) at harvest in North Pembroke- shire. cit.' Each one did what the last avoid being on the field. Ibid. Walter Gregor. then hurriedly made and taken to a neighbouring farm. ^ /l/i'/-^ Rev. pp. 151 sg. C. according to one statement. p. with it within the memory of many persons still alive. On the con- by the reaper who was the first to finish claw ").^ On the shores of the beautiful privileged to reap the last ears trary. Usages of the same sort are reported from Wales."^ one who took the last of the grain from the field to ' The reaper of the last sheaf called the Winter. The name of the Old Wife {Cailleach) is here bestowed. 18S1). p. and the one who succeeded in cutting it The Hag {wrack) was received a jug of home-brewed ale. Wife/ name of the Old Wife is given Loch Awe.

^ Similar customs at harvest were observed in South that he took to his heels . stripped him of most of his clothes. and the sickles which the infuriated caught or cut by flying being In other cases the Hag was reapers hurled after him. Mr. Gwrack. Customs of Pembroke County the man has pursued the or Corn-spirit to a later reftige. his neighbour's field not yet completely reaped. S. . fence and. dated 23 February 1901. Creeping stealthily soon make would the foreman waited till of his neigha fence he up behind bour's reapers was just opposite him and within easy reach. for if they saw had the least suspicion of his errand they him coming and him retrace his steps. would be demanded by the bearer.' . the house and hanging it up still exists in some farms of North Pembrokeshire. he in succeeded in bringing the Hag in dry and unobserved. 7th December 1895. In a letter to me. brought home to the farmhouse by one of the reapers. in an article entitled "The Harvest Pembrokeshire. if upon the foreman's " Boreu sickle. sometimes they would drench him with water which had been carefully stored If." Guardian. Jenkyn Evans. namely. crying out i.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN 143 by his neighbours. careful not to be observed Then he suddenly threw the Hag over the possible. man . and now he leaves to be that Hag her for the The proper form other reapers to catch. Hnrtland was so good as to correct the Welsh words in the text. gwraig. I pursued late on her " The idea seems neck. E. \s "I rose early. y codais Hwyr y dilynais Ar ei givar hi" i." which seems to have commonly held the best beer. and made off as fast as he he was a lucky man if he escaped without could run." and he adds : Wrack Xhe 'middle mutation. however. woman. buckets and pans for the purpose. of the Welsh word for Hag from is He tells me that they mean literally. He did his best to bring it home dry and without being observed but he was apt to be roughly handled by the people of Sometimes they the house. On 1 D. That is the radical gwr. the master of the house had to pay him a small fine or sometimes a jug of beer "from the cask next to the wall. but the ancient ceremonies which have just been described are now discontinued. if they suspected his errand. The Hag was then carefully hung on a nail in the hall or elsewhere and kept there all The custom of bringing in the Hag {wradi) into the year.

There. blindfolded. XV. and clogs in the house. 194-196. Similar customs are observed by Slavonic peoples. Clark. In that part of Pembrokeshire within living memory. he would make two Old Women or lad Hags {^racks'). threw their sickles at the plaited corn. for dear life. it was deemed a great honour. If a foreman succeeded in getting both the Hags {wracks) laid safe in their proper quarters. The second Hag {wrack) was sent or taken by the foreman Generally he tried of the reapers to his master's farmhouse. they used to drench him with water. one at home." Folk- ^ Communicated by my friend Pro- fessor W.144 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN chap. The foreman of the reapers planned so as to finish the reaping in a corner of the field out of sight of the people on the next of farm. This bunch of corn was called the Carley ^ probably the . down to some years ago. (1904) pp. the Old Woman. " sits the Baba. for were the reapers to catch him they would shut him up in a dark room and not let him out till he had cleaned all the muddy boots. the few stalks of corn left standing last on the field were plaited together then the reapers. lore. country there used to be a competition between neighbouring farms to see which would finish reaping fi^st. without interruption. "An old Pembrokeshire Harvest Custom." The sheaf itself is also called the Baba. One them he would send by a at or other messenger to be laid secretly in the field where the neighbours were still work cutting their corn. the other on a neighbour's farm.^ In County Antrim. that is. and is '^ 1 M. and jumping the fence and creeping through the corn he would lay the Hag {tvracJi) in a place where the reapers in Having done so he fled reaping would be sure to find it. — same word The Old (the'B^aba) at harvest as Carlin. and whoever happened to cut it through took it home with him and put it over his door. . shoes. The TheCariey at harvest messenger would disguise himself to look like a stranger. ^hg^ the sickle was finally expelled by the reaping machine. with the last handful of corn cut. Slavonic peoples. Ridgeway." it is said. . Thus Poland the last sheaf is commonly called the Baba. The Hag harvest in^ the South shire. South S. to pop into the house unseen and lay the Hag on the kitchen table but if the people of the farm caught him before he laid it down. "In the last sheaf.

L . made out of the last sheaf. she is carried on the last harvest-waggon to the house.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN In 145 sometimes composed of twelve smaller sheaves lashed gether. v/as also called Baba . 2 Ibid. The Grandfather " The Baba and the woman herself is wrapt up in the Thus enhead projects out of it. 329. Mythologische 23S. * ^ Ibid. so that only her for a year she retains the In Lithuania the name name for of Baba. when is a man binds the . In binding the sheaves the she women strive not to who last binds the last sheaf will sheaf is be last. as well as the binder of the last sheaf.® is is The Old (the'Eaba) at harvest person who binds the last sheaf or digs the last potato the ^^i^ and receives and name of the Old Rye-woman or the Old Potato-woman. VOL. It is woman with a great straw home on the last harvest-waggon and delivered. first with this wife. they say.^ . sometimes in male form. Mannhardt. and a doll. p. op.^ the last sheaf Woman). op. and sitting in it. 328. to the farmer by two girls. p. Ibid. cit.^ into a large bundle. Boba (Old name Baba.'* and then with the farmer's In the district of Cracow. it. cased in the sheaf. p. and drenched with water at the farmer's house then every one dances with it. " is sitting in it " when a w^oman binds they say. called the Harvestw^ith doll. cutter of the last stalks. 328 I j^?. f W. carried solemnly through the village on the last harvest-waggon. along with a garland. woman. Mannhardt. has the figure of a hat." She has then to make a puppet. ribbons. p." sheaf. p. cit. it. Mannhardt. She remains in the sheaf till the dance is over. She has the Baba. 330. 3 Ibid. answering said to sit to the Polish is in the corn which banter. W. ^ Forscktnigen. last sheaf. 331. v. out of the corn the puppet is occasionally dressed with clothes. for have a child next year.^ subject of much long retains the The last sheaf the Boba is made into the form of a woman. sometimes in female. pp. ^ PT. The .^ The tied is up with others a green branch " stuck on the top of and Sometimes the harvesters call out to the '' woman who binds the last sheaf." or She is the Baba. where she is drenched with w^ater by the whole family. — — 1 W. The Boba is The left standing last. Ibid.^ to- some carried parts of Bohemia the Baba. often with flowers and ribbons only. w^as made out of the last sheaf and adorned The oldest reaper had to dance.

p. crowned with flowers." ^ Again. and : the reaping is done. D. Popitlar Antiquities of Great Briiaifi. in which a Queen of the Corn-ears {Ahreiikontgin) is drawn along in a little carriage by young fellows. as applied to the last sheaf. Bohn's edition.146 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN In Russia also the last sheaf is The Corn^^^ Uie^" Harvestqueen. Thus. Clarke tells us that " even in the town of Cambridge. 1859). 3 bey-land. E. through the and when streets. ad Jiiiem. at the end of the harvest a great procession takes place. des Mythen in und Volkes p. and carried with dance and song to the farmhouse. Ilistoiy of Noi-thumii. Oesterreich (Vienna.^ woman's shirt. carried round the village. an image apparelled in great finery. I have seen a clown dressed in woman's clothes. carried in a waggon. in different seasons of the year. the traveller Dr. This they call the Harvest Queen. and bearing about him other symbols of Ceres. Brduche 2 Vernaleken. often shaped and dressed woman. was answered by the people that they were drawing the Morgay (MHTHP FH) when : 1 Ibid. Out of the last sheaf the Bulgarians make a doll ^^ ^ which they in a call the Corn-queen or Corn-mother . Brand. his head decorated with ears of corn. the Salzburg district of Austria. on the fields. At the Hazukie. ii. quoted by J. and it represents the Roman Ceres. as it is called. a sheaf of corn placed under her arm. having his face painted. The custom of blowing horns upon the first of May (Old Style) is derived from a festival in honour of Diana. 20. carried out of the village in the morning of the conclusive reaping day. with music and much clamour of the reapers. Northumberland the following " I have seen. and centre of our University. The name Queen. Th. it is dressed and then thrown into the river in order to secure plenty of rain and dew for Or it is burned and the ashes strewn the next year's crop. where it stands fixed on a pole all day. with great pomp and loud shouts. has in its analogies in central and northern Europe. which pass without observation. in some places. . such curious remains of antient customs may be noticed. 17. doubtless to fertilise them. or Harvest Home. the horses being covered with white sheets I inquired the meaning of the ceremony. into the field. and a scycle in her hand.^ The custom of the Harvest Queen appears to have been common Brand quotes from Hutchinson's History of in England. 332. Hutchinson. is brought home in like manner. 310.

Cambridgeshire. See further J. Section First. (London. hbrkelmei. Kuhn. Whether wrapt is in the straw or carrying it on his amid general laughter. 22 sq. ii. Travels in Various Cotmtries of Europe. As reapers oft are wont their harvest-gtieen. or karkelmei. ^ Book ix. ii. where it appears in the last sheaf threshed. 1859). 838-842. fleeing before the reapers as they cut down the Woman or ripe grain." See Joseph Wright. "The Hock-cart or Harvest Home" Herrick has described the joyous return of the laden cart drawn by horses swathed in white sheets and attended by a merry crowd. pp. Mannhardt. Sagen. Mythologische sq. he carted through the village . Popidar Antiquities. s. and in . either to i°gperish under the blows of the flail or to flee thence to the Thus the last still unthreshed corn of a neighbouring farm. Asia. D. §§494-497. corn. and is wrapt in the Woman. . for in Paradise Lost''' he says : ''Adam the while Waiting desirous her return. lines ^ W. 333 . straw of the last sheaf. In some districts of Bavaria. The word is thought to be derived from the Low German /<o/5'ir (plural hokken). and Africa. and elsewhere. quits the reaped corn and takes refuge in the at thre^hbarn. 190. carried or carted about the village. Forschungen. Perhaps Morgay (which Clarke absurdly explains as fi'rjTrip yj}) is a mistake for Hawkie or Hockey.^ harvest-field but corn to be threshed is called the Mother-Corn or the Old Sometimes the person who gives the last stroke with the flail is called the Old Woman. some of whom kissed or stroked the sheaves. Clarke. Gebrdtuhe uiid Mdrchen aus Westfalen (Leipsic. and set down at last back. "a heap of sheaves. while others pranked them with oak leaves." Often customs of this sort are practised. Part ii. Second Edition (London. iii.v. not on the The cornThe spirit of the ^hTow on the threshing-floor. 1902) p. English Dialect Dictionaty. The name Hockey or Haivkie is no doubt the same with the German Westphalia is applied to a green bush or tree set up in the field at the end of harvest and brought home in the man who the last waggon-load carries it into the farmhouse is someSee A." the custom of the Harvest Milton must have been familiar with Queen. the man who threshes the last sheaf is said to have the Old Woman or the Old Corn-woman he is tied up in straw. ^ E. 229. or has a bundle of straw fastened on his back. Bohn's edition. " Hockey. 178180. 1813). times drenched with water. and her rural labours crown.. p. Brand. Thuringen. which Suffolk.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN ^ 147 or Harvest Queen. The waggon in which the last corn was brought from the harvest field was called the hockey In a poem called cart or hock cart. hbkelmei. had wove Of choicest Jiotd rs a garland to adorn Her tresses." from which it appears that in England the word has been in use in Yorkshire.

^ W. The custom of setting a dumpling baked in the form of an old woman before the man who has given the last stroke at threshing is Old Man. he gets " in Upper Franken. 270. which elsewhere is baked in human shape. ^ Bavaria landes. ridiculed and in the Bennisch district he is dressed out in the threshing-implements and obliged to carry them In about the farmyard to the amusement of his fellows. * W. 334. Mythologische For^ schtingcn. If they catch him. i^^^^S) pp. 397.^ The man who gives the last stroke at threshing is said to get the Old About Berneck. they tie the puppet on his back. him." that is. and retains the name till the next kind of grain has been reaped. but is carried to the barn of a neighbour who has not finished his threshing. etc. Schwartz. p. the man who gives the last stroke at threshing runs away. " reichisch Gebrdtiche (Leipsic.Schlesien (Troppau.und Volkshinde des Konigreichs Bayern.® At Langenbielau in Silesia the last sheaf. the Oatsfool. and he is known as the Mallet {Kloppel) for the whole of the year he may be the Corn-mallet or the Wheat-mallet or . " There you have the Mallet {Kloppel)" and makes off as fast as he can.jf. near Neustadt. the oats-fool. Mdrchcii iind . so forth according to the particular crop. Dobischwald the man who gives the last stroke at threshing has to carry a log or puppet of wood wrapt in straw to a neighbour who has not yet finished his threshing.^ the man who gives the last stroke at threshing . 334. 969. . If the others catch Woman or the the Old Woman." stroke at In various parts of threshing fool. Peter. is called the Corn-fool. Volksthiimliches aus Oster. A. the largest dumpling. Middle Franken. is called Baba (Old Woman) he is wrapt in corn and wheeled Sometimes in Lithuania the last sheaf through the village. p. 1848). Mannhardt. Sometimes the excised genitals of a calf are served up to him at table. crying. 344. There he throws his burden into the barn. p. Kuhn and Norddeutsche Sagen. which also observed in various parts of 1 Ibid. or taken to the threshing-floor of a neighbourIn Poland ing farmer who has not finished his threshing. Austrian Silesia he is called the cornand so forth according to the crop. last stroke the " man who get the gives the ^ at threshing is said to Old Man." fashioned into female shape and is not threshed.148 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN on the dunghill. ii. iii. (Munich.i(ji_ A. He is much Sometimes he is called the Kltippel or mallet. p_ ^36.^ The man who gives the last At Chorinchen. 18651867).

where he throws In some parts The Cornthe puppet unobserved over the fence. the man who gives the last stroke at threshing is himself called " the Old Man.* the corn-spirit.CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN is 149 called " the Old Man."^ The Wends of of the man who gives the last stroke at threshing that he {won je stareho bit). Sitte. * W. A. Forschiingeti. Among the and so become the target for many gibes. Canton de Poiret represents 1 P. and the bearer is rewarded with a gratuity. If threshing is still proceeding at another farm. 1903- 1906). Sitte. he may go thither and rid himself of his burden. stalks of corn are wound round her neck. and the threshers call out. the said to get the is woman who is the last to finish her task in is Old Man. the is . 360. In other cases the farmer's Thus in the Commune the farmer's wife. a flail is put round her body. 67. 194. 1905). Branch unci Volksglatibe in Schlesien (Le\Y>s\c." a hideous scarecrow. and he is obliged to carry a straw puppet to a neighbour. threshing-floor. Mytliologische Mannhardt. in the district of Hoyerswerda (Silesia). Germans of the Planer district in West Bohemia. Volksglauhe im dentscheii IVestbohiiie/i . At Wittichenau. 1901). but must take care gets not to be caught. pp. some of the straw of " the Old Man " is carried to a neighbour who has not yet finished his threshing. and a cake baked human form Saxony say " served up to her at supper. thus suddenly appearing. John. 193. 2 ii." Here the stranger woman. corn ground into meal and baked into a This loaf believed to possess healing virtue and to bring a blessing hence none but members of the family may partake of it. tied on his back. the wife flails from the corn-stalks. p.^ Among the Germans of the Falkenauer district in West Bohemia the man who gives the last stroke at threshing " the Old Man. 197. ^ R. (Vendue). a crown of ears is placed on her head. Drechsler. when the threshing is ended. is taken to be the corn-spirit who has just been expelled by has struck the Old " 1 Man 1 . In this way a farmer who is behind- hand with his threshing may receive several such scarecrows. SdchsiscJie Volkskitndi'^ (Dresden." is threshed separately and loaf." Similarly at flax-dressing in Silberberg (West Bohemia). when a stranger woman appears on the threshino^.^ woman at r fiU of Sweden. Branch unci (Prague. p. of Salign^. Wuttke. 336. who has not yet finished his threshing. " Behold the Cornwoman.

"You West called have cut the Prussia navel-string. near Wolfenbuttel. iS^g). Die Kornddmonen (Berlin. along with the litter. Old Woman. 336 p.c^. John. 194. only there the pressure applied by some means of a straw rope instead of a The corn- flail. But in Mother. as It would be she were being winnowed.^ the corn-spirit its is conceived as a child who is separated from view the This last mother by the stroke of the sickle. and so forth. three sheaves are tied together with a rope so as to make a This puppet is called puppet with the corn ears for a head. * A. placed on a and carried to the threshing machine."^ some the in it. Baumkultus. W. H. is is sheaf threshed if by itself. p. und Volksglaiibe im dejitscken Westbolwien 184 " . p. . 1900). Brauch (Strasburg. § 5^5- (Prague.^ ^ child at harvest. forms of the Germans of Schuttarschen in Thus among the West Bohemia it was customary at the close of the threshing to " throttle " the farmer's wife by squeezing her neck between the arms of a flail till she consented to bake a special kind of cake called a driscJiala A similar custom of " thrott(from dreschen. Mannhardt. appears in the Polish custom of calling out to cuts man who the the last handful In of corn. or at least as of mature age. is tied up in a sheet. when the rye has been reaped. 3 E. she cries like a the character of woman 1 in and an old woman Ibid. Kuhn. other cases the corn-spirit is conceived as young. under which Then the woman is drawn out and the shoved. Gehrduche und AfdrcAen atis lVes(fa/en (Leipsic. Meyer. " to thresh ")} ling " the farmer's wife at the threshing is is practised in parts of Bavaria. 1905). Si/te.^ impossible to express more clearly the identification of the woman with the corn than by this graphic imitation of and winnowing her. Grandmother. she last sheaf. 28. custom are observed in various threshing Mitigated places. Badisches Volksleben W. Mannhardt. Thus at Saldern. A. districts of is figure made is out of last sheaf the Bastard.. but the woman is tossed in the sheet. p. ii. Sagen. . In these customs the spirit of the ripe corn is regarded Hence the names of as old. 1S68). '^ 612. Sometimes the Maiden or the Corn-maiden [Kornjunfer). 437. bed in .ISO CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN chap. and a boy that she wrapt up The woman who is binds the last sheaf and represents the Corn-mother is told about to be brought to travail. p.

. (London. the pretended baby.' but does not merely kirn-doll. Yorkshire corn is kern or kirn in this sense with entirely mistaken. Morris. Dr. as it was formerly in England . harvest . was known as 'Betty o' the Babs. At last a cry is raised that whereupon the boy who is tied up in the the child is born The grandsheaf whimpers and squalls like an infant. W. F. Durham. and that Compare J. Dictionary. id. Brand. Sir James Murray. on the field as the inell be variously known churn are merely kirn." not or name for ' doll ' in the district. 453 s. the Harvest-Child. Folk-lore of the Northern Coutilies of Etigland {Lot\Aov\. is the Child. i. . "Kirn". 1903) pp. particularly in the counties of The last Northumberland. Provincial Glossary "baby" phrase "infant.e. and brought home with rejoicings at end of the harvest. 2 sq. or the puppet made last out of it. vol. iv.v.^ In the North Riding of Yorkshire the last sheaf in is called the Mell-sheaf. 1892-1895). which was called the mell-supper. iii. pp. W. It was carried with music and dancing to the scene of the harvest-supper. 1879). Folk-talk. Grose. M. who in is carried joyfully to air. babbie was even in my youth the regular "babbie" in the same means only "doll. . z"] sqq. Henderson. 2 12 -2 14. 82 sq." In the north of England. Poptilar Antiquities. Bab.v.^ the barn. \?>\\). the last corn cut caiied^the »'^^^.* In the north of Yorkshire gathered " 1 2 2 Mannhardt. editor of the New English Dictionary. of kern and which or the at harvest is or used to the local or dialectical variations. "Kirn-babbie mean 'corn-baby. ii. in imitation of swaddling bands. and Yorkshire. " Mell-supper " . sheaf out of which the Mell-doll was made was no doubt the Mell-sheaf. "Churn". and whose toy-shop all bairns knew. p. "you are getting the child. vol. Joseph Wright." Formerly a Mell-doll was made out of a sheaf of corn decked with flowers and wrapped in such of the reapers' garments as could be spared. 1902) p. kindly informs me that the popular etymology which identifies wiio sold dolls in Hawick early in the [nineieenth] century. The Denham Tracts. though this is not expressly said. ii. id. pp. and so on.' Betty only woman of the dolls. 1-1 which goes by the parts of England." He writes.. vol. or the kirn-baby. 88 sq. James Hardy The (London. round . I.v. the I. 1898) 605 s. s. the name is of the mell-doll or the kirn-doll. Bohn's edition. C.home doll.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN 151 grandmother acts as midwife.e. F. lest he should catch cold the open In other parts of North Germany called call the last sheaf. edited by Dr. mother wraps a sack. (London. (London. and they out to the woman who ^ binds the sheaf. English Dialect (London." * W. and the expression We've gotten wer mell " is as much as to say " The Harvest is finished. Mannhardt. The corn so cut r is either the churn '" various plaited or made up into a doll-like figure.

83. and hailed as a Corn Baby.«£'// with " meal " or with "maiden" Corn Baby " used by the expression writer is probably his interpretation of the correct expression ki>-n or kertt baby.. was set up conspicuously that night at supper. the Northern Folk-lore of of England. which was presently dressed up with various sewings. It and trimmings.]. 1886). 20. Provincial Glossary (London (through 1 a form like the German English (London." conspicuous and set up in some was called the kirn or corn cut of Where the last sheaf concerned with it seem customs mell. kindly informs me that the word ?nell is well known in these senses in all the northern counties He of England down to Cheshire. " to have a contention for superiority in quickness of dispatch. tells me that the proposals to connect . they took care to leave a good handful of the grain uncut. ful of grain was last portion as " to get the kirn The bonny lass who cut this handdeemed the Har'st Queen!' ^ To cut the of standing corn in the harvest field was known . Chambers.7/. was frequently made of such dimensions as to be a heavy load for a man.. Joseph Wright. like a doll. but laid down flat. 87. . Henderson. and covered over and. xZw).v. s. iv. . Popular Antiquities.152 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN mell-sheaf " chap." "an image Alddel) are inadmissible. W. groups of three or four taking each a ridge." p. " or " to win the kirn " and as soon as was done the reapers let the neighbours know that the harvest was finished by giving three cheers. which simply tion. The Dialect Dictionary. the kern instead of the the ^ to have been essentially similar. See above. 2 dressed up with corn. the reapers went on during the last day. which was this Joseph Wright. editor of The English Dialect Dictionary. within a few years comparatively.'&x2cn^. not clear whether the account refers to Compare F. or harvestY^oxa^^'' •. with music of fiddles and bagpipes. 1 5 1 note 3. vol. " Mell. means a . "Kern-baby. carried before the reapers to their mell-supper. As striving. p. tyings. the 'bonniest lass' was allowed to cut this final handful. it was a mell. Counties R. ii. Thus we are told that in the north it was common for the reapers. p. ii. and striving which should soonest get to its terminaIn Scotland. when the field was done. and was usually preserved in the farmer's parlour for the remainder of the year. In the north of England. It is ' ' . was proposed as the prize to be won in a In other cases it was carefully preserved race of old women. Grose. The Book of Days The (Edinburgh. England or Scotland. was brought home in triumph. on the last day of the reaping. and. 377 sij. this was called a kemping. place in the farmhouse. 1903)5.

215." ^ In some parts of Scotland. and the person who carried it off was said "to win the kim in kirn. when was taken by the new kirn-dolly. corn at harvest was called " cutting the Queen " almost as as often as " cutting the kirn. •' ^' The English (London. 453. 1902) 21 * sq.v. New iii. and the reapers threw their sickles at it till some one cut it through. the kirn-doll." Joseph p.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN ^ 153 called "to cry or shout the kirn. p. Berwickshire down to about the middle of the nineteenth century there was an eager competition to cut the last among the reapers at it round it at it. shire Kirn-dolly. s. It is etc." The mode of cutting it was not by throwing sickles." Folk-lore. and the bunch of standing corn." It was then dressed up like a child's doll and went by 0° 5^0^"'* ' _ _ the name of the kirn-baby. " A Berwickxii. • Dialect Dictionary. ruffles. were "^^ f^' tnrowing sickles at it. a kirn-dolly and dressed the farmhouse and its She made the corn so cut into and the doll was then taken to The kim place hung up there till the next harvest. 6 g 3 J.. " a figure composed of some of the best corn the field produces. iii. ^^'^'°'' 42 ^^^^^^^ 1879-1882)." The severed churn (that luck. lace. and made as well as they can into a human shape this is afterwards curiously dressed by the women. is.g_ " Kirn. They gathered a little distance and threw their sickles in turn man who succeeded in cutting it through gave to the girl he preferred.v. s. 2 The English (London.^ or used to be. Jamieson. One of the reapers consented to be blindfolded.* In land.The last land. which was called " cutting the churn. or the Maiden. and having been given a sickle in his hand ^ Joseph Wright. the plaited corn) was then placed over the kitchen door or over the hob in the and as a charm against witchcraft. (1901) Brand. j^j|. sij. ^ g Gomme. of the finest brought home with the last load of corn from the field upon the waggon." Where ' the last handful The^terw the stalks of standinj^ ^ corn was called the churn. " Kirn. . Dialect Dictionary. Wright. 1898) y V ) / J. roughly plaited together. . ii. and they suppose entitles them to a supper at the expense of the employer. i. Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Laugtcage. cut to resemble a cap. handkerchief. and adorned with paper trimmings.^ At Spottiswoode in (Westruther Parish) Berwickshire the reaping of the last reapers blindfold. the last handful of corn cut on the harvest-field was called '^Ti"^^"! called the the kirn. it.. Popular Antiquities. chimney for good In Kent the Ivy Girl is. as well as in the north of Eng.

154

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN

and turned twice or thrice about by his fellows, he was His groping about and bidden to go and cut the kirn. making wild strokes in the air with his sickle excited much hilarity. When he had tired himself out in vain and given up the task as hopeless, another reaper was blindfolded and pursued the quest, and so on, one after the other, till at last
the kirn was cut. the air with

The

successful reaper

was tossed up

in

by his brother harvesters. To decorate the room in which the kirn-supper was held at Spottiswoode as well as the granary, where the dancing took place, two women made kirn-dollies or Queens every year and many of these rustic effigies of the corn-spirit At Lanfine in Ayrmight be seen hanging up together.^ shire, down to near the end of the nineteenth century, the last bunch of standing corn at harvest was, occasionally at least, plaited together, and the reapers tried to cut it by
three cheers
;

throwing their sickles at it when they failed in the attempt, a woman has been known to run in and sever the stalks at a blow. In Dumfriesshire also, within living memory, it used to be customary to cut the last standing corn by throw;

ing the sickles at
The chum
in Ireland

it.^

In
similar,
last

the

north
there,

of
as

Ireland
in

the

harvest
parts

cut by

but

some

of

customs were England, the

throwing
the sickles
at
it.

patch of standing corn bore the

a dialectical variation of kirn.
the Churn
'

name of the churUy "The custom of 'Winning

was prevalent all through the counties of Down and Antrim fifty years ago. It was carried out at the end of the harvest, or reaping the grain, on each farm or holding, were it small or large. Oats are the main crop of the district, but the custom was the same for other kinds of grain. When the reapers had nearly finished the last field a handful of the best-grown stalks was selected, carefully plaited as it stood, and fastened at the top just under the ears to keep the plait in place. Then when all the corn was cut from about this, which was known as The C/nivfi, and the sheaves about it had been removed to some distance, the reapers stood in a group about ten yards off it, and each
^ Mrs. A. B. Gomme, "Harvest Customs," Folk-lore, xiii. (1902) p.

^ j. q. Frazer, "Notes on Harvest Customs," Folk-lore, vii. (1889) p.

178.

48.

V

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN
till

155

whirled his sickle at the CJmrn
in

one lucky one succeeded

his achievement. This person had then the right of presenting it to the master or mistress of the farm, who gave the reaper a shilling." A supper and a dance of the reapers in the farmhouse often

cutting

it

down, when he was cheered on

The Churti^ trimmed and adorned with was hung up on a wall in the farmhouse and careIt was no uncommon sight to see six or fully preserved. even twelve or more such Churns decorating the walls of a farmhouse in County Down or Antrim.^ In some parts of the Highlands of Scotland the last The last handful of corn that is cut by the reapers on any particular called the farm is called the Maiden, or in Gaelic Maidhdeanbuain, Maiden in
concluded the day.
ribbons,

the shorn Maiden." Superstitions attach to the If it is got by a young person, winning of the Maiden. they think it an omen that he or she will be married before another harvest. For that or other reasons there is a strife between the reapers as to who shall get the Maiden, and they resort to various stratagems for the purpose of securing it. One of them, for example, will often leave a handful of corn uncut and cover it up with earth to hide it from the other reapers, till all the rest of the corn on the field is cut down. Several may try to play the same trick, and the one who is coolest and holds out longest obtains the coveted distinction. When it has been cut, the Maiden is dressed with ribbons into a sort of doll and affixed to a wall of the farmhouse. In the north of Scotland the Maiden is carefully preserved till Yule morning, when it is divided among the cattle "to make them thrive all the year round." In the island of Mull and some parts of the mainland of
literally
*'

i^nds of Scotland,

Argyleshire the

last handful of corn cut is called the Maiden {Maighdean-Bkiiand}. Near Ardrishaig, in Argyleshire, the

1

(Rev.)

H. W.

Lett,

"Winning

the

corn so cut was taken
for
^

home and kept

Churn
p.

(Ulster)," Folk-lore, xvi. (1905) 185. friend Miss Welsh,

some

time.

My

formerly Principal of Giiton College, Cambridge, told me (30th May 1901) that she remembers the custom of the churn being observed in the north of Ireland ; the reapers cut the last handful of standing corn (called the churn)

tish

Dictionary of the ScolLanguage, New Edition (Paisley, 1879-1882), iii. 206, s.v. "Maiden."
]. ]a.m\esoT\,

An

old Scottish

name

for the

Maiden

by throwing

their sickles at

it,

and the

{autumnalis ttymphtila) was Rapegyrne. See Fordun, Scotichrcn. ii. 418, quoted by ]. Jamieson, op. cit. iii. 624, s.v. " Rapeg)'rne."

156

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN

The

cut-

Maiden is made up in a fanciful three-cornered shape, decorated with ribbons, and hung from a nail on the wall.^ The following account of the Maiden was obtained in
the

ting of the

Maiden

at

harvest in Argyleshire.

1897 from the manager of a farm near " The Mhaighdean-Bhuana, or Reaping Maiden, was the last sheaf of oats to be cut on Before the reaping-machine and binder a croft or farm. took the place of the sickle and the scythe, the young
of

summer

Kilmartin

in

Argyleshire

:

when they neared the end of the used to manoeuvre to gain possession of the MhaigJidean-Bhuana. The individual who was fortunate
reapers of both sexes,
rig or field,
last

enough
or the

to obtain it was ex officio entitled to be the King Queen of the Harvest-Home festival. The sheaf so

designated was carefully preserved and kept intact until the day they began leading home the corn. A tuft of it was

then given to each of the horses, as they started from the
first load. The rest of it was neatly made and hung in some conspicuous corner of the farmhouse, where it remained till it was replaced by a younger sister next season. On the first day of ploughing a tuft of it was given (as on the first day of leading home the corn) as

corn-field with their

up,

a Sainnseal or handsel for luck to the horses.

The MhaigJi-

dean-Bhuana so preserved and used was -a symbol that the harvest had been duly secured, and that the spring work had been properly inaugurated. It was also believed to be a protection against fairies and witchcraft." ^
The cutting of the
Maiden
at

I

In the parish of Longforgan, situated at the south-eastern
it used to be customary to give what was called the Maiden Feast at the end of the harvest. The last handful of corn reaped on the field was called the Maiden, and things were generally so arranged that it fell into the hands of a pretty girl. It was then decked out with ribbons and brought home in triumph to the music of bagpipes and fiddles. In the evening the reapers danced and made merry. Afterwards the Maiden was dressed out, generally in the

corner of Perthshire,

harvest in Perthshire.

1

R. C.

Maclagan,

in

Folk-lore,

vi.

hung up

in the house, is
till

thought to keep
is

(1895) pp. 149, 151. 2 Rev. M. MacPhail (Free Church Manse, Kihnartin, Lochgilphead), " P'olk-lore from the Hebrides," Folklore, \\.{i 900) p. 44 1 That the Maiden
.

out witches

the next harvest

men-

tioned also by the Rev. J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Seotland {Gla.sgow, 1900), p.
20.

So with the churn (above,

p.

153)

V

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN

157

form of a cross, and hung up, with the date attached to it, in a conspicuous part of the house.^ In the neighbourhood
of Balquhidder, Perthshire, the last handful of corn
is

cut

by the youngest
with ribbons.

girl

on the

field,

and

is

made

into the rude

form of a female
It

doll,
is

clad in a paper dress, and decked

and is kept in the farmhouse, generally above the chimney, for a good while, sometimes till the Maiden of the next year is brought in. The writer of this book witnessed the ceremony of cutting
at Balquhidder in September 1888.^ A lady informed me that as a young girl she cut the Maiden several times at the request of the reapers in the neighbour-

called the Maiden,

the

Maiden
^

friend

hood of
last

Perth.

The name

handful of standing corn

of the Maiden was given to the a reaper held the top of the
;

bunch while she cut it. Afterwards the bunch was plaited, decked with ribbons, and hung up in a conspicuous place on the wall of the kitchen till the next Maiden was brought in. The harvest-supper in this neighbourhood was also called the Maiden the reapers danced at it. In the Highland district of Lochaber dancing and merrymaking on the last night of harvest used to be universal and
;

The
^rvtsUn'

are

still

generally observed.
carried

Here,

we

are told, the festivity Lochaber.

without the Maiden would be like a wedding without the bride.

The Maiden

is

home

with tumultuous rejoicing, and
is

after being suitably decorated

hung up

in the barn,

the dancing usually takes place.

When

supper

is

over,

where one

of the company, generally the oldest

man
the

present, drinks

a glass
his

of whisky, after turning to

suspended sheaf

and saying, " Here's to the Maiden." The company follow example, each in turn drinking to the Maiden. Then the dancing begins.* On some farms on the Gareloch, in The cutDumbartonshire, about the year 1830, the last handful of Maiden at standing corn was called the Maiden. It was divided in two, harvest on the Gareplaited, and then cut with the sickle by a girl, who, it was loch in
^

Sir

John

Sinclair,
xix.

Statistical

^

The

late

Mrs. Macalister, wife of tonshire

Account of Scotland,

(Edinburgh, Compare Miss 1797); PP- 550 sq. E. J. Guthrie, Old Scottish Customs (London and Glasgow, 1S85), pp. 130 sq. 2 Folk-lore Journal, vi. 1 888) pp.
(

Professor Alexander Macalister, Cambridge. Her recollections referred
especially to the neighbourhood of

Glen

Farg, some ten or twelve miles to the south of Perth. * Rev. James Macdonald, Religion

268

sq.

and Myth (London,

1893), pp. 14

1

sq.

IS?

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN

thought, would be lucky and would soon be married. When together and threw their it was cut the reapers gathered
sickles in

the

air.

The Maiden was

dressed with ribbons

several years with the date attached.

it was kept for Sometimes five or six The Maidens might be seen hanging at once on hooks. In other farms on the harvest-supper was called the Kirn.^ Gareloch the last handful of corn was called the Maidenhead it was neatly plaited, sometimes decked with or the Head ribbons, and hung in the kitchen for a year, when the grain was given to the poultry."

and hung

in the

kitchen near the roof, where

;

The

cut-

In the north-east of Aberdeenshire

the

customs con-

ting of the

clyack sheaf at harvest in

nected with the last corn cut at harvest have been carefully collected and recorded by the late Rev. Walter Gregor of
Pitsligo.
is
it,

Aberdeenshire.

His account runs as follows

:

"

The

last

sheaf cut

the object of

much
it

care

:

the

manner

of cutting
little in

it,

binding

and carrying

to the house varies a

the different

districts.

The following customs have been reported to me who have seen them or who have practised them, by people the customs have now disappeared. The some of and
information comes from the parishes of Pitsligo, Aberdour,

and Tyrie, situated

in the north-east corner of the county of Aberdeen, but the customs are not limited to these parishes. " Some particulars relating to the sheaf may be noted thus {a) it is cut and gathered by the as always the same
;

youngest person present in the field, the person who is supposed to be the purest {b) the sheaf is not allowed made up and carried in {c) it is to touch the ground triumph to the house {d) it occupies a conspicuous place {i) it in the festivals which follow the end of the reaping is kept till Christmas morning, and is then given to one or
; ;

;

;

more of the horses or
The
clyack

to the cattle of the farm.

"

Before the introduction of the scythe, the corn was cut
sickle or

sheaf cut

by the
youngest

by the

heuck, a kind of curved sickle.
girl

The
'

last

and not allowed to touch the ground.
girl

sheaf was shorn or cut by the youngest

present.

As
184

the corn might not touch the ground, the master or
1

gueedii.

From

Archie
father

Leitch, late

information supplied gardener to

by

See Lockhart's Life of
(first

Scott,

my

Rowmore, Garelochhead. at The Kirn was the name of the harvest
festivity in the south of

Early Letters of Thomas Carlyle, ed. Norton, ii. 325 sq. ^ Communicated by the late Mr.
edition)
;

Scotland

also.

Macfarlane of Faslane, Gareloch.

V
*

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN

159

man sat down, placed the band on his knees, and received thereupon each handful as it was cut. The sheaf was bound,
dressed as a woman, and when
house,
it
it

had been brought to the

was placed

in

some

part of the kitchen, where

everybody could see it during the meal which followed the end of the reaping. This sheaf was called the clyack sheaf ^ " The manner of receiving and binding the last sheaf is not always the same. Here is another three persons hold the band in their hands, one of them at each end, while the third holds the knot in the middle. Each handful of corn is placed so that the cut end is turned to the breast of those who support the ears on the opposite side. When all is cut, the youngest boy ties the knot. Two other bands are fastened to the sheaf, one near the cut end, the other near the ears. The sheaf is carried to the house by those who have helped to cut or bind it (Aberdour). "Since the introduction of the scythe, it is the youngest boy who cuts the last sheaf; my informant (a woman) told me that when he was not strong enough to wield the scythe, his hand was guided by another. The youngest girl gathers When it is bound with three bands, it is cut straight, it. and it is not allowed to touch the ground. The youngest
:

girls carry

it

to the house.
it

My

informant (a woman) told

me
bed

that she had seen

decked and placed
still

the bed.
in

Formerly, and

at the head of sometimes, there was always a

the kitchen (Tyrie).
:

The corn is not allowed to fall on the ground the young girls who gather it take it by the ear and convey
"
it

handful by handful,
'

till

the whole sheaf

is cut.

who has
it

lost

a feather of her wing,' as an old

A woman woman put

to me, may not touch it Sometimes also they merely put the two hands round the sheaf (New Deer). "Generally a feast and dance follow when all the wheat
is
^

'^\\?^ciyack

cut.

This feast and dance bear the name of clyack or -merfand
slightly
different

A

mode

of

making up the clyack sheaf is described by the Rev. Walter Gregor elsewhere
{Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-east of Scotland, London, 1881, pp. 181 sq.): "The clyack sheaf was cut by the maidens on the harvest field. On no account was it allowed to touch the

One of the maidens seated on the ground, and over her knees was the band of the sheaf laid. Each of the maidens cut a handful, or more if necessary, and laid it on the band. The sheaf was then bound, still lying over the maiden's knees, and dressed up in woman's clothing."
ground.
herself

ale.

i6o
*

CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN
'

chap.

However, some people do not give meal meal and ale.' and ale till all the cut corn has been got in then the feast the Winter/ and they say that a farmer has the is called Winter when all his sheaves have been carried home. " At this feast two things are indispensable a cheese called the clyack-kebback and meal and ale.' " The cheese clyack-kebback must be cut by the master of
'
:

*

'

'

:

'

the house.

The
is

by the name of the kanaves faangl
'

slice

—^and
The

it is known young man's big generally the share of the herd boy (Tyrie).

first slice is

larger than the rest


'
;

;

the

"

dish called

'

meal and ale

is

made

as follows.

You

take a suitable vessel, whether an earthenware pot or a milk-bowl, if the crockery is scanty but if on the contrary
is

the family

well

off,

they use other special utensils.

In

each dish ale is poured and treacle is added to sweeten it. Then oatmeal is mixed with the sweetened ale till the The cook adds whisky whole is of a sufficient consistency.
to the mixture in such proportion as she thinks
plate
is
fit.

In each

put a ring.

To

allow the meal time to be comis

pletely absorbed, the dish
feast.

prepared on the morning of the
feast the dish or dishes con-

At the moment of the
strong

and savoury mixture are set on the But it is not served up till the end. middle of the table. Six or seven persons generally have a plate to themselves. Each of them plunges his spoon into the plate as fast as possible in the hope of getting the ring for he who is lucky enough to get it will be married within the year.
taining the
;

struggle
The
ciyack sheaf in the dance.

Meantime some of the stuff is swallowed, but often in the some of it is spilt on the table or the floor. " In some districts there used to be and still is dancing jj^ ^^ evening 'The sheaf figured in the ° of the feast. ° dances. It was dressed as a girl and carried on the back of
or granary which

the mistress of the house to the barn

served as a ballroom.
'the sheaf on her back.
The
ciyack

The

mistress danced

a

reel

with

"

The woman who gave me

this

account had been a

of what she described when she was a girl. The toTniare" witness in foal or shcaf was afterwards carefully stored till the first day of
in calf.

Christmas,

when

it

was given

to eat to a
if

mare

in

foal, if

there was one on the farm, or,

there

was

not, to the oldest

which the harvesters sup with ^^^^ spoons as an indispensable part of the harvest supper. I Compare Miss legomena to J. (October. Pro- Study of Greek Religion. translated into French by M. xi." etc. which the initiates at Eleusis drank as a solemn form of communion with the Barley Goddess Demeter ? ^ May not that mystic sacrament have 1 W. On that morning it was given to a mare in foal. Loys Brueyre from the author's English and translated by me back from French . The composition of the draught is revealed by the author of the Homeric Hymn to 1 1). . the M I .^ And in the The sacra°^ gruel of oat-meal and ale. u. 638. 21. Second Edition (Cambridge. 1908). I have translated ^^ uiie jument ay ant son pottlain" by "a mare in foal. 1 „ ' . ' * its foal and a cow with 1. 1888) pp. The reason why the youngest person on the field. v. 10. ed. 182) we read that the last sheaf was " carefully preserved till Christmas or New Year morning. is chosen to cut the last standing corn and sometimes to carry it to the house is no doubt a calculation that the younger the person the more likely is he or she to be sexually pure. 26). flavoured with pennyroyal. is fuller than the account given by the same writer in his Notes en the Folk-lore of the North-east of ^SiTO/Zawia? (London. E.)"^ In these Aberdeenshire customs the sanctity attributed the cows and their calves or between to the last corn cut at Sanctity ^"th^J^^^'^ harvest is clearly manifested. p. p." axiA *' la plus ancie9i77evache ayafit son veau" by "the oldest cow in calf. half-solid. VOL. but also by the great ^ care taken to prevent it from touching the ground or being handled by any unchaste person. V.This account. whether a girl or a boy. naturally be understood 1 1 .. where he Demeter herself partaking of the sacred cup." Eleusinian mysteries is mentioned by Clement of Alexandria {Protrept. That the compound was a kind of thick gruel. 870).V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN in calf. ggg above pp. Potter) and Arnobius {Adversus Nationes. and in the barn. in the house. have meal and we not the Scotch equivalent of the gruel of barley-meal and eLusI^ water. its calf. 18. pp. pp. of a mare with 2 . i6i cow Elsewhere the sheaf was divided between all all the horses and the cattle of the farm. " Quelques coutumes du Nord-est du Comte d'Aberdeen. Demeter (verses 206-2 represents because in the author's Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-east of Scotland (p. kvkcwv) so. . The drinking of the draught as a solemn rite (called in the the into English. We have seen that for this reason some negroes entrust the sowing of the seed to very young girls/ and later on we shall meet with more evidence in Africa of the notion that the corn may be handled only by the pure. p. 181-183. Otherwise the French words might PT. (Related by an eye-witness. vol. Iliad. 484-487 (wrong pagination should be 532-535). Harrison. half-liquid. is mentioned by Eustathius (on Homer. Gregor. ^ee below." Revue des Traditions populaires. iii. 155^^^. 1881). not merely by the ceremony with which it is treated on the dyack ^^ field.

taken down and presented to the mare as its is then The neglect of this would have untoward food. wrote " As a boy. is cut by a young girl and made into the rude figure of a doll. and sometimes meal sprinkled over it.* to the bride. * it often remained till the ' maiden its ' of W. from MS. known as the Maiden. Cameron. NIannhardt.^ was also observed in Inverness-shire and Sutherlandshire. and neatly tied up with a ribbon. M tiller. 1893). Inverness-shire. tied with ribbons. by a young girl who wears a wreath of wheaten ears on her head and goes by the name of the Wheat-bride.). with often a ring in it. pp. a small it. P. Hugh E. p. by which it is hung on the wall of the farm-kitchen till the The custom of cutting the Maiden at harvest next spring. pp. which in Germany are sometimes bestowed both on the last sheaf and on the woman who binds At wheat -harvest near Miiglitz. I of corn cut was taken home. 50 sq. The girls must all be dressed in lilac prints. 2 Folk-lore Journal. Religion and Myth (London. or maiden. Macdonald. . 1893). Komddmonen the following year took place. vii.327- . Quarterly 195. Review. 1868). vii." ^ In Fifeshire the last The corn- handful of corn. " the last sheaf cut. and then stuck up on the wall above the kitchen fire-place. Isabella Ross. and there to me many years ago last bit : remember the maiden from " ( The FolkJournal. the last sheaf to ^ W. There was no ceremony about it. They have always a kirn. Beitrdge zur Volkskunde der Deutschen in Miihren (Vienna and Olmiitz. and at twelve " o'clock they eat potatoes and herrings select the lore ' ' ' {op.^ portion of the wheat is left standing after all the rest has been reaped. This remnant is then cut. amid the rejoicing of the reapers. whipped cream. notes of Miss J. (1889) p. PP. (Berlin. 1 88 9.1 62 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN originated in a simple harvest supper held by Eleusinian farmers at the end of the reaping ? According to a briefer account of the Aberdeenshire custom. clxxii. It is supposed that she will be a real bride that same year. and disastrous consequences upon farm operations generally for the season. ' is carried is home it It then pre- sented to to the mistress of the house. 51 3 The p.). corn-spirit by the appellations of Bride. who dresses up The maiden be preserved till the first mare foals. Ligertwood. that in that county " they hang up the ' maiden generally over the mantelpiece (chimney-piece) till the next harvest. J. or cut. (1891) As to Inverness-shire my old friend Mr. Oatsand Wheat-bride. ^ Rev. in Moravia. 53 sq.14° -J?-. first effects upon the foal.' in merry procession by the harvesters. As to Sutherlandshire my mother was told by a servant. Die 30. cit. they all dance. formerly of Glen Moriston. beyond often a struggle as to who would get.^ somewhat maturer but still youthful age is assigned A spirit as a bride.

1 E. the person is said to have to the crop. she is drawn by a pair of oxen. I. vii. * (1889) pp. the Wheat-bride or is Rye. 50. und Brauche (\'ienna. p." ^ Sometimes the idea implied by the name of Bride The cornis worked out more fully by representing the productive ^^^^^ ^^ powers of vegetation as bride and bridegroom." Zeilschrift 3 Mr. The Oats-bridegroom is a man completely wrapt in oats-straw the Oats -bride is a man dressed in woman's clothes. Die Kor?iddmonen Mdrchen una . " VolksgeJ. The woman who bound the last sheaf plays the part of the Wheat-bride. below her numerous . . 160 sq.bride according received with great demonstrations of respect and rejoicing. des Volkes p.' and she was placed . ^ E. The people of the farm go out to meet him.e. in Oesterreich Gebrduche aus Sachsen U7id Thiiringen (Halle.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN in 163 In the upland valley of Alpach. They are drawn in a waggon to the ale-house. pp. ^ Th. Vernaleken. Sageii. standing beside her Bridegroom in a waggon and attended by bridesmaids. Waldfreund. bells and refreshments offered to him on a tray. Mannhardt. " in Scotland. wearing the harvest-crown of wheat ears and flowers on her head. over the bress or chimney-piece she had' a ribbon tied and another round her waist. the last handful of ' corn cut got the name ears. in full imitation of a marriage .^ In Austrian Silesia the ceremony of "the Wheat -bride" is celebrated by the young people at the end of the harvest. of the bride. (1855) p. while he struggles to keep them. swathed in straw. Thus Bride^°°"in the Vorharz an Oats-man and an Oats-woman. in The Folk- lore Journal. brauche und Aberglaube in Tirol und dem Salzburger Gebirg. W. exposed to the laughter and jests of the company. Mythen (Berlin. 340. Matheson. where the dance takes place. who and brings the last sheaf into the granary the North Tyrol. 310. Thus adorned. but not wrapt in straw. R.* In South Saxony an Oats-bridegroom and an Oats-bride figure together at the harvest celebration. iii. Mannhardt. Roslin and Stonehaven. W. 30.^ In Austrian Silesia a girl is chosen to be the Wheat-bride. 49. 1859). 1868). and much honour is paid to her at the harvest-festival. fiir deiitsche Alythologie und Sitten- kunde.^ Near are rung. At the beginning of the dance the dancers pluck the bunches of oats one by one from the Oats -bridegroom. Sommer. dance at the harvest feast. 1846). till at last he is completely stript of them and stands bare.

^ Alexander Nicolson. ii. dressed up quaintly as a bridal pair. Peter. called the cailleach. the man who done got the Maighdean-bhuana or ReapingMaiden. 1 88 1 ). the last corn cut is among the Gaelic-speaking sometimes called the Old Maiden. Two and Maighdean-bhuana reapers were usually ' and according to one account. I.^ Neisse. especially population. " According to what appears to be the better version. About and an Oats-queen. the lame goat. As the accounts it of this custom are not quite clear and consistent. (Edinburgh and London. based on Macintosh'' s Collection 269. The fear of being left with the last sheaf of the harvest. corresponding exactly to the Greek Demeter and Persephone." ^ In further explanaadds : tion of the proverb the writer The customs as to the Cailleach seem was ' to have varied somewhat. But sometimes the spirit double form as male and female.' The latter term is used in Argyleshire the term Gobhar-bhacach. Oats-bride later in the season the celebrated with the like rustic is kept up till wedding of the pomp. A " balk {l^um-iochd) in autumn . may be well them first in the Thus there the is late Sheriff words of the original authorities. Volksthiimliches Schlesien aus Osterreichisch(Troppau. E. seen that in Scotland. always led to the reapers in the last field. or gobhar bhacach. where the dancing morning. Now there are parts Wife and sometimes the in which both an Old Wife iCailleacK) and a of Scotland Maiden to give are cut at harvest. 1865-1867). 1 W. We have if my interpretation of these goddesses is right.-. Mannhardt. in Silesia. is used in Skye. are seated on a harrow and drawn by oxen into the village. 248.1 64 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN Somewhat is procession. . appears in a double female form as both old and young. A Collection Proverbs and Familiar of Gaelic Phrases.' while the man who was last got the Cailleach or old woman. an exciting competition among The reaper glad to " who came on a leum-iochd would of course be have so much the less to cut.e. first . p. an Oats-king The corn- In these last instances the corn-spirit is personified in spirit in the double form of the Old Wife and the Maiden simultaneously at harvest in the Highlands of Scotland. is better than a sheaf the more and he explains it by saying left that a leum-iochd or balk " is a strip of a corn-field fallow. to the tavern. Alexander Nicolson tells us that " a Gaelic proverb. the set to each rig.

the furnished Dr. cit. recollections of Mrs. It was meant as a symbol that the harvest had been secured. The Cailleach was not dressed but carried after binding to . Mr. pp. gort the ensuing season. the neighbour's field. in dearth of the township. It was tastefully tied up with ribbons.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN 165 competition to avoid the Cailleach was not between reapers but between neighbouring crofters. in this The person successful in cutting her : — valour. short All the reapers gathered round her and kept a distance from They then threw their hooks down manner was the man whose possession she became. the time came to provide for a Rev. was the last cut handful of oats. . MacCorquodale says that the rivalry was for the Maiden. Campbell of new crop. representatives of the ethereal and unsubstantial. and to ward off the fairies. and the man who got his harvest done first sent a handful of corn called the Cailleach to his neighbour. infamous in history for the treacherous massacre perpetrated there by the Government troops in 1692. till it landed with him to provide for the who was " latest. who passed it on. generally dressed like a doll." ^ Kilchrenan. The Maighdean-bhuana. On the first day of ploughing it was solemnly taken down. then resident at Kilchrenan. Mrs. MacCorquodale understood that the man of a township who got the Cailleach finally was supposed to be doomed to poverty for his want of energy. on a croft or farm. perhaps the last rig of the reaper last to finish. and given as a Sainnseal (or handsel) to the horses for luck. refer to the customs practised about the middle of the nineteenth century in the wild and gloomy valley of Glencoe. till again. That man's penalty was a' bhaile. Nicolson. C. 415 sq. The MacCorquodale. "Mrs. (Gaelic treiibhantas [sickles] at her. Again. The Maiden was her.) ^ A. cut in the following manner. Maclagan with the following account of the Highland customs at harvest. and was an object of lively competition among the reapers. on Loch Awe. The Maiden was represented by the last stalks reaped the Cailleach by a handful taken at random from the field. op. R. and then hung up on a nail till spring. and for the privilege she gave of sending the Cailleach to the next neighbour.

" Folk-lore. old clothes and a pipe. says last field to first where the the farm. Maclagan observes that " having directed the attention of Miss Kerr. The Cailleach is with entertainment was as follows I drink to her and is now with (me) since I was the last.' To your health.' it ' is likely that it In explaining the above toast Mr. Kilchrenan. Port Charlotte. . The last blades cut were generally in the middle or best part of the field. should the owner be so happy as to be able to pass her on to his neighbour. to the practice of having two difTerent bunches on the mainland of Argyle." Lastly.1 66 " CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN chap. says that at Crianlarich in Strath Fillan. Argyleshire. ]% sq. Kilchrenan. the corn was reserved to make a Cailleach. (1896) pp. while in Mull the last handful is the Maiden. : health.' " John MacCorquodale. The same is the custom in Bernara and other parts of the Western Isles. Dr. The list suggested that the upper farms stood a bad chance. In North Uist the habit still prevails of putting the Cailleach over-night among the standing corn of lazy crofters. . it she will abide during the winter. Duncan Maclntyre. others before and is now with me (the proposer of the toast). which he mentioned. which was taken near the edge. C. she informs is me that in Islay and Kintyre the last handful the Cailleach. and if I live I'll try to support you when winter comes. Though I did my best to avoid her I welcome her as my assistant. passed in succession to seven farms. Islay. they make a Cailleach of sticks and In this case the o. A sample of the toast to the Cailleach ' at the harvest .'i'^^y a turnip. that in one case be reaped was the most fertile land on cut in it. Another form of the toast was as follows good wife. who for harvest has come to help us. These in any event became the Maiden. and they have no Maiden. is with me Since she assisted me in harvest. and : ' finally settled with an innkeeper. and they have no Cailleach. and perhaps that a prosperous innkeeper could more easily bear up against the reproach and loss " ij) of supporting the Cailleach." ^ The ^ general rule to which these various accounts point Maclagan. Campbell says that Cailleach is signifies that the She has been with always with agriculturists. and am prepared to entertain her during the winter. . vii. " Corn -maiden in R.

73 sgq. she is passed on hastily to a neighbour who is still at work in his fields and who receives his aged visitor with anything but a transport has cut year. the the^oid ahvays made out of the last stalks left standing.^ The harvest customs just described are strikingly analogous to the spring customs which we reviewed in the first part of this work. and is regularly passed on to a laggard farmer Maiden the who happens to be still reaping after his brisker neighbour new com Maiden is . particularly in the practice of passing on a hideous straw puppet to a neighbour farmer who is still threshing his corn. not the Maiden. as the embodiment of the young and fruitful spirit of the corn. . all his corn. ever. p. See above. where the last corn cut is called. of joy. as she probably does wherever she contrasted with and opposed to a Maiden. Thus while each farmer keeps his own Maiden. Similarly we saw that in Pembrokeshire. is natural enough that her faded charms should have less attractions for the hus- bandman than grain the buxom form of her daughter. The same desire to get rid of the effete Mother of the Corn by palming her off on other people comes out clearly in some of the customs observed at the close of threshing. and so the old lady may make the round of all the farms in the district before she finds a place in which to lay her venerable head. The farmer with whom she finally takes up her abode is of course the one who has been the last of all the countryside to finish reaping his crops. 167 in these seems to be iCailleacJi) are where both a Maiden and an Old Wife fashioned out of the reaped corn at harvest. but the Hag.^ so in ^ Analogy of customsTo the spring Europe. sometimes out of the first i^st year. who may be expected to become in her turn the mother of the golden when the revolving year has brought round another autumn. and thus the distinction of entertaining her is rather an invidious one. and Wifereprewhile the Old qi^ corn of is kept by the farmer on whose land it was cut Wife is made out of other stalks. 149. Old Man. is how- 2 See The Magic Art and the Evoii. (i) As in the spring customs the treespirit is represented both by a tree and by a person. stalks cut. he passes on the Old Wife as soon as he can to a neighbour. the coin-spirit conceived as an lution of Kings. where. If the Old Wife represents the it corn-spirit of the is past year.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN that.

^4. therefore. P- p. . pp. ^^^^ Gebrmiche nnd Mdrcheit ofKzrtg^.^x. 160 sq. custom the human beings were probably representatives of the corn-spirit rather than victims offered to it. pp. 136. it must be made up into human shape by the oldest married woman. shewn by giving him or her the same name as the sheaf by and by the rule observed in wrapping him or her in it . 135. A. its supeven women ^ is ascribed to the corn-spirit. Westfalen (Leipsic. 155. 135. 137. woman. which was doubtless practised by our forefathers long before the dawn of history. 185. to sheaf to a mare in first shewn by giving the a cow in calf. the Evolution ^ . \ Above. pp. Above. influence on indicated by the custom of delivering the Mother-sheaf... 134. and to horses its at the ploughing. cattle. to the farmer's wife by the person The spring belief that the woman who '^ binds the last sheaf will have a child next year .5- ^'''^'2^'^' ''^2^'Set^below -.' "/ -^ The Magic Art and . pp. 139. posed influence on vegetation is shewn by the practice of taking some of the grain of the last sheaf (in which the corn-spirit is regularly supposed to be present). and Thus. into the likeness of a pregnant women is made ^ .^ Lastly. and form parts ir & of the Same primitive heathendom.. compare p. 162. ^^°^'^' Sasren. 155. ^ ' ^Z Compare 1S59). 158. 134. ^. ii.^ andharvest i^^ggfj customs of Europe are pdmit'ive^ and harvest customs are Same ancient modes of thought. 157 . and scattering it among the young corn in spring or mixing is it with the seed-corn. 138 sq. p. too. 160. the harvest customs the corn-spirit represented both by the last sheaf and by the person who cuts or binds or The equivalence of the person to the sheaf is threshes it. but that when it is called the Maiden. s Above. . Kuhn. Plainly. * sq. it must be Here the age of the personal cut by the youngest girl. 141.j^g ' heathen ritual. ^ See above. s J J' §516.^ representative of the corn-spirit corresponds with that of the supposed age of the corn-spirit. 156. 165. . these spring |. just as the human victims offered by the Mexicans to promote the growth of the maize For in the Mexican. * Above. (2) Again.i68 CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN is chap. that when the sheaf is called the Mother.^ in the European. 162. as varied with the age of the maize. by the idea that the who ^^ gets it will soon be married. perhaps.^ last Its influence on animals foal. the same fertilising influence which the tree-spirit is supposed to exert over vegetation. . some places.^Tsqq.

^ are believed to directly through a physical influence the course of nature sympathy or resemblance between it is the rite and the effect which the intention of the rite to produce. No special places are set apart for the performance of the rites in other words. The rites may be performed by any one. and praise. are not to definite departments of nature.V CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN the : 169 Amongst following 1. there is an indefinite number of spirits of each class. to definite departments of nature. . there are no priests. be per- formed by any one.Marks No special is set apart of a formance of the rites in other words. . have already explained. The rites may be performed anywhere. exclusively apart for their performance For [^^'j^^^'^^" of persons and no special places are set . the spring and harvest customs of Reasons our European peasantry deserve to rank as primitive. The rites are magical rather than propitiatory. ritual we may note for the the per. as restricted from spirits. boy or modem ^ The Alagic Art and the Evolution of Kings. marks of a primitive class of persons . mistress or maid. gods. are recognised. Persephone. Again. 220 . In other words. as occasion demands. 2. the desired prayer. and the individuals of a class are all much alike they have no definitely marked individuality no accepted traditions are current as to their origin. as occasion demands. and character. not proper. Spirits. objects are attained. Judged by these no special class tests. adventures. Dionysus and their individual characters and histories are fixed by current . i. . Their attributes are generic. life. not by propitiating the favour of divine beings through as I sacrifice. they bear individual or proper names. there are no temples. in {a) As distin- spirits are restricted their operations Their names are general. art. It is true that there is generally some one department over which they preside as their special province but they are not rigorously confined to it they can exert their power for good or evil in many other spheres of nature and life. guished from gods. rather than individual in other words. spring and ^usuj^i's of they may sqq. but by ceremonies which. distinguished {h) On the other hand gods. master or man. . ruJ^r^'^ not 3. such as Demeter. . myths and the representations of 4.

139. Persephone. 137. the Old like . is as in the spring customs. but every Corn-mother. names attributes are known. Second Edition. 1 Above. 134. . with the Old propitiatory. p. but their individual histories and For they exist in characters are not the subject of myths. 155. i^^sq. Above. the Maiden. in these harvest. pp.* . and so Barley-mother. the ritual is magical rather than shewn by throwing the Corn-mother into the river in order to secure rain and dew for the crops . Above. chap. pp. or its Maiden Corn-mother is much like every other Corn-mother.I70 Europe as aprimitive CORN-MOTHER AND CORN-MAIDEN . 152. Above. custom of wetting the last sheaf and its bearer is no doubt also a raincharm. 158. 143. classes rather than as individuals. not in temples or churches. The common 146.. or its Old Woman. in barns. 145 . indeed the intention to pro- 134. but in ^^ woods and mcadows. See above. 134. beside brooks. not proper Their generic Dionysus. and the members of each For example.^ by making the Old Woman heavy in order to get a heavy crop next year ^ by strewing grain from the last sheaf amongst the young crops in spring ^ and by giving the last sheaf to the cattle to make them thrive. . 195-1972 cure rain or make the corn grow is ^ * sometimes avowed. p. 138. Attis. on harvest The supernatural beings whose fields and cottage floors. 161. like the departments of nature : Woman. Demeter. every farm has its class are indistinguishable. is existence : taken for granted in them are spirits rather than their functions are limited to certain well-defined deities their names are general. Adonis. pp. Lastly. Osiris. 144. v girl they are practised. pp. Women This and Maidens.

in the farm-house from Peruvian harvest to harvest. 143. or the among the r puppet which is formed out of them. and being thus wrapped and dressed. 7.^ The intention no doubt is. in order that the corn may grow and the crops be good. 153. the which they put in a certain granary which they do call Pirua. If Europe has its Wheat -mother and its Barley. The same simple idea has suggested itself to other agricultural races in distant parts of the world. and hold : — . and has been applied by them to other indigenous cereals than barley and wheat. 136.mother. by preserving the representative of the corn-spirit to maintain the spirit itself in life and activity throughout the year. and thus described by the old Spanish historian Acosta " They take a certain portion of the most fruitful of the maize that grows in their farms. European peoples. they worship this Pirun. Rice-mother. have not been The singular in personifying the corn as a mother goddess. pp. 138. 157. 155' 156. 140. 171 Mannhardt. ^ Above.mother and the East Indies their These personifications I will now illustrate. 154. 26.CHAPTER THE CORN-MOTHER § I. pp. Die Kornddmonen. or rather originally was. beginning with the American personification of the maize. modern. 158: W. . We have seen that among European peoples it is a common i^ J The Maize '"°''i*^'' custom to keep the plaited corn-stalks of the last sheaf. America has its Maize. VI IN MANY LANDS iii The Corn-mother ancient and America Corn™°'^^'" '" lands. This interpretation of the custom is at all events rendered highly probable by a similar custom observed by the ancient Peruvians. 152. with certain ceremonies. watching three nights they put this maize in the richest garments they have.

to Mannhardt by J- /• 117 of that edition. original Spanish text of Acosta's cion contra las idolatrias de los Indies del ar^obispado de Lima) by Pedro de in The work was reprinted in a convenient form at Madrid in 1894. saying that they renew the end the seed of maize may not perish. according to every man's power the . then they then they carry this maize to the farm to burn. answer- and is preserved. The Peruvians. the Quinoamother. Natural History of the Indies. the Maize-mother {Zaramama). p. . bk. the Quinoa-mother {Quinoa-mama). the Cocamother. hardt's ( vol. Society. This foolish vanity continueth to this day. authority 342 is sq. divine these who beings were called . 1649. it . Villagomez. is the mother of the maize of their inheritances. maize. the Coca-mother {Coca-inavia). make another it. ^ J. and the Potato- mother among the Peruvian Indians. pp. Forschiingen. Acosta miscauses their growth. ii.172 it THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS saying it in great veneration. Thus the Maize-mother was represented by a puppet made of stalks of maize dressed in full female attire and the Indians believed that " as mother. Figures of these divine mothers were made respectively of ears of maize and leaves of the quinoa and coca plants they were dressed in women's clothes and worshipped. and Moral v. and it is very common amongst the Indians to have these Piruas. and the witches hath strength sufficient to conand if it answers no. ii. Mannhardt. Manntract e iiistrnc- a Spanish Carta pastorale de exo>-tacion age London. with to same ceremonies. published at Archbishop Lima of Lima. which was worshipped answers that by the Peruvians and regarded as the Mother of the Maize." ^ In this description of the custom there seems to be Probably it was the dressed-up bunch of some error. not the granary {Pirud). See vol. therefore. <le Acosta. This is confirmed by what we know of the Peruvian custom from another source. and that by In this this means the maize augments [the sixth month. it had the power of producing and giving birth to much maize. p. and com- municated V. and if it it hath force sufficient to last longer. month May] they make a demand of this Ph^ua if ing to tinue until the next year particular sacrifice. 374 (Hakluyt 28. 1880). whence they brought it. Mylhohgischc Tschudi. ch. According to the particular plant. In quoting the passI have modernised the spelling. The Carta Pastorale itself seems to be partly based on an earlier . Pima." ^ Probably. and the Potato-mother {Axo-niania). we are told. believed all useful plants to be animated by a divine being The Maizemother. they leave it until the next year. 2 W.

1621). y llicilla. Hke the harvest-Maiden at Balquhidder. of superstition Bolivia. i.S. and mucho tambieii la coca. y pa?-ir mazorcas del maiz. y sacrijican a Libiac para que les de buena cosecha. and were revered como a madres del maiz.xford. y son las qtie se quentan entre las cosas halladas en los pueblos. xxi. and Potatomothers in his own words. PajTie. and on it them to the At Tarija in ecclesiastical down Cocamamas para augmento Otras son de piedra labradas como choclos. o qtiando sale7t dos macorcas juntas. y de estas suelen tener muchas en higar de Conopas [household gods]. He says 16): '' Zarainamas. 1892). but the bunch of The Peruvian Mother of maize dressed in rich vestments. work. eii del Piru. que tienen bien que comer las mulas. As Arriaga's work is rare. que son qtiando salen algunas papas juntas. the Extirpacion de la Idolatria Dirigido al Key N. where I consulted it. o Caullazara. La misma supersticion tienen con las que llama?t Axomamas. que llaman Ayj-ihua. A este viodo tienen de to the present time. a cross is set up at harvest in the maize-fields. "Travels on the Boundaries of Bolivia and Argentina. Mantayzara. Similarly. See Baron E. Coca-mothers.spadices growing as twins hung. y en las Piruas (que son dofide guardan el maiz) paraque se las guarde. que son otras macorcas en que van subiendo los granos no derechos sino haziendo carcuol. y acabado el bayle. the Maize. ponen supersticiosamente en los montones de maiz. History oj the New World called America (O. y estas son las principales. Con la misma supersticion guardan las maize-cobs naturally joined last. 414 sq. las queman. y colgando estas canas con tnuchos choclos de unos ramos de sauce bailen con ellas el bayle. 16) that the Maize{Zaramamas) are of three namely (i) those which are made of maize stalks. Otras son algutias canasje7-tiles de maiz. Ayrihuayzara. sino que le tienen supersticiosamente como una cosa sag>-ada. PP. it may be well to give his account of the Maizemothers. que llaman Micsazara. were the principal Za7'atna?nas.mothers (Axomamas) and kept them in order to get a good crop of potatoes. the writer tells us. J. and the Mother of the Maize which he describes was not the granary (Pirua). que salen muy pintadas.5i7> 518.THE CORN-MOTHER IN AMERICA 173 understood his informant. The mothers sorts. maiz. y assi las reveretician . vestida como muger con su anaco." The Geographical Journal. por el Padre Pablo Joseph de Arriaga de la Compafiia de Jesus (Lima. ni Conopa. These by the natives as Mothers of the Maize. writer explains (p. and (3) those which consist simply of stalks of maize or of two fruitful together. Nordenskiold. They are called Pachamamas (Earth-mothers) and are thought to bring good harvests. con sus p-anos relevados. y gratides. y sus topos de plafa. y entienden. y el dia de las exhibiciones se Junta tanto de estas mazorcas. A este tercer genero no le dan la adoracion que a Huaca. when two potatoes were found growing together the Indians called them Potato . A copy of this work is possessed by the British Museum. y otros que Hainan Piruazai-a. La pn-imera es tma como mutieca hecha de cahas de maiz. Zaramamas. Estas Micsazara. maneras. Su real conseio de Indias. mazorcas de maiz. (2) those which are carved of stone in the likeness of cobs of maize. y las guardan para tener buena papas. maize . (1903) all are Compare E. son de tres (p. que con la Jertilidad de la tierra dieron muchas macorcas.'''' cosecha de The forth exhibiciones 'Wtx^xtitxt^^ to are the occasions when idols the Indians brought relics their and other delivered visitors. Piruazai-a. dressed up like women. que como madre tiene vh'tud de engendrar. was kept for a year in order that by her means the corn might grow But lest her strength might not suffice to last and multiply. a estas llaman tambien Htiantayzai-a.

both periodicThe Mother of the Maize was ally and occasionally. we have a strong confirmation of the explanation already given of the custom of killing the god. After sacrificing to the harvest god. 419 sq.174 till THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS the next harvest. 505 sq. elaborately ornamented. went in procession to the maize fields. attended by the nobles of Mexico. C Anti^riqiie 1857- New E. History of the IVorld failed America. Then the priests and nobles met again at the temple. .. to live through a year. Hisloire Nations civilises du Mexique et de Centrale (Patis. Hardly less clearly does the same train of thought come out in the harvest customs formerly observed by the Zapotecs At harvest the priests. J. as a rule. lest the maize which depended on her for its existence should languish and decay. i. wrapt in its various envelopes. when the time of harvest drew near. and placed it in the temple upon an altar adorned with wild flowers. who distributed the year . J . the buried sheaf was solemnly disinterred by the priests." observed. iii. 1859). Finally. she was burned and a fresh Mother of the Maize made. and a fresh and vigorous Mother of the Maize took her place. which continued to be annually cele- ' des Brasseur de Boiirbourg. The sheaf was then carried once more in procession to the field from which it had been taken. The packets of grain so dis- tributed were carefully preserved as talismans till the harvest. grain to all who asked for it. how she felt. " to the Here. Here a small cavity or subterranean chamber had been prepared. 40 sqq. -in which the precious sheaf was deposited. iii. and if she answered that she felt weak. where they picked out the largest and finest sheaf This they took with great ceremony to the town or village. allowed. Immediately thereafter the sowing began.^ In these ceremonies. she was asked in the course of the Customs of the ancient Mexicans at the maizeharvesl. After sacrifice had been offered to the gods of the fields for an abundant crop the chamber was closed and covered over with earth. Payne. Compare id. the priests carefully wrapped up the sheaf in fine linen and kept it till seed-time. in which the linen cloth containing the sheaf was enveloped. it may be end the seed of maize may not perish. and people. one of them bringing the skin of a wild beast. that being the period during which her strength might reasonably be supbut on any symptom of her posed to last unimpaired strength failing she was put to death.

in Mexico '°'°"' of a missionary. in was discovered and published almost simultaneously Mexico and England in the first half of the nineteenth It exists in century. Another chapter of pp. Fortunately. Sahaguns of^th"'^''°" Mexican goddess her festival. the double form of an Aztec text and a Spanish translation. and embodied them in a work which. who arrived Mexican 1529. and devoted the remaining sixty-one years of his long life to labouring among the Indians for their Uniting the curiosity of a moral and spiritual good. 67 sqq. 1899) of the Mexican gods. Studien. appears to furnish much more ample details on many points. but it the original Aztec text. and in the interest of learning it is greatly to be desired that a complete edition and translation of it should be given to the world. both due to Sahagun himself the Spanish version has hitherto been published in Only full. Mitseum fiir Volker- kundc. he obtained from the oldest and most learned of the Indians accounts of their ancient customs and beliefs. This great document. 2/4 Heft." Veroffentlichungen aus dent kduiglichen Museum fiir Volkerkunde. has perhaps never been scientific enquirer to the zeal both qualities with the equalled in the records of aboriginal peoples brought into contact with European civilisation." " Altmexikanische aiis Veroffentlichungen dem kiviiglicken vi. to judge by the l&w extracts of which have been edited and translated. has been edited and translated into German by Professor E.^ ^ E. the religious it festivals of the ancient Mexican From we learn some valuable particulars as to and Seler.. . ii. the intention of keeping the finest sheaf buried in the maize field from seed-time to harvest was undoubtedly to quicken the growth of the maize. and adorning humanity and benevolence of a good man. A in fuller and to some extent different account of the Sahagun's ancient Mexican worship of the maize has been given us fheancLm by the Franciscan monk Bernardino de Sahagun. Sahagun'swork. for combined interest of matter and fulness of detail. after lying neglected in the dust of Spanish archives for centuries. among the sections of this great work which have been edited and translated from the Aztec original into German by Professor Eduard Seler of Berlin is a long one describing calendar. only eight years after its conquest by the Spaniards.describing the costumes (Berlin. Seler in the same series of publications ("Altmexikanische Studien.VI THE CORN-MOTHER IN AMERICA 175 brated long after the Spanish conquest.

She was supposed to make all kinds of maize. red in face and arms and legs. Jourdanet and R. No doubt the red colour of the goddess and her garments it was referred to the deep orange hue of the ripe maize like the yellow hair of the Greek corn-goddess Demeter. the worship of the Maize-goddess and the ceremonies observed by the Mexicans for the purpose of ensuring a good crop The festival was the fourth of the Aztec year. Simeon's introduction to the translation. The name of which corresponds to the seventh of April. setting them up in their gods. probably to resemble the red Maize-goddess. Sahagun's work as a whole is known to me only in the excellent French translation of Messrs. and fetched from every field maize-fields sent out to the brought to their houses and they which a plant of maize.). wearing a paper crown dyed vermilion. and the third was full-grown Red feathers were with her hair wound round her head. And i. The maize-cobs which they brought to the temple of the Maize-goddess were called by the name of the Maize-god Cinteotl. cobs were carried by in the used be were to One three maidens in bundles of seven wrapt in red paper. 1 880). 1 17 sqq. gummed to the arms and legs of the three maidens and their faces were painted. It fell on a date and went by the name of the Great Vigil. pp. another was older with long hair hanging down. character of Sahagun see M. As to the life and Paris. and placing food them in clothing dwellings. NouveUe-Espagne par le . the Maize-goddess was Chicome couatl. where they temple plants to the another and fought and struck from one them snatched Further. and the Mexicans conceived and represented her in the form of a woman. sqq. . 4 (Berlin. at this festival they brought with them. of maize. vii. and On the day of the festival the Mexicans vegetables to grow. and clad in garments of the hue of ripe cherries. Simeon (Hisfoire Ghiirale des choses de la R. D. P. 1890) pp. of the girls was small with short hair. Fi-ay Bernardino de Sahagtin. whom they may be supposed to have personated at various stages of the growth of the corn. other each Maize-goddess the maize-cobs which of the temple the to The sowing. maize greeted as their garments.176 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS chap. beans. after sunset they carried the maizeof the Maize-goddess. R. and they were afterwards deposited in the granary before them.

1 of the ^. 296 sq." have very fond This divine of De-o-ha-ko. J. ^? r . '$. 280. Mooney. 7 J Sahasjun.[dfanT" corn." ii. trinity " is Our Life " or " trinity known by the name Our Supporters. and had a grain exceedingly rich in oil. of each other. Part I. Morgan.^ The eastern Indians of North America. • 1 ^ \ > pp. . went forth into the fields and blighted them. pp. (Washington. Histotre Geiierale aes choses J 1 -KT ij T/n . who subsisted The Corn'"°^'^'^' extent by the cultivation of maize. . . ^ 00 -ri. who may sometimes be heard weeping in the fields so afraid . o. three persons of the no individual and are never mentioned separately except by means of description. u the corn plant sprang from the bosom . 199. > 1 • .. • H. 432. . 1903). 423. 1880). de Sahagun. 7. V.^ The Huichol Indians of Mexico imagine maize to be a little girl.x Adonis. . and of Squashes to be three sisters clad in the leaves of their respective plants.' ^ According to the Iroquois sq.{^xx\!ae. Iroqziois ^ /t> u . y 1 . o T> J See B. (Rochester. 2 ^ ^^ Mexico J. 1900) pp. . / -^ ry r^ ^ f. . the Spirit of Beans. 188-194. which means The names. vi. Seler. translated by Professor E. ^ . when the wind rustles in the corn. VOL.. " Myths of the Cherokee. . And still.VI THE CORN-MOTHER IN AMERICA " 177 and kept there as the heart of the granary " till the sowing time came round. - Leasrue . Morgan. version of Sahagun s work is a Spanish ^ . b r cit. envious of this good gift of the Great Spirit to man. ii. yielded abundantly. 161 -"^ . . . (Berlin. I .. crenerally to a larcre J o & ^ among the ' maize as a woman. „_ ^ ^ L. de good deal more summary.oo^\ de la Nouvelle Espame (Pans. Aztec text of book ii." The Iroquois believe the Spirit the Spirit of the Corn. " Altmexikanische o Studien. ° TT^f . Osiris. V ' . of the Bureau of American Ethnology. is she of the wild beasts that eat the corn. the pious Indian fancies he hears the Spirit of the Corn bemoaning her blighted fruitfulness. op. formulas of the Cherokee the corn is sometimes invoked as "the Old Woman. 94-96. Attis." . H. ^ . . ^='" ^^ 7^ account of the ceremonies given in the „ r c 1. and delighting to dwell together... pp.* ^ B. till the Evil One. 2/4 Heft Second Edition.T-. when they were used as seed. The 1899)..i." and one of their myths relates how a hunter saw a fair woman issue from a single green stalk of conceived the spirit of the North i. . • 1851). Lumholtz. Unknotvn (London. and supposed that the plant itself had sprung originally from the blood In the sacred drops or the dead body of the Corn Woman. PT..'" Nineteenth Annual Report * C. The Indians have a legend that of old the corn was easily cultivated.. of the mother of the Great Spirit after -^ ^ i_ /t tt tvt her burial (L. Verdffentlichnngen aus dem k'dniglichen Museum fUr Volkerkunde.&e. pp.

a name Bhogaldal. more or less That this pretended dishevelled.^ S 3. and after a struggle it remains. the time village used to prac- abduction of the straw are tise woman from depends upon the state of the crops. and dai (for daiyd). ^^^ ^^^ \i\n6. sary of Terms used in the North.'e. bride seems a ceremony j still practised by j Berbers. to pieces of cotton taken from the other This selected plant is called Sirdar or mother-cotton. When the women the Berbers near Tangier. B. Berbers of A7it/irop. but the day and hour made this public before the event. (189S) (London. 1869).178 l^HE CORN-MOTHER IN The Mother-cotton MANY LANDS Punjaub chap. is H. the bridegroom carries off his seemingly unwilling bride on horseback. 254. Beames Morocco. they take with them a straw figure dressed like a Suddenly a group of horsemen from a neighbouring village gallops up and carries off the straw puppet amid the screams and cries of the women. sprinkle it it with butter-milk and rice-water. to a sometimes " a mother. No fixed date is appointed for the simulated the barley-field. The Barley Bride among the in the Berbers The Barley ^"^"^^ among . M. in the hands of the women. at a real wedding. to the east of the Jumna. ' when the cotton in the to burst. . nowadays the "The xxvii. given large cotton-pod.Western Provinces. prayers are plants of the field. assemble in the fields to weed the green barley or reap the crops." from bhogla. Institu. edited by J. in Morocco. in the The ^°*'^^''." and after it has been saluted." Journal of the pological 68. i. the ravished ^^gy is rescued by another band of mounted men. Punjaub. Each mimic contest growing for possession of the straw who probably custom 1 represents the Barley Bride. to her rescue. S 2. while she screams and pretends to summon her friends woman. and set it up among the corn. Elliot. Supplemental Glos- W.'^ - woman. is that " offered that the other plants may resemble it in the richness of their produce. abduction is a mimic marriage appears from a Berber custom in accordance with which. the to The Conception of come out clearly ' corn-spirit as a i. but obsolete. cotton boles be^in & it is usual to select the largest t3 plant in the field. In the Punjaub. However. Harris.

covering village contribute . the most ancient race now remaining in these regions. and that the procession is designed to promote the growth of the crops by imparting to them the quickening influence of the goddess. These ceremonies are said by the people to bring good luck. the women of the runs as follows villages Bride BTrbefs'^^ make up the figure of a female. We can therefore understand why there should be a competition among the women for the possession of the effigy each woman probably hopes to secure for herself and her crops a larger measure of fertility by appropriating the image of the Corn .VI THE BARLEY BRIDE AMONG THE BERBERS An earlier : 179 Another ^^'^Q""' ^^ the Barley account of what seems to be the same practice " . which the Berber is women carry about when the corn sprouting. screaming and singing a peculiar ditty. Western Barbary. Competi^^'^ [J^°"^ session of thatrewesents the mother John Drummond Hay. 306 . Their efficacy ought to be great. the size of a very large doll. (1896) pp." their fields ^ We may conjecture that this gaudily dressed effigy of a female. The doll is borne by the foremost woman. The competition on horseback among the men is no doubt to be . There is a curious custom which seems to be a relic of their pagan masters. which they dress in the gaudiest fashion they can it with ornaments to which all in the something and they give it a tall. When the young corn has sprung up. which it does about the middle of February. vii. quoted in Folksq. 9. The Berber tribes. The men also have a similar custom. are the only ones which retain this antique usage. which they perform on horseback. who made this and the adjoining regions of North Africa the main granary of their Latin empire. which is the cause of much racing and squabbling. its Wild Tribes and Savage ^ Sir Animals (1844). and I never met with a Moor who could in any way enlighten me as to their origin. who must yield it to any one who is quick enough to take the lead of her. p. lore. for you frequently see crowds of men engaged in their performances running and galloping recklessly over the young crops of wheat and barley. Such customs are directly opposed to the faith of Islam. peaked This image they carry in procession round head-dress. and it is viewed by the Arabs and dwellers in the town as a remnant contrive. They call the image Mata. of idolatry. represents the Corn- mother. to which they give the name. their fields.mother.

though if its absence be prolonged beyond certain limits the plant will wither and Now the whole of the in Dyaks observe the rice is based on the belief that the rice is animated by a soul. perhaps of a male power of the corn. there is a certain vital element. race with each other in their eagerness to possess themselves of an effigy.^ 8 4. these doubts may perhaps be dispelled by comparing the customs observed at the rice-harvest by the Malays and Dyaks of the East Indies. as in the body of a man. The Rice-mother still in the East Indies to the Comparison of the If the reader feels any doubts as meaning of the harvest customs which have been practised within European ritual of the corn with the Indonesian ritual of the rice. among which horse-races as well as Eleusinian the in foot-races were included. decay and death in the rice on the same principles on which they explain the They imagine corresponding phenomena in human beings. intellectual stage at which the customs are still their theory and their practice in unison them the quaint rites which in Europe have long dwindled into mere fossils. we of have Europe. which is so far independent of the plant that it may for a time be completely separated from it without fatal effects. the pastime of clowns and . pp. growth. ^ See above. are still living realities of which they can render an intelligible and truthful account. the phenomena of reproduction. . like our peasantry. ritual which the Malays and connexion with the rice is founded on the simple conception of the rice as animated by a soul like They explain that which these people attribute to mankind. too. for the puzzle of the learned. advanced beyond the originated . among the on the fields Perhaps they help to explain some of the contests games. living memory by European peasants. corn-spirit Such contests in for possession harvest of as the embodied the corn-stalks are reapers common.i8o THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS . 70 sqq. explained similarly they. seen. Hence a study of their beliefs and usages concerning the rice may throw some The Indonesian ritual of light on the true meaning of the ritual of the corn in ancient Greece and modern Europe. For these Eastern peoples have not. that in the fibres of the plant. by whose help they expect to procure a heavy crop.

just as a and separable element is commonly supposed man and on this theory or myth of the plant-soul is built the whole worship of the cereals. He. just as on the theory or myth of the human soul is built the whole worship of the dead. It was not a soul in the modern English sense. for he believes that this spirit of active and vigorous life so be liable to capture must quit the body when the body sleeps and by the use of magic arts. he sometimes appeals to to return : Hither. of — : which. its separation from the body did not necessarily mean death. therefore. he ' will describe his condition is by saying that his spirit of life weak or it is ' flying ' ' from his to body bird . of my soul. R. hither. the semangat it come out most The Malay considers from the intended for next year's sowing as otherwise the dead seed would fail to produce any crop whatever. approaches the standing rice-crops at harvest-time in a essential that the spirit of life should not depart rice deprecatory manner he addresses them in endearing terms he offers propitiatory sacrifices he fears that he may scare . The strict parallelism between the Indonesian ideas Parallelism about the soul of man and the soul of rice is well brought the !f*T^" human out by Mr. J. separable element call is what.' When once the seed-rice ' . existed in things. It is.' Or again. but he does it with a knife of peculiar shape. away the timorous ' bird of life ' by the sight of a weapon or the least sign of violence. ceremonies connected with the ' however. according to the all soui?^^* belief. ' in the so-called spirit of the rice-crops that the peculiar characteristics of clearly. such that the cruel blade is hidden away beneath the reaper's fingers and does not alarm the soul of the rice. if a Malay ' feels faint. — fc> ancient Indonesian even in what we should now consider inanimate objects is known as the semangat. He must reap the seed-rice. Wilkinson in the following passage " The soui and to constitute the soul of . girl. for the want of a better word. — ' ' day. since it was not the exclusive possession of mankind. At the present spirit life. similar vital we must the soul of a plant. . and its nature may possibly not have been considered immortal. if a Malay lover wishes influence the mind of a he may seek to obtain control of her semangat. .VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES This vital yet i8i die. a towering superstructure reared on a slender and precarious foundation.

in the ordinary sense but to be possessed tondi to of a soul-stuff which in strength and dignity ranks with that Thus the Bataks apply the same word the soul-stuff of rice and the soul-stuff of Whereas the Dyaks of Poelopetak give the human beings. name of gana to the soul-stuff of things. 374 ness. and plants. that the Indonesian imagines rice to be ' animated. and to Adam who. each of these stages there is a risk that the vitality of the In crop may be ruined if the bird of life is scared away. see Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. much less kill. Malay Beliefs (London and Leyden.' Since rice is everywhere with cultivated in the Indian Archipelago. and some exceptions is the staple food. Wilkinson (of the Civil SerFederated Malay States). to do so would On the conception 1906). we see the the old Indonesians. to the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. these birds . vice of the forming and vanishes after harvest. See A.i82 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS chap. pp. — many of these references only represent the attempts of the conservative Malays to their old make religions harmonize with later beliefs. "De Rijstmoeder in den Indischen Archipel. we need not wonder that the Indonesian conceives the rice to be not merely animated of man. C. which builds its the full reference in the next nest in the rice-field when the ears are note). and the characteristic view that the best protection against evil lies in gentleness and courtesy to ^ all animate and inanimate things. R. of the soul as a bird. The Toradjas of Central Celebes think that the soul of the rice is embodied in a pretty little not only injure the crop." The rice. (see blue bird. to be provided with soul-stuff. pp." says another eminent authority on " stuff of the East Indies. has been harvested. 33 sqq. . soul- " It is a familiar fact. more expeditious reaping-tools may be employed. the processes of rice-cultivation Similar rites attend all for at sowing and the planting-out as well as the harvest. since it is clearly unnecessary to retain the spirit of life in grain that is only intended for the cooking-pot. the theory of a bird-spirit Beneath animism of of life. Kruyt." p. the language used by the high-priests of these very ancient ceremonies we constantly find references to Sri (the Hindu Goddess of the Crops). according to Moslem tradition. successive layers of religious veneer. 49-51. Hence no one may drive away. they give the name ^ of hanibaruan to the soul-stuff of rice as well as of J. was the first — — the planter of cereals . animals. the sacrilegious wretch himself would suffer from sick- which might end in blindness.

lest they should so frighten the soul of the rice that it would miscarry and bear no grain and for the same reason they will Moreover. the Indonesians naturally treat it with the j^y ^^^^ ^ndeference and the consideration which they shew to their donesians Thus they behave towards the rice in bloom as ^^ere a fellows." because. 363 5^y. but as a sort of fluid or ether diffused through every part of See his work. r/A pp. and the inhabitants of the island of sefiiangat Buru we know that they ascribe a sumatige. C. . they attribute a tanoana It need hardly or soul-stuff only to men. ^ See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings \\. 1 A. sumangat. " De Rijstmoeder in den Indischen Archipel. Malays. Halmahera call the soul- stuff of things and plants giki and duhutu. they feed the blooming rice with foods of various kinds which are believed to be wholesome for women with child but when the rice-ears are just beginning to form. that while all Rice-mother in the But it is to be observed the Indonesian peoples than of " a soul. Macassars. Of the Javanese. A. and rice. " De Rijstmoeder. . 361-41 1 ) contains a valuable collection of facts relating to what the writer calls the East Indies. animals. 1906). essay (pp. . not talk of corpses or demons in the rice-fields.^ In such natural and obvious comparisons of the breeding plant to a breeding woman. Kru\t. C.. Toradjas of Central Celebes while they manifestly conceive things and plants as animated." ^/. not as a tiny being confined to a single part of the body. Vierde Reeks. be said that this custom originates in the very high value all that is set on rice. is to be sought the origin of the kindred Greek a . they behave towards a pregnant woman they abstain from woman. 145-150) the writer more summary account of the seem to treat a certain portion of the with superstitious respect and ceremony." ^ Believing the rice to be animated by a soul like that of Rice man. . Buginese." Verslagen en Mededeelii7gende7-koninklijke Akademie van iVetensc happen. pp. I sqq. Afdeeling Letter- kunde. Kruyt prefers to speak of "soulrice at harvest Indonesian theory of the rice-soul. according to him. v. but in men and food they recognise a guruini. stuff " rather latter gives a work (pp. or So it is with the to rice as well as to men. and women go through the fields feeding them with rice-pap as if they were human babes. and of the young grain to a young child. part 4 (AmThis sterdam. 28 j-^.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES So also the inhabitants of 183 man. in living beings the animating principle is conceived. pp. . Kruyt. 31 o sqq. 361 sq. only a part of them actually call it "the Rice-mother. firing guns or making loud noises in the field. Het Atiithe body. 1903). they are looked upon as infants. ." Mr. misine in den Indischen Archipel (The In the Hague.

a spatula. C. 411 sq. the basket. 3 See Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. and Rijstmoeder. 157 J^. 1904-1907).!. " De 1 2 Borneo ["Le^ydtn. * See above. so that she has no warning or inkling of what is going forward till the heads of rice are safely deposited in . " A. conception of the Corn -mother and the Corn -daughter. See above. which the rice-spirit cannot be expected to understand.^ corn as other instru^jy jjjg a gift rice.^ the reaping of the seed-rice is done with knives of a peculiar pattern.^ it in a primitive division of labour between the But if the timorous feminine soul of the rice can be frightened into a miscarriage even by loud noises. cit. pp. Among the instruments employed for this purpose are a miniature ladder. A. they are essentially an ^^^^ Among thrsoui of the rice. 113 sqq. Kruyt.1 84 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS chap. were just as the And originally created for their benefit by the spirits. and all the of the earth which they cultivate. Demeter and Persephone. thorns. must be used to render the necessary surgical operation of reaping as inconspicuous and as painless as possible. as we have seen. For that reason. W. 372. sweet potatoes. such that the blades are hidden in the reapers' hands and do not frighten the ricespirit till the very last moment.^ The ^f^Borneo their treat- the Indonesian peoples who thus personify the ^^ "^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Kayaus or Bahaus of Central Borneo as typical. their religion is it which deeply coloured presents by this main occupation of their lives. pp. 92 sqq. tobacco. p. of the goddess believe that products Greeks regarded Demeter.^ Kayans pose of for In order to secure and detain the volatile soul of the rice the Kayans resort to a number of devices. agricultural people devoted to the cultivation of rice. when her head is swept off almost before she is aware and from a like delicate motive the reapers at work in the fields employ a special form of speech. Nieuwenhuis. furnishcs their staple food . As we have already seen. . Qtier diirch See above. pp. so the Kayans maize. . and many analogies to the Eleusinian worship of the corn-goddesses Demeter and Persephone. 181. when people are under the sad necessity of cutting down the rice At so critical a season every precaution with the knife. and a basket containing hooks. and we need not go further afield to search for sexes. to it is easy imagine what her feelings must be at harvest." op. p.

which rice. wood of a fruit-tree are used for the same purpose. she pours juice of the sugar-cane on the &%^. When used at fetching the the housewife comes to fetch rice from the granary. At evening the first rice-stalks which have been cut are solemnly .VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES 185 catching ^"^1 detain- cords. attached as offerings to the bundle of shavings. mutters their some prayers or a single grain from the rice-stalk. . ensure a good harvest for the following year it is necessary not only to detain the soul of all the grains of rice which are safely stored in the granary. ing the soul of *^^ ""^^ and having thus captured and imprisoned the soul she Sometimes a bamboo box conveys it into the rice-granary. for example. she must propitiate the souls of the rice in the granary. lays a stalk of rice on rice the object it. For this purpose instruments of various sorts have been invented by the priests. Then she spells. which are carried by children to the rice-fields. One. and explains to the souls of the of her coming. fetches rice And Cere- every time that a Kayan housewife from the granary for the use of her household. ^ ' ^ in good humour a bundle of shavings of a fruit-tree and An &^^ a little basket are always hung in the granary. and having restored the various proper place. the thorn. departs from the granary with the requisite amount of rice. takes the sacred mat from the basket. but also to attract and recover the soul of all the rice that has been lost through falling to the earth or being eaten by deer. which is then hung Sometimes two hands carved out of the up in the house. is a bamboo vessel provided with four hooks made from the wood of a fruit-tree. and pigs. and a small vessel containing the juice of sugar-cane are . spreads it on the ground. and the cord . satisfied that she has discharged rice. performed by Kayan at fetching "'^^ f™™ the barn. the rice With the spatula the priestess strokes the soul of down the little ladder into the basket. by means of which the absent rice-soul may be hooked and drawn back into the vessel. apes. lest they should be To keep them angry at being ^ robbed of their substance. her religious duty to the spirits of the spirits At harvest the of the rice are propitiated with offerings of food and water. is and the basket contains a sacred mat. where it is naturally held fast by the hooks. And in order to and a net are used for the same purpose. eats kneels before the objects to mat.

the maskers range themselves in a circle and dance for Here some time under the burning rays of the midday sun. W. the shaft of which is partly whittled into loose fluttering These disguises they don at a shavings. then dropping down the river in boats they land and march in procession to an open space among the houses. great teeth. The leader of the band carries a long wooden hook or rather crook. * many shews If that so. to fetch the vagrant soul of the rice from far countries. which is intended to attract the . Nieuwenhuis. at. huge ears. I18-121. and all cats and dogs are driven from the house before the basket with its precious contents is brought in. waving their arms. the leader makes a motion with his crook he were hooking something and drawing it to himself. The performers represent of'attr'act-^ believing that spirits are mightier than men. brought home in a consecrated basket to the beating of a gong. one behind the other. ing the the rice.igic has influenced savage religion. Kayans imagine that they can acquire and exert superhuman power by imitating the form and actions of spirits.. After the dance they form a line. and executing a variety of steps to the sound of a gong. how A similar belief probably explains . shaking and turning their heads.^ Masquerade performed by the befoTe"^ Among Bomeo the Kayans of the Mahakam river in Central the sowing ° of the rice is immediately preceded by a performance of masked men. and beards of white goat's hair. i. is and the gesture ^ imitated op. it deeply the principle of imitative m. Compare id.. dressed out in all their finery. i. which is beaten according to a rigidly prescribed rhythm. will for. At the head of the procession marches the leader holding high his crook and behind him follow all the other masked men in their leafy costume. where the people. soul or rather souls of the rice for and so to make sure that the sowing harvest Spirits .i86 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS chap.^ To support their assumed character they wear grotesque masks the with goggle eyes. while their bodies are so thickly wrapt up in shredded banana-leaves that to the spectator they present the appearance of unwieldy masses of green foliage. 154 sqq. masked dances and pantomimes of savage tribes. What is A.. are waiting to witness the performance. be a good one. each holding his fellow by the hand. 1900). In Centraal Borneo (Leyden. As he strides as if along. little distance from the village. by the all his followers.

which sometimes wander far away. on the On the same day the free day after the masquerade. and by drawing them home to the village he is believed to ensure that the seed of the rice which is about to be sown will produce a plentiful harvest. amuse themselves . As the spirits are thought not to possess the power of speech. like their brethren of the Mendalam river. Kayan men of the Mahakam river. see above.^ determined by a priest from an observation of the sun setting behind the hills in a line with two stones which the priest has set up. 185 sq. else they would run the risk of falling down dead. cit. the sowing must cease for that day. the actors who personate them may not utter a word.^/. 94 sqq. W. families sacrifice on their fields and begin their sowing on Every family sets up one or other of the following days. 322-330. However. with which the sowers must remain in connexion during the time of sowing. As to the masquerades performed and the taboos Kayans of the Mendalam river. 317. observed at the sowing season by the Eieusiman drama. Compare id. W. ^ a. In Centraal Borneo. the express purpose of may be compared to drama acted for A u -^ ensurmg a good crop. Nieuwenhuis. As sucn it the drama of Demeter and Persephone. Quer durch Borneo. i. Nieuwenhuis. If such a thing should accidentally happen. nor pluck nor fish with the casting-net or the drag-net. i. both free and slaves. At the sowing festival. pp. ' A.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES 187 he is thus catching are the souls of the rice. The great field of the chief is sown by representatives of all the families. no villager may pass the In this own house day for they is may not hunt. but at no other time.^ The masquerade thus performed by the Kayans of the Comparimasquerade with the Mahakum 1 river before r sowing the rice is an instructive Kayan example of a religious or rather magical .. in its field a sacrificial stage or altar. . Therefore no stranger may pass between them and the stage to all they may not speak with them. i. For nine days before the masquerade takes place the people are bound village : : to observe certain taboos : no stranger may enter the night out of his fruits. one behind the other. the official day often does tribe the proper sowing officially not coincide with the actual day of sowing. to have anything with spinning tops. indeed the Kayans are not allowed do with strangers in the fields above .

light side the village a lofty altar erected in an open space surrounded by the stately forms Huge bonfires cast a ruddy glow over the scene and up the dusky but picturesque forms of the Dyaks as they move in slow and solemn dance round the altar. In is . of the tropical Outpalms. which at every harvest is secured by their priests. the priestesses dressed in gorgeous array and the elder men wearing bright-coloured jackets and trousers of purple. the ceremony some tribes the soul of the rice is is secured at midnight. . is planted with their other seeds.i88 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS at chap." correct. old and young. a little of the principle of life of the rice. or scarlet hue. The same performance is afterwards repeated in every family apartment. which was annually played the Eleusinian mysteries If shortly before the autumnal sowing of the corn. the produce of their farms would Speedily rot and decay. mysteries is my interpretation of these Securing the soul of the nee among the Northern Borneo. Suddenly the priest starts up and makes a rush at the invisible object men run to him with white cloths. As a preparation for the ceremony a bamboo altar. and is thus The mode of securing the propagated and communicated. while the young men and lads beat gongs and drums. intention of the Greek and of the one and the same. is observed to be gazing earnestly in the air at something invisible to common eyes. When the priest. which if not SO detained. and the elderly men in the gay breeches begin to shriek and revolve round the altar in the dance. At sowing time. In the Quop district performed by the chief priest alone. decorated with green boughs and red and white streamers. Here the people. the band strikes up with redoubled energy. with a bundle of charms in either hand. assemble. first in the long broad verandah of the common house and afterwards in each separate family apartment. These grains are the soul of the rice they are carefully folded up in the cloths and laid at the foot of the altar. yellow. the Corn-mother and the Corn-maiden. some . Kayan drama was Dyaks of Northern Borneo have a special harvest the At fg^g^ j-j-jg object of which is " to secure the soul of the rice. and as he shakes his charms over the cloths a few grains of rice fall into them. is erected in the verandah. the ' -" ' soul of the rice varies in different tribes. and presents a very gay appearance.

come. of which the all contents are hidden from but the initiated. or till the ground. . Ling Roth's Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo quoted 1863). where. St. ^ Spenser i. a long narrow streamer of white cloth hangs down. their heads are supported and their faces fanned by their younger colleagues. Chalmers. pretending to fall. Come to the rice. The cannot be called back. is used in recalling the kelah (soul) of the " O come. of the oldest priestesses less to falling. whose leafy tops are yet green and rustle in the wind and from one of them Suddenly elders and priests rush at this streamer. A pig and fowls are killed. enter it. The ceremony ends with several . others covered baskets. and for four days gongs are beaten and dancing kept up. seize the end of it. Come from the river Kho. At this is festival the ceremony of catching the soul of the rice repeated to prevent the crop is from rotting and the soul so obtained mixed with the rice. 192 sqq. and are carefully picked up by watchful attendants. With seed of each gender. come from following formula : ! . others brass salvers with offerings of rice. bunches of hair. For eight days the village is tabooed and no stranger may . ° ^j^^ ^°g the When a rice-field does not flourish. . W. Life hi the Forests of the Far East' (London. if seed-rice of the next year. and grains of rice fall at the feet of the dancers. Come from the West. (London. they suppose that the among soul (kelah) of the rice If the soul some way detained from the rice.^ The same need crop is of securing the soul of the the Recalling to thrive. come. i. These grains are the soul of the rice.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES in 189 bearing lighted tapers their hands. in H. come from the river Kaw from the place where they meet. 1S96). At the end of the harvest. . A priest or elder mounts the altar amid the shouts of the bystanders and shakes the tall bamboos violently and in the midst of all this excitement and hubbub small stones. is keenly is in felt by the Karens of Burma. another feast is held. 412-414. 187. the crop will fail. John. sensethey come to themselves. Burma. The corner- posts of the altar are lofty bamboos. and to and fro. and amid the crashing music of drums and gongs and the yells of the spectators begin dancing and swaying themselves backwards and forwards. come rice Come to the field. when the year's crop has been garnered. ncQ-kelah.

B. of the Shan and Burman. P. morning after the remainder of the harvest has been carted to the threshing-floor. i." and " seven ears from the last year's crop were always put carefully aside. work a native state of in new crop was ripened.-kelah. bullock-cart. From all granaries come." ^ In Hsa Upper Burma. skirt. Care is as they call it. Cross. Attis. . and of ^ Hardiman. 172. taking with glass. of the rice home to the granary.re was always taken to keep a clean trail from the field to the house. (Sir) J." Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 1900-1901). and the butterfly of the rice is invited with loud cries to come to the the ape. Mooney. a looking- and a woman's skirt. Hardiop. 2 (Sir) G. vol.^ the Cherokee Indians of North America " ca. cit. from the throat of the elephant. pp. the East. 296 sq. house. " Myths 559. vol. of the man. come to the rice. (1854) p. J. p. * Rev. Scott and J. Compare Adonis. until the Mong Hkam. next year's harvest would be bad. so that the corn might be encouraged to stay at home and not go wandering elsewhere.igo THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS From the throat of the bird. to prevent the butterfly spirit of it the rice from escaping year's crop for if were to flutter away. (Washington. in order to attract the corn. Come Were the spirit of the rice not secured in this Similarly among manner." ^ Among the Taungthu of Upper Burma it is customary.* Among the . usually if not invariably on the would be but poor. of which both top and bottom carefully closed with wood . The sheaf is dressed in the and apparently the form is gone through of presenting "On the Karens. when two men Each partner are rice-fields partnership. E. P. p." Cherokee. O x\ce. Gazetteer of Upper Burma the Shan States (Rangoon. i. Part J. Scott and J. when all the rice-fields have been reaped. they take particular care as to the division of the grain between them. Osiris. From the distant kingdoms come. Part i. 309. G. has a basket made. i. 1900) p. Second Edition. taken that there should be no break in the trail. from the Come from the country sources of rivers and their mouths. to make a trail of unhusked rice (paddy) and husks all the way from the fields to the farm-house in order to guide the spirit or butterfly. 423. the next Takings of Lower Burma " the last sheaf is larger than the rest it is brought home separately. iv. from the chap. Journal of the American Oriental Society. maw of Securing the soul of the rice in various parts of Burma. 1 The cultivators drive out in their them a woman's comb. Part ii.

as with the Romans the corn might be called Ceres. . unknown. Strictly speaking the sheaf should be kept apart from the rest of the harvest owing. who is conceived as so closely knit up with the plant that the rice often goes by her name. because in the mill the body of the rice was so bruised and battered that the soul has fled from it Like the Javanese they think that the rice is under the special guardianship of a female spirit called Saning Sari. home finds its way it is to the threshing-floor. apt to be eaten by the So far as I could had never been the custom to keep it throughout but on the first ploughing of the ensuing season the year there was some ceremony in connection with it. usual way tastes better than rice ground in a mill. literally. . S.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES with the glass and comb. " Mother ascertain ." ^ the last sheaf of rice as a woman comes out clearly in the practice of dressing it up in female attire. and it not threshed with the remaining cattle. 6/6 [sic). they celebrate the occasion with a feast. the old woman of the threshing-floor. and I am unable to In this custom the personification of suggest any other. the people decking the cart with their silk kerchiefs. a letter Mr. Even when it is this is not the case rarely tended so carefully as if said to have been crop in is former days. It is 191 it then brought home in triumph. Mr. written to me by Furnivall and dated Pegu Furnivall adds that in the custom of the Upper Burma Bonmagyi sheaf is Club. The name at first I was inclined to fancy of the sheaf was Bo?imagyi that this was a contraction of thelinbon ma gyi. 1 From J." a herself. however. On their arrival and cheering and singing the whole way. various reasons for discarding this derivation.' There are. to the high price of paddy it often . to rice. Rangoon. The Corn-mother of our European peasants has her The Ricematch in the Rice-mother of the Minangkabauers of among the The Minangkabauers definitely attribute a soul M'nangSumatra. however. of Rice. In particular Saning Sari is represented by certain stalks or grains called indoea padi. and will sometimes assert that rice pounded in the Sumatra. that is. ' name that is often given to the guardian spirit This so-called Mother of Rice is the occasion of a number of ceremonies observed at the planting and harvesting of the rice as well as during its preservation in the barn.

Land. ! the oldest woman The of the family or a sorcerer goes out to first look for her. the particular plant which was thus treated as the Rice-mother is lost sight of.192 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS the seed chap." but lam not sure of its precise meaning in this connexion. " Het L. Rice-mother is found. : . them. may a measure of rice come from a follows stalk of rice and a basketful from a root may you be frightened neither by lightning nor by passers-by Sunshine make you glad with the storm may you be at peace and may rain serve to wash your face " While the rice is growing. the Rice-mother fetched home by persons in gay attire. about to be sown in the where under the wet system of Cultivation it is regularly allowed to sprout before being fields."' Bijdragen tot de Taal. good is After the meal has been eaten. ! . and the the best grains are picked out to in form the Rice-mother. stalks seen to bend under a passing breeze are the Rice-mother. .^ carefully under an umbrella in a neatly 1 van der Toorn. It is . as a means of When the time comes to ensuring an abundant harvest. Sumatra.en Volkcnkunde van Neder!andsch Indie. the harvest will be bad in consequence. and they are tied together but not cut until the first-fruits home Sari's to serve as a festal friends. transplant the rice from the nursery to the field. The Rice- When of the rice is Miongthe Minang° r>ursery or bedding-out ground. but before harvest another When the crop is ripe for cutting. I have translated the Dutch word stoel as "root. the Ricemother receives a special place either in the middle or in a corner of the field. state of the The the greatest influence . xxxix. J. These are then sown seed is the middle common planted round about Rice-mother is supposed to exert on the growth of the rice if she droops or pines away. the Rice -mother in the bed. pleasure that the beasts also should partake of her gifts. and a prayer or charm is uttered as " Saning Sari. The woman who sows the Rice-mother in the nursery lets her hair hang loose and afterwards bathes. nay even for of the field have been carried meal for the family and their the domestic animals since it is Saning . transplanted to the of the bed. In the charm recited at sowing 63-65. where a place in the middle is assigned to her. Every one believes that she takes care of the rice in the barn and even multiplies it not uncommonly. who carry her very worked bag to the barn. (1890) pp. animisme bij den Minangkabauer der Padangsche Bovenlanden.

the rice. At the commencement " of the reaping {ineno pae). regard the Mother offering of the Rice as a special made to the rice-spirit moon. 2 See Taboo and the Perils of the Soul.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES When the 193 Tomori of Central Celebes are about to plant some betel as an offering to the spirits who cause the rice to grow. we are told. Tomori. all eggs. If that spirit is not treated with proper respect. fowl's it. tl from the terms in ordinary use the reason for adopting this peculiar form of speech at reaping appears to be. who dwells the . he is angry and punishes the offenders by eating up twice as much rice in the barn as they have taken out of it some people have heard him smacking his lips in the barn. ' A. as I learn from my friend W. and all the other sheaves are The Tomori. reapers at at reaping work in the field make use of special words which differ among the in Omonga. a fear of alarming the timid soul of the . offerings the shape of liver. as he devoured the rice. from a single seed. On the other hand the Toradjas of Central Celebes. (1900) pp. on the floor. which is called " the in Mother of the Rice rice. 227. " Eenige PT. as I have already pointed out. the stalks of this patch of rice are tied together into a sheaf. and the family sits on it and consumes betel together as a sort of silent prayer or charm to ensure the growth of the crop." which is number of Professor Kruijt. 411 sq. Somerville of ethno- Oxford." Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsihe Zendelinggenootschap. O . pp. Over the spot where the offering is buried a small floor of wood is laid.^ To the same doubtless said of a with the English grafische aanteekeningen omtrent de agricultural term " to stool. C. lest in her absence the garnered Among Special store of rice should all melt away and disappear. and and other " things are laid rice in the field is down before When " the rest of the has been reaped. The Rke'"°^'^^'" among the Tomori of ^^ ^^' The rice that is planted round this spot is the last to be reaped at harvest. VOL. regard her as the actual mother of the whole harvest. the Mother of the Rice cut down and it is where piled laid it. 230 sq. rice by revealing the identical fate in store for it. and therefore keep her carefully. as among other Indonesian peoples. xliv. they bury in the field . for example if the people who fetch rice from the barn are not decently clad. who also practise the custom of the Rice-mother at harvest. V. I stalks sprouting Toboengkoe en de Tomori.^ words used the Tomori. upon carried with due honour to the rice-barn.

" Een aangaande het geestelijk en en ander maatschap- sche ZendeHnggcnootschap. motive Riddles perhaps to be ascribed the practice riddles at observed harvest.^ strictly The Ricethe mother among Thus among these people it seems that the asking of riddles is for some reason regarded as a charm which may make or mar the crops.^ by the Tomori of asking each other Similarly ' among the Alfoors or Toradjas of Poso. and when any one guesses a riddle aright. if it field. ^ whole company cries out. 142 sq. at.-yx\\yi. sits On the morning of the fourth down in a corner of it. in Central *• and stones in con- nexionwith the nee.{\Z()^) pp. all to hinder the soul of the from running This she does the afternoon of three successive day she comes again and kisses the rice three times. C. And she in ties knots in the leaves of the rice rice-plants.194 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS is chap. bidding them gather in the field from the four quarters of the heaven. lest with the outrush of the water from the rice-field the sly soul of the rice should make while she recites good away." van wege het Ah'deriand- Kruijt. observed ^j^g as follows. as it might be apt to view she ties got wind that the reapers with their cruel knives were so soon to crop the ripe -ears. op. The ceremony is performed on a lucky day by a woman. are watching in the fields Celebes. A. elijk leven van Alededeelitigen 2 den Poso . its escape. Among some of the Toradjas of Celebes the ceremony ^f cutting o o home the Mother of the Rice * and bringing is Toradjas of Celebes. 1 A. Then to the field. the . . who knows the rites. stalks of the rice into a bunch in an invocation to the spirits of the rice. When the the f^gj^g^ Mother of the rest Rice crop is ripe in the {Anrong pare) must be is fetched before of the harvest reaped. C. 228. For three days previously she observes certain precautions to prevent the soul {soemangdna dse) of the rice from escaping out of the do. while the people ° the crops * * they amuse themselves with asking each other riddles and telling stories. " Let our rice come up. With this up a handful of standing each corner of the field." But is all the time between harvest and the laying out of new fields the asking of riddles and the telling of stories forbidden. days. let fat ears come up both in the lowlands and on the heights. Kruijt. again inviting the souls of the rice to come thither and assuring them of her affection and care. p. As a further precaution she stops the sluices. .Alfoer.

When it has been cut. Then in a corner of the field she makes a it. Any body may carry the sheaf. increases you it ." my blessing. After that she binds the fifty-six stalks of the Rice-mother into a sheaf As she does so. it is bound up with the Mother of the Rice into a single sheaf and carried home. ^ G. Thus from the four sides of the field she collects in all fifty-six stalks of rice. after anointing the sheaf it and fumigating with incense. betel. if she did not receive these attentions. she may not look about not thrown away. We loved and cared for each other. There is no God but Then she passes to another corner of the field to it cut the bunch of standing rice in with the same ceremony . the awdlli cares for you." ten opzichte van den Tijdschrift voor Indische . nor cry out. little stage and lays the Mother of the Rice on with the ears towards the standing rice and the cut stalks towards the dyke which encloses the field. nor be spoken to but she says to the rice. with the bark of a particular kind of tree. ." Then.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES 195 she cuts the bunch of rice-stalks which she had tied together The stalks in the bunch must on one of the previous days. her. As she cuts. Maan. my salvation. Sometimes on large farms a fowl is killed and its blood deposited The standing rice in the half of a coco-nut on the stage. but before coming to it she stops half bunch of five stalks in like way to pluck another manner. You are the links of my soul.^ rice. but in doing so he or she must take care not to let it fall. I take you. the support of my body. increase. On this stage she had previously placed several kinds of one or more eggs. round about the stage is the last of the whole field to be reaped. she lays on the little stage. or the Rice-mother would be angry and might disappear. all as offerings to the Mother of the Rice. be nine in number. God. she says. and young coconuts. which together make up the Mother of the Rice {anrong pare). nor speak to any one. sweetmeats. would be offended and visit people with sickness or even vanish away altogether. " The prophet reaps you. and their leaves must be cut with them. " Eenige mededeelingen omtrent de zeden en gewoonten der Toerateya rijstbouw. " The prophet binds you into a sheaf the angel turned . but you diminish not I hold you in my hand and you . who.

H. Another writer.196 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS Among the Battas or Bataks of Sumatra the rice appears y^^ The rice personified ^^ personified as a young unmarried woman rather than woman On the first day of reaping the crop only a as a mother. 425 2 sq. When panied by a common meal shared by the reapers. A. 109 note'. among the are plucked and made up into a little sheaf. Their name Toerateyas or Toradjas signifies simply "inlanders" and is applied to them by their neighbours who live nearer the sea . is regarded as the seat of the rice-soul and is treated exactly like a person at the trampling of the paddy to separate the grain from the husks the sheaf in question is specially entrusted to a girl who has a lucky name. ' M. " Het leven. C. this article are the not one of those whose customs and beliefs have been described by Mr. the little sheaf which was first cut is brought in and laid on the top of the heap in the granary. but otherwise gives no indication of the geographical position of the people he describes. of rice few ears Bataks of Sumatra. . and whose parents are both . and The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings. {1902) pp. ritual of young people whose parents are both alive. pp." Mededeelingen van wage het Nede?-landsche Zendelinggenootschap. Kruijt in many valuable papers. (1902) pp. usages in regard to the Rice-mother are described in the text is (1903) pp. " lets over den landbouw bij de Karo-Bataks. 413 sqq. rice is we may assume that the personified spirit of the supposed to be present in the first sheaf cut and in that form to keep guard over the rice in the granary. Maan describes in inland inhabitants of Celebes. i. de zeden en gewoonten der Bataks. As to the employment in 380 sq. The Toradjas include tribe many whose Zendelinggenootschap. xlvi. who too often appear to assume that the uncouth names of these barbarous tribes and obscure hamlets are as familiar to European readers as Amsterdam or the Hague. tribes and the particular Second Edition. After that the reaping may begin. it is not a name used by the people themselves. A similar omission is common with Dutch writers on the geography and ethnology of the East Indies. p. who is personified The offering is accomunder the name of Miss Dajang. Joustra. tells us that the largest sheaf. xlvi. alive. 330-337. xlvi. see Adonis. all the rice has been reaped.en Volkenkunde. 183 note^. The Toerateyas whose customs Mr.^ Taal- Land. Neumann." ]\Iededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche J. Attis. threshed and garnered. who has independently described the customs of the Karo-Bataks at the rice-harvest. his article The writer dates probably from Tanneteya (in Celebes?). and while it is going forward offerings of rice and betel are presented in the middle of the field to the spirit of the rice.^ not told. together with an &^^ or a stone. Osiris. Though we are which is supposed to watch over the rice. which is usually the one first made up. See above.

mandeling en Batangnatal. xiv. xxxvi. i. He is supposed to be immanent in certain rice-plants. contrary to what The King seems to be the usual practice. escaping. Then the King of the Rice is plucked with the hand and seven neighbouring rice-stalks cut with a knife. an unusual arrangement of the leaves. the spirit of the rice is personi. if order that the ears which spring from the seed also. and the children in the house may make no noise till the King of the Rice has been safely lodged in the granary and tethered. " Nota. (1893) PP. Aardrijkskundig Genootschap. L. for greater security.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES 197 In Mandeling.526-529. " Beschrijving der Onderafdeeling Groot. A. The field person who fetches the King of the Rice from the harvest should prepare himself for the important duty for it would be an omen of a bad he presented himself before the King of the Rice with an empty stomach. Tweede the Serie. which are recognised by their peculiar formation.^ may be full Again. the doors are shut to prevent the spirits of the rice from . When one or more such plants have been discovered in the field. jjjg Malay The follow- Peninsula. (1897) pp. which is a simple case of homoeopathic or imitative magic. a district of Sumatra. just as in Scotland the old and the young spirit The Rice- of the corn are represented as an Old Wife {Cailleacli) and [he'Rke" a Maiden respectively. betreffende de rijstcultuur in de Residentie Tapanoeli. so in the Malay Peninsula we find child at both the Rice-mother and her child represented by different sheaves or bundles of ears on the harvest-field. or a stunted growth. Th. For the same reason the sower of rice should sow the seed on a full stomach. 290 sq. ing directions for obtaining both are translated from a native Malay work on the cultivation of rice : " When the rice As a is 1 A. in by eating a hearty meal. L. such as a concealment of the ears in the sheath. with a grass rope to one of the posts." Tijdschrift voor Indischc Taal." Tijdschrijtvan hetNederlandsch stomach. they are sprinkled with lime-juice.Land. rule of sowing seed on to full Heyting. . van Hasselt. see further The Magic Art and the Evolntion of Kings.en Volkenkunde. 136. and the spirits are invoked by name and informed that they are expected at home and that all is ready for their reception. or King of the Rice. As soon as that is done.^j^g^^ fied as a male instead of as a female and is called the Rajah Mandeling. He and his seven companions are then carefully brought home the bearer may not speak a word.

pp. Skeat at Chodoi in Selangor The particular on the twenty-eighth of January 1897. It was carried home to the farmer's house by another woman. ' The soul ' is ' ' sheaf an aged sorceress. as in a house where a baby has just been born a light was placed near the head of the Rice-child's bed and might not go out at night. many respects identical with those which have to be observed for three days after the birth of a real child. 1900). After that the farmer's wife was instructed to observe certain rules of taboo for three days. cut a little bundle of seven ears. on a new sleeping-mat with pillows at the head. 225 sq. ." ^ ceremony of cutting and bringing home the Soul of the Rice was witnessed by Mr. where the bunch of stalks is big) and where there are seven joints in You begin with a bunch of this kind and clip the stalk. cradle and all. and put into The the kepuk (the receptacle in which rice is stored). and put into the small basket. with much solemnity. while the fire on the hearth had to be kept the rules being in . W. who held up an umbrella to screen the tender infant from the hot rays of the sun. W. Alalay ^/a^c (London. You choose ' the spot where the rice harvest in the Malay Peninsula. These seven ears were the infant Soul of the Rice and the little basket was its cradle. and made into the shape of a little child The in swaddling clothes. and laid. yet another handful to be the year. one must ' first take the ' soul ' out of all the is mother and the Ricechild at plots of one's field. tied them round with parti -coloured thread. perfect quiet must be observed. Arrived at the house the Rice-child was welcomed by the women of the family. and having wrapt them in a white cloth deposited them in a little oval-shaped basket. W. mother -seed is put into another basket. and then the two baskets are piled the one on the other and taken home. Skeat. For example. and then you clip seven stems to be the soul of the rice best ' ' . and both are fumigated with benzoin. fumigated them with incense. bunch or sheaf which was to serve as the Mother of the Rice -soul had previously been sought and identified by From this means of the markings or shape of the ears. ^ W.THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS The Rice- ripe all over. anointed them with oil. and where it is female (that is to say. ' mother-seed ' for the following wrapped in a white cloth tied with a cord of terap bark.

Skeat. salt. W. Malay Magic. and so forth were forbidden to go out of the house. thing of the same tender care which is thus bestowed on the newly-born Rice-child is naturally extended also to its This parent. and spit some of the mixture out among the rice. and the cutting of the pp. the rose-apple.^ In this Rice-mother and Ricechild of the in a Malay Peninsfila we may see the counterpart and sense the prototype of the Demeter and Persephone the European custom of representing the The Rice- of ancient Greece." mix them up. young shoots of trees are pounded together and scattered broadcast every evening for three successive days. 235-249. a ceremony observed at the rice-harvest in Before the reapers begin to cut the rice. which remains standing in the field after the Rice-soul has been carried home and put to bed. deposits it. and the dainties to form a sort of salad. from the Rice-soul are mixed with the seed which is to be sown in the following year. and adorned with their flowers. where it is threshed and mixed with the Ricesoul. oil. pp. is treated as a newlymade mother that is to say. So after a real . the Rice-bride and the Rice-bridegroom is wedding sq. prawn-condiment. and the thin pulp of young coco-nuts are mixed with dried fish. its corn-spirit in the double parallel in form of bride and bridegroom "" has the'^^j'^e^ Java. and when the three days are up you take the pulp of a coco-nut and what are called " goatflowers. the ears are called the padi-penganten. The farmer then takes the Rice-soul and its basket and like to together with the product of the last sheaf. eat them with a little sugar. smeared with ointment. feast 1 celebrated. which are tied together. though of course Somethese valuable articles were quite free to come in. 199 Up both day and night till the three days were over hair might not be cut and money. rice. sorcerer picks out a number of ears of rice. 163 . which is administered The last mother and child for three successive days. salt. acid. the sheaf from whose body it w^as taken. Thus decked is. out. Once more. sheaf is reaped by the farmer's wife. - rice begins im- W.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES . See above. sheaf. certain kinds of banana. birth the young shoots of the jack-fruit. that . the priest or biide- harvSt^in Java. . in Some grains the big circular rice-bin used by the Malays. who carries it back to the house.

The whole island of Java. ). of the precious grain. A.^ Javanese is custom runs as When the rice at harvest to be brought home. without exception. Veth. and a top and string as playthings with which the young couple may The bride is called Emboq Sri and the divert themselves. you have been received by So-and-So 1 P. a lamp. mony has also been described by Miss Augusta de \^\i{Facts and Fancies about Java. new mat. for fear of disthe turbing the newly-wedded Another account of follows. The natives are all. cit. no one Another account of the may enter the barn. and the wizard addresses them by name. i. Later on." and b?side them he places a kcmiri nut. rice on the very summits of the hills.MOTHER IN MANY LANDS mediately afterwards. with its crowning ceremony of the Wedding on the slopes. rice on rice the risingground. the common At the barn " the bridal pair " is received on a winnowing-fan by a wizard. who lays stress on the extreme importance of the rice-harvest for the Javanese. who removes them from the fan and lays them on the floor with a couch of kloewih leaves under them " in order that the rice may increase. everything has one and the of the Rice " (op. Singapore. bridegroom Sadana. 229 sq. . pp. she tells us. Javanese custom. when the is rice is being got toilet a bridal chamber partitioned off in all the barn. the bluish -green of the young. "is one vast rice-field. let So- same colour. And the great is the harvest home. are placed beside the Rice-bride and the Rice-bridegroom. From the sod under one's feet to the verge of the horizon. or the gold of the ripened rice. who reckon their lives by seasons of planting and reaping. in. Java (Haarlem. Rice on the (the owner). May you Sri sleep Emboq and Sadana. Iladdon for directing my attention to Miss de Wit's book. rice is the bride. two handfuls of common unhusked rice (paddy) are tied into a sheaf. saying : " Emboq I Sri and Sadana. pp. 1898. pair. and two handfuls of a special kind of rice {kleefrijsf) are tied up into another sheaf. to represent the wedding guests. then the two sheaves are fastened together in a bundle which goes by the name of " the bridal pair " (^pentogether gantenan). The special rice is the bridegroom. has been done And for the may first the whole harvest be housed forty days after the rice has been housed.THE CORN. and kinds of Sheaves of this rice. ! I have now brought you home and agreeably in have prepared a place this agreeable place for you. 229-241). The cere1875-1884). tillers of the soil. C. and furnished with a articles. 524-526. whose happiness or misery is synonymous with the abundance or the dearth national feast swampy plains. Not till in the barn. tamarind pips. J. I have to thank my friend Dr.

^ "Gebruiken bij J. form what is called the nmt'n pantun by the people of Bali and the inan pare by the Sassaks " of Lombok. but the said to be " the principal rice. part Letterkunde." we are told. Compare rijst-moeder in den Indischen Archipel. When the whole field has been planted. van Eerde. meets us also in the harvest customs of Bali and Lombok. the foremost among their many peers. and sour fruits are often presented to it. C.Afdeeling v. More- A. (1903) pp. den rijstbouw en rijstoogst op Lombok. 398 sqq. . 4 (Amsterdam." Verslagfn en Afededeelingen der koniiikl/Jke Akadeiiiie van " De 1903). 132-134. picks out and conceives them as the visible abode of the which he can pay his homage and from which he hopes to derive advantage.vr THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES life 201 and-So lead a continue in this free from care. These few stalks. 563- 565 note. They regard it as one with a divinity and treat it with the distinction and honour that are shewn to a very important person. id." more correct translation stalks of is which this "principal rice" consists are the first nine shoots which the husbandman himself takes with his own hands from the nursery or bedding-out ground and plants at the upper end of the rice-field beside the inlet of the irrigation water. Thus rice-pap and eggs are laid down beside it. rice is many forms." Mededeelingen van wege het /^^/^«j-(r/2fl/>/£«." Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal. the native. pp. and the " principal rice " is attentions which are paid to a woman with child. fruit. are planted with great care in a definite order. an offering. one of in the The They them middle and the other eight in a circle about it. The and wife ' I Lombok. xlv. (1902) pp. to some translated Rice-mother.. " think of the rice-plant as animated by a soul. because said to treated with the delicate pregnant 1 women are believed to long for sour Vierde Reeks. is made to " the principal When the rice-stalks begin to swell the be pregnant. Nederlandsche xlvii. ! May Emboq " ^ Sri's luck very agreeable place The sanne idea of the rice-spirit as a husband and wife The rice^. f^"^^' husband " two islands which lie immediately to the east of Java. But as it is impossible inhabitants of to treat all Lonfbok""^ the rice-stalks in a field ceremoniously. Zendelinggenootschap. feeling the need of a visible and tangible representative of the rice-deity and taking a part for the whole. Kruijt.Land- en Volkenhtnde.^ The name ina pare is sometimes stalks rice-soul. which usually consists of rice in rice " {inan pare). " Gebruiken bij den rijstoogst in enkele streken op OostJava. C.

is The Rice- over the fertilisation of the rice by the irrigation water husband and wife in Lombok. has for its object to induce the rice to increase and multiply in the granary. for further distinction. who are carried to the barn. instead of being tied to a bough. The whole arrangement. they are laid on a little bamboo altar. which are regarded as the attendants or watchers of the bridal pair. the owner of the field himself " the makes a beginning by cutting principal rice " {inan pare or ninin pantun) with his it into two sheaves. which is stuck in the ground at the inlet of the irrigation water. Some people sprinkle the pregnant rice water in which cooling drugs have been infused or with with water which has stood on a holy grave. ears may fill out well. When the rice is brought home from the field.202 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS chap. The male sheaf is wound about with thread so that none of the leaves are visible. and they are called " husband and wife " {istri kakung). There they remain while all the rest of the rice is being reaped. One of the sheaves represents a man and the other a woman. compared to the union of the goddess Batari Sri with her husband Ida Batara (Vishnu). who is identified with the Aowing water. If any portion of the field remains unreaped at nightfall. . There they are laid to rest on a small erection or on a cushion of rice-straw along with three lumps of nasi. the reapers make loops in the leaves own hands and binding of some of the standing stalks to prevent the evil spirits from proceeding with the harvest during the hours of darkness. we are informed. the two sheaves representing the husband and wife are carried by a woman on her head. whereas the female sheaf has its leaves bent over and tied so as to resemble the roll of a woman's hair. or. The reapers at their work take great care to let no grains of rice fall on the ground. according to another account. a necklace of rice-straw is tied round the female sheaf. each composed of one hundred and eight stalks with their leaves attached to them. in order that the When the time of harvest has come. Sometimes. and are the last of all to be deposited in the barn. The two sheaves are then fastened together and tied to a branch of a tree. lest the Rice-goddess should go astray. otherwise the Rice-goddess would grieve and weep at being parted from her sisters. Sometimes.

all the friends of the household are invited to the The threshing-floor. Then the whole party eat. drink. and there must be no talking shelled rice is just as there must be no talking when When all the rice in the being scooped up. for out spread heap of paddy is divided and one half threshing. enter the barn." prays for plenteous harvests in future. barn has been used up. . den rijstbouw en rijstoogst opLombok. van Eerde. the two sheaves representing the husband and wife remain in the empty building till they have The disappeared or been devoured by mice.(i902)pp. C. Nobody would ever sell these holy sheaves with the rest of their profane brethren. When a and multiply without ceasing. she has to observe a number of rules. When the paddy. and one of the elders. piled up. and begs that the seed may bear many fold. This ceremony at the threshing-floor is the father and ^ " Gebruiken bij J. addressing "the mother of the paddy-plant. 203 SO the put " owner may get more out of it than he Hence when the people of Bali bring the two ye sheaves. pinch of hunger sometimes drives individuals to eat up the rice of these two sheaves. xlv. She should not enter the barn in the dark or at noon. into the barn. On the pile food and spirits are set.VI THE RICE-MOTHER IN THE EAST INDIES that in. not chew betel." woman fetches rice from the granary for the use of her the Increase household. She She must must be decently clad with her breasts covered. and make merry. but the wretches who do so are gradually viewed with disgust by their fellows and branded as pigs and dogs. just as she would do if she waited on a person of distinction or on a divinity. while the other half is left ^jot^ej. all of which are clearly dictated by respect for the spirit of the rice. they say.Landen Volkenkimde.^ The same notion of the propagation of the rice by a The Father male and female power finds expression amongst the Szis of Upper Burma. She must enter with her right foot first. 563-573. perhaps because the spirit may then be supposed to be sleeping. husband and wife. has been dried and piled in a heap for threshing. the rice with the husks still on it. and food and drink are brought out." Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal. or menstruous No sick woman may in it. of the Rice gzis of Burma. and she would do well to rinse her mouth before repairing to the barn. that is.

The reader may. . the embodiment in vegetable form of the animating spirit of the crops is amply confirmed by the evidence of peoples in other parts of the world. she sent the migratory waterfowl in spring as her tokens and representatives. we the discover of life human beings representing in themselves or animating spirit of plants. . Hardiman. P. retain for that very reason a keener sense of the original motives for observing those rustic rites which among ourselves have sunk to the level of meaningless survivals. The Old Wood at Woman who Never to Dies. to prove that other races besides our European peasantry have conceived the spirit of by living men and women. in the European CornCorn-maiden. among the that. I may remind the reader. Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Each by Shan 1900) States. and so forth. They thought that a certain Old Woman who Never Dies made the crops to grow. therefore. i. vol. however. remember that according to Mannhardt. the goddess of the crops The Mandans and Minnitarees of North America used hold a festival in spring which they called the cornmedicine festival of the women. G. Scott and J." TJie Spu'it ^ § 5 . i. is germane to the theme of this book for the more instances the crops as incorporate in or represented . and somewhere in the south. living Mandans and Minnitarees. Part p. Now in the parallels which have been hitherto adduced from the customs of peoples outside Europe the spirit of the crops appears only in vegetable form. ment of the corn-spirit. the spirit of the corn manifests itself not merely in vegetable but also in human form the person who cuts the last sheaf or gives the last stroke at threshing passes for a temporary embodi- Thus the theory which recognises mother. just as much as the bunch of corn which he reaps or threshes. 426. (Rangoon. who. because they have lagged behind the European races in mental development. of the Corn embodied in Human Beings The spirit of the corn sometimes thought to be embodied in men or women. the less difficulty will be felt at classing amongst them the King of the Nemi. It remains.204 THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS " only occasion when these people invoke the father and mother of the paddy. Such a proof. whose theory I am expounding. sort of bird represented a special kind of crop cultivated 1 (Sir) J.

that we may have something for the winter " In autumn. 182 sq. young women came and put dried flesh into the mouths of the old women. sticks finally in They first planted these the ground. especially Here then we have the the dried meat. Dies.^ spirit or divinity of the corn conceived as an Old Woman and represented in bodily form by old women. and they prayed to them in autumn saying. beat drums and shook rattles as a musical accom- Further. to be afterwards carefully mixed with the seed-corn. when the birds were flying south. paniment to the performance of the old women. who in their attracting the herds of buffaloes meat. . lest we have not meat enough let not all the game depart. which The dried flesh hung on they were supposed to fertilise. the Indians thought that they were going home to the Old Woman and taking to her the offerings that had been hung up on the scaffolds. holy corn were also placed in the dishes of the young women.VI SPIRIT OF : THE CORN IN HUMAN BEINGS 205 the Indians the wild goose stood for the maize. for which they received in return a grain of Three or four grains of the the consecrated maize to eat. on which the festival of the women. ii. assembled at the scaffolds each bearing in her hand an . Woman who Never Dies both to the maize and to those birds which they regarded as symbols of the fruits of the earth. meat other things by way of offerings and hung dried people on and a certain day the old women of Woman Old to the of the Old Woman who Never representatives as the tribe. then danced round the scaffolds. have pity on us send us not the bitter cold too soon. Maximilian. " Mother. because they repreA similar cornsented the Old Woman who Never Dies. ear of maize fastened to a stick. and old men Meanwhile took up the sticks again in their arms. the scaffold belonged to the old women. the wild swan for the gourds. Reise in das iniidie Nord-America (Coblenz. At that time every woman ! ! ! 1 1839-1841). Prinz zu Wied. which she ate. and the wild duck for the beans. So when the feathered messengers of the Old Woman began to arrive in spring the Indians celebrated the corn -medicine Scaffolds were set up. medicine festival was held in autumn for the purpose of and securing a supply of carried in her arms an They gave the name of the Old uprooted plant of maize.

first grew in heaven. and are bound to take good care of it. For when the hunters went out to hunt. maize. though the deer seemed to abound. ment soon followed on such wicked conduct." But the kettle was full of such fine sweet corn as When he had the hunter had never in his life seen before. which are intended for her. another tribe of North American Indians. reluctant to do so. and the people were hungry. and under corn v/as so plentiful that much of it But the use in bags. one could get no meat. eaten his fill. that is. and not raise more than they actually require. they packed for immediate much of it ground.2o6 THE CORN-MOTHER JN MANY LANDS representatives receive capacity of offerings some at least of the Miami myth of the Cornspirit in the form of a broken- down old man. tell a tale in which the spirit of the corn figures as a brokendown old man. you will find a small kettle. came upon a small lodge in the wilderness where a decrepit old man was lying Now the old man was no other with his back to the fire. side of the lodge eat. throwing them at each other. and to nurture it. I will speak to you. and that the Good Spirit commanded it to At first it was go down and dwell with men on earth. heaven to benefit the Indian. and this is the reason why they esteem it. My grandson. " He said to the young hunter." for failing in respect for the punished Miamis was severely crop and stored much of it great raised a They had corn. They say that corn. the young men grew reckthe stalks. Take it and and when you have satisfied your hunger. of the hunters. and at last they even broke the cobs from the growing But a judgstalks and pelted each other with them too. So the corn was gone and they they could kill nothing. the Indians have afflicted me much. than the Spirit of the Corn. saying. " Your people have wantonly abused and my back-bone reduced me to the state you now see me in : . The Miamis. and In the reduced me to the sad state in which you see me. But once a whole town of the for their own consumption. roaming by himself in the woods to find something to eat for his aged father. but the Good Spirit prevailed on it to go by promising that men would treat it well in return for the " So corn came down from benefit they derived from it. Well. and remained on still less and played with the shelled cobs. the old man resumed the thread of his discourse.

R. Gupte. and similar fife^^arvest — customs of European • H. far beyond the limits of the Aryan world. So the young hunter returned and reported what he had seen and heard and since then the Indians have been very careful not to play with corn in effect of . (1906) p. 207 is broken in many places it was the foolish young men of your town who did me this evil. ']T sq." In- of the United States. That is why you . v. and Slavs.B. They are the what you did to my body. treating me corn -spirit whom they have experience bad luck and famine. have been practised by the Indians of Peru.VI SPIRIT OF THE CORN IN HUMAN BEINGS . Schoolcraft. that came down from heaven. Had ? you no elders to check the youths at their wanton sport You are an eye-witness of my sufferings." With that he groaned and covered himself up. Indian Tribes in honour of Gauri and Ganesh. the Dyaks of Borneo. "Harvest Festivals dian Antiqtiary. dressed as such with mask. garments. with contempt. so. Teutons. and so it is well with them. woman and ments. In their play they threw corn-cobs and corn-ears at one another. For details see The Magic Art arid the Evolution of Kings.^ In some parts of India the harvest -goddess Gauri girl is The '^o^deg" re- represented at once by an unmarried of wild balsam plants. (Philadelphia. . and the intention of the whole ceremony appears to be to ensure a good crop of S 6. xxxv. They respect me. I am the cause you feel my just resentment. for I am Mondamin. the ^^a^'^y'^st- maiden. and which. and many other natives of the East Indies a Greece are late products of religious growth. and Persephone to mother. which is and by a bundle made up into the figure of a Gauri and a plants. therefore Other Indians do not treat me your people are punished. the Demeter and Persephone Yet as members of the Aryan family the Greeks must at one time or another have observed harvest customs like those which are still practised by Celts. and orna- by^a^gjri Both the human and the vegetable representative of the goddess are worshipped. . 1856) pp. the ear. 61. ii. A. or corn. 193-195. The Double Personificatio7i of the Corn as Mother and Daughter Compared with of the Corn-mother of Germany and the Analogy of harvest-Maiden of Scotland. I am the injured.

the " story that ") lasion begat a child Plutus (" wealth. those g^^^-gjy ^nd beautiful figures of Greek mythology. if from the last sheaf on the Braes of Balquhidder. Even if they noticed them. which. so Thus if the prototype of Demeter is the Cornknown. are not confined to proof that the ideas on which these customs rest any one race. Odyssey. It Demeter and Persephone. autumn after autumn.^ But unfortunately the Demeter and Persewere the denizens of towns. A reminiscence of that olden time lingered to the last in the title to say. 47). Germany. \^^ sqq. which Theocritus (vii. Hesiod. grew out of the Same simple beliefs and practices which still prevail among our modern peasantry. therefore.^ may The 1 It is possible that the image of Demeter with corn and poppies in her hands. p. that Praxiteles.2o8 sufficient THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS chap." abundance by Demeter on a thrice-ploughed suggestion was field. they beneath their notice. but naturally suggest them- The rustic analogues and PerseP^^°"^' engaged in agriculture. is still made Indeed. made ing-floor (see above. . the prototype of Persephone is the of mother harvest-Maiden. and that they were represented by rude dolls made out of the yellow sheaves on many a harvest-field long before their breathing images were wrought in bronze and marble by the master hands of Phidias and selves to all untutored peoples is probable. of the harvest-field which Persephone was commonly {Kore) by Maiden of the — — a scent. W. peasant-farmers of ancient the Greece. . v. probably never dreamed of any connexion between the puppet of corn-stalks on the sunny stubble-field and the Still marble divinity in the shady coolness of the temple. Theog. me by my friend Dr. to 125 sqq. ^ Homer. may have been a Corn-mother or a Corn-maiden learned and esteemed H. D. about more knew we we should probably find that even in classical times they continued annually to fashion their Corn-mothers (Demeters) and Maidens (Persephones) out of the ripe corn on the harvest-fields. .) describes as standing on a rustic thresh- of the kind described in the text. the majestic for such divinities it was inhabitants of lordly temples the alone that the refined writers of antiquity had eyes uncouth rites performed by rustics amongst the corn were phone whom we know . the writings even of these town-bred and cultured persons afford us an occasional glimpse of a Demeter as rude as the Thus rudest that a remote German village can shew. 969 sqq. Rouse.

in the Prussian sephone the seed- custom just referred to.^ In this Prussian custom the pretended mother represents the Corn-mother birth {ZjtniaiJiatka) baby. 2 possible that a ceremony : performed in a Cyprian worship of Ariadne may have been of this nature at a certain annual sacrifice a young man lay down and mimicked a woman in child-bed. V. See Plutarch. 150 It is j^. which may be regarded.). Prinz zu Wied. iv Stj tt? dvaiq.VI THE CORN AS MOTHER AND DAUGHTER 209 be compared with the West Prussian custom of the mock of a child on the harvest-field. 135.the corn as ^^ child. naturally enough. etc.America (Coblenz. The reader may have observed that in modern folk. an'd a Why then did the Greeks represent the corn both as a daughter? mother and a daughter? In the Breton custom the mother-sheaf a large figure Demeter — made it — out of the last sheaf with a small corn-doll inside of Z^^ naps^^Z' the clearly represents both the Corn-mother and the Corn. the woman who plays the part of Corn-mother represents the ripe grain the child appears to represent next year's corn. Amongst the Minnitarees in North America. as we have seen. the object of the ceremony was to secure a good crop of maize in the following year. We have already seen grounds for regardmg Ariadne as a goddess or spirit of vegetation.) or by a Maiden (Harvest. 1 Topwiaiov /M-qvos IffTafxivov devr^pa Kara- K\iv6ixiv6v TLva tCov veavlcTKwv (pdeyyeadai. Further. 20 : Evolution of Kings. not both by a Corn-mother and by a Maiden. 839. man often seeks to infuse his own vigorous life into the languid or decaying energies of nature.^ pretended child represents the Cornis a charm to ensure a crop The custom and the legend alike point to an . Reisc in das innere Nord. the latter unborn.ripe crop still daughter.1 84 1 ). See The Magic Art and the PT.^^ ^^ Evolution of Kings.^ Kal iroLe^v Hirep C^OLVov<TaLyvvalKes. \\. primitive older practice of performing. See above. P . 3 ii. the among the sprouting crops in stubble in autumn. 138. spring or the one of those real or mimic acts of procreation by which. 269. p.Why did customs the corn-spirit is generally represented either by a p^rsonff^^^ Corn-mother (Old Woman.* Again. we have seen that among the Malays of the Peninsula . and the whole ceremony next year.^ Another glimpse of the savage under the civilised Demeter will be afforded farther on. sqq. since it is from the seed of this year's harvest that next year's crop will spring. as the child of this year's corn. See Maximilian. when we come to deal with another aspect of these agricultural divinities. ^ ^^^ 97 ^^^^ ^^^ ii. etc. pp. . tov Tkesetis. I g^^ j. the Prince of Neuwied saw a tall strong woman pretend to bring up a stalk of maize out of her stomach . VOL. ^ See above.

. Thus instead of a regular succession of divine beings. and this 1 i 164 See above. and death within a year. 155 sqq. her reappearance in spring would signify the sprouting of the young corn. while Demeter was left to play the somewhat vague part of the heavy mother of the corn. to reappear in spring. growth. consistency required that one of the two personifications. 57.^ of the next.. spirit and sometimes among the Highlanders of Scotland the of the grain represented in double female form. each living a year and then giving birth to her successor. 3 2 However. According to Augustine {De civitate Dei.^ The descent of Persephone into the lower world would thus be a mythical year . But when with the advance of religious thought the corn came to be personified. 58 sq. the reformed myth exhibits the conception of two divine and immortal beings. iv. 140 sqq. but as an immortal goddess. mostly goddesses. In way the Persephone of one year becomes the Demeter may very well have been the original form of the myth. expression for the sowing of the seed this . However. This was done by assigning to Persephone the character of the corn sown in autumn and sprouting in spring. ripe crop.2IO THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS is chap. who laments its annual disappearance underground. who took charge of the corn . 8) the Romans imagined a whole series of distinct deities. reproduction. by means of ears taken in Scotland the old spirit of the corn appears as the Carline . and rejoices over its reappearance in spring. pp. sqq. one of whom annually disappears into and reappears from the ground. should be sacrificed. the Sicilians seem on the contrary to have regarded Demeter as the seed-corn and Persephone as the See above. while the other has little to do but to weep and rejoice at the appropriate seasons. while among or Cailleach^ the young spirit as the Maiden the Malays of the Peninsula the two spirits of the rice are definitely related to each other as mother and child.. the mother or the daughter. 197 sqq. no longer as a being that went through the whole cycle of birth. both as old alike from the ripe crop : and young. and so room had to be found in the reformed myth both for mother and daughter. pp. ^ Judged by these analogies Demeter would be the ripe crop of this Persephone would be the seed-corn taken from it and sown in autumn. the double conception of the corn as mother and daughter may have been too old and too deeply rooted in the popular mind to be eradicated by logic.

p. p. customs of our European peasantry the corn-spirit seems to be conceived now as immanent in the corn and now as external to it.. Mannhardt.^ the spirit is clearly regarded as immanent in the corn. the corn. But when the spirit is said to make the crops grow by passing when . Of in these two conceptions.. 339. a particular sheaf . since the view of nature as animated by indwelling spirits appears to have generally preceded the view of it as controlled by external deities In the harvest to put it shortly. In Greek mythology. it may be noticed that they involve goddess.VI THE CORN AS MOTHER AND DAUGHTER 211 the This theory of the double personification of the corn Or in -^ ^'"^^^^ Greek myth assumes that both personifications (Demeter ' ^ may have But if we suppose that the started and Persephone) are original. I47> who cut Skeat. Kornddmonen. that of the corn-spirit as the corn is immanent doubtless the older. See above. on the other hand. W.\!^&'^oxatx\c Forschungen.xA%. 1 In some places it was customary to kneel down before the last sheaf. . 26. Mytho- vi\e. (1888) above. . note^. Thus by the name of the cornspirit. Demeter is viewed rather as the deity of the corn than as the spirit immanent in it.. was committed to the ground to the time when it was lodged in the granary. The Malay the seven ears of rice to form the Rice-child kissed the ears after she had cut them (W. though exercising power over. Greek myth started with a single personification. Demeter is represented as the goddess who controls the growth of the corn ^ Even in rather occasionally. at all its various stages from the time England. ffoddess the corn. W. sorceress mythical beings to account for the process of growth is probably late rather than early. in others it is regarded as external to is it. or to blight the grain of those against whom she has a grudge. vii. Such a multiplication of it when 270 See Folk-lore Journal. 241). ^^" ^ "' See p. in manent than as the spirit who is imin it. j .^"'^ ^"^^ growth of a second personification may perhaps be explained fication of as follows.. Malay Magic. two distinct conceptions of the corn-spirit.^ she is apparently conceived as distinct from. called may have ^^^^ ^ later deveiop'"^"'' through them. at least one of the oldest docuHymn to Demeter. . On looking over the harvest customs which have ^ single ^^ been passed under review. the after. Conceived in the latter way the corn-spirit if is in a fair way to become a deity of the corn. The custom of kneeling and bowing before the last corn is said to have been observed. For whereas in conception some of the customs the corn-spirit is treated as immanent in ^^ ^ second . and Herrick's evidence. 36 sq. in others to kiss logische it. animism precedes deism. and is dressed in clothes and handled with reverence. ' p. she has not become so already. p. id. pp.^ The process of thought which leads .

is. and enforces oaths made in his name. become obscured. left it. having got two distinct personifications of the same object. 1905). converted into a deity controlling the withdrawal of say. and unencumbered by any formal worship. especially to is women and children. punishes the wicked. O tentd sama the actual sun. by inanimate it becomes. 127. intolerant of such a vacuum. the backward members of the community will Now when cling by preference to the old animistic notions. Shinto (London. Aston. wheeling personage. mythless. " august-heavenpath-personage " to the lower class of Japanese at the . For example. But the popular fancy. p. so to vacuum." and O tentd sania. it immediately creates a fresh mythical Example of such duplication in Thus the peoples the vacant object. upwards from savagery men of the same generation do not march abreast and though the new anthropomorphic gods may satisfy the religious wants of the more developed intelligences. present day. character of Ama-terasu.^ In such cases the problem for mythology is. and the more humanise their divinities gains strength human these become the wider is the breach which severs them from the natural objects of which they were at first But in the progress merely the animating spirits or souls. G. by the new spirit. . in other words. change from the one mode of conception to the other anthropomorphism. yet looked up to as a moral being who rewards the good. and to the is . has Japan. . freshly created by the popular fancy to supply the place vacated by the old spirit on its elevation to a higher sphere. in Japanese religion the solar being. the spirit of any natural object such as the corn has been invested with human qualities. or the gradual investment of the immanent spirits with more and more of the attributes of As men emerge from savagery the tendency to humanity. same natural object comes to be represented in mythology by two distinct beings first by the old spirit now separated from it and raised to the rank of a deity second. unable to conceive any- thing as inanimate.THE CORN-MOTHER IN MANY LANDS Duplication of deities as a consequence of the anthropo- morphic tendency. what to do with them ? How are their relations to each other 1 W. the object itself . the great goddess of the Sun. " sun- the sun. sexless. and accordingly the people have the where there are two distinct deities of sun afresh under the name personified of Nichi-rin sajna. with which : . a spiritual its spirit. detached from the object.

starting from Perhaps "^'^ ^ personification of the corn as female. Second 323 sqq. . Attis. and son . (Demeter and Persecaseofsucii •' .VI THE CORN AS MOTHER AND DAUGHTER and room found for 213 to be adjusted. may sometimes have arisen For example. among the pairs of in the way indicated. and is only given for what it is worth.. and Osiris would be the newer one.^ On the hypothesis just suggested. ^ niythicai duplication. In this way. the problem easily solved. however. 1 Edition. husband. as parent to child.. Pauly. classischen Altert/nt7)imjissenschafi. it has been shewn that there are grounds for regarding both Isis and her companion god Osiris as personifications of the corn. spirit. as by the old former . 1849) p. and if both spirits are conceived as female. loii. and animated by the new one. mythic fancy a single J J ° ^ might in time reach a double personification of it as mother It would be very rash to affirm that this was and daughter. Osiris. in mythology. both in the is mythological conceived as is system ? When the old spirit or new deity creating or producing the object in question. that is. sqq. See Adonis. pp. of which Demeter and Persephone furnish an example. ^'^^f'' personincation of the ^ motiier^^ and a . Since the object is believed to be produced latter. 346 - A. deities dealt with in a former part of this work. that this proposed explanation of such pairs of deities as Demeter and Persephone or Isis and Osiris is purely conjectural. the the soul of the object. must also owe its existence to the thus the old spirit will stand to the new one as producer to produced. their relation will be that of mother and daughter. way in which the myth of Demeter and Persephone actually took shape but it seems a legitimate conjecture that the reduplication of deities. Isis would be the old cornspirit. be forgotten in more ways than one.^ for of course mythology would always be free to account for the coexistence of the two divinities It must not. 330 sqq. whose relationship to the old spirit was variously explained as that of brother. Real-Encydopddie der v. (Stuttgart.

Our general ignorance of the popular superstitions and customs of the ancients has already been confessed. links the myth with the . had their and Phrygia and in each of these countries certain harvest and vintage customs are known to have been observed. VII Songs of the Corn Reapers Death and resurrection a leading incident in the myth of Persephone. The worships of Osiris. the resemblance of which to each other and to the national rites struck the ancients themselves. Adonis. in Egypt. ancient religion the present case. It remains. that the myth finds a place in our discussion Dying God. of the and Osiris. its origin or its analogy in the rustic rites by reapers and vine-dressers amongst the cornshocks and the vines. myths of Adonis. But an essential feature is still wanting to complete the resemblance. which. is fortunately dissipated to some extent in and Phrygia. coupled with the nature of the goddess as a deity of vegetation. Attis. A leading incident in the Greek myth is the it is this incident death and resurrection of Persephone that in the Corn-mother and . and. But the obscurity which thus hangs over the first beginnings of has not also observed Popular harvest and vintage customs ancient in Egypt. Attis. therefore. and Dionysus and it is in virtue of this incident Dionysus. Syria.CHAPTER LITYERSES ^ I. as in the In the preceding pages an attempt has been made to shew Harvest-maiden of Northern Europe we have the prototypes of Demeter and Persephone. Syria. cults of Adonis. compared with the . 214 . and Attis respective seats. which figures so prominently in these great Greek and Oriental worships. Osiris. to see whether the conception of the annual death and resurrection of a god. as we have seen.

and explained the name by a story that Maneros. As the cry was raised over the first ears reaped. Julius Pollux. VII SONGS OF THE CORN REAPERS 215 modern peasants and barbarians. invented agriculture." See " Dber agyptischen den Lauth. i. and set in wards it is threshed separately. ii. and some of its grain is mixed with the next year's seed-corn. ^ See above. while the last corn cut was generally used to make the clyack sheaf. invoking Isis as the goddess harvest customs of to to Maneros. ^ II. Athenaeus. it would seem that the corn-spirit was believed by the Egyptians to be present in the first corn cut and to die under the sickle. 158 s<]. on the authority of Diodorus. 7 . 14. 1872). 1852). H. buyer." Sitzungsberichte der k'dnigl. Brugsch. son'<^'of'^^ Egjptian ""^^P^*"^' whom they owed the discovery of corn. Above. was thus lamented by the people. We have seen that in the Malay Peninsula and Java the first ears of rice are taken to represent either the Soul of the Rice or the Rice-bride and the Rice-bridegroom. ix. p. however." which has been discovered in various Egyptian writings. Songs of the xiv. seems throw some light on the origin of the rites in question. iv. " Come to the house. ii.^ It appears.194. 163. reaped by the mistress herself. i()J sgq. For Oeura^ perhaps read cnjvdevTas. taken home afterthe place of honour near the holy pictures It is ^ KoX Diodorus Siculus. - das LinosHcd (Berlin. pp.CHAP. W. and. though rarely. 54 Pausanias.Tos. Die Adonisldage ttnd Russian People (London. in yap vvv Kara tov depiafj-bf toi)s wpwrovs aiirjdivTas ardxi's devras tous dvdpunrovs KOTTTecrdai Tr\T]criov TOV 5pdy/j. According to another interpretation. 24. however. for example in the dirge of Isis in the Book of the Dead. .^ it was sometimes. 620 A. p. 249 sq.'* In parts of Russia the first sheaf is treated much in the same way that the last sheaf is treated elsewhere.aTos KaiTr}v avaKaXeladai kt\. which is supported by the following ''Yaiv we should 5p6. R. It has been already mentioned. Akademie der IVissensckaftcn zu Aliinchen. 79. pp.^ Hence we may suppose that the cry mdd-ne-Jira was chanted by the reapers over the cut corn as a dirge for the death of the corn-spirit (Isis or Osiris) and a prayer for its return. the only son of the first Egyptian king. that the name Maneros is due to a misunderstanding of the formula mdd-ne-hra.^ In Aberdeenshire. "Let us be merry. * ° Herodotus. S.yiia. the first corn . . Maneros is the Egyptian ?naiitirosh.^ To the plaintive song or cry sung or uttered by Egyptian reapers the Greeks gave the name of Maneros. Maneros. Ralston. 29. 1S69. dying an untimely death. pp. that in ancient Egypt the reapers were wont to lament over the first sheaf cut.

^ According to one story Linus was brought up by a shepherd. 1395.2l6 LITYERSES woman and carried cut that was dressed up as a home with ceremony. i Callimachus. to Apollo. Conon. 19. iii. C. .v. Gregor. Hymn s. und "Linos. Aiiinus Orestes. was sung at the vintage and probably (to judge by analogy) also at harvest. wards. Traditions populaires. 20. 246 W. called Bormus or Borimus. ^ Graf Baudissin. 1 84 1). iii. Bupfxov and Mapioi'Si'fos dprjvoi. . Sophocles. like song sung at the vintage in Phoenicia. Athenaeus. Iliad. like Maneros.^ In Bithynia a like mournful ditty. F. pression would be o'i lanu («^ 'ix). This Phoenician song was called by the Greeks Linus or that chanted Aiiinus and explained. calling him in plaintive strains." Reviie des (1888) "^ p. the son of King Upias or of a wealthy and distinguished man. which they continued to chant at harvest ever after. ii. . Idyl. Julius Pollux.^ § 2. Narrat. 487 (should be 535). W. Antike Wald.und Feldknlte (Berlin. p. W. 6-9 79 Conon." Bormus. p. ^ Esrnun ^ (Leipsic. So the reapers sought for him.^ But. . vi. 4. that is " Woe to us. Ajax. iv. xiv. 8. like Maneros. i. Adovis p. a plaintive song sung by Mariandynian reapers in Biihynia. In Hebrew the ex1877). ii. Compare Moschus. Movers. N'arrat. * was called Lityerses. 619 F-620 A Hesychius. 54 . Killing the Corn-spirit In Phrygia the corresponding song. : . Pausanias. 2053 See Greve. by the Egyptian corn-reapers. Roscher's AiisfiihrUches Lexikon der griech. pp. 7 and 8 Jeremiah. the connexion of the Linus song with the lament for Adonis is regarded by Baudissin as very doubtful. iv. xviii. 29. and to be nothing more than the cry ai lanu. as a lament for the death of a youth named Linus. However. watching the reapers at work in his fields. . a plaintive In Phoenicia and Western Asia a plaintive song. Mannliardt." in W. Die Ph'dnizier. 1 ).^ Linus or Aiiinus. H. sung by harvesters a song sung at both ' at reaping and at threshing. (Bonn. iv. s. II.v. Mytliologie. ix. the name Linus or Aiiinus appears to have originated in a verbal misunderstanding. Bormus was said to have been a handsome youth. 281. 570 HerodoPausanias. . svv. Homer. Lityerses. was chanted by Mariandynian reapers. which occurs in i Samuel. but torn to pieces by his dogs. 627. 19. " Quelques coutumes du Nord-est du comte d'Aberdeen. which the Phoenicians probably uttered in mourning for Adonis ^ at least Sappho seems to have regarded Adonis and Linus as equivalent. note^. sqq. Euripides. See W. For the form tus. 191 ix. One summer day. und rdm. 29. 13. see Suidas. he went to fetch them a drink of water and was never heard of more. 360.

and beheaded. s. Scholiast on Theocritus.v. iv. Servius calls Lityerses a king and says that Hercules cut off his head with the sickle that had been given him to reap with. Servius. Compare O.^ There are some grounds for supposing that in these The we have the description of a Phrygian Lit\^r°es harvest custom in accordance with which certain persons. wrapt in sheaves. undertook to reap with him.\ also Athenaeus. swathed in the corn stalks. 2065 54. p. Bucol. and threw his body into the river. The story was told his play of Daphnis. their custom of in the corn-stalks.i^^. 70td rd?n. ApostoCentur. we may infer that Lityerses used to throw the bodies of his According to another version of the victims into the river. story. . 74.). and Hesychius. sickle with his victims. 217 According to one Midas. ^ ii.^ is reported to have slain Lityerses in the same way that Lityerses slew others (as Theseus treated Sinis and Sciron). viii. Crusius. who slew him. and as such were Phrygian seized by the reapers. He used to reap the corn. were regularly ^^ ^-y^ regarded as embodiments of the corn-spirit. Suidas. second. being afterwards thrown kiihng bodies. in W^. position are. Lityerses is the subject of a special study by W. Photius mentions the lius. cut off his head with the As Hercules sickle. fnirabilium by Sositheus in His verses have the tract of an See Scripiores ed. x. and. . Lityerses! stronger reaper.°*^ the harvest customs of European peasantry. . Lityerses gave him plenty to eat and drink. I follow. it was his custom to wrap the stranger in a sheaf." Mytkologie. on Virgil. King of Lityerses was a bastard son of reaping ^hrtshing in Phrygia. Julius Pollux. first. and if he vanquished them he used to thrash them but one day he met with a Phrygia. Photius. pp. x. 8. "Lityerses" . H. Mannhardt {Mythologische Fo7-schungen. Lastly. Graeci. and had an enormous appetite. When a stranger happened to enter the corn-field or to pass by it. x. which Lityerses beheaded Westermann (Brunswick. Ausfiihrliches Lexikoii der griech. and carry away his But at last Hercules body. and dwelt at Ceiaenae. the resemblance of the Lityerses story to "^1^"^!^^. Lityerses. whom s. " Lityerses. 68. the frequency of human sacrifices offered by savage races to ^ spirit. 41. 415 B. A. Lexicon. Roscher's sqq.asembodiinto water as a rain-charm. cut off his head with a sickle. stories of Lityerses . 1839). seems to especially strangers passing the harvest field. was wont to challenge people to a reaping match with him.v.\ sqq. 220 sq. bound up ^ strangers The grounds for this sup.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT story. a son of Midas. then took him to the corn-fields on the banks of the Maeander and compelled him to reap along with him. in been rerutn preserved anonymous writer.

1 8 sqq. we have seen that in among reapers. is is bound up or carted in the order not to be in sheaf. and it was formerly so on 269) the Gareloch. the last sheaf is sometimes an object of desire and emulation. 153. binders. he encased. 143. in the neighbourhood of Danzig. the portion which still remains to be bound is divided amongst the women binders. 154 sq. and so forth. In comparing the story with the harvest customs of Europe/ three points deserve special attention. Dumbartonshire. 164 sg.^ For example. and handfuls of standing corn used to be hidden under sheaves in order that the last to be uncovered (From the should form the Maiden. each striving to finish his task as fast as possible. the killing of the corn-spirit or his representatives III. 136. in namely . visitors to the harvest field or of strangers passing In regard to the first head.. 1 1. In this comparison I closely follow Mannhardt. ment of Contests I. and at the word. modern Europe the person who last cuts or binds or threshes the sheaf is often exposed to rough treatment at the hands and threshers of his fellow-labourers.. 1 W.) . and. Balquhidder also {Folk-lore Journal. Mythologische Forschungen. . The spectators watch them narrowly. he is is at least the subject of ridicule or thought to be destined to suffer year. the treatit. On the other 147 si/. and the woman who cannot keep pace with the rest and consequently binds the last sheaf has to carry sheaf. where there was a competition for the honour vi. drenched with water. thus carried about. beginning with the former. — pp. 162 note^. 136. thrown on a dunghill. See information of Archie Leitch." the women fall to work. each of whom receives a swath of equal length to bind. in order that he may escape the invidious distinction of being last. pp. the reaping match and the binding of persons the sheaves . 144. 157 sq. 134. " Seize the Old Man. Or. and idlers gather round to witness the contest. pp. 140. if he is spared this horseplay. 165. children. last For example. ^ Compare above.. : I. It is so at 156. 145. some misfortune in the course of the Hence the cut at harvesters are naturally reluctant to give the last reaping or the last stroke at threshing or to bind the last and towards the close of the work this reluctance produces an emulation among the labourers. when the winter corn is cut and mostly bound up in sheaves. hand. 149. A crowd of reapers.2l8 LIT YERSES We will examine these promote the fertility of the fields. grounds successively. See above. 137 sq. of cutting it. pp. 142. beaten. 141. the last at their work. all binding their allotted swaths as hard as they can.

and the last sheaves are about to be tied up. while the rest form a ring round them afterwards they all. falls Afterwards the to the share of the woman who carried him. which." last stalk is Each of them . she is dressed in man's clothes. Kuhn. similar at threshing ^ . nearly finished. the binders stand in two rows facing each other. as he cannot eat it. The proceedings are is the person who gives the last stroke W. p. but her sheaf is made up into human shape and called the Old Man. " Here I bring you the Old Man. the butt of many jests. 19 sq ^ A. " Here comes the Old Man. the Old Man is placed at the table and receives an abundant portion of food. to the farmer and deliver it to him with the words.^ At Aschbach in Bavaria. " We bring the Old Man to the Master. Alythologische Forsckungen. At a given signal they all tie up their sheaves. Man the last sheaf a man) to the farmhouse . " Now." ^ In the Mittelmark district of Prussia. and the one who is the last to finish is ridiculed by the rest. every woman with her sheaf and her straw rope before her. Not only so. dance a single round with him." against a tree. and is often mocked with the cry. when the reaping is the Old (that is. when the rye has been reaped. 342. we will drive out the Old Man. one after the other. Old Man is placed in the yard and all the people dance round him.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT 219 made up in the form of and deliver it to the farmer with the words. 1843). large a portion of food as the others. sets himself to reap a patch of last corn as fast as he can he who cuts the handful or the " greeted by the rest with an exulting cry. and she must carry it home to the farmyard. where he remains for a long time. ." At the supper which follows. where the harvesters dance in Then they take the Old Man a circle round her and it. He may keep him till After that the Old Man is set up he gets a new one. the reapers say." Sometimes a black mask is fastened on or if the reaper's face and he is dressed in woman's clothes A the reaper is a woman. pp. Mannhardt. At the supper the Old Man gets twice as . Further. You have the Old Man. Mdrkische Sagen toid Mdrchen (Berlin. the woman who bound the last sheaf goes herself by the name of the Old Man till the next harvest. Or the woman who bound the last sheaf dances for a good while with the Old Man. dance follows.

there ^ W. It is of corn decked with flowers and ribbons. 2 3 p. of ways till and to drink a Moreover. 217. pray be so kind As to give the Old Man a present. when the last harvest-waggon is being is a regular race amongst the women. near Stettin. pp. He must come into the village. Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie (Munich. will be remembered that the person who is last at reaping. F. Mannhardt. said to have the At the supper given to the threshers he has to eat out of the cream-ladle great deal. Above. each striving not to be last.'''' As late as the tie first half of the nineteenth century the up the woman herself in pease-straw. and must keep him. Panzer. .^ and this idea more fully expressed by The latter custom has binding him or her in corn-stalks. §397.^ In other custom was to round Stettin. Sitten unci Gebrduche a«j 7>4«W«^«i (Vienna. 20. 1878). the harvesters " call out to woman who binds the last sheaf. In delivering : Old Man to the the woman says " Here.^ These examples illustrate the contests in reaping. 22. he is quizzed and teased in all sorts he frees himself from further annoyance by Custom of wrapping corn-stalks the last binder. and bring her with music to the farmhouse. p. and fashioned into human the fastened on a farmer. or threshing. 167 sq. For she who places the last sheaf on the waggon is called the Old Man." a rude semblance of the You have the Old The Old Man is a great bundle form. threshjj^g^ ^^^ binding which take place amongst the harvesters. from their unwillingness to suffer the ridicule and discomfort It incurred by the one who happens to finish his work last. chap. Sagefi. He can stay no longer oti the field. A. rake or strapped on a horse. Mythologische Forschungen. treating the others to binding. and is completely villages loaded. is the Old Man. brandy or beer.220 LITYERSES Old Man. but a few more instances may be added. been already illustrated. is regarded as the representative of is the corn-spirit. and brought with music to the village. p. Forschiaigeii. w. Mythologische Mannhardt. the At Kloxin. or thresher. Ladies and gentlemen. Witzschel. § 69. 1848-1855). where the harvesters danced with her till the pease-straw fell ofif. Man. He can hide himself no longer. dear Sir. 222. ii. p.

Ibid. Forschungen. Ibid. 23 sq. in the district of Potsdam. 23. 24. Isle de France.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT . the Old Man good wishes. the woman who binds the last sheaf at the ryeharvest is saluted with the cry.^ At Gommern. Mannhardt. partner it is an honour to dance with him. 24. on his another stalwart reaper back. near Magdeburg. a person is encased in corn-stalks. Ibid. pp.^ At Blankenfelde. and flowers and a helmet of straw are placed on her head. and wears on his head a crown made out of the last ears cut. " You have the Old Man. 2 •^ Ibid.-21 swathed in corn-stalks she is also decked with flowers. 22. district of Erfurt. and must keep dancing in front of the last harvest-waggon till it reaches the squire's house. Transylvania. p. In solemn procession she carries the harvest-crown to the squire. the person who binds the last sheaf is wrapt in ears of oats and saluted as the Oatsman.^ century it At Nordlingen at threshing is in Bavaria the man who gives the last stroke wrapt in straw and rolled on the threshing- 1 W. p. Mythologische * * Ibid. On reaching the village he is At Dingelstedt.^ At Brie. where she receives a present and is released from her envelope of corn. p. and carried taken by round the field amidst the joyous cries of the harvesters. the farmer himself is tied up in the first sheaf. the reaper who cuts the last ears of corn is often wrapt up in corn-stalks so completely that it is hard to see whether Thus wrapt up he is there is a man in the bundle or not. pp. down to the first half of the nineteenth was the custom to tie up a man in the last sheaf He was called the Old Man. and was brought home on the On reaching the farmlast waggon. p.^ At the harvest-home at Udvarhely. yard he was rolled round the barn and drenched with water. whereupon the others dance round him." A woman is then tied up in the last sheaf in such a way her hair also is covered with that only her head is left free a cap made of rye-stalks. in the soused with water over and over. -2.^ . near Merseburg. She is called the Harvest-man. amid huzzas and music. adorned with ribbons and flowers. ^ "^ . 22 sq. . 24. has the right to choose his.^ At Neuhausen. over whose head she holds it while she utters a string of At the dance which follows. Ibid. or rather her. p.

Western Provinces of India. 1903- 1906). ' P. 6 C." his activity as At sowing-time he goes out again to the fields to animating force among the sprouting same sort Similar ideas as to the last corn in India. and when the corn of this patch has been reaped with a rush and a shout. 24 sq. 25. pp. when the reaping standing air.® districts of the A like custom prevails in the eastern North. §§ 8. and tied which she is called the corn-puppet {Kornpopet)? sheaf at threshing. pp. where services are held to be essential for the purpose of averting the evil-eye. 1885). Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India (Westminster. Sometimes a little patch is left untilled as a refuge for the field-spirit sometimes it is sown.LIT VERSES floor. After they have eaten attired is it a man the The cornspirit. it is presented to the . Sitte. p. A. Central India. after She is pushed. and the reapers rest a little. encased all in pease-straw. Ideas of the in India. and cast it into the shouting victory to one or other of the local gods.^ sheaf has submit to a good last to the binds the woman who deal of horse-play. Elliot. is appear to attach to the in last corn At Hoshangabad. and lives in the barn during the lives in the winter. 178. Here it is fastened up in the threshing-floor or attached to a tree or to the cattle-shed. W. 306. In Thiiringen a sausage is stuck in the last and thrown. ^ * Ibid. quoted in Punjab Notes and Queries. set up in the last harvest cart. A. and is is eaten by the threshers. Drechsler. 1896). Crooke. p. he is is said to to a " get Old Man. and Then they rush A carried home its in triumph. 1878). Mythologische Mannhardt. at this remnant. Sit tea und Gebrdttcke aus Thiiringen (Vienna." wrapt in straw. up in the sheaf. § 70. on the It is called all threshing-floor. and carried In Silesia neighbour who has not yet finished his threshing. knocked down. * ii. ii. 65. with the sheaf. a patch of corn. Hoshangabad Settlement Report. tear it up. p.'* " driven out of the last corn. Forschungen. resume corn. corn — " In these cases the idea the Old Man of vegetation — that the spirit of the driven out of the corn last cut or last threshed. the Barremviirst or Ba::enwurst. and thus is is led through village. 223. 25 sq. iii. . barn during the winter. Sagen. Ibid. nearly done. according sheaf is made out of this to their religious persuasion. Branch tiiid Volksglanbe in Schlesien (Leipsic. about a rood in extent. corn. » W. tied to a bamboo. is left in the cultivator's last field. Witzschel. Bavaria. 168 (October and December.^ In the some parts of Oberpfalz.

in the district of Tilsit. p. p. as if at the flails word of command. Mannhardt. now he has cut off the Boba's head " and he receives a gratuity from the farmer and a jugful of water over According to another his head from the farmer's wife. at threshing the last corn the men keep time with their flails. W. 331. cit. 306 sq. " We are killing the Old Woman We are killing the Old Woman " If there is an old woman in the house she is warned to save herself. Ibid. threshing. cuts said of down the handful. calling out as they thresh. 330.'^ In Wilkischken. or the Wheat-man. is said to have killed the Corn-man. straining every nerve. to be threshed. the corn-spirit well as at reaping. in Lothringen. the man who cuts the last corn goes by the name of " the killer of the Rye-woman. Ibid. according to the crop. to the local gods or bestows on a beggar. op. the Oatsman. again. 1 2 W. It is . 334. every Lithuanian reaper makes haste to finish his him that " task for the Old Rye-woman lives in the last stalks.* account. Passing to the second point of comparison between Thecorn- the Lityerses story and European harvest customs. with the words." Then a young reaper whets his scythe. at threshing ! ! and. Upon this they fling themselves with almost frantic fury. and by killing her he brings trouble on himself. with a strong sweep. and whoever cuts the last stalks kills the Old Rye-woman. ii. we have posed To'" ^^jiied at now to see that in the latter the corn-spirit is often believed ^^ In the Romsdal and when the haymaking is over.^ Near Ragnit. " ^ Ibid.'^ other parts of Norway. 31. p. Then they fall to work. the last handful of corn is left standing by itself.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT who offers it 223 it priest. all is believed to be killed at threshing as When only a single pile of corn remains the threshers suddenly step back a few paces." In some parts of Bavaria the man who gives the last stroke to be killed at reaping or threshing. . in Lithuania. Mythologische Forschungen. p. till they come to the last bundle. and raining blows on it till the word " Halt " rings out ! Crooke. the people say that " the Old Hay-man has been killed. ^ * Ibid. " The Old Woman {Bobd) is sitting in there.^ In the Canton of Tillot.^ II. . or she will be struck dead." ^ In Lithuania. plying their with the utmost rapidity and vehemence.

Hull. husks of corn are stuck behind the neck of the man who gives the last stroke at threshing. E. he is known ^ corn-spirit Lithuania slain was the Sometimes in woman. crying out that " he has struck He has to expiate the deed by the Old Rye-woman dead. who is threshed met with examples of burning the figure which represents In the East Riding of Yorkshire a custom the corn-spirit. Mannhardt. tied the thresher 1 In Carinthia." ^ .-«rf<7:/«^«^//. Nicholson's letter. 149 ^ sq. I have to thank Mr. and the people say that it is threshed upon We saw that "the Old Man is being beaten to death. fall after the command to stop has been given is immediately surrounded by all the rest. Afylhologische Forschungen." treating them to brandy . represented by a out of corn-stalks. Folk-lore of East J. 50. pp. pp. E. under the heap of corn which was to be threshed threshing last. ter Street. together with the last under the threshing-machine. p. and. Hartland and dated 33 Leicesnth September.^ " the Old Witch " is observed on the last day burning called small sheaf of corn is burnt on the field in a A of harvest. in the Tyrol. Mylhologisclu Forschungen. . 135. parched at the fire and eaten with are peas stubble fire of ale and the lads and lasses romp of allowance liberal a themselves by blackening each amuse flames and the about the corn -spirit is repreagain. p. it is he is throttled with a straw garland. 146. and placed on the threshing-floor. 4 Nicholson. 1890). and If he is tall. . and the person who Mannhardt. ." ^ We have already Corn-spirit ""^P""^" sented bv ' a man. faces. on a bundle and flung into the river. S. S. 335. ." figure was made Thus a female puppet. sheaf. dressed in clothes. 335.^ Volders. Yorkshire (London. 1890.'' who gave the last stroke.'* Other's under the last corn lies down who man. 3 Above. W. 6 ' w. 2 Ibid. and At that afterwards a pretence is made of winnowing her. Mannhardt. Then he is believed that the corn will be tall next year. a sented by ' his body. supplemented by a letter of the author's addressed to Mr. as if to thresh her. like the as " the killer man who of the cuts the Old Ryelast corn. p. and Driffield. 28.A'^. 26 Above. Sometimes. sometimes the farmer's wife is thrust. Z)/6.224 LIT VERSES The man whose flail is the last to sharply from the leader. Hartland for calling my attention to the custom and allowing me to see Mr. " Whoever thereafter gave the last stroke at struck the Old Woman dead. Hull. p. W.

2 50 sq. 1879. visits the flax-pullers for the first time. 1 nr ^1 1 Mytholosiische 1903. All over threshers Germany to is ig^treated customary corn-stalks. W. tied up rounded stand brandy. deutscken IVestbokmen (Prague. be he the master or a stranger. und Volksglaube tn 7 2q6 j^. whoever enters the field. Sitte. Sagen. 146. with a rope field made of they pay a time. . 3 170 note^. Sitten und Gebrdnche ans TlmringeniyxcwViZ. See above. 598. he is the farmer Passers-by are also surcompletely enveloped in flax. Mannhardt. Adonis. he was swathed in it and had to redeem for the first 1 Ibid. ii. sledge. ii.j 1. Thus at Solor in Norway. the corn-spirit is We now come to the cases in which represented either by a stranger passing tale).. R. 193 . as usual. Attis. Y. face to face. W. preface dated March. sq.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT 225 untied the last sheaf on the threshing-floor...^ corn.1 906). like that of drenching him with water. . 195 sqq. PT. John.. A.^ III.^ Among the Germans of Haselberg. Krause. in West Bohemia. 221. . pp.^ The custom of throwing the representative of the corn-spirit into a stream. Mythologische For- schunge 'Ba. ''^^'' " ^^ "P" ^^ e ^' Branch vol. (1888) p. 51 populaires. 36.T>xtQ>ci%\&x. Mdrckeji und Gebrduche aus Meklenburg (Vienna. the harvest-field (as in the Lityerses or by a lay visitor it harvest- entering it for for the first time. are bound hand and foot with straw bands. Sometimes the rope is only tied round his arm or his feet But sometimes he is regularly swathed in or his neck. 1/jT-f. as soon as a farmer had given the last corn to be threshed on the threshing-floor. . 62 A. p. Branch c L7 /T • • . 1905). V. p. or g^^j^^ u a stranger °^ ^he'^''°^ threshes the last corn. dragged through the village.Sitte. Gebrduche und Aberglauben in Westpreussen (Berlin. p. 1878). Q . pp. is tied up in a sheaf and In the neighbourhood of Soest. Compare K. Witzschel. Second Edition. * zr Schlesten (Leipsic. in flax. a rain-charm. Sitten. ' 1 j. Mannhardt. pp. and crowns of straw are placed Then they are tied. Revue des Traditions 1904). and compelled to by the women. pp. corn-spirit generally been the man or woman who binds. is. Sagen. on a on their heads. when must pay a ransom.risch. Thus far the representatives of the corn-spirit have cuts. iii. and when the farmer or the threshing- himself or one of his guests enters the floor he is treated in the same way. the reapers or hold of accord- passing strangers and till bind them forfeit . 32 sqq.'^ At Nordlingen strangers are caught with straw ropes and tied up in a sheaf till they pay a forfeit. . p. und I Volksglaube im "" Ibid. and flung into a brook.1880). § 61 . Osiris.

t'dtd. that if is is. a well- dressed stranger passes the hop-yard. . as to which see Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. of Farnborough Lodge. In Anhalt. in practised. the wife of the chief reaper ties a rope twisted of corn-ears. when a stranger. In ° some A. * ii. 240^5^. Branch. the steward. the proprietor. note The "key" in the European O. The task falls to the women him by the ground. seize When he has accepted harvest-supper are dictated to him. ^ J. W. catch him. Farnborough. throw him the and and the body." Zeitschrift des Vereins fiir Volkskunde. (Prague.226 LITYERSES chap. Mannhardt. is the Old Man. 153.^ In the canton of Putanges. p. John. 36." is as much as to say that he corn-spirit. one after the other. 308 ^ sq.^ prietor or one of his family. to arms. Isle them. and the conditions to be observed at the They throw themselves on the legs. crying. or thresher of the last sheaf Therefore. p. as at Brie. or at least Normandy. Kent." which in it are addressed to the cutter. and not parts of Scotland. Volksglaube im deutschen Westbdhmeti. dated 21st March. or a nosegay made of corn-ears and flowers. 36. a practised pretence of tying up the owner of the land in the last sheaf of wheat is still was still some alone. when the prohimself by a present of cakes. they bind him in a sheaf and bite him.^ with leaves. The letter is Forschungen." ^ " To have in . Hartung. vii. is tied up a sheaf and told that he will " carry the key of the field. " of the field. in the forehead. the reapers give chase. Esguisses du Socage No)-mand (Conde-sur-Noireau. 1883'^ custom is probably intended to serve the same purpose as the "knot" in the Cingalese custom. till he has paid a Sitte. " Zur Volkskunde aus Anhalt. when any one who does not belong to the farm If they passes by the harvest-field. the key by harvesters elsewhere thresh the last sheaf ^ shall carry the key an expression used the sense of to cut or bind or " is it is You hence. 1887). Mythologische From a letter written to me by Colonel Henry Wilson. pp. or even a stranger enters the harvest-field for the first time after the reaping has begun. to his arm. p. see 2. Lecoeur. equivalent to the phrases are the "You have the Old Man. At Brie. binder. he seized by the women." "You Old Man.^ de France. he is released and allowed to get up. covered fine. quarter of a century ago. tumbled released * into the bin. an embodiment of the In hop-picking. and he is obliged to ransom himself by the payment of a fine. 194. (1897) p. 1905). und For the evidence. 1901. show is made of the last sheaf Then a stretch him on binding him.

upon his back. the next pair in front of the columns starts off.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT 227 and Kinross. the hoes.^ paring this custom with the one practised at Putanges in into violent contact with to Women as well as men were liable Normandy. down to dump. them with ropes. the procession all A short distance in the time advancing toward the house. then turn back. the workers seize the master of the ^^^^^^ field. and thus pair after pair performs the tour. running in the same way. as it was called. '"^ implements. run along the two columns. house-door. we may con- jecture that in Scotland the " dumping " of strangers on the was originally a preliminary to wrapping them up the in sheaves of corn. Simultaneously the house. The father of the family. two men at the heads of the columns begin to run rapidly forward some thirty yards. Then they form two single columns. lift him up. load all the at hoeing. and all facing the Thus they start homeward. any stranger who happened to visit or pass by the The custom was to lay hold of the stranger harvest field. front of it they come to a men who carry red handkerchiefs tied to sticks like flags. . which has harvest-field just been described. cross each other. cross each other again at the rear and take their places each at the end of his row. are met by two young and halt. and bring the lower particularly in the counties of Fife recent times the reapers used to seize and part of his person the ground. As they pass each other ahead and in the rear of the columns they beat their mouths with the hollow of their hands and yell. (1889) pp." The Folk-lore Journal^ vii. 52 sq. fastening \^^ harvest. by his ankles and armpits. The practice of interposing a sheaf between the sufferer Comand the ground is said to be a modern refinement. the landlord in the middle between them. steps forward alone and kneels down in front of his The flag-bearers wave their banners over him. As soon as they reach their places at the foot. be thus treated. still tied up and loaded with the hoes. tying his arms crosswise behind him. Ceremonies of a somewhat similar kind are performed by cereTarahumare Indians of Mexico not only at harvest but ^°^^^ " When the work of hoeing Tarahualso at hoeing and ploughing. and the women of the household come out and kneel on 1 "Notes on Harvest Customs. and weeding is finished. and. that is to say.

mollified by these thrive. and north.. which the spirits of the dead are ^ Yi. and appoints one man among them ceremony is to distribute after the more to all. Osiris. are naturally disturbed who by in agricultural operations. van den Poso-Alfoer. Kruijt. in order that they disposed are may be kindly ripen.^ When see that the Yabim of Simbang German New Guinea and pork to the the eggs.Vei\.. with the wherewithal to sustain it). hoping that. see above. first toward the east. Unknown Mexico (London. pp. i. 214 sq. on the second he does ^ The meaning of these Mexican Perhaps the custom of tying up ceremonies is not clear. In these ceremonies there is no evidence that. ii. and after a little while toward each of the other cardinal points. father then rises and the people untie him. they offer rice. as in the parallel European customs. 1903). ! A'omm heriiber und kilj p. 1095'^^. Lumholtz. 137. . and reaping is purely conjectural." pelijk leven Mededeelin^en van ivege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap. " Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschap- thought to exercise on the growth of the crops. He gives a drinkinggourd full to each one in the assembly. west. pp. and now he is going to give them tesvino. and below. As to the influence (1895) p. 75 sq. whereupon first salutes the ' women with the usual greeting. 1898). xxxix. uns * Heft 2 (Barmen. ploughing. ploughing." expiation or apology offered to the spirits of the earth. pp. they offer sacrifice of sago-broth spirits of the former owners of the land. this explanation of the Mexican ceremonies at hoeing. The he or ' In conclusion the flags are waved in front of the house. 7. the farmer at hoeing. vol. fruits of Central Celebes and so forth to the souls of the former owners of the land. south. Now they all go into the house. On the first occasion the tied man may be yoke of the oxen. 2 Compare Adonis. Second Edition. A. their left knees. The same after performed ploughing and the harvesting. and reaping is a form of to carry the made not carry anything. for how could he have gotten through They have provided him with a his work without them ? year's life (that is. C. Attis. the souls will make the crops to grow and However.^ Similarly and not do harm but let when the Alfoors or Toradjas planting a new field.* offerings.&x.228 LIT YERSES chap. the farmer is identified ^ C. Kwirevd I makes a short speech thanking them all for the Kwlra ! and the man ' ' assistance they have given him. 103 sq. the taro plants in their fields are putting forth leaves.

in Mecklenburg on the first day of reaping. of them ties the master or stranger (as the case may be) with corn -ears or with a silken a rhyming address. while their leader stands forward and makes a When he has done. as if they were making ready to mow. Mythologische Forschtmgen. if the master or mistress or a stranger enters the field. The scythes are bent. The gentleman must be tnoived. modern European reapers have been wont to lay hold of a passing stranger and tie him up in a sheaf. measured time very loudly. 229 with since he is not wrapt up in the sheaves. . men and women. instance. all the harvesters stop work and march towards him in a On meeting him body. his way being barred with a corn-rope. payment of a forfeit.^ Near Ratzeburg. all the mowers face towards him and sharpen their scythes. p. Two of the women binders then come forward one Be that as Pretence J^g^g^^p^^g of killing \-^^y^ jj^g^j. The reapers form a circle round him and sharpen their scythes.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT the corn-spirit. . 39. they all whet their scythes in speech. band . or merely passes by it. the other delivers The following are specimens of the In some speeches made by the reaper on these occasions. woman who leads the mowers steps up to him and ties He must ransom himself by a band round his left arm." 1 W. The corn is great and small. parts of Pomerania every passer-by is stopped. after which they put on their caps. clashing their whet-stones against them in Then the unison. The men stick the they form up in line. . their language For and gestures are at least indicative of a desire to do so. It is not to be expected that they should complete the parallel by cutting off his head but if they do not take such a strong step. it may. poles of their scythes in the ground. . Mannhardt. as they do in whetting them then they take off their caps and hang them on the scythes. to prove that. scythes. the evidence adduced above suffices Hke the ancient Lityerses. the men with their scythes in front. while their leader says : " The men are ready. when the master or other person of mark enters the field or passes by it.

42. 2 Ibid. For the speeches made by the woman who binds the stranger or the master. " Shall I teach you the flaildance ? " If he says yes. the threshers put a round her body and a wreath of corn-stalks round her neck. is Then Ramin. pp. see ibid. p. Mannhardt. p. p. of Liineburg. Also. See also above. the harvesters mow some swaths. ^ Lemke. W. 41 * W. (Mohrungen. Mythologische 3 W.230 LIT VERSES At the process of whetting the scythes is repeated. and call out. and press them together so tight that he is nearly choked. above. Mythologische Forschtingen." if Then they enters put a flail round his neck and a straw rope about his body. he fellow. The sword has a right to strike.^ in the district of Stettin. In Thiiringen a being called the Rush-cutter [Binsensclmeidcr] p. cit. cit. and then ask him for drink-money. 40. Mannhardt. But.* In some parishes of Wermland (Sweden)." ^ That in these customs the whetting of the scythes is meant as a preliminary to mowing appears from the In the district is really following variation of the preceding customs. and are treated accordingly. 42. 39 sq. We shear princes and lords.^ On the threshing-floor strangers are also regarded as asked whether he engage a good If made by threshers of choking lurtheir flaiis. C. " See the Corn -woman! See! that is how the Corn -maiden looks 1 ! " 5 W. At Wicdinghardc in Schleswig when a stranger comes to the threshing-floor he is asked. Mannhardt. 41 . Volksthilmliches in Ostpretissen i. Wherewith we shear meadows and fields. 149. pp. standing by the reapers. Forschuiigen. when any one will enters the harvest-field. they say that " they will teach him the threshing-song. sq. See op. Mannhardt. Labourers are often athirst If the gentleman will stand beer and brandy The joke will soon be over. 1884-1887).. when a stranger enters the threshing-floor where the threshers are at work. op. they put the arms of the threshingflail round his neck as if he were a sheaf of corn. encircled thus addressed : " WeHl stroke the gentleman With our naked sword. 23 sq. 150. a stranger flail woman the threshing-floor. if our prayer he does ?iot like. embodiments of the corn-spirit. the stranger. p. yelling and screaming. Pretence he says yes. . p. as we have seen.

Sagen.as poor and ting of the corn at harvest. Witzschel. Munich. seven bundles of brushwood were silently threshed with the flail on the threshing-floor. old-fashioned peasants sometimes make up the last sheaf into a rude puppet. the digging of the roots. ^ w. which strip him of his property and reduce him to poverty. Sitten and appeared at the 210 sq. See A. the following custom should set his During the madder-harvest in the Dutch doubts at rest. aus Thiirmgen (Vienna. ^ W. 1855.'=°5" is sometimes conceived. is made of treating him like the corn by mow- and threshing him. observed both on the harvest-field and on the threshing-floor. province of Zealand a stranger passing by a field. near Eisenach. Custom "I'j^g^^'^ madderZealand"^ and a show ing. will sometimes call out to them Koortspillers (a term of reproach). 1848Gebrciuche and the stranger who door of the barn during the threshing was the Rush-cutter. they bring him back to the madder-field and bury him in the earth up to his middle at least. With the Binsen1878). Upon this. in Zealand (Denmark). 47 sq. ' ii.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT 231 In these customs. Mannhardt. 48. To detect him.^ In a village near Roeskilde. used to be much dreaded. jeering at him the while then they ease nature before his face. and the ^y gathering of fruit from the fruit-trees are each and all of them reapers. but as its owner. a passing stranger is regarded as a personification of the corn. op." Thus in the neighbourhood of Eisenach a small sheaf is sometimes left standing on the field for "the Poor Old Woman. On the morning of St. which is called the Rye . §§ 372-378). W. the corn and of other cultivated plants ^ conceived not as immanent in the plant. as the corn-spirit . p.'* In Southern Schonen the sheaf which is bound last is called the Beggar . two of the fleetest runners make after him." ^ At Marksuhl. pp. Mannhardt. in other words. . pp." At Alt Lest in Silesia the man who binds the last sheaf is called the Beggar-man. acts of spoliation. I. and. p. where the people are digging the madder-roots. The spirit of The spirit °f 'hs. John's Day he was wont to walk through the fields with sickles tied to his ankles cutting avenues in the corn as he walked. if they catch him. Mythologische Forschungen. 48 sq.beggar. Hence he is often known as " the Poor Man " or " the Poor Woman. pp. cit. the puppet formed out of the last sheaf is itself called " the Poor W^oman. Beiifag zur deutschen Mythologie. Mannhardt.^ This last act is to be explained as follows. scAneider compSiVe the BiVsc/inezder and Biberschneider (F. hence the cut. Panzer.e. binding. If the reader still doubts whether European peasants can really regard a passing stranger in this light.. ' ^j^^^ . * Ibid. 22 1.

Sometimes a little of the crop home. ?^7 3 * J. but the mythical Old Woman who makes the corn to grow. glaubeimdeutschenWestbdhnien{Vt2Lg\ie. Mythologische Forschungen. Lmides." they say. poor and hungry.^ fuls ^ In the Frankenwald of Bavaria three hand- of flax were W.^ So in Thiaringen. bigger than the rest and is sometimes dressed is in clothes. § 74. Mannhardt. ^ ^' Witzschel. The same thing is done for all the different kinds of corncrop. ' . woman. beeti. In this way the Wood-woman. a little heap is left lying on the field it belongs the corn . we are told. 2 Ji. In the district of Olmiitz the last sheaf it is called it the Beggar Some of the corn left on the harvestfield for given to an old woman.i(^_ p. belongs to the Old Woman. pp. on the field the Wood-woman. 189.^ j^j-j.und Volkskunde Konigreichs Bayern (Munich. ^ " the Poor Old Woman. 337 sq. who must carry the corn. <^^ spirit. 1878)." Thus at Szagmanten. a village of the Tilsit district. Sagen. John." ^ some corn rest has Of this corn left standing they say that " it been cut. the last sheaf was left standing on the In Neftenbach (Canton field " for the Old Rye-woman. Under other names than ^^ ^^ j^gj^ f^j. limping on one foot. Branch iind Volks- Bavaria. to " the Little Wood-woman left " in return for the blessing she " for has bestowed. I905)> p. . Mannhardt. in West Bohemia. 18601S67).spirit. At Schiittarschen. Next year may she be to us As kind as this time she has These words clearly shew that the Old Woman for whom is left on the field is not a real personage..232 it LIT YERSES is made . following words " : We give it to the Old Woman. p. p." ^ She shall keep it. 49. Sitte. after the crop has been reaped. Sitten ttnd Gebrduche ans Thiiringeii (Vienna.^. when the after-grass {Grummet) is being got in. ." to whom it is dedicated in the is left standing on the At Kupferberg. has enough to live on through the winter and the corn will thrive the better next year.^ W. 343 sq. and offer a prayer. 224." ^ Mythologische Forschungen." ^ of Zurich) the first three ears of corn reaped are thrown away on the field " to satisfy the Corn-mother and to make j the next year's crop abundant. in field when the Bavaria. ^ A. iii. a few stalks are left standing and a " That belongs to the Woodgarland is attached to them.

^ In the island of spirits Nias. 182. sou /c ^ee above. consecrated to St." In the north-east of Scotland a few stalks were sometimes left unreaped on the Here " the aul' field for the benefit of " the aul' man. § 419. Voroneje. p. " in order that the next harvest should not fail. pp. 3 ii. 365. kunde. xvi. 555. S.i()oy Rgv.' and it is supposed that after it has been performed no wizard or other evillydisposed person will be able to hurt the produce of the fields. "Note zur Zanzibar et la Cote Orientaled'Afrique. one names of the thunder-god. Germain. in ^ ancient times. and the ceremony is called 'the plaiting of the beard of Volos. Similar customs Near Kursk and are kept up in various parts of Russia. 136 sgq. pp. Sitte.€\^s\c. for instance. Second As to (London. see W. The unreaped patch is looked upon as tabooed and it is believed that if any one meddles with it he will shrivel up." ^ In some parts of Silesia it was till lately the custom to leave a few corn-stalks standing in the field. " These ears are eventually knotted together. Ralston. of Kings. 1881). R. (1868) p.^ customary at sowing a field to reserve a certain portion of it " is for the guardian tuck of drum. As it is well known that both the Saint and the Prophet have succeeded to the place once held in the estimation of the Russian people by Perun. 154. Nicholas. Branch. to prevent the depredations of wandering among (1897) the rice at harvest. and in another district one of oats is At Lindau . tiny huts are which food deposited for their use. ' ^ 1906).Vhme Serie. 251 sq. Drechsler.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT in 233 standing in the Anhalt the reapers used to leave some stalks last corner of the last field for " the Cornwoman to eat. who at come and take is harvest are invited. a patch of rye is usually left in honour of the Prophet Elijah. Notes on the Folk-lore of the North-east of Scotland (London. it seems probable that Volos of the really was. 64. p. and become twisted like the interwoven ears. to also built in spirits. Perun. 4 ii. 1872). und VolksglaubeinSchlesien{l. Songs of the Edition Russian People. . a miniature field fur Volks- is dedicated ^ Zeitschrift des Vereins vii. The Magic Art and the Evolution A." "" man probably the equivalent of the harvest Old Man of Among the Mohammedans of Zanzibar it is Germany. the old Slavonic thunder-god. Walter Gregor. to the their share ." ^ In Russia it is customary to leave patches of unreaped corn in the fields and to place bread and salt on the ground near them."^///Zj/'i« de la Soci^te de G^ographie{Vdins). 2 P.

worship the field " (A. standing on the to be field as a portion for is the corn-spirit. and that he believed some localities the last sheaves are left standing in the field and are known as barhoia. seek to appropriate 3 * it. And at the end of harvest the last one or two sheaves are left standing in the field and any one who likes can cut and carry them away. beans. or the giver of increase.^ The Hos. are dedicated to the " guardian gods the land . Spieth. ^ J. 593. Then all the labourers rush together at this last patch of corn and tear it up by the hence the name of " the giver of increase " bestowed on it. Provinces of India " sometimes the oldest man in the house cuts the first five bundles of the crop and they are afterwards left in the fields for the birds to eat. the law which forbade the Hebrews to reap the corners and gather the gleanings of the harvest-fields and to strip the ^ E. 19 10. 74- . and the eagerness with which other people. Rarian plain at Eleusis^ was a spiritual preserve of the same kind set apart for the exclusive use of the cornIt may even be that goddesses Demeter and Persephone. W. Un Viaggio a Nias (Milan. E.^ may be dedicated to the spirits of the rice to compensate them for the loss they sustain by allowing men to cultivate all Perhaps the the rest of the land for their own benefit. Die Etve-Stdmme (Ber- After the barno share in this patch. or gods. See above. A. the master having roots . 93 sq. Modigliani. 75). pp. stock-yams. everybody seizes as much as he can [and] keeps it. there he cultivates " for their benefit the same . 1890). " of the owner of care.234 Little fields LIT YERSES them and in it to are sown a all the plants that grow in the or gardens cultivated for spirits real fields. At the entrance to their yam-fields the traveller may see on both sides of the path small mounds on which yams. Bilaspur This District. plants which he and the notion is that the cultivates for his own use in the fields " guardian gods will content themselves with eating the fruits which grow in their little private preserves and will not poach on the crops which are destined for Hence perhaps human use. tended with peculiar usual luxuriance. These customs suggest that the little sacred rice-fields on which the Kayans of Borneo perform the various operations of husbandry in mimicry before they address themselves to the real labours of the field. observe a similar custom for a similar reason. and maize are planted and appear to flourish with more than These little gardens. Nelson. vol. 303. See above. quotation was kindly sent to me by Mr. though not the owner of the immanent in it . p. Crooke I have not seen the original. In lin. It seems to shew that in the Central Provinces the last corn is left . p. hona has been torn up all the labourers fall on their faces to the ground and In the Central 1906). 36. Ewe tribe of negroes in Togoland. p.^ we may explain the dedication of sacred fields and the offering of firstfruits to gods and spirits. land. Central Provinces Gazetteers. pp.

See above. own for how could he expect to reap wheat and if barley and to gather grapes next year spirits of the he suffered the possibly explain corn and of the vine to perish of famine in ? the meantime This train of thought ^ may the wide-spread originally not so custom of offering the : first-fruits of the crops to gods or spirits such offerings may have been to continue much an in expression of gratitude for benefits to received as a their means of enabling the benefactors time benefactions come. pp. he must be the natural owner of the madder-roots. ii. but of the poor spirits of vine. 49 Mythologische A. 19-21. Wuttke. sq. -t . is passing stranger that — natural that the spirit should upbraid equally natural they should and it seek to disable him . their spirit or demon and this conception is carried out by . 9 sq. against interruption.. § 400. Regarded as such.VII KILLING THE CORN-SPIRIT ^ 235 for vines of their last grapes benefit. 603). Der deutsche Volksaberglaube'^ (Berlin. xxiv. pp. . Deuteronomy. pp. and below. 1904. Forschungen.^ Hence when madder-diggers of the stranger field. spot themselves. them niadderroots. the robbers secure Now. 1 Leviticus. 1869). 254. 3 W. 'London. In providing for their wants the prudent husbandman was really consulting his interests . Hearn. 46 sq. for a certain time. Toppen. 109 11 -y . it is an old superstition that by easing nature on the where a robbery is committed. o 2 . ^g^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^. not of the was originally intended the the corn and the human poor.. xix. vv sqq. Primitive : man is has generally a shrewd eye to the main chance the past.. M. that is. and who. Abeixlaube atis Mastiren"^ (Danzig. not made for their subsistence. fj"^ upon /ttt and acted in Japan (L. „ . Mannhardt. 53 sqq. a. Glimpses of UnfamiliarJapan. he more prone to provide for the future than to sentimentalise over Thus when the a being the spirit of vegetation of his is conceived as Passing treated'^as who is robbed it store and his impoverished representative — is by the harvesters. resort to this proceeding in presence whom we may infer that they have caught and buried in the they consider themselves robbers and him as the person robbed. before another year came round. 22. xxiii. from pursuing them and recapturing the stolen property. who had just been despoiled by the if some provision were would naturally die of hunger reapers and the vintagers. vol. p.5^^ j^ ^^f^ .

and you came suddenly in. (Paris. vol. de Leon. Relations et Mt^moires Originaux pottr servir h F Histoii-e de la Dicouverte de PAm^Hque. we thought it was a spirit. 1864). ).^ These coincidences with the Lityerses story seem to prove that the latter is a genuine description of an old Phrygian harvest-custom. Compare 485 sqq. in the ground. binds. " Kruijt. 225. and for a long time the Spaniards were unable to suppress the bloody rite. The Indians of Guayaquil. ervaringen te ^ A.^ The people of Canar (now Cuenca in Ecuador) used to sacrifice a hundred children annually at harvest. the Incas of Peru. as we had never seen comer in these words you before. Histoire du Royaume de Quito.^ Once in Poso. (1892) p. and thrown into the water. Markham.^ At a * The explanation W. it is desirable to shew that in rude society human beings have been commonly killed as an agricultural ceremony to promote the fertility of the fields. roam up and down cities. But since in the modern parallels the killing of the personal representative of the corn-spirit is necessarily omitted or at most enacted only in mimicry. ^ Cieza schtingen. a district of Celebes. Travels. of the custom is Mannhardt's {Mythologische For- see p. Juan de Velasco. The following examples will make this plain. when a new missionary entered a house where a number of people were gathered round a sick man. in Ecuador. xvii. 49). p. transR. . one of them addressed the new" Well. it the madder-roots. sir. The kings of Quito. Human Sacrifices for the Crops Human sacrifices for the crops in South and Central America. 216 A. Sophist. used to sacrifice human blood and the hearts of men when they sowed their fields. ^ 3. Greeks.Com pans. killed in by being wrapt up mimicry by agricultural implements. 2 Odyssey. Mijne eerste Poso. (Ternaux. Plato. Voyages. xviii.^ The says may be observed. p. or threshes the last corn is treated as in an embodiment of the corn-spirit sheaves. xxxvi. (Hakluyt Society. while we sat here by ^ ourselves." Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap. lated ** by C. 203 C. p. i. were quite familiar with the idea that a passing stranger may be a god.236 LITYERSES like burying him. 121 sq." Thus in these harvest-customs of modern Europe the that the gods in the likeness of foreigners : person who cuts. 402. 1840) pp. London. * For throwing him into the water. Homer Killing of the personal representative of the corn-spirit.

the etymology of which refers to the sheaves of tender maize {elotl. they used to sacrifice to the young . 340. their heads encircled litters with feather crowns. crowned with flowers. At the moment of consummating this inhuman rite. at the time green and milky maize are about countries goddess chosen among the noblest families of the country they were decked out in festal attire. The priests. and a feast and dance followed. The town celebrated for carrying of Elopango. CROPS 237 Mexican when the first-fruits of the season were offered to the sun.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE harvest-festival. and conveyed in rich palanquins to the brink of the hallowed waters. 1 ^ Brasseur de Bourbourg." ^ We have seen that the ancient Mexicans also sacrificed human beings at all the to forget the earth whom des Brasseur de Bourbourg. i. 274 . 278 1875. who at Tlaxcallan was called Matlalcuey^ or the Lady of the Blue Petticoats. His remains were buried. was near the lake of the same name. and advised in order to for them a bright them not to entreat the divinity. to which they had left behind. (1857) pp. its temple. marched in front of the censers with burning incense. It was dedicated to the goddess Xochiquetzal. They picture of the delights they were about to enjoy in the company of the gods. and . Native Races of the Pacific States (London. 'sheaf of tender maize')." Bulletin de sq. to whom the young victims were offered by being hurled from the top of a rock into the abyss. shared these honours. la Society de Serie. H. a criminal was placed between two immense stones. girls. ii. where the sacrifice was to be offered. Bancroft. when four the cobs of the in Central America Every year. 18571859). it was to her that many still particularly paid their devotions. the priests addressed themselves in turn to the four virgins drew banish the fear of death from their minds. "Aper9us d'un voyage dans les Etats de SanSalvador et de Guatemala. Histoire Nations civilisies du Alexiqtte et de V Amiriqtie Centrale (Paris. but they despatched them. to bless the forthcoming harvest. H. and was crushed by them as they fell together. G^og}-apkie (Paris).1876)." ^ " Tlaloc was worshipped in Mexico as the god of the thunder and the storm which precedes the fertilising rain elsewhere his wife Xochiquetzal. This sacrifice was known as " the meeting of the stones. . to coagulate and ripen. clad in long floating robes. IVeme xiii. balanced opposite each other.

little which she handed to the warrior next to In this way she called at every wigwam. 379 5?. pp.^^ Star. the age of the victims corresponding to the sacrificed age of the corn for they new-born babes at sowing. or by a certain bird which the Morning Star The bird was stuffed to them as its messenger. was fattened on the choicest and carefully kept in ignorance of his doom. No doubt the correwhen they sacrificed old men. The girl was fourteen or fifteen years old and had been kept for six months and well treated. Second Edition. a human victim in The sacrifice was believed to have been enjoined on Pawnees. warriors. 1 Herrera. then cleft his head with a tomahawk and shot him with arrows. various stages in the growth of the maize. danced a solemn dance. ii. attended by the warriors. accompanied by the whole council of chiefs and gayest and most costly food. Two days before the sacrifice she was led from wigwam to wigwam. two pieces of wood Attis. Immediately after the sacrifice the people proceeded to plant their fields. According to one trader. A particular account has been preserved of the sacrifice of a Sioux girl by the Pawnees in April 1837 or 1838. Osiris. them by the Morning had sent and pre- served failure as a powerful talisman. and pumpkins. beans. they bound him to a cross in the presence of the multitude. The victim was a captive of either sex. 33S . He was clad in the attire. Z)/^ Culhirlander lies alten Amerika{^&r\m. Baslian. omission of this sacrifice would They thought that an be followed by the total of the crops of maize. quoted byA. with which they greased their hoes but this was denied by another trader who had been present at the ceremony. . When he was fat enough. At each lodge she paint. older children when the grain had sprouted. receiving at each the same present of wood and paint.238 LIT VERSES CHAP.^ spondence between the ages of the victims and the state of the corn was supposed to enhance the efficacy of the . each of whom carried 1878). Human forthe^^ crops spring The Pawnees annually sacrificed when they sowed their fields. On the twentysecond of April she was taken out to be sacrificed. received a small billet of wood and a her. the squaws then cut pieces of flesh from the victim's body. See Adonis. and so on till it was fully ripe. sacrifice. sq.

is Another given by H. from 'E. were hung on stakes on each side of her. According to one account the body of the victim was reduced to a kind of paste. New York. 1889. Along with her were sacrificed sheep and goats.. she was attached to a sort of gibbet and roasted for some time over a slow fire. and their bodies buried crops in Africa. The accounts by 1873). B. id. and other seeds to fertilise them. . pp. which was rubbed or sprinkled not only on the maize but also on the potatoes. xv.^ A woman West African queen used in the month of March. Grinnellfrom the recollection sxi e\e-vi'iiVi&&% (Pawnee Hero Stories ajui Folk-tales. By this sacrifice they . De Smet.^ At Lagos in Guinea it was the custom annually to impale a young girl alive soon after the spring equinox in order to secure good crops. (1838) pp. with yams. id. description of the sacrifice 277-279 . 493 sq. 1732). Schoolcraft and De Smet of the sacrifice of the Sioux girl are independent and supplement each other. Labat. been painted half red and half black. xi.121 sqq. hoped to obtain plentiful crops. to sacrifice a man and with Human for'the^^ They were in the killed middle of a field which had just been tilled. v. and their minds had been so powerfully wrought upon by the fetish men that they went cheerfully to 1 spades and hoes.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE CROPS 239 Her body having which he had received from her hands. '^ i. then shot to death with arrows. and plantains. Before the body was consumed in the fire a man pulled out the arrows. the beans. According to De Smet. Schoolcraft. B. and having smeared his face with the blood ran away as fast as he oi could. and taken to a neighbouring corn-field. who wrote from the descriptions of four eye-witnesses.. heads of maize. cut open the breast of the victim. 1823). of collecting wood took place on the morning of the sacrifice. G. put in little There the baskets. J. in Annales de la Propagation de la Foi. According to this last 362-369). The victims were bred up for the purpose in the king's seraglio. the procession from hut to hut for the purpose Mr. till all the seed corn. Voyages aux Montagnes Rocheuses. While her flesh was still warm it was cut in small pieces from the bones. Account of an Exf edition Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains . had been sprinkled with the blood it was then covered up with earth. 1853-1856). 77 sqq. (London. Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia. . (1843) pp. Nouvelle Edition (Paris and Brussels. in Annales de la Propagation de la Foi. ii. 380. which. head chief took a piece of the flesh from a basket and squeezed a drop of blood upon the newly-deposited grains of His example was followed by the rest. .]ames. The chief sacrificer next tore out her heart and devoured it. 80 sq. PP. account the victim was shot with arrows and afterwards burnt. J. Relation historiqjie de V Ethiopie occidentale (Paris. R.

one of human sacrifice before they sow a slave. * From information given me by jySb and j8oo 25.* The sacrifice was not performed in the fields. of a peculiar kind once a year about the time of harvest. stout man. 117 sq. the ashes are then scattered over the ground to fertilise it. Voyage (L exploration au Nord-est de la Colonie du Cap de Bonne. the flesh attached to it. Blumentritt.). Guinea. 1842). my friend the Rev. The rest of the body is eaten. no. Their principal seasons for head-hunting are the times In order that the of planting and reaping the rice. offer a The Bagobos of Mindanao. N. 2 (London. a the Philippine Islands.^ LIT VERSES chap.^ hills in German East Africa used to offer The Wamegi of the Usagara human sacrifices . to the fields.^ victim the The Luzon. and my informant could not ascertain its object. sacrifice a is human being The victim chosen He is seized by violence generally a short. 132. but we may conjecture that it was to ensure good crops in the following year. are passionate head-hunters. for the crops. T.Espirance 3 ^ F.^ The Marimos. natives province in the interior of one of the Philippine Islands. " Das Stromgebiet des Rio Grande de Mindanao. where he is killed taken and intoxicated or amongst the wheat to serve as " seed " (so they phrase it). La Cote des Esclaves Wamegi and in 1886. After his blood has coagulated in the sun. Human forthe^^ crops in the is Dine's^ pmes. The headhunters go out in twos or threes. time among the suppressed the sacrifice (Paris. . in The forest. The festival was usually held in September or October. 1885). every farm must get at least one human head at planting and one at sowing. and the brain . The p. and there she was crushed to death between two branches. A in similar sacrifice used to be annually offered at Benin. lie in wait for the victim. a Bechuana tribe. pp. which was also the time of sowing for the Wamegi have two crops annually. She was taken to a hill where the festival was to be celebrated. p. The victim was a girl who had attained the age of puberty. p. crop may turn out well. it is burned along with the frontal bone. who resided P." Petermanns Mitteilungen. for John Roscoe. some Bouche.240 their fate. Arbousset et F. xxxvii. 1 John Adams. Daumas. their rice. (1891) (Paris. one in September and one in February.D. who is hewn to pieces of Bontoc. Sketches taken during Ten Voyages in Africa between the years custom has probably long been obsolete.

whether man or woman. the man who cut it off takes it home and preserves it as a relic. The Wa depend for their subsistence mainly on their crops of impenetrable. where they are received with great rejoicings. " his skulls as a protection against the wild Wa^ . xxi." Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic.^ The Wild Wa. xx.Human eastern frontier of Upper Burma.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE CROPS 241 feet.^ Similar customs are observed by the Apoyaos. might gain entrance and kill the . . - i{ Schadenberg. low. powers of of Burma. who are all malignant. The people then dance round them and feast and get drunk. some lower down on a small projecting a series of mountain ranges shelving rapidly spur of flat ground. V. Eth^tologie und Urgcschichte." The Wa country is down to narrow valleys from two to five thousand feet deep. 1889). is thickly studded with pegs to wound the feet of enemies who might attempt to force a way in. in Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologie. Ethnologie und Urgcschichte. an agricultural tribe on the north. When the flesh has decayed from the head. still hunt for human ^^^ jhe^^ heads as a means of promoting the welfare of the crops. while his companions do the same with the hands and the feet. another tribe in the interior of Luzon. the floor of which. The skulls are at first exposed on the branches of two or three dead trees which stand in an open space of every village surrounded by large stones which serve as seats. p. (681) (bound with Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie. Without a skull his crops would fail without a skull his kine might die without a skull the father and mother spirits would be shamed and might be enraged if there were no protecting skull the other spirits. for additional security. PT. " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der im Innern Nordluzons lebenden Stamme. VOL. cut off his or her head. inhabitants. winding tunnel. 1888. and the villages stand out conspicuously blotches on the hillby an earthen rampart so thickly overgrown with cactuses and other shrubs as to be sides. p. hands. Schadenberg. 1889. (39) (bound with Zeitschrift ftir Etknologie. or drink all the liquor. the landscape as yellowish-brown Each village is fortified The only entrance is through a narrow. and and bring them back in haste to the village. The villages are all perched high on the slopes. crops The Wa regards evil. some just under the crest of the ridge. and ^ A. I R . Industrious cultivation has cleared away in the jungle.

chap. When all the flesh and sinews have mouldered away and nothing remains but the blanched and grinning skull. wrapt in grass or leaves. with the . Then the great human heads. Sometimes the rice-fields more below the village. is the proper nothing but fields of poppies. and you may travel for days through Then. who are apt to go off duty without waiting for the tedious formality of relieving guard. of rice-spirit are tapped. beans. or rather the bamboos. When head-hunters . Parties of head-hunters at that time go As a rule they will not forth to prowl for human prey. the drum is beaten rejoicing is frantically. a small shed which usually stands on the highest point of the village site. This is an avenue of huge old trees. which forms the centre mad of drunk. taken to the spirit-house. feet three thousand require constant attention. and they But the chief crop raised by the Wa is the poppy. are much less likely to stray away from their skulls hence they make more vigilant sentinels than the ghosts of people better acquainted with the neighbourhood. through April. There. from which they make opium. behead people of a neighbouring village nor even of any To find victims they go village on the same range of hills. it is hung up in a basket to ripen and bleach. and while the genial women and children dance and sing men first The ghastly is drink themselves blind and head. whose interlacing boughs form a verdant archway overhead and. and maize distil rice a strong spirituous liquor from it. for the heads of strangers are preferred. stream flows and the for glee. the Then the barrels. and the farther the better. for no field can be reached without a climb up or or lie down the steep mountain-side. all this rejoicing. and the its hills deep hollow boom resounding far and wide through announces to the neighbourhood the glad tidings of murder successfully perpetrated. to the next range or at any rate to a distance. miles are February and March the hill-tops for In white with the blossom. it is put to rest in the village Golgotha. too. It opens in March and lasts season for head-hunting. buckwheat. return to a village with uproarious. The reason is that the ghosts of strangers. they cultivate only to They had need be industrious.242 LIT YERSES . being unfamiliar with the country.

1 901). 493- 509. that the rice in the depths of the valley. which is generally held at some time between March indo-China Among the Lhota Naga. xxvi. especially when the avenue forms an unbroken them through a continuity of shade between the villages. though they act for'the'^^ on the belief less than some other tribes of this region. G. and and J. A. and then to stick up the severed extremities in their They bore no fields to ensure a good crop of grain. of Upper Sha?t States {Rangoon. and in front of the a ledge. . Waddell. and feet of people they met with. Part pp. 900. but at least one be taken every year. hands. " The Tribes of the Brahmaputra \a.^ The Shans of Indo-China still human sacrifice to procure a good harvest. one of the many xagas and and May." savage tribes who inhabit the deep rugged labyrinthine glens "''^^^ '"^^^ which wind into the mountains from the rich valley of Brahmapootra. cast a deep shadow on the ground below. P. that the maize may tinge with its golden hue the steep mountain-sides.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE CROPS 243 dense undergrowth. or even till it meets the In the solemn gloom avenue of the neighbouring village. usually mere trunks of trees with the bark peeled is off. crops Their practice now is to poison somebody at the state shans^of^ festival. sometimes slit. On one side of this verdurous canopy is the Place of Skulls. passers-by in the avenue. sometimes so that at view of only grins Most villages count their skulls by tens or twenties. Woodthorpe. '^ (Calcutta.^ it used to be a common custom to chop off the heads. "y(7«r«a/ For a general description of the country and the tribes see L. but some of them have hundreds of these trophies. so On that it this is ledge in full it the skull deposited. ensure peace to the village. Every village has such an avenue stretching along the hillside sometimes for a long distance. of the avenue stands a row of wooden posts. R. 2 Col. Scott vol. A is little below the top of each post niche is cut a niche. (1897) p. but sometimes rudely carved and painted with designs in red and black. Ixix.\\ty. i. 24. ^ (Sir) J. Buri/ta 1 Gazetteer i. and that the hilltops The old skulls new one should may grow green far down may be white for miles and miles with the bloom of believe in the efficacy of Human the poppy. 1-127." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. G. the Hardiman. 1901). of the Anthropological Institute. Part iii. pp. " Some Account of the Shans and Hill Tribes of the States on the Mekong.

but to induce her to do so it is necessary to offer human sacrifices. 127 .244 ill-will LITYERSES whatever to the persons upon whom they operated Once they flayed a unceremonious fashion. and distributed the it flesh among the villagers. p. other Frontier Tribes of North-Eastern India. and even to lie with any woman he met. and feet. one of the lads was slain by being punctured with a poisoned arrow. and until the time for the sacrifice came he was free to wander about the village. M.^ The Oraons or Uraons of Chota Nagpur worship a goddess called Anna Kuari. to eat and drink what he liked. stomach and smeared the blood on the idol. Godden. xxvii. The ceremony was Sunday before or after the Pongal feast. and kept them as victims to be sacrificed on various occasions.. with the same excellent Vizagapatam in sacrifices intention. carved in this boy avert alive. 4. ii. hands. The victims are poor and strays whose disappearance attracts no notice. At sowing and reaping. offered near the Madras Presidency. who can give good crops and make a man rich. ^ pp. and his flesh was devoured. § 15 (April 1891). For the most part the victim was purchased. l%sq. 9 sq. who put same into their corn-bins to bad luck and ensure tribe of the plentiful crops of grain.^ The for hill tribe Kudulu. ^ North Indian Notes and Queries. after a triumphal procession. At that time strangers will not go about the said to be waifs ^ Miss G. another region. " Naga and i. sq. a sented them to their village idols. (1898) pp. kidnapped Brahman boys. The Angami. In spite in his of the vigilance of the British Government these sacrifices are still secretly perpetrated. all him in pieces. human to the god Jankari the purpose of obtaining generally performed on the good crops. April and May are the months when the catchpoles are out on the prowl." Journal of the Anthropological Institute. § 721 (May 1885). used also to relieve casual passers-by of their heads. the crowds from the neighbouring villages rushed upon him All who were fortunate enough and hacked him to pieces.." Dravidian race. On the appointed day he was carried before the drunk and when one of the villagers had cut a hole idol . His blood was then sprinkled over the ploughed field or the ripe crop. Punjab Notes and Queries. to secure morsels of his flesh carried them away and preThe Gonds of India.

whom the Panua had wished to tion of their souls certain. Ethnographic Notes on Southern India (Madras. 510-519.. the had been purchased.J. pp. in Annates de la Propagation de la Poi. another Dravidian race in Bengal. Thurston. was called. In particular. Tari Pennu or Bera Pennu. of ike Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1 Rev. id. 1865). .^ The victim or Meriah. rice. The form she assumes in the house is that of a small child. about the middle of the nineteenth century.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE CROPS let 245 country alone. for the benefit of A man of the mankind. No. the Khonds arguing as he that the turmeric could not have a deep red colour without the shedding of blood.^ The sacrifices were offered to the Earth Goddess. I13-131 . is supplied by the fQr?he^^ Khonds or Kandhs. Neyret. Southern India (Madras. " considering the beatifica- and their death. away the upper The goddess takes up any man who has offered her a carries his fields yield a and from that time double harvest. pp. When the householder brings in his unhusked he takes its size. or had been born a victim son of a victim father. S. or had been devoted as a child Khonds in distress often by his father or guardian. he cuts his throat and her abode in the house of sacrifice. P. Major-General John Campbell. the most honourable possible. etc. were engaged in putting them down. the goddess and rolls her over the heap to double But she soon grows the blood of fresh restless and can only be pacified with human victims. C. pp. British officers who. 2 Major S." Memoirs Compare Mgr. cit. xxiii. they were considered necessary in the cultivation ^ of turmeric. 1906). 9 (Calcutta. 56. 52-58. their children enter When a catchpole has found a victim. 1909). 1864).^ But the best known case of human sacrifices. "Religion and Customs of the Uraons. (185 1) pp.Human ally offered to ensure good crops. vol. Wild Tribes of Khondistan (London. Memorials of Service in India (London. — sold their children for victims. p. and finally to spit in his face. was acceptable to the goddess only if he that is. op. Castes and Tribes of iii. Macpherson. systematic.. ^ j_ Campbell. pp. 402-404 . and were believed to ensure good crops and immunity from all disease and accidents. because the Khond had sold for a victim his own child. 1906)." Panua tribe was once seen to load a Khond with curses. E. Bishop of Vizagapatam. part of the ring finger and the nose. and parents will not the jungle or herd the cattle. 141 sq. 371-385. i. Our crops knowledge of them is derived from the accounts written by Khonls. Dehon.

J. •' ' . C. cit." often kept for years before they were The victims were Being regarded as consecrated beings. this. . ' S. op. Your child has died that all the world may live. 117 . which was sometimes placed between two plants of the sankissar shrub. op. marry. cit. to procure a shred of flesh for his fields. C. a clump of high forest trees standing a little way from the village and untouched by the axe. 'IS-*'?^ S." was paid to him throughout the day. to the Meriah grove. at least once a year. W] ^ sq. dressed in a new garment. Macpherson. was generally given a wife. Campbell. Goddess by tribes. " A party of Khonds. S. He was then anointed with oil. which it is not easy to distinguish from adoration. mingled with deference. who was herand with her he received self usually a Meriah or victim Their offspring were a portion of land and farm-stock. Crowds of men and women assembled to witness the sacrifice none might be excluded." The mode of performing these tribal sacrifices was as follows. Human sacrifices were offered to the Earth also victims. op. There they tied him to a post. sq. who saw immediately pressed forward to comfort the seller of his child. C. It was preceded by several days of wild revelry and gross debauchery. and the ^ Earth Goddess herself will wipe that spittle from your face. generally about the time when his chief crop was laid down. pp. and A Meriah youth. the victim was devoted by cutting off his hair. and turmeric. or villages. cit. ghee. Cere"^°"'^^ preliminary to the sacri ce. cit.'. op. on were welcomed wherever they went. pp. Macpherson. saying. both at periodical festivals and on extraordinary occasions. was led forth from the village in solemn procession. with music and dancing. 112. until then. and adorned with flowers and " a species of reverence. pp. A great struggle now arose to obtain the smallest relic from his person a particle of the . since the sacrifice was declared to be for all mankind. Ten or twelve days before the sacrifice. treated with extreme affection. had ]^qq^ kept unshom. p.246 LIT VERSES chap. they were sacrificed. attaining maturity. which. branches of tribes.^ . On the day before the sacrifice the victim. The periodical sacrifices were generally so arranged by tribes and divisions of tribes that each head of a family was enabled. Macpherson.

288. In some places they took the victim in procession round the village. where some plucked hair from his head. p. 54 sq. when they ceased. pp. 119.^ The crowd danced round the post to music. leaving the head and bowels untouched. p. 56. and each person touched the anointed part. whereupon the crowd rushed at the wretch and hewed the flesh from the bones. T. pp. logy of Bengal {Q'zXcwXi'x. said. the bones of his arms and. and did not seize you now we sacrifice you according to custom. were resumed. 118. which the priest. 2 Campbell. cit. and. 113." spittle. 112. ctt. seasons. if necessary. op. which had been scarcely interrupted during the night. One of the commonest modes seems to have been strangulation. and no sin rests with us. quoting Colonel Campbell's Report. and others begged for a drop of his spittle. Dalton. J. pp. 55. S. or squeezing to death. " O God. Macpherson. his chest) was inserted in the cleft. p. 1 S. cit. and continued till noon. and the assembly proceeded to consummate the sacrifice. who. from door to door.^ Then he wounded the victim slightly with his axe. Macpherson. op. Campbell. . op. his legs were broken but often this precaution was rendered unnecessary by stupefying him with opium. . C. e. op." ^ On the last morning the orgies. especially by the women. Sometimes he was cut up alive. The victim was again anointed with oil. op.vn HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE CROPS 247 turmeric paste with which he was smeared. and health " then speaking to the victim they said. * ^^ j^^J^ampbell. op. strove with all his force to close. avoiding his head and intestines. . Macpherson. Descriptive Ethno- C. Consum"^^the" sacrifice. op. or a drop of his was esteemed of sovereign virtue. 127. The branch of a green tree was cleft several feet down the middle the victim's neck (in other places. with which they anointed their heads. J. . cit. hacked the flesh from his body with Another very common mode of their knives till he died.^ The mode of putting him to death varied in different places. " We bought you with a price.® In Chinna Kimedy he was dragged along the fields. 1872). . addressing the earth.^ As the victim might not be bound nor make any show of resistance. 57) or a slit bamboo 6 3 J. and wiped the oil on his own head. . p. C. ^ S. 7 p. x-zo. cit. Instead of the branch of a green tree. surrounded by the crowd. o' Campbell mentions two strong planks bamboos (p. Campbell. we offer this sacrifice to you give us good crops. aided by his assistants. cit. 58. cit.

ch. 54). bk. p. pp. which had been used at sacrifices. 2 S. placing it In some in the earth behind his back without looking. one of which he offered to the Earth Goddess by burying it in a hole in the ground with Then each man his back turned. Paris. traduite par D. Fires and hot Flesh of the victim fertilise fields. 187. cit. C. cit. Each head of a house rolled his shred of flesh in leaves. 121. and conveyed with postal fleetroll . op. op. «V. Histoire generate des Choses de la No'uvelle Espagne. omen of rain (B.Yiz^Kox. p. 126. ii. and the post to which the victim was bound bore the effigy of a peacock (Campbell./<7r/. op.-^ A low trict the victim was put to death slowly by fire. ness fifty or sixty miles. and. as it whirled round. 1880. In Mexico also the tears of the human victims were sometimes regarded as an ^. upon it they laid the victim. 20. 58. forwarded by relays of men. cit. he divided into as many shares as there were heads of houses present. «>/.^. The elephant represented the Earth Goddess herself..126). Campbell. and without looking. S. she was represented in peacock-form. . 55.f j^ Campbell's ^ * ^88. pp.^ rigidly until In each village all home fasted the flesh arrived. who stayed at The bearer it in the place of public assembly. sloping on either side like a roof. referring to Colonel .T. 113. p. cit. where it was by the priest and the heads of families. Jourdanet et R. Compare J. it was sometimes bring it. 129. de Sahagun. which revolved on a stout post. stage was formed. The priest divided it into two portions. the crowd cut the flesh from In some villages Major the victim while life remained. ctt. Simeon. op. . Macpherson. Campbell found as many as fourteen of these wooden In one diselephants. p. added a little earth to bury it. who was here conceived in elephant-form (Campbell. to make him for the more tears he shed the possible the stage as long as Next day the supply of rain. his limbs confine his wound round with were then lighted cords to struggles. the up and down the slopes of brands applied. and buried it in his favourite field. would be the more abundant pieces. In the iiill tracts of Goomsur 51.^ body was cut to The flesh cut from the victim was instantly taken home ^^ ^^ pcrsons who had been deputed by each village to To secure its rapid arrival. and the priest poured water deposited received The other portion of flesh on the spot from a hill gourd. proboscis of a same district was to fasten the victim to the wooden elephant.248 sacrifice in the LIT VERSES CHAP.* * J. Descriptive Ethnology^ i . op. 86). Macpherson. p. C. Campbell. 130.

according to custom. Soon the sacred grove. 182.^ After the suppression of the human . and bones) were watched by strong parties the night after the sacrifice and next morning they were burned. E. . on a funeral pile. fighting and As struggling with each other for every particle of flesh. cit. no fire might be given The remains out.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE CROPS 249 places each man carried his portion of flesh to the stream For which watered his fields. falling on the living animal. to wit. 1909). in the capital of Chinna Kimedy a goat took the place of They tie it Others sacrifice a buffalo. T. cit. of the human victim (namely. Castes and Tribes of Soidhern India (Madras. C. . and as some of them have far All the women throw clods to go they must run very fast. * J. hack it to shreds and tatters in a few minutes. 55. some of them taking very good aim. before the sun has set. Thurston. op.'^ In these Khond sacrifices the Meriahs are represented by our authorities as victims ofiered to propitiate the Earth Goddess. strict silence was observed. Campbell. 3 J. bowels. in- were substituted in some places for instance. 187. p. then. 2 S. 288. the head. p. op. J. op. Campbell. and no strangers received. * E. in one three days thereafter no house was swept district.^ Sometimes. p. not . But from the treatment of the victims both before and after death it appears that the custom cannot A part of be explained as merely a propitiatory sacrifice. soon as a man has secured a piece he makes ofl" with it at ancient full speed to bury it in his fields. of earth at the rapidly retreating figures of the men. 128 . Earth Goddess. op. burnt. along with a whole sheep. Macpherson. Dalton. sacrifices. cit. laid as paste over the houses and granaries. and there hung it on a pole. a human victim. Descriptive Eth1 in these sacrifices the human appear to have been regarded as divine.^ and.^ to a wooden post in a sacred grove. and the stomach. p. the bones. but the flesh certainly offered the the was to ferior victims Campbell. however. The ashes were scattered over the fields. is silent and deserted except for a few people who remain to guard all that is left of the buffalo. 1S2. nology of Bengal. cit. iii. pp. dance wildly round it with brandished knives. which are burned with ceremony at the foot of the stake. so lately a scene of tumult. or mixed with the new corn to preserve it from insects. the head and bones were buried. the head. 381-385. no wood cut.

23. op. perhaps. magical power as an attribute of the Meriah . and the ashes of the other parts of the body were scattered over the fields. Once more. as his hair or spittle. of the victim were believed to be endowed with a magical or The same intrinsic physical power of fertilising the land. he may originally have represented the Earth Goddess or. there must necessarily be a deity to whom the carnage is believed by ^ J. Campbell. the Meriah as a victim rather than a divinity This later view of may perhaps have received undue emphasis from the European writers who have described the Khond religion. As such. quite independent of the indirect efficacy which it might have as an offering to secure the In other words. times he came to be regarded rather as a victim offered to a deity than as himself an incarnate god. . which it is ascription of such not easy to distinguish from adoration. not merely to prognosticate it. Similarly the custom of pouring water on the buried flesh of the Meriah was no doubt a raincharm. " A species of reverence. p. p. power was ascribed to the blood and tears of the Meriah. Habituated to the later idea of sacrifice as an offering made to a god for the purpose of conciliating his favour. the is paid to him. originally at least. European observers are apt to interpret all religious slaughter in this sense. C. 112. or mixed with the new These latter customs imply that to the body of the corn. op.250 rest LIT YERSES chap. was buried by each householder in his fields. the extreme reverence paid him points to the same conclusion. cit. Again." ^ and Major Macpherson says. and to suppose that wherever such slaughter takes place. a deity of vegetation though in later . short." ^ In Meriah seems to have been regarded as divine. appears in the sovereign virtue believed to reside thing that in any- came from his person. laid as paste on the granaries. the tears were supposed to bring down the rain. Meriah there was ascribed a direct or intrinsic power of making the crops to grow. Macpherson. 118. cit. his blood causing the redness of the turmeric and his tears producing rain for it can hardly be doubted that. The power to the Meriah indicates that he was much more than a mere man sacrificed to propitiate a deity. the flesh and ashes good-will of the deity. Major Campbell speaks of the Meriah as " being regarded as something more than mortal.

and the Marimos and Gonds ate the victim's flesh. . between two stones. pp. their preconceived ideas may descriptions of Traces of savage The same custom of killing the representative of a god. the . fat man. Again. as we suppose. like corn.^ Again. is an embodiment or spirit of the corn. One more point in these savage customs deserves to be noted. is brought out in the pains which seem to be taken to secure a physical correspondence between him and the natural object which he embodies or represents. If. Thus the ashes of the slaughtered Marimo the ficadon"f the human the'^cTin other were scattered over the fields the blood of the Brahman lad was put on the crop and field the flesh of the slain Naga was stowed in the corn-bin and the blood of the Sioux girl was allowed to trickle on the seed. the identification of the victim with the corn comes out in the African custom of killing him with spades and hoes. 244. 240. may perhaps be detected in some of the other human sacrifices described above. in other words. is ascribed to the corn-spirit Thus the fertilising virtue shewn equally in the savage barbarous "tes to the custom of mixing the victim's blood or ashes with the seedcorn and the European custom of mixing the grain from ' customs of Europe. in of which strong traces appear Khond sacrifices. The Corn-spirit slain tn his Human Representatives The barbarous harvest customs rites just described offer analogies to the Analogy of Europe. . that in eating his flesh his worshippers believed themselves to be partaking of the body of their god. Above. and the Mexican custom of grinding him. . identification of the victim with the corn. the victim was regarded as divine. CROPS 251 the slayers to be acceptable. 239. Thus the Mexicans the view that he killed ripe corn young victims for the young corn and old ones for the the Marimos sacrifice. 8 4.VII HUMAN SACRIFICES FOR THE Thus unconsciously colour and warp their rites." a short. The Pawnee chief devoured the heart of the Sioux girl. his fatness to the condition . the shortness of his stature corresponding to that of the young which it is desired that the crops may attain and the Pawnees fattened their victims probably with the same view. . as " seed. it follows corn.

references 2 3 Above.-^ chap. of the crop spirit is . point to the conclusion that men were so slain. provisionally at least.^ Both the Khond and the European customs are rain-charms.197. both the Lityerses story and European harvest-customs agree in indicating that the victim was put to death as a representative of the cornspirit. There is therefore no improbability in the supposition that they may once have been killed for a like purpose in Phrygia and Europe and when Phrygian legend and European folk. Adonis. . Attis. if the man who is gives the last stroke at threshing is tall. and this indication is in harmony with the view which some savages appear crops flourish. in Phrygia and make the we may fairly suppose Europe the representative of * Above. ) p. the identification of the person with the corn appears alike in the savage custom of adapting the age and stature of the victim to the age and stature. the same by implied in the savage custom of killing the representative of the corn-spirit with hoes or spades or grinding him between stones. Further. Above. pp. the last sheaf with the Again. in the Scotch and Styrian rules that last when the corn- conceived as the Maiden the corn shall be cut by a young maiden.^^. and in the European custom of pretending to Once kill him with the scythe or the flail.* identification Further. that both in 1 to take of the victim slain to On the whole. p. when the last corn ^ and in the Tyrolese expectation that is being threshed .'$>^zo'!\A ' . the next year's corn will be tall also. 134. whether actual or expected. jt! 157 t-f 0/ Above. we are bound. 134.Onrts. Human trve^oTthe corn-spirit To return now to the Lityerses story. then. m// ^^r^\l 7°'7:^^^^^ vciTvQX. p. 224. closely agreeing with each other. . 223. custom. to accept the conclusion. pp. shewn that in rude society human beings have been commonly killed to promote the growth of the crops.252 LITYERSES young corn in spring. more the Khond custom of pouring water on the buried flesh of the victim is parallel to the European customs of pouring water on the personal representative of the corn-spirit or plunging him into a stream. but when it is conceived as the Cornmother it shall be cut by an old woman " in the Lothringian warning given to old women to save themselves when the Old Woman is being killed. It has been harvestfield. 1 95. that is. Edition.

But this is not the only answer the f^''^"^'^'' reaper. 217. who cuts the last corn.^ corn-spirit may have been selected by means of a competition on the harvest-field. is often roughly handled. man who gives the last stroke at threshin that who it is is vanquished the threshing contest.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 253 the corn-spirit was annually killed upon the harvest-field.The victim repreone answer has been already Sfiven. which the evidence suggests. 1 and that p. The proofs of these two remarkable and closely in analogous customs are entirely independent of each other. of killing the is. 224. and as passing °'" such were seized and slain. in which the vanquished competitor was compelled to accept the fatal honour. It is true we have not found that a pretence is made of killing him but on the other hand we have found that a pretence is To • the question. p. ? spirit 1 chosen 1 -' '^'^ . The supposition is countenanced by European harvestcustoms. made ing. How was the representative of the corn. Their coincidence seems to furnish fresh presumption in favour of both. in ancient times this killing was actually - See above. Above. since in the character of representative of the is corn -spirit that the thresher of the last corn in mimicry. we may conjecture that a pretence has been commonly made of killing the reaper and binder as well as the thresher of the last corn. According to the Phrygian binder.last corn. and that the person who is vanquished in this competition. Both ^^^^° sen ted the T Tr 11 the Lityerses story and European folk-custom shew that corn-spirit passing strangers were regarded as manifestations of the ^^^ ^^^^ corn-spirit escaping from the cut or threshed corn. but persons whom he had vanquished in a reap. or legend the victims of Lityerses were not simply passing ofThe strangers. and since the same repugnance is evinced by harvesters to be last in any one of these labours. Grounds have been already shewn for believing that similarly Europe the representative of the tree-spirit was annually slain. ing contest and afterwards wrapt up in corn-sheaves and This suggests that the representative of the beheaded.^ slain Now. that is. We have seen that in Europe there is sometimes a contest amongst the reapers to avoid being last. . and since the same representative character attaches (as we have seen) to the cutter and binder as well as to the thresher of the last corn.

Pfannenschmid.yi.^ customs the pretence of killing appears to be carried out quite as often on the person of the master (farmer or squire) Now when we remember that as on that of strangers. binder. or thresher of the last corn. and cast and it is implied that this happened to into the river Similarly in modern harvestLityerces on his own land. Germanische p. and that in one account he is himself called a king. . lie It is not exin a p. H. 'W. and apparently in the same way as he had slain others. ^ we are led to conjecture that ^ we have here another p. character of the corn-spirit a passing stranger or the harvester But there binding. Above. which ancient legend and modern folk-custom alike point. He Perhaps the victim or she. apparently as a representative of the cornspirit.^ thought that the person who binds the last die in the course of next year.254 LIT VERSES This conjecture it is carried out.^ The reason for fixing on the reaper. threshers at their last corn cut or the last sheaf bound in the from his refuge corn. who was is a third possibility.. and when we combine with this the tradition that he was . pp. 52 pressly said that was wrapt sq. is seized and treated as the corn-spirit killed himself Thus the person who was annually sacrificed in the the representative of the corn-spirit on the harvest-field as may have been either last at reaping. . namely. 225 229 sq. 217. retreating before the or the last grain threshed. therefore. Above. And what form can the expelled cornspirit assume more naturally than that of the person who stands nearest to the corn from which he (the corn-spirit) But the person in question is has just been expelled ? necessarily the reaper. and the But when he is forcibly expelled work. put to death. or threshing. The corn-spirit is supposed to lurk as long as he can in the Sometimes sheaf on the field will reapers. he was himself Lityerses not only put strangers to death slain. sheaf. is corroborated by the last common superstition that whoever cuts the corn must die soon.^ Lityerses was said to have been a son of the King of Phrygia. to may have been the king himself. 98. the binders. by being wrapt in a corn-sheaf. he necessarily assumes some other form than that of the corn-stalks which had hitherto been his garment or body. binder. ^ Eifttefeste (Hanover.zx\n\\:i.DieA'oniddi)ioncn. beheaded. 1878). or thresher of the last corn as the representative of the corn-spirit may be this.rdi.

Attis was especially a tree-god. Turning now to the relation of the Phrygian Lityerses to the Phrygian Attis. 239 sq. might Thus Attis. Attis. ii." embodiment of the identical corn-spirit.^ slain in the character of . the analogy of European folk-custom warns us that amongst same people two distinct deities of vegetation their separate personal representatives. a god of vegetation. pp. it appears that one man was commonly slain in the character of the tree-spirit in spring. and his connexion with corn may have been only such an extension of the power of a tree-spirit as is indicated in customs like the Harvest-May. and another in the character of the corn-spirit in autumn.vji CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 255 trace of the custom of annually slaying one of those divine or priestly kings in who are known to have held ghostly sway many parts of Western Asia and particularly in Phrygia. the latter being simply the rustic prototype out of which the state religion of Attis was developed. then. See The Dying God. Osiris. but. as we have seen. in one version at least. while we are not justified in regarding Lityerses as the prototype of Attis. and that Attis was described by an ancient origtnanT cornthe"on'e°a corn-spirit authority as " a reaped ear of corn. with Lityerses. ^ . and may have in Europe the Old Man of harvest * I do not know when the corn is reaped in Phrygia but the high upland character of the country makes it likely that harvest is later there than on the coasts of the Mediterranean. See Adonis. of his representative. 47 sqq. on the other hand. 231 sqq. pp. the two as parallel products of the may be regarded stood to each other as ^ same religious idea.. Of the custom thus modified the story of Lityerses — would be. both of may have whom are gods at different times of the year. 160 sqq.^ Again. as an annually slain in the person be thought to be ultimately ^ other a tree-spirit. . It may have been so in Phrygia also. Second Edition. The custom appears. For in Europe. a reminiscence. according to the time of the harvest in Phrygia. the It may have been so . it may be remembered that at Pessinus the seat of a priestly kingship Relation of J^' — auTs*^^ the high-priest appears both may to have been annually slain in the character of Attis. ^ See The Magic Art and the Evolittion of Kings. On the whole. the representative of Attis appears to have been slain in spring whereas Lityerses must have been slain in summer or autumn. as we have seen/ to have been so far modified in places that the king's son was slain in the king's stead.

villages did not so club have procured its own representative of the corn-spirit by dooming to death either a passing stranger or the harvester who cut. see 64 sq. and Adonis. The Bontoc Igorot (Manilla. be thought that among these tribes the custom of procuring human heads is practised merely as a means it is to ensure the growth of the crops apparently supposed to exert a salutary influence on the whole life of the people by providing them with guardian spirits in the shape of the ghosts of the men to whom in their lifetime the heads xxvii. whereas the Attis worship became elevated into the dignity ^f ^ State religion and spread to Italy. part 2 . British Borneo see H. 172 sqq. M. 247-249. 147the Igorot of Bontoc in . Attis. stands to the Wild Man. Jenks. tribes of Assam. iii. " Naga and other .^ and always retained their character of rustic ceremonies perAt most a few formed by peasants on the harvest-field. E. among the primitive agricultural Islands." Verslagen en Mededeelingen der koninWetenschappen. Osiris. Kruijt.. or threshed the last sheaf. pp. 229 among (Amsterdam. bound. Such victims may have been drawn from the families of priestly kings or kinglets. Both were spirits or deities of vegetation. pp. It niust not. to procure a human victim to be slain as representative of the corn-spirit for their common benefit. . 12-17.256 LIT VERSES Leaf Man. see A. and so chap. and Attis ' sia?n. Perhaps in the olden time the practice of head-hunting as a means of promoting the growth of the corn may have been as common among the rude inhabitants of Europe and Western Asia as it still is. the Philippine It is and the Indian Archipelago. The Natives of Saraiuak and British North Journal of the Ajithropological Institute. i/^O sqq. village or farm may each together. " Het koppensnellen der Toradja's van Midden-Celebes. 1899). (1898) pp. which would account for the legendary character of Lityerses When as the son of a Phrygian king or as himself a king. however. Miss G. among the Naga tribes of Assam. see A. and the ofLityerses But personal representatives of both were annually slain. en zijne Beteekenis. Burma. belonged. Frontier Tribes of North-East India. Godden." 1 See above. the of Human representa- Spring.^ hardly necessary to add that in Phrygia. L. Roth. 1 905). whom they Herodotus. the heads of the enemies See had slain in war. As to head-hunting in pp. villages may have clubbed together. as in Europe. as amongst the Khonds. in Central Celebes. the old barbarous custom of killing a man on the harvest-field or the threshing-floor had doubtless passed into a mere pretence long before the classical era. ' or was till lately. klijke Akademie van Afdeelung Letterkunde. Second Edition. iv. 240 sqq. Bortteo (LonAon. The Scythians of Central Europe in antiquity set great store on Luzon. forth. pp. 1896). the rites of Lityerses seem never to have passed the limits of their native Phrygia. ii. . C. Vierde Reeks.

HQpnoi'.v. * Hesychius. The Cults of the 53. pp. viii. Asia and Egypt. combined with the legend of Syleus. compared with vii. Greek States. The similarity of the Bithynian Bormus ^ to the Phrygian Lityerses helps to bear out the interpretation which has been given of the Bormus. 1S96) 455 . The Phoenician Linus song was sung at the vintage. . 2 ii. so. 19. The Lydian p. Farnell. were at work on his own reapers whom he watched and he disappeared in going according to one version of the to fetch water for them story he was carried off by the nymphs. 1 There are traces in Greece itself of an old custom of sacrificing human victims to promote the fertility of the earth. like Lityerses. 3 j^. R. suggests that at the ° in ancient times passing strangers were handled by vintagers are said to they the same way as vine-diggers in much and . p. The mournful strain which the reapers sang was The fields. 216. to which attention has been called above. 20.. VOL. V. either in the cut corn or in the person of a human representative and the call which they addressed to him may have been a prayer that he might return in fresh vigour . a king's similarity githy^nian Bormus Phrygian Attis. this disappearance of Bormus may be a reminiscence of the custom of binding the farmer himself in a corn-sheaf and throwing him into the water. L. See Pausanias. S . i id. at The least in the west of Asia Minor. was. vii. or even on their master himself. slain probably a lamentation over the death of the corn-spirit. 3 PT. 161 iq. s. . Above pp. whose death or rather disappearance was latter. as we learn from Homer Linur^ong and this. annually mourned by the reapers in a plaintive song.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 257 and was probably regarded by the reapers and threshers themselves as no more than a rough jest which the license of a harvest-home permitted them to play off on a passing stranger. son or at least the son of a wealthy and distinguished man.^ I have dwelt on the Lityerses song at length because it affords so many points of comparison with European and The other harvest songs of Western savage folk-custom. ' have been handled by the reaper Lityerses.* Viewed in the light of the Lityerses story and of European folk-custom. and The Dying God.^ may now be dismissed much more briefly. doubtless the nymphs of the spring or pool or river whither he went to draw water. next year. (Oxford. I . 215 Above. a comrade.

who records date. Linus identified Adonis. 188 sqq. who ground his bones in a mill and scattered them to the wind. the human victim at harvest was crushed between two stones and both in Africa and India the ashes or other remains of the victim were scattered over the fields. See W. as sung ° each would be the lamentation raised by Adonis lament But whereas Adonis.^ harvest. But. Linus song was probably sung also by Herodotus compares it to the for Maneros song. Tammuz the 1 himself. and Adonis has some claims to be Thus the Linus regarded as especially a corn-deity. ' .pers over the dead spirit of the corn. grew into a stately figure of mythology. would be identical at with the lament. in Phoenicia the formerly . sq.ga. j. Forschiuigen. further. which. so ran the legend. Onns. The analogy of Lityerses and of folk-custom. as we have seen. Linus was identified with Adonis.^ This seems to be the outline but neither ancient writers of a legend like that of Lityerses nor modern folk-custom enable us to fill in the details. and passers-by seem to belong to a diflerent category. like Attis. festival and its For the historian Berosus.^ . pp. Mannhardt. Mythologische 2 The scurrilities ^^^^ * . pp. 240. compelled passers-by to dig for him in his vineyard.* But the Harran legend may be only a mythical way of expressing the grinding of corn in the mill and the scattering of the seed. vintagers. For in Mexico. Bibliotheca. suggests that slain have been represented by a human victim and this suggestion is possibly supported by the Harran legend that Tammuz (Adonis) was slain by his cruel lord. probably used the Macedonian ii. as we have seen. It seems worth suggesting that the mock king who was annually killed at the Babylonian festival of the Sacaea on the sixteenth day of the month Lous may have represented corn-spirit — the dead Adonis —may . till Hercules came and killed him and dug up his vines by the roots. 248 . 6.„ Adorns Aths. Further. the Phoenician reapers. adored ^^^ mourned in splendid cities far beyond the limits of his Phoenician home. was a lament raised by Egyptian reapers over the cut corn. 244. Second ^ 1 a ^ ^ Edition.. Above. both European and savage. exchanged both in ancient and modern times between vine-dressers. Apollodorus. 53 sq. 236 sq. 243. Syleus. pp. who may have been annually represented human victim. Linus appears to have remained a simple ditty sung by reapers and vintagers among the corn-sheaves and the vines. 3.258 LIT VERSES CHAP.

ii. not Nisan but Adar. (Osiris) mourning his death in a dirge. not Tammuz. he burst his bonds and slew Busiris and his son. 396) that in 22Q B. i. day the Macedonian month Lous appears to have corresponded to the Babylonian month Tammuz. Plutarch. (ii. Apollodorus. So Busiris instituted the sacrifice. in common with many African tribes at the present their customs in dealing with vanquished enemies were bloodthirsty and savage. The origin of the custom was traced to a dearth which afflicted the land of Egypt for nine years. i. or Busiris.. Xanthicus began on February 26. 212): " There is abundant proof for the statement that the Egyptians offered up sacrifices of and New from a Babylonian observation in the Almagest {Ideler. which supplies so welcome that the Egyptians ever offered human a confirmation of the conjecture in the text. But to this point we shall return later on. who furnished me with the following note "In the Syro. the early times of the monarchy in Asia.^ Here then is a legend that in Egypt a human victim was annually sacrificed to prevent and in his — — 1 The probable correspondence of Herodotus sacrifices. 5Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius." ^^ at Tetu. Wallis Budge. p.^ For by a human ^"^ ""' the legend of Busiris seems to preserve a reminiscence of human sacrifices once offered by the Egyptians in connexion with the worship of Osiris. Busiris was said to have been an Egyptian king who sacrificed all strangers on the altar of Zeus. See further E. month Tammuz. who Dr. Robertson Smith. There is a good deal more evidence that in Egypt the The cornslain corn-spirit the dead Osiris was represented by a g'"''" human victim. The passages from Egyptian works quoted earlier in this chapter prove that human sacrifices were offered up at Heliopolis as well day.Macedonian calendar Lous represents Ab.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 259 calendar. 1396 . the they did. 210 sqq. not to be weighed against that of Manetho is But his authority (Plutarch. to which the Greeks. iv. who says (pp. . affirms Isis et Osiris. and one month different. 73). Osiris and that Egyptian Restn-rection (London Was it Jt different in Babylon? I think at was. Bibliotkeca. whom the reapers slew on the harvest-field. and the rumour of such sacrifices has found expression in the works of Greek writers. 210.^ If this conjecture is right. the view that the mock king at the Sacaea was slain in the character of a god would be established. Argon. A. was therefore the month before the equinoctial moon. gave the name of Maneros. But when Hercules came to Egypt.C. through represented a verbal misunderstanding. human beings. and was being dragged to the altar to be sacrificed. For we least in Greek know York. 45) discredits the idea the months." Above. and that. Parall. . and consequently Lous answered to the It . 1911). was pointed out to me by my friend W. 215. 38. . A Cyprian seer informed Busiris that the dearth would cease if a man were annually sacrificed to Zeus. lunar 2 ^ 1 1 . since he dedicated his history to Antiochus Soter .

2 tums^ E. 2 (Stuttgart and Berlin. i. the failure of the crops. p. A. who is represented in the form of Harpocrates. Diodorus Siculus. 1884). as we have seen. Osiris is confirmed by the evidence of the monuments for "we find in the temple of Dendereh a human figure with a hare's head and pierced with knives. 97 . Professor E. and the victims were red-haired men. 68. believed that an omission of the human sacrifice at planting would have been Busiris " followed by a total failure of their crops. Maspero. pe-Asar. 2. Wallis Budge.^ The were said to have been offered at his grave. I am happy to find the turns. ii. Histoire Ancienne des Peicples de POriejit Classique. Meyer now speaks of Osiris as " the great vegetation god " and. as "an earth-god" [op. Both these eminent historians 12() sgg. whose ashes were scattered abroad by means of winnowing-fans. 191 1). p. Besides. So the Pawnees. compare 30. or of a bull. Les Origines (Paris. 1909). Meyer. 70). his own head appearing through the disguise. . the house of authorities Osiris. and Horus is shown in a Ptolemaic sculpture at Karnak killing a bound hare-headed figure before the bier of Osiris. Diodorus tells us that the Egyptian kings in former times had worn on their heads the fore-part of a lion. Meyer. pp. 33. 1895). but that it was less ancient than his shrine at Abydos in the south. have abandoned their former theory that Osiris was the Sun-god. and a belief is implied that an omission of the sacrifice would have entailed a recurrence of that infertility which it was the object of the sacrifice to prevent. 88 . p. Geschichte des Alter§ i.26o LIT VERSES chap. i. cit. from grave of some high modern original believe that Busiris was the home which worship spread to other parts of Egypt. ^ E. on the same page. or of a dragon. 73. i. A. ^ /sis et Osiris. and in another place a priest has the jackal's head on his shoulders. view of the nature of Osiris. Geschichte des Alteri. Osiris and the Egyptia7i Resurrection (London and New York. See E. (Stuttgart. contained the of Osiris. Plutarch." the city being so called because Osiris. That these figures are really human beings with the head of an animal fastened on is proved by another sculpture at Dendereh. tied to a stake before Osiris Khenti-Amentiu. where a kneeling man has the hawk's head and wings over his head and shoulders. G. E. 57.^ This tradihis human sacrifices tion of human sacrifices offered at the tomb of . which I advocated many years ago. Dr. supported by the authority of so distinguished an Oriental scholar. The name it was in reality the ^ name Indeed of a city. Wallis Budge holds that Busiris was the oldest shrine of Osiris in the north of Egypt.

v. ii. Payne. The Osireion Abydos (London.. and planets human victims who were chosen on the ground of their supposed resemblance to the heavenly bodies to which they were sacrificed for example.. 1S92) p. p.. 30. and the ashes scattered by winnowing-fans over the fields to fertilise them.v. the corn-spirit.^ The heathen of Harran moon. p. 45 ed. 285.lvi. . Here the choice of the victim on the ground of his resemblance to the corn which he was to represent agrees with the Mexican and African customs already described. p. pp. Nat. J. sq. Columella. 133. C. i. The ^ at World called America. Mtiller. and mourned by the reapers. . and she wore a pasteboard mitre surmounted by waving plumes in imitation of the tassel of the maize. Fasti. in his representative character. 237 E.I'°" °^ human /^ able explanation. was slain on the harvest-field. 422. As to masks of animals worn by Egyptian men and women in religious rites see The RIagic Art and the Evolution of Kings. 1904). De sq. iii. and Ixxxi. (Oxford. Maneros) with renewed vigour in the following year. . who prayed at the same time that the corn-spirit might revive and return {tndd-ne-rha. the priests. red -cheeked man to "the red planet would thus grow offered to the sun. offered a red-haired. Compare id. Finally. p. Murray. The passage of Diodorus Siculus referred to is i. O. at the festival of the Goddess of the White Maize the Mexicans sacrificed lepers. * Brasseur de Bourbourg. or some part of him. . re rustica. . whose red hair made *^u 'f'u him a suitable representative of the ripe corn. This man. clothed in red and smeared with blood. 3 240.^ • 1 Similarly the woman who died in the character of the Corn- Mexican midsummer sacrifice had her face painted red and yellow in token of the colours of the corn. 4. believing that the crops and ruddy. 535^ Festus. x. 251.. Dying 2 God. Hist. iv. Dendereh. was burned. • Assimiia- and fairly prob. the victim. referring to Mariette. 72. s. sqq. represent.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 261 showing that this method of disguise or transformation was a well-known custom. Osiris. s. Ridilae canes. iv. xviii. 18571859). Ovid. Margaret A. History of the New 905 14."^ In the light of the foregoing discussion the Egyptian tradition of Busiris admits of a consistent .^ On the other hand. plates xxxi. 342 Above. 62. Catularia.* The Romans sacrimother at the ficed red-haired puppies ripe in spring to avert the supposed blighting influence of the Dog-star. Htstoire des Nations civilis^es du Mexique et de P Amirique Centrale (Paris. Pliny. was annually victims to represented at harvest by a stranger.

regarded as an embodiment of the corn-spirit in Mexico the victim was ground between stones and in Africa he was slain with spades and hoes. in the However. Once more. wrapt in corn-sheaves.* may very well be a reminiscence of a custom. the notion being that the object Remains of victims scattered over the fields to fertilise aimed at will be most readily attained by means of a sacrifice which resembles the effect that it is designed to bring about. Probably when Osiris ceased to be represented by a human victim. Petersburg. 395. often at intervals of fields. 391. the legend that the body of Osiris enclosed in a coffer was thrown by Typhon into the Nile. 239. 357-359. 237 sq. Osiris. Die Religion des Veda (Berlin. For a similar purpose Phrygian reapers seem to have flung the headless bodies of their victims. 386 sq. For other instances of the assimilation of the victim to the god. ii. 388 sq. ^ See above. 18. 77 2 der Ssabismus (St. an image of him was annually thrown into the Nile. into a river. pp. into the Nile as a raincharm... or rather to make the river rise. Attis. see H. Second Edition. made of threshing and winnowing the farmer's wife.. Oldenberg. pp. just as the efifigy of his Syrian counter- may have victim. Plutarch. 240.'^ victim to the god.^ The story that the fragments of Osiris's body were scattered up and down the land. p. and buried by Isis on the spots where they lay.. Isis et Osiris. Again. of dividing the human victim in pieces and burying the pieces. ..^ and the use of winnowing-fans for the purpose is another hint of his identification with the corn. and the Khonds poured water on the buried flesh of the human victim. pp. been simply a mythical expression for the scattering of the seed. or to the natural These and the Hke cases of assimilating the phenomenon which he represents. Coinpare ibid.. 249. is them.^ many is miles from each other. 397. like that observed by the Khonds. Above. it possible that the story of the dis- memberment of Osiris. 384 sq.262 LITYERSES " in Mars a temple which was painted red and draped with red hangings. pp. are based ultimately on the principle of homoeopathic or imitative magic. 3 * sq. 149 sq. . like the similar story told of Tammuz. Chwolsohn. 331 sqq. 248 and compare Adonis. So in Vendue a pretence . Die Ssabier und 1894). 1856). the scattering of the Egyptian victim's ashes over the fields resembles the Marimo and Khond custom. perhaps points to a custom of casting the body of the it. or at least a portion of ^ D. 393. . pp. Above.

The accompanying legend. as on the Or water may have been simply poured over monument ing. > c ••• 42. Such sonorous and long-drawn cries. representatives.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES it. Theologiae Grcucae CornSee above. • Edition. 3. " This who springs from the returning or the river rise is of the waters." The answer to this objection must be reserved for the present.^ \ T 2 Plutarch. were also heard on all of as songs Western Asia. Iszs et 31. if I am right. By ^ the ancients they are spoken ^ T J but to judge from the analysis of the names Lmus and Maneros. already mentioned ^ a priest is seen pouring water Osiris over the body of Osiris. . . So the Greeks recognised both a Green and a Black Demeter. Adonis. 1 and could hardly Osiris. pendium. 22. 33> 733 „ . ' 5. 30.^ Thus. striking effect. -^ ' 1878). ' Atiis. Cornutus. Meantime it may be pointed out that if Osiris is often represented on the monuments as black. of Osiris bv the the rustic prototype of Osiris. they probably consisted only of a few words uttered in a prolonged musical note which could be heard for a great distance. but of his enemy Typhon the victims were called Typhonian. r^ fail to arrest the attention iii. raised by a number of strong voices in concert. Sir J. 1111 riir the harvest -nelds 01 • Similar cries. which down to Roman times could be heard year after year sounding across the fields. Second 22. 1. p. as we lamemationsofthe reapers for ^^e annual -1 deathofthe corn-spirit.•••. See A dot is.° who may be conceived as black while the seed is under ground. have seen. p. black the colour of Osiris. used to be cast into the sea at Alexandria. 1. must have had a . Ostris. and red o"stis^Hke the black was the colour of Typhon. It may be objected that the red-haired victims were The slain as . viu. 28. he is still more commonly depicted as green. gladness. -r T. not of for Osiris. j. announcing the death of the cornspirit."* and sacrificed to the Green Demeter in spring with mirth and corn-god. Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (ed. the key to the mysteries of Osiris is The key n°^. " G. j a. from which corn-stalks are sproutmysteries. 263 part." bears out the view that at the mysteries of Osiris a charm to rain fall make was regularly wrought by pouring black water on his effigy or flinging it into the Nile.steries furnished by the melancholy cry of the Egyptian reapers. 42. but as green after it has sprouted. •-. viii. ^2^.^ appropriately enough for a ^emlt!r. . Si. Wilkinson. Pausanias.

the rites of Osiris originated. and therefore could not have attracted the attention of so many travellers and. Greek traveller in . of any wayfarer The sounds. Thus we can readily understand why these harvest cries were so often noted and compared with each other by the Whereas. as Bithynia and Phrygia. Bormus) upon whom the reapers were calling. or wheaten-ears. He first stoops and holds it near the ground.264 LITYERSES who happened to be within hearing.' I believe that this practice is seldom omitted on any large farm in that part of the country. even if the wayfarer were within hearing of them. while the corn was being reaped. moreover. on the nineteenth century. could not have been heard at such distances. if they had been regular songs. and the pitcher once more circulated. After the field is cut out. ' ' ' ' . not unnaturally. if I am not mistaken. The cry and the ceremony are thus described by an observer who wrote in the first half of " After the wheat is all cut. repeated again and again. for the name of some one (Maneros. Lityerses. or some one else well acquainted with the ceremonies used on the occasion (when the labourers are reaping the last field of wheat). and performed on the field a ceremony exactly analogous to that in which. and the women stand round in a circle. they Greeks. or Phoenicia and Egypt. he would have an opportunity of comparing the various harvest cries of the different peoples. Down to recent times Devonshire reapers uttered cries of the same sort. goes round to the shocks and sheaves. binders. Linus. An old man. most farms in the north of Devon. This is called the neck of wheat. ' . And if his journey led him through more countries than one. could probably be distinguished with tolerable ease even at a distance but to a Asia or Egypt the foreign words would commonly convey no meaning. he could not so easily have picked out the words. the harvest people have a custom of crying the neck. It is done in this way. and plats and arranges the straws very tastefully. and picks out a little bundle of all the best ears he can find this bundle he ties up very neat and trim. The person with the neck stands in the centre. the reapers. grasping it with both his hands. and he might take them. and all the men forming the ring take off their hats. stooping and holding them .

' . Hone. About three years back. or one of the young female domestics. or openly. we haven. " she saw a party of reapers standing in a circle on a rising ground. On a fine still autumn evening the crying of the neck has a wonderful effect at a distance. where our people were harvesting. and 'wee yen. This last cry is accompanied by the with both hands towards the ground. we haven! thus repeated the After having three ' ' ' ' . 1170 sq. and which he says is preferable to all the bells in Christendom. and sometimes joined by an equal number of female voices. at ' ! ' . One in the middle held up some ears of corn tied together with flowers. three times. holding their sickles aloft. then he may lawfully kiss her but. on some high grounds. as in ' crying ' ' the neck times. . which Lord Byron eulogises so much. ii. with singular harmony and effect. capering about and perhaps kissing the girls.).D. travelling in Devonshire. they all burst out into a kind of loud and joyous laugh. by any other way than the door at which the girl stands with the pail of water. far finer than that of the Turkish muezzin. although I know that some of them were four miles off. he is regularly soused with the contents of the bucket. I heard six or seven necks cried in one night. * ' ' ' ' ^ W. ' ' ! ' — ' ! ' ' — same movements of the body and arms neck. Every-day Book (London. Bray tells how.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 265 They then all begin once in a very prolonged and harmonious tone to cry The neck at the same time slowly raising themselves upright. . Mrs. done three times. coll. One of them then gets the neck and runs as hard as he can down to the farmhouse. N. and the Arnack."^ Again. I have once or twice heard upwards of twenty men cry it. where the dairymaid. They then change their cry to Wee Way yen which they sound in the same proyen longed and slow manner as before. party shouted three times (what she writes as) They went arnack.' or 'way yen' as often. arnack. They are heard through the quiet evening air at a considerable distance sometimes. in any way unseen. and elevating their arms and hats above their heads This is the person with the neck also raising it on high. we haven. If he who holds the neck can manage to get into the house. flinging up their hats and caps into the air. if otherwise. . stands at the door prepared with a pail of water.

F. and bring with them a small sheaf of corn. I have him." Folk-lore. Bray said 'it was only the people making their games. He takes it. W. it generally stayed there throughout the year. runs thus: "Now. as they can Our (my) side. the people make a This they do three times.^ A similar custom is still observed in some parts of Cornwall. Two strong. so as to look like a ' neck. and dance. 330.' ' The I'se other shouts. i. a ' ' ' neck.' as loud then the dairymaid gives the neck to the head * farming-man. home. written at Truro 1839. and sing songs. a neck. attended Mrs. where by-and-by the supper ' ' ^ Miss C. . referring to Mrs. the neck was tied with ribbons and plaited. wrote February 1893) that his 280. * " Old Harvest Customs in Devon and Cornwall. 2 wife remembers the "neck" being kept on the mantelpiece of the parlour in a Cornish farmhouse. a neck (or we haven is nack) we have ' ! is generally hung up in the farmhouse. very loudly three times. accompanied by women and children carrying boughs The manservant who of flowers. Jackson. pp. ' What ^ hast gotten The answers. 372 sq. as they always did. Hone. and one part is tied quite tight. as " Miss Burne remarks. gotten in the neck. and they danced round it.' Then another farming-man shouts very loudly. Street.voiced men are chosen and placed (one with the sheaf) on opposite ! un '" where The neck " it sides of a valley. " The last sheaf is decked with ribbons. Sydney Cooper.' " Another account of this old custom. and says. 3 The Rev. i. 1172. obviously in the Devon dialect.266 LIT VERSES chap. Shropshire Folk-lore (London. me op. the farming men and maidens come in front of the house. when all the corn was cut at Heligan. the last that has been cut.. 1883). cit.' And when he very great shouting. " ' ' arnack. One shouts. Then they cry out . What have ye ? what have ye ? what have ye ? Then the first says. H. sometimes remains for two or three years. to the spirit of harvest'"'^ ! Here."* According to another account. ? ' ' I've gotten first it. I have him. S. as I was told by my lamented friend J. shouting and singing. Gloucester to (4th of 80 Cirencester. (1890) p. A neck. Bray's Traditions of Devon. and after has said this. ii. and carried it to the great kitchen. my side. Middleton. Burne and Miss G. all one famous shout go away and eat supper. I have him. and this is adorned with ribbons and flowers. "all went out to the field when the last corn was cut.

I have 'ee. Cutting •^pgl^t'^^ brokeshire. Neck Hoggan. in which. In Pembrokeshire the (1893) p. of the two ways of looking at the corn-spirit. nothing is said of the sonorous cries " At raised by the reapers when their work was done harvest-time. he had a rough heels as fast as he could time of it. What happened afterwards appears to have varied somewhat. in the south of France. Jean.^ Similar customs appear to have been formerly observed in Pembrokeshire. which my grandfather always gave. I 267 and It have 'ee.' was hung up in the hall. The maids were on the look-out for him. and kept until the following year. The men who caught him would shut him up in a barn without food. as appears from the following account." Another account relates that one of the men rushed from the field with the last sheaf. while the rest pursued him with vessels of water. if caught. as good (to be kept) or as bad (to be passed on to the neighbour). or belabour him soundly.. I have 'ee. at any rate. — it was called. shoe him. the half-crown became his. I have been told by one old man that the one who got possession of the neck would carry it over into some neighbouring field.D. which they tried to throw over the sheaf before it could be brought into the barn. Sometimes the necks of many successive years were to be In these two ways of disposing found hanging up together. M. iv. 2 Frances "The 123. : . as On rods a very severe and much -dreaded punishment. was successful in dodging the maids. hip. Feast." 1 ^ Ibid. of the neck one sees the embodiment. beating the soles of his feet with and try to carry in the neck. and which If the man was considered a very liberal present indeed. they got the present of half-a-crown. hack. and take to his for. however. no doubt." Folk-lore. for the house used to make my grandfather's farm the man as fast as possible. in South Pembrokeshire.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES as given in the previous account. If they succeeded. * The words were Hip. and getting the neck into the house without receiving the wetting. and the harvesters then tried to cut this neck by throwing their hatchets at it. or perhaps was. and did their best to drench him with water. The neck was then hung up. the last ears of corn left standing in the field were tied together. leave it there. like the bunches of flowers or boughs gathered at the St. last sheaf . heck.

Mannhardc.. Revue des Traditions populaires. its head."* East Friesland. threw their sickles at it. such as we have had many examples of of corn seems to have been commonly known as "the Hag" (wrack) rather ^ a rain- Its parallel Mythologisclie W.e. F. standing ten or twenty handful of ears left paces off. " neck. - Forschungen. on the corn " cuts the goat's neck off. ^ Ibid. p. and the reapers. p. going back some paces. than as "the Neck. p. part of body — and the corn is standing corn tail. " We have the cat by the tail. who was supposed to keep house for good luck till the next harvest came it in the round. Beside it a score of ears were left standing to form the tail. the corn was sometimes called last handful of standing the "head. p. threw his sickle at it. Jackson. ii." Thcse examples leave no room to doubt the meaning of the Devonshire and Cornish expression " the ucck. Shropshire Folk-lore.^ Lastly. 150. pp." ^ man who At Aurich. who is consequently beheaded when the bunch is cut down. the last regarded as the " navel-string. the hare's tail off." used to be last commonly given standing in the middle of to the corn was cut. s Mannhardt. Miss C. W.^ is conceived as the neck & of the corn-spint. the man who reaps the last standing At Faslane. 142-144." and a cry of " Yoic cou cou ! " was raised in his houour. S. 371. p. orenerallv the last left standing. Burne and Miss G." or " the gander's neck. 158. the It was the rest of all field when the plaited together. Brand." as applied to the last sheaf called "the ^^'^^' The corn-spirit last its is con- ceived in is human its or animal form. or Some- times. . its neck. Similarly in Shropshire the name -^ . Popular Antiquities. '' 185. The " neck was taken to the farmer's wife. 1. I. 500.1111 . 185." See above. in reaps the last corn " cuts the the last corner of a field In mowing down Why last the corn French reapers sometimes call out.268 Cutting LIT YERSES chap. Above. In the foregoing customs a particular bunch of ears. ii. (1887) ** Burne and Jackson. He who succeeded in severing it "cut off the fox's tail. "theneck" in Shrop- shire." ^ Gareloch (Dumbartonshire).^ Near Treves. and each reaper.. the Devonshire custom of drenching is with water the person who brings in " the neck charm. Mythologischc Forschungen. 20 (Bohn's edition) . ^ J. * See above. Whoever cut it through " was said to have cut off the gander's neck. as we have seen." ® In Bresse (Bourgogne) the last sheaf represented the fox. p.

Mythologie und . Kuhn. 256. Gebrduche und Mdrchen . Lynker. all the reapers took off their hats and cried thrice. Sittenkunde. P. Jahn. . pp. § 340 H. pp. of Germany in Waul/ last or at Wol ! or Wold! are Cries of the sometimes raised by the reapers Thus some places the . m Zeitschrift/iirdeutsche (1853) U. Germanische Emtefeste (Hanover. Schwartz. Die deutschen i. 170-173 aus Westfalen (Leipsic. pp. Norddeidsche Sagen. Pfannenschmid.e\sr.. 1859). 1884). p. Opfergebrduche bet Ackerban und Viehzucht (Breslau. M. Mdrchcn und Gebrduche{\^&v^^\c. 492 . §§ 491. 166-169.VII CORN-SPIRIT AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIVES 269 in the mysteries of Osiris was the custom of pouring water on Osiris or cries the image of In on the person who represented him. 1878). and the ears were fastened to the stick. A. Germany" patch of standing rye was Waul-rye a stick decked with flowers was inThen serted in it. " Waul f Waul! Waul!" Sometimes they accompanied the cry by clashing with their whetstones on their scythes/ called the * "E. pp. 177 sq. j86o). A. 104 j^. Sagen. Deutsche Sagen und Sitten in hessischen Gauen (Cassel and Gottingen. cutting the last corn. ii.395> § 97 5 K. 1848). Kuhn und W.

Osiris. It is said " the Rye-wolf has got hold of him. quail. dog. flowers. who has thus punished the profane intruder. and to be caught or killed in the last sheaf As the corn ^^ being cut the animal flees before the reapers. hare. . and so forth. these shapes the corn-spirit is often believed to be present in the com. goat. The corn- Dionysus. ^^ ° of the term neck as applied ' ^ the corn-spirit appears in animal form as a gander. and Virbius. and is retains the name sometimes for a year." "the Harvest-goat has given him a push. bull). ^y^^ In some of the examples which I have cited to establish " " meanins^ to the last sheaf. and horse. pig. supposed to take are the wolf. fox. COW (ox. caught or killed by or thresher. 270 and so forth. and so on. Animal Embodiments of the Corn-Spirit The corn- spirit as an animal. in Even where it is the last sheaf not made up animal shape. which home amid on the last harvest-waggon. a cat. and a fox. of the corn-spirit. In one or other of cat. which we must now examine. a goat." The person who cuts the last corn or binds the last sheaf gets the name of the animal.CHAPTER VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL ^ I. and if a reaper js taken ill on the field. often called the Rye-wolf. cock. the Oats-goat. Demeter. Goat. the Hare. he is supposed to have stumbled Unwittingly on the corn-spirit. Attis. hare. goose. Also the animal carried frequently represented by a puppet rejoicings is made is out of the last sheaf or of wood. Amongst the many animals whose forms the corn-spirit is spirit in the animal is to^be*^^ present in corn^ut or threshed. but may hope also to clear up some points which remain obscure in the myths and worship of Adonis. the Rye-sow. a This introduces us to a new aspect By doing so we shall not only have fresh examples of killing the god. as the Rye-wolf.

shutting him up in the pig-sty. 150 W. Sitten und Gebrduche aus ThUringen (Vienna." is the mad Dog in the corn. 1893).und Feldkulte . or through. . O. the Barley-wolf. Sagen. (1897) p. and to be caught in the last sheaf threshed. 327. p. pp. who are still threshing. P. VIII ANIMAL EMBODIMENTS OF CORN-SPIRIT is 271 Generally each kind of crop animal. the Threshing-dog.\. j^^^. id. A. 1903-1906). they treat him like the animal he represents." " the Rye- . id. ^^T'' / ) ) Thus. or the Potato-wolf. Sometimes the thresher of the last sheaf himself represents the animal and if the people of the next farm. The Corn-spirit as a Wolf or a Dog We a dog. when the wind sets the and Slavonic countries.Die 1-6. Sitte. Roggenwolf und Roggenhund'^ (Danzig. 2 W. pp. 1878). Hartung. "Zur Volkskunde aus Anhalt. p. Mannhardt. by . Miiller. When the threshing is finished. calling him with the cries commonly addressed to pigs. the corn. § 2. and this is carried by the thresher of the last sheaf to a neighbouring farm. Antike Wald. pp. corn in wave -like motion the peasants often say. flail is Hence the man who gives the last stroke with the told that he has got the Corn-sow. the Oats-wolf. (Berlin. Beitrdge zur Volkskunde der Deutschen in Mdhren (Vienna and Olmutz. the Pea-wolf." " the Wolf is in the corn. 1877). p. catch him. 103 . Komddmonen (Berlin. . and called the Rye-wolf.^^^*^^ through wolf " is rushing over the is field. 213 . Schlesien 60. and so forth. 1868). which is supposed to have its special caught in the last sheaf.. 318 sq. Drechsler." Zeitschrift des Vereins fur VolLskunde. 1866). Germany. . or the like." ^ When ^ children wish to go into the corn-fields to pluck ears '^. where the threshing is still going on. according to the crop .CH. a puppet is made in the form of the animal. 6 sqq. but sometimes the figure for all at getting in the is of the animal last is only made up once crop of the whole harvest. (Leipsic. " The Wolf is going over. vii." " the big Dog there. Y^iizcheX. ^ These general statements will now be illustrated by examples.. This again shews that the corn-spirit is believed to live wherever the corn is still being threshed. it is Sometimes the creature long as there is believed to be killed by the last stroke of the sickle or scythe.lAzx\xi^dix6.. begin with the corn-spirit conceived as a wolf or The corn^^ ^ This conception is common in France. Branch und Volksglaube in ii. Yvolf or a dog. Mythologische Forschimgen. But oftener thought to live so corn still unthreshed.

^ Ibid. Roggenwolf imd Roggenhund. p. Folk-lore des Hautes- Vosges (Paris. Mannhardt. in Bitch." " The wolf against wolf.^ pp. Mannhardt. 104 P. ii. Drechsler. the peasants used to watch whether he carried his tail in the air If he dragged it on the or dragged it on the ground. 191. forth. Thus it in some is parts of Silesia the called the reaping threshing. and even set tit-bits before him. 47 sq. id. ^ see L. or laziness.. Schleden." or in corn. . Here the wolf is the corn-spirit whose fertilising power is in and so ance of a wolf For in the his tail. W. Sauve. Mannhardt. pp. " We kill the Wheat-dog. p. or the * Rye-dog. when a wolf was seen running through a field." Still " " The Rye-wolf will come and you off. Mythologische Forschungen. for whom he is . and at Epinal they say.^ out most clearly. But is in the harvest-customs of the north-east of France that the idea of the Corn-dog comes Thus when a harvester." or ^ ^ the White Bitch is has bitten him." and the person who cuts the called handful of hay or wheat Lons-le-Saulnier. children. ground. p. 1889). 2 W. they are for " the big Dog sits in the corn. On the Harvest- The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings. they say.^ pp. Branch und Volksirlauhe in ." " Wolf sits in the the Wolf will eat you.^ the Rye-wolf will carry he has all the outward appearneighbourhood of Feilenhof (East Prussia). 104. according to the crop. . Rye-wolf." is ^ called last Dog of the harvest. W. through sickness. and will tear you pieces. and thanked him for bringing them a blessing. lOi^ sq. Mythologische Forscktatgen. cannot or will not keep up with the reaper in front of him. p.^ The dog and cornspirit as a at Both dog and wolf appear as embodiments of the cornspirit in harvest-customs." eat you up. 14 sq. Verdun the regular expres- sion for finishing the reaping They are going to kill the Dog " will ^ . Mannhardt.und Feldkulte." In the Vosges the Harvest-May said to " kill the Dog. the last sheaf " In the neighbourhood of is. weariness. or the like thus they say. or the Potatoii. Sitte." the " " he has the White Bitch.272 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL warned not to do the so. Roggenwolf und Roggenhund. 10 sqq. " The White Dog passed " near him. May. 64. But if he carried his tail high. they went after him. the children are warned is not a common often spoken of as the Corn-wolf. person who cuts or binds the last sheaf Wheat- dog or the Peas-pug. or gather the blue corn-flowers. they cursed him and tried to kill him. F. is About the the Jura. Antike Wald. 3 W. 319.

p. binds it they " The Wolf Mannhardt. " Beware of the Wolf" . 1500. because they hence every reaper exerts . Mannhardt. Drechsler. I op. v. 33. ii. Mannhardt. P. 2 105. if the crop is rye. according to the crop. 1906)."^ pp. 1903- Koggenhiind. and of the say. is biting her. Bartsch." pp. T . and many parts Mecklenburg he has to bite the other to support the character by pretending like harvesters or by howling a wolf. W. 3 W. Jbid. Roggemvolf und ^^. and so on according to the particular crop. in the Tyrol. K. Rye-pug. Roggenwolf und W. 33 sq. 309. the Wheat-wolf. the man who gives the last threshing is said to " strike down the Dog " ^ and . Wheat-pug.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A WOLF OR A DOG ^ 272. §§ 1497. p. VOL.^ Germany generally it appears to be a common saying that " the Wolf sits in the last sheaf" ^ In some places they call or they say. 1501. Roggenwolf tmd . Antike Wald. p. 310. p. W. 105. Branch tmd * W." She must fetch the Wolf" (out of the 1 Moreover. " 1496.^ So with the wolf In Silesia. stroke at Ahne- bergen. 309. the BarleyThe reaper wolf.^ The last sheaf of corn is also called the Wolf or the Rye-wolf or the Oats-wolf according to the crop. where the belief in the Corn-wolf is particularly prevalent. Sitte. Forschungen. she p. 64. Mdrchen und Gebrduche aus PT. ii. and the man who reaps it " of the last corn is himself called in Wolf of or the Rye-wolf. every one fears to cut the last corn.und * 6 105 sg. p. . dog. 30. " He out to the reaper. is chasing the Wolf out of the corn. Roggenhiind. Mecklenburg. Bartsch. 6 ii." " She has the Wolf." is ^ In Mecklenburg the last bunch of standing corn itself commonly called the has the Wolf. Wolf. p. 1 879.'^ ® 33. §§ 1497. . Mythologische Meklenbiirg (Vienna. 39 Sagen.\'ps\c. 30. Ibid.say that the Wolf is sitting in it himself to the utmost in order not to be the last. K. 320. pp. and every woman similarly fears to bind the last sheaf because " the Wolf is in it. Mannhardt. Corn-pug. cit. He is killing the Dog of the harvest. pp. " woman who corn)." at At Dux. § 1498. § 1496." So both among the reapers and the binders And in there is a competition not to be the last to finish. near Stade. Feldkulte. he is called." the animal being described as the Rye-wolf. Volksglat{beinSchlesien{'Le." last In " Lorraine it is said of the man who cuts the ^ corn.1880). when the reapers gather The cornround the last patch of standing corn to reap it they are ^P'j"'' ^^ ^ said to be about " to catch the Wolf" * In various parts of reaping. 310. Ibid. Roggenhund. Mannhardt.

^ Again. in pro- near Magdeburg. ii. p. K. p. Wolf. in the W. Bartsch. for which she receives a large piece of meat. id.'^ pp.'^ pp. remained there called the clothes. leading 1 flail. she is called the Rye-wolf In the island of RUgen not only is the or the Potato-wolf^ woman who binds the last sheaf called Wolf. after the threshing the peasants go by a chain a man who * enveloped op. 501. if she happens to At Buir. § 1496." and she has to bear the name for a whole year sometimes. wheat. § jind Roggenhiind. 2 1505. 33. 310. Hence is at Wanzleben. §§ 1506. Roggenwolf und sq. where it was set up on a high place in the parlour of the farm and . Mannhardt.'^ pp. W. 31 1. p. ii. Wheat. 35-37 op.274 herself is THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL called chap. p.^ in Wolf made up In many places the sheaf human form and dressed in corn-spirit conceived in ally the This indicates a confusion of ideas between the human and in animal form. 1 W. Generlast joyful cries. and oats. 34. but when she comes home she bites the lady of the house and the stewardess. Wolf is brought home on the Hence the last waggon-load is waggon with the itself receives name of the Wolf. Then it was all the corn was or brandy. K. ^ W.- 38. they cry out to her. according to the crop. cit. . and Oats-wolf. art the . it was formerly the custom to give to the It was kept in the barn till last sheaf the shape of a wolf. the Wolf supposed to hide himself amongst the is cut corn in the granary. Mannhardt. mane by tail and back at the head of the harvesters to the village. p.^ sprinkle it with beer At farmer and he had to woman who bound Mecklenburg the young Brunshaupten in the last sheaf of wheat used to take a handful of stalks out it was the of it and make "the Wheat-wolf" with them high. 34 1499. Bartsch. Mannhardt. Roggenhttnd. cit. The same woman may be Rye. in the bind the last sheaf of rye. for a is long time. Roggenwolf tmd Roggenivolf und Aniike Wald320. 309. Roggenhuiid.wolf. Yet nobody likes to be the Wolf.^ district of Cologne.wolf. Roggemcolf . Mannhardt. 311. §§ Roggenhimd.. und 3 Feldktdte. 1507. until he driven out of the last bundle by the strokes of the cession. "Thou Wolf. the and half a foot two feet long wolf about figure of a stiff stalks and its represented by animal being of the legs This Wheat-wolf she carried wheat-ears. p. brought to the threshed.

* Ibia. in part of France the last sheaf means sheaf . while his conductors collected money.* — Sometimes caught it appears to be thought that the Wolf. behind the patois." Its horns are decked with a wreath of flowers and corn-ears. is led about at Christmas or a stuffed wolf is carried about by persons who collect money. 321. Hence the killing of the wether represents the death of the corn-spirit. house. " The Wolf is in there. p. Feldkulte - 5 j^. herald the approach of spring. the Corn-wolf last believed that killed at threshing. and he who finishes first calls out. when the last Finisterre. . Ibid. Thus The cornthey call out to the reaper of the last corn. considered as present in the last spirit — as a wolf but two different conceptions of the cornand as a wether are mixed up together. ance once more. Mannhardt." In France also the Corn-wolf appears at harvest. and cry. Antike Wald.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A WOLF OR A DOG is 275 corn- threshed-out straw and the corn-spirit called the Wolf. It is called " the Wolf of the field. 321 sq. who was lurking in the last sheaf. " I've caught the Wolf" ^ In Guyenne. which. 323. The corn- corn has been reaped. lives during the winter in the farm- midwinter. with a wolf's skin thrown over his head. they lead a wether all round the field. the when the lengthening days begin to Wolf makes his appear. All the reapers it is killed on the field. has been certainly killed. a wether. p. In this way they think that the Corn-wolf.^ He is represents The who has been caught escaping from In the district of Treves is it the a^^^jf^ killed at '^^'^ threshed corn. the "There is the Wolf.^_ 2 Ibid.itnd p. The corn- in the last corn." Each takes a swath to reap. ^ ® Ibid. harvesters cry. The men thresh the '"°' sheaf till it is reduced to chopped straw. 320 "^ sq. pp. In this called the cotijoulage. when the reaping draws near an end." Wolf" France. Then is and ribbons. pp. ready to renew his activity as corn-spirit in the spring.^ There are facts which point to an old custom of leading about a man enveloped in leaves and called the Wolf. we will catch him. 320. singing. and its neck and body are also encircled with garlands on'[he''^^'^ harvest- march. " You will ^rrve^t in catch the the last In Near Chambery they form a ring round standing corn.^ 1 W. Hence at midwinter. In Poland a man. it.

and so on. Sitten 2ind Sageii.. 398. No. " We have caught the Cock. W. P- p. In Austria children are warned against straying of a cock. the master releases a cock. Now we will chase out the Cock. 13- lsla.'^ figure of a cock.r. Kuhn and \V. Kuhn und V^." the reapers At Braller. p. Heinrich. in the corn-fields.xAx. . Spriklnv'orter 2 Schwartz. " Here we last shall catch the Cock. and lets it run All the harvesters chase it till they catch it. the last sheaf is made into A the shape of a cock. and will peck their eyes out. Harvest-hen. Germany they say that " the Cock sits in the last sheaf" " and at cutting the last corn the reapers cry. A. /. provided he could catch it. J. Lieder. Harvest-cock. 1856. W.Schmitz." ^ The last sheaf is called Cock. ears of corn. in Thiiringen.1 858)." "" When it is cut they say.e. over the field. the harvester who lighted upon this sheaf had a right to This formed the keep the cock. close of the harvest-festival catching. for the . W.276 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL 5 3. A distinction is made between to a Wheatcrop. Witzschel. 1848). A. when sheaf come to the last patch of corn. because the Corn-cock sits there. in Transylvania. Sitteti jind Gebrduche aus Thiiringen (\^ienna." and the beer which at this and was known as " the Cockwas served out to the reapers of " time went by the name Cock-beer. Haupt. Mannhardt. Mannhardt. made of wood. Compare A. Bean-cock. ° iind Rathsei des Eifler Volkes (Treves. about to be bound. No7-ddentsche Sagen. Die Korndd)iionen. 95 .^ when the lay on the field farmer to hide a live cock under the last sheaf as it and when the corn was being gathered up. according the At Wunschensuhl. Agrarische Sitten und Gebrduche utiter den Sachsen Siebenbiirgens (Hermannstadt. 220. * P.^ cock. Schwartz. Elsewhere the harvesters all try to seize the last corn cut he who succeeds in grasping it must crow. 6 imd Gebrduche ^ (Leipsic. p. Autumn-hen. Mannhardt.x\n\\s. i. G. Cock-sheaf." is At Fiirstenwalde. and called the Harvest-cock. I. The Corn-spirit as a Cock corn-spirit often The spirit cornas a Another form which the assumes is that cock at harvest. Mdrchen K. Die Komddmonett p.13- 13. 1878). H.^ In North . and is called Among the Wends it is or used to be customary Cock. ^ W. Die Koj nddvionen. i. 21. ^ A. 1880). which he has brought in a basket. pasteboard. p. Sagen. 1862-1863).. 232. Sagenbuch der Lausitz (Leipsic. 277 note. ^ they cry.

of a live and chase it over the field. p. pp. ' strewed before him as W. is attached to a harvest-crown and carried on a pole. PfanGermanische Erntefeste nenschmid.^ The harvest-waggon.\i2. w. Stubble-cock. where the cock carries kinds. which the leader of the women-reapers carries on her head as she marches in front of the harvest procession. Hungary. 1859).^ If a waggoner upsets a harvest-waggon. " ^ ^"'^"- P- ^5- W. Pfannenschmid. cit. the harvest-supper. Hdtksel des EiJierVolkes {Treves. 26. 14. iio. Die A'ornddMotii'H. ZJz'eA'orwaViOTi?. Die Kornddmonen. F. p. 18561858). parts of called Shropshire Folk-lore. or the Inning Goose (J. Elsewhere a live cock. Spriichwdrter und Sageti. . H. or bury it up to the neck in the ground afterwards they strike off its head with a sickle or scythe. p. 3 W. that is. in borne all in front of the harvest-waggon. The harvest-supper is called Harvest-cock. Bohn's edition). Munnhardt. Kuhn. Jackson.^ In many parts of Westphalia. with is the figure of it the cock on it. it is said that " he has spilt the Harvest cock." and the penalty used to be the loss of the goose at the harvest-supper (C. 13 sq. ii. Mannhardt. Popular Antiqtiities. especially Westphalia. So in Shropshire. corn-spirit is conceived in the form of a gander (see above.^ In Silesia a live cock is presented to the master on a plate. or on the gable. 95 . ii." and he loses the cock. when the harvesters bring the wooden cock to the farmer. and a chief dish at it.. p. etc. (Hanover. 23. yi2./^/. Brand. p. 14.^ Again. The comIn parts of Germany. J. pp. expression for overthrowing a load at harvest is " to lose the goose. Sageti. i. is a cock.^. or a figure of one. Burne and G. he gives them a live . Poland. the corn-spirit is killed in the form of a cock. the 2 the Harvest Gosling. Gebrduche tmd Mdrchen aus Westfalen (Leipsic. Mythologischc Forschungen. and in some England the harvest-supper was W. 1878). 419^?. 4 p. if and he were a hen.xd. the earth of fastened to in his beak fruits of Sometimes the image of the cock is the top of a May-tree on the last harvest-waggon. H. where the p. III. Schmitz. 268). 180 j^. London.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A COCK is 277 or flowers. 1883. H. Mannhardt. A. 375) . .^x. driven round the farmhouse before is taken to the barn. 30.Die Kornddmomn. at least in some places. op. S. Mannhardt. and Picardy the ^^'[1^^ lorm reapers place a live cock in the corn which is to be cut last.. In Galicia and elsewhere this live cock is fastened to the garland of corn-ears or flowers. Then the cock is nailed over or at the side of the house-door. 15. Sitten tend Lieder. . till and remains there next harvest* is In East Friesland the person is who gives the last stroke at threshing grain called the Clucking-hen.

as an embodiment of the corn-spirit.15 id. It is then skinned. and its death with the cutting of the corn. the equivalence of the cock to the corn is expressed. Mannhardt. pp. Die Ko7-nddmo7ten. The flesh is thrown away.^ Near Udvarhely. the cock is identified with the corn. still common the farmer's wife to make cockie-leekie for the harvesters. A' young man then takes a scythe and cuts off the cock's head at a single sweep. Transylvania. if no waggon has been upset spilt have the right to kill the farmyard cock by throwing stones — — at it or beheading it is it. the harvesters that is. the identity of the bird with the corn its again emphasised. a cock is buried on th? harvest-field in the earth.278 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL chap. 15.. or give to If the harvest-cock has not been the mistress to cook.^ Nothing could set in a clearer light the identification of the cock with the spirit of the corn. in Transylvania. or behead with an old sword. hardly less plainly. Ihid. which they kill with whips or sticks. By keeping its feathers till spring. P. Mythologische Forschungen. a live cock is bound up in the last sheaf and killed with a spit. p. p. If he fails to do this. or throw into the barn to the girls. Thus the corn-spirit.^ the neighbourhood of Klausenburg. he is called the Red Cock for a whole year. 2 15 sq. and cutting off its head (like the ears of corn) with the scythe. killed at harvest. and to shew them the In head of the cpck which has been killed for the soup. By being tied up in the last sheaf and killed. 30. ^ W. and scattering the feathers together with . the seed over the is field. 1 W. is intimated in the plainest manner. in the form of a is cock. so that only its head appears. . Where for this custom has fallen into disuse. Mannhardt. and quickening and fertilising power. but rises to fresh life and activity Again. but the skin and feathers are kept till next year and in spring the grain from the last sheaf is mixed with the feathers of the cock and scattered on the field which is to be tilled. then mixing them with the seed-corn taken from the very sheaf in which the bird had been bound. in the custom of burying the bird in the ground. in spring. . and people fear that next year's crop will be bad. cock. Die Korndd/Honej!.

623. 1889).^ In Southern Ayrshire the last corn cut is also called the Hare. and the reapers used to try to When cut. Mannhardt. When is the rest of the corn has been reaped. Scotland. and the one who arrived first was the first to be married. a It is handful left standing to form the Hare. hare/ is Another common embodiment of the corn-spirit is the The cornIn Galloway the reaping of the last standing corn spmtasa '* called cutting the Hare. the Hare parish of Minnigaff. The reapers then retire a few yards and each throws his or her sickle in turn at the Hare to cut it down. F. Folk-lore des HautesVosges (Paris. (1889) pp. they say. ?>3M\e. when the corn has been reaped and only a few stalks are left standing. .^ In the Vosges Mountains the person who cuts the last handful of hay or wheat is sometimes said to have caught the Hare he is congratulated by his comrades and has the honour of carrying the nosegay or the small fir-tree decorated with ribbons which marks the conclusion of the harvest. p. who places it over the kitchen-door* on the inside. home and hung up over the door. ^ The Hare will soon come. one after the other. and for the last sheaf is the Hare. 191. it was carried cut it by throwing their sickles at it.^ Thus in some parts of Anhalt. Die Korndd^nonen. /)/« A'(7r«i/rt'w^«£«. when the Hare was cut. 47 Gregor. p. * In Germany also one of the names into three parts plaited. p. I. W." The mode of cutting it is as harvest. ." or " Look how the Hare comes ^ W. The Hare is then carried home and given to a maidservant in the kitchen. the unmarried reapers ran home with all speed. ^?- vii. on Folklore "Preliminary Report Galloway. until one of them succeeds in severing the stalks below the knot. and the reapers continue to throw their sickles at it. Sometimes In the used to be thus kept till the next harvest. divided and the ears are tied in a knot." Association for * L. in Folk-lore Journal. and the mode of cutting it seems to be the same as in Galloway at least in the neighbourhood of Kilmarnock the last corn left standing in the middle of the field is plaited. 2 W. p. . " the reapers cry to each other.THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A HARE The Corn-spirit as a Hare 279 § 4. It must be cut below the knot. 3. follows. ^ Report of the British i8g6. Mannhardt.

28o

THE CORN-SPIRir AS AN ANIMAL
last

jumping

In East Prussia they say that the Hare sits in out." ^ standing corn, and must be chased out by the of patch the The reapers hurry with their work, each being last reaper.
for the man anxious not to Have " to chase out the Hare " who does so, that is, who cuts the last corn, is much laughed At Birk, in Transylvania, when the reapers come to the at.^ At Aurich, last patch, they cry out, " We have the Hare." ^
;

as

we have

seen,*

an expression
tail."

for cutting the last corn
"

is

The

cornspirit as a hare killed in the last

" to cut

off the

Hare's

He

is

killing the

Hare

"

is

commonly
the

said of the

man who

cuts the last corn in GerItaly.*^

many, Sweden, Holland, France, and

In
"

Norway

corn

cut.

man who
blood
In
"

is

thus said to
the form

" kill

the

Hare

must give

" hare's

in

of

brandy, to his fellows to
to finish
first
;

drink.^

Lesbos,
fields,

when

the reapers are at work in two
tries
in

neighbouring
to drive the

each party

order

Hare
in

into their neighbour's field

the reapers

who
will

doing so believe that next year the crop small sheaf of corn is made up and kept beside the holy picture till next harvest.'^
succeed

be better.

A

,./

5.

The Corn-spirit as a Cat

The
a cat

corn-

spirit as

sitting in

the corn.

Again, the corn-spirit sometimes takes the form of a cat Near Kiel children are warned not to go into the corn-fields because " the Cat sits there." In the Eisenach Oberland they are told " the Corn-cat will come and fetch you," " the Corncat goes in the corn." the last corn they say, "

The

cornspirit as a cat at reaping and threshing.

In some parts of Silesia at mowing The Cat is caught " and at threshing,
;

the

man who

gives the last stroke

is

called the Cat.

In

the neighbourhood of

Lyons the

last

sheaf and the harvest-

supper are both called the Cat. About Vesoul when they cut the last corn they say, " We have the Cat by the tail." At Brian^on, in Dauphin^, at the beginning of reaping, a
^

O.

Hartung,

" Zur

Volkskunde

*

Above,

p.

268.

aus Anhalt," Zeitschiift des Vereins fiir Volkskunde, vii. (1897) p. 154. 2 C. Lemke, Volksthiimliches in Osifreussen (Mohrungen, 1884-1887), i.
24;

Mannliardt, Forschtingen, p. 29,

6

W.

Mythologische

G. A. Heinrich, Agrarische Sitten iind Gebrduch.e tinier den Sachsen Siebenbiirgens Hermannstadt, 1 880), p. 2 1
(

^

Mannhardt, pp. 29 Kornddmotien, p. 5.
8

W.

Mythologische
sg.
;

Forscktaigen,

id.,

Die

" Georgeakis et Pineau, Folk-lore dc Lesbos (Paris, 1894), p. 310.

VIII

THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A CAT
is

281

decked out with ribbons, flowers, and ears of corn. It the Cat of the ball-skin {le chat de peaic de balle). If a reaper is wounded at his work, they make the cat lick the wound. At the close of the reaping the cat is again decked out with ribbons and ears of corn then they dance and make merry. When the dance is over the girls solemnly
cat
is

called

;

strip

its finery. At Griineberg, in Silesia, the who cuts the last corn goes by the name of the Tom-cat He is enveloped in rye-stalks and green withes,

the cat of

reaper

and is furnished with a long plaited tail. Sometimes as a companion he has a man similarly dressed, who is called the
Their duty is to run after people whom they them with a long stick. Near Amiens the The cornexpression for finishing the harvest is, " They are going to carLiHecT and when the last corn is cut they kill a cat at reaping kill the Cat " in the farmyard. At threshing, in some parts of France, a threshing. live cat is placed under the last bundle of corn to be
(female) Cat.
see and
to beat
;

threshed, and

is

struck
the

dead with the
close

flails.

Then on
In the
harvest
or

Sunday
Vosges
is

it

is

roasted and eaten as a holiday dish.^
of

Mountains

haymaking

called " catching the cat," " killing the dog," or more rarely " catching the hare." The cat, the dog, or the hare

is

said to be fat or lean

according as the crop

or bad.

The man who

cuts the last handful of

is good hay or of

wheat

is

said to catch the cat or the hare or to

kill

the dog.

He

is

congratulated by his comrades and has the honour of

carrying the
the harvest.^

nosegay or rather the small

fir-tree

decked
is

with ribbons which marks the end of the haymaking or of
In Franche-Comte also the close of harvest called " catching or killing the cat." ^

^ 6.

The Corn-spirit as a Goat

Further, the corn-spirit often appears in the form of a
goat.
1

In

some

parts of Prussia,

when
ii.

the corn bends before
64, 65. p. Sauve,

W. Mannhardt, Antike Wald-iind
pp.

Feldkidte,
logische

172- 1 74;

id.,

Forschungen,
SiUe, Schlesien

p.

Mytho30; P.
Folks-

1906), 2 l_

Le

Folk-lore

des

Drechsler, glaube 171

Branch und
(Leipsic,

Hautes- Fosses {Paris, 1889), p. 191. ^ Ch. Beauquier, Les Mois c/i

1903-

Franch-Comti

(Paris, 1900), p. 102.

282
cornas a goat
spirit

THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL
"

The

running through
the corn or sitting
in
it.

The

corn-

goat at reaping

and
binding
the corn.

are chasing each other," Goats through the corn," " the Goats are browsing there," and they expect a very good Again they say, " The Oats-goat is sitting in the harvest. ^ rye-field." oats-field," " the Corn-goat is sitting in the Children are warned not to go into the corn-fields to pluck the blue corn-flowers, or amongst the beans to pluck pods, because the Rye-goat, the Corn-goat, the Oats-goat, or the Bean-goat is sitting or lying there, and will carry them away When a harvester is taken sick or lags or kill them.^ behind his fellows at their work, they call out, " The Harvestgoat has pushed him," "he has been pushed by the Corngoat." ^ In the neighbourhood of Braunsberg (East Prussia) at binding the oats every harvester makes haste " lest the Corn-goat push him." At Oefoten, in Norway, each reaper has his allotted patch to reap. When a reaper in the middle has not finished reaping his piece after his neighbours have finished theirs, they say of him, " He remains on the island." And if the laggard is a man, they imitate the cry with which they call a he-goat if a woman, the cry with which they

the wind, they say,
"

The Goats
the

the

wind

is

driving

;

call

a she-goat.*

of the 'man
the crop.

who

in Lower Bavaria, it is said cuts the last corn that " he has the Corn-

Near Straubing,

the Oats-goat," according to Moreover, two horns are set up on the last heap of corn, and it is called " the horned Goat." At Kreutzburg, East Prussia, they call out to the woman who is binding the
^ At Gabupon a farm is being reaped, the reapers carve a goat out of wood. Ears of oats are inserted in its nostrils and mouth, and it is adorned with garlands of flowers. It is set up on the field and called the Oats-goat. When the reaping approaches an end, each reaper hastens to finish his piece first he who is

goat, or the Wheat-goat, or

last

sheaf, "

lingen, in Swabia,

The Goat is sitting in the when the last field of

sheaf."

oats

;

the last to finish gets the Oats-goat.^
is itself

Again, the

last

sheaf

called the Goat.

Bavaria, the last
1

Thus, in the valley of the Wiesent, sheaf bound on the field is called the Goat,
^

W.

Mannhardt, Antike Wald- und

Ibid. p.

Feldkulte, pp. 155 5^.
2 3 *

6

162. F. Panzer, Beitrag zur deutschen

Ibid. pp. 157 sq. Ibid. p. 159. Ibid. pp. 161 sq.

Mythologie (Munich,
pp.

1848- 1855),

ii.

232

sq.,

§

426; W. Mannhardt,
Feldktilte, p.

Antike IVald- tind

162.

VIII

THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A GOAT
"

283

and they have a proverb,
Spachbriicken,
cut
is

The

field

must bear a

goat."

^

At
is

in

Hesse, the last handful of corn which

and the man who cuts it is much ridiculed.^ At Diirrenbuchig and about Mosbach in Baden the Sometimes the last sheaf last sheaf is also called the Goat.^ is made up in the form of a goat, and they say, " The Goat
called the Goat,
is

sitting in

it." *

last sheaf is called the Goat.

Again, the person who cuts or binds the Thus, in parts of Mecklenburg

they

call

out to the

woman who
"

are the Harvest-goat."
festival

binds the last sheaf, " You Near Uelzen, in Hanover, the harvest
bringing of the Harvest-goat
the last sheaf
is

begins with
the

the

"

that

is,

woman who bound

wrapt

in

straw,

crowned with a harvest-wreath, and brought in a wheelbarrow to the village, where a round dance takes place. About Luneburg, also, the woman who binds the last corn is decked with a crown of corn-ears and is called the CornAt Miinzesheim in Baden the reaper who cuts the goat.^
last

handful of corn or oats

is

called the Corn-goat or the

Oats-goat.^

In the Canton St. Gall, Switzerland, the person

who
last

cuts the last handful of corn on the field, or drives the harvest-waggon to the barn, is called the Corn-goat or the In the Canton Thurgau he Rye-goat, or simply the Goat' like a goat he has a bell hung round his is called Corn-goat In parts neck, is led in triumph, and drenched with liquor.
;

of Styria, also, the

man who

cuts the last corn

is

called

Corn-goat, Oats-goat, or the
thus gets the
till

like.

As

a

rule,
it

the

man who

name

of Corn-goat has to bear

a whole year

the next harvest.^

According to one view, the corn-spirit, who has been The com^^^ caught in the form of a goat or otherwise, lives in the farm- crijipL' Thus, each farm has its own Goat in house or barn over winter.

embodiment of the
view, the corn-spirit
1

corn-spirit.
is

But, according to another

'^®"

the genius or deity, not of the corn
228
sq.,
*

F. Panzer, op.
;

cit. ii.

pp.

W. Mannhardt,
/^/^_ p, 164.

Antike Wald-uiid

Antike WaldBavaria, und Feldkulte, p. 163 Landes- und Volkskunde des Konigreichs Bayern, iii. (Munich, 1865) p. 344§

422

W. Mannhardt,

Feidkulle, p. 164.
5

;

g

£. H. Meyer, Badisches Volksleben

(Strasburg, 1900), p. 428.
'

Feldkidte, p. 163. 3 E. H. Meyer,' Badisches Volksleben

^-

Feldkidte, pp.
*

Mannhardt, ^«/?^,? Wald- und 164 sq.
165.

(Strasburg, 1900), p. 428.

Ibid. p.

284

THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL
all

chap.

of one farm only, but of

the corn.

Hence when the corn

he flees to another where there is still This idea is brought out in a harvestcorn left standing. The farmer custom which was formerly observed in Skye. who first finished reaping sent a man or woman with a

on one farm

is all

cut,

sheaf to a neighbouring farmer

who had
;

not finished

;

the

latter in his turn, when he had finished, sent on the sheaf to and so the sheaf made his neighbour who was still reaping all the corn was cut. The sheaf the round of the farms till is, the Cripple Goat,^ bhacagJi, that was called the goabbir the present day, extinct at be The custom appears not to We years ago. a few Skye only was from for it reported cutting farmers are and small the crofters told that when are down their corn, each tries his best to finish before his

neighbour.

The

first

to finish goes to his neighbour's field

and makes up at one end of it a bundle of sheaves in a fanciful shape which goes by the name of the gobhar bhacach
or

Lame

Goat.

As

each

man

in succession finishes

reaping
sort in

his field, he proceeds to set
his neighbour's field

up a lame goat of

this

No where there is still corn standing. one likes to have the Lame Goat put in his field, " not from any ill-luck it brings, but because it is humiliating to have it standing there visible to all neighbours and passers-by, and The corn-spirit was probof course he cannot retaliate." ^ ably thus represented as lame because he had been crippled by the cutting of the corn. We have seen that sometimes the old woman who brings home the last sheaf must limp on one foot.^ In the Bohmer Wald mountains, between
Bohemia and Bavaria, when two peasants
shall get
race,

are driving

their corn together, they race against each other to see

home who

home

first.

and

at night they

The village boys mark come and erect on
is

the loser in the the roof of his

house the Oats-goat, which
of straw.*

a colossal figure of a goat

made
is

But sometimes the
1
ii.

corn-spirit, in

the form of a goat,

J.

Brand,

Popular Antiquities,

lore objects collected in Argj'leshire,"
vi. (1895) p. 15 1, from information given by Mrs. C. Nicholson. ^ Above, p. 232.

24, Bohn's edition, quoting The Gentlemati's Magazine for February,

Folk-lore,

1795.
p.
2

P-

124; W. Mannhardt,

op. cit.

165.

4

W.

Wz.x\v\\-SixAt,

Antike Wald-und

R. C. Maclagan,

"Notes on

folk-

Feldktdte, p. 165.

VIII

THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A GOAT
by the
sickle

285

believed to be slain on the harvest-field
scythe.

or The

corn-

Thus,

in

the neighbourhood of Bernkastel, on the

^'a'cxoLt^
the

Moselle, the reapers determine
shall follow

by

lot
is

the order in which they on
called the fore-reaper,

each other.

The
If a

first

^gi^

the last the tail-bearer.
front he reaps past him,

reaper overtakes the

man

in

slower reaper in a patch by himself
the Goat
;

bending round so as to leave the This patch is called

and the man

for

whom

" the

Goat

is

cut " in this

way,

is

laughed and jeered at by his fellows

for the rest of

the day.
is said, "

When the tail-bearer cuts the last He is cutting the Goat's neck off."

ears of corn,

it

^

In the neigh-

goat

bourhood of Grenoble, before the end of the reaping, a live is adorned with flowers and ribbons and allowed to run The reapers chase it and try to catch it. about the field.

When

it

is

caught, the farmer's wife holds
its

it

fast while

the

farmer cuts off
till

head.

The

goat's flesh serves to furnish
is

the harvest-supper. the next harvest,

A

piece of the flesh

pickled and kept

when another goat
flesh.

is

killed.

Then

all

the harvesters eat of the

same day the skin of the goat is made into a cloak, which the farmer, who works with his men, must always wear at harvest-time if rain or But if a reaper gets pains in his back, bad weather sets in. The reason the farmer gives him the goat-skin to wear.^
the
for this

On

seems to be that the pains

in the back,

being inflicted
Similarly,
at

by the corn-spirit, can also be healed by it. saw that elsewhere, when a reaper is wounded
cat, as

we

reaping, a
to lick

the representative of the corn-spirit,

is

made

the wound.^
that the

Esthonian reapers in the island of
cuts the
first

Mon

think

man who

ears of corn at harvest will

get pains in his back,'* probably because the corn-spirit is and, in order to believed to resent especially the first wound
;

escape pains in the back, Saxon reapers in Transylvania gird their loins with the first handful of ears which they cuL^ Here, again, the corn-spirit is applied to for healing or pro1

W. Mannhardt,

op.

cit.

p.

166

;

id.,
2

Alytkologische Forschtmgen,^. i?>^.

W. Mannhardt, Antike Wald- und
Above, p. 281. "Osiliana," VerJ. B. Holzmayer,
der gelehrten

Gesellschaft zii Dorpat, vii. Heft 2 (Dorpat, 1872), p. 107. ^ G. A. Heinrich, Agrarische Sitten

FeldkiiUe, p. 166.
3 *

undGebrdtuheunterdeiiSachsenSiebenbiirgens (Hermannstadt, 1880), p. 19. Compare W. Mannhardt, Baumkidtus,
pp.

handhiiigen

Estnischen

482

sqq.

286
tection,

THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL
but
in his original
cat.
is

chap.

vegetable form, not in the form of

a goat or a
The
corn-

Further, the corn-spirit under the form of a goat

somein

formo"a^'^ goat suptill
fu°rkfmon<T the corn in
tin

times conceivcd as lurking

among
by the

the cut corn in the barn,
threshing-flail.
is

he

is

driven from
last

it

Thus

Baden the
grain.^
j^j-g

sheaf to be threshed
in

called the Corn-goat,

the Spelt-goat, or the Oats-goat according to the kind of

he

is'

Again, near Marktl,

Upper

Bavaria, the sheaves

expelled by
threshing,

called Straw-goats or simply Goats.
field

They

are laid in

and threshed by two rows of men standing opposite each other, who, as they ply their flails, sing a song in which they say that they see the The last Goat, that is, Straw-goat amongst the corn-stalks. the last sheaf, is adorned with a wreath of violets and other It is placed right flowers and with cakes strung together.
a great heap on the open

middle of the heap. Some of the threshers rush at and tear the best of it out others lay on with their flails In threshso recklessly that heads are sometimes broken. ing this last sheaf, each man casts up to the man opposite him the misdeeds of which he has been guilty throughout
in the
it
;

the year.^

At

Oberinntal, in the Tyrol, the last thresher

is

called Goat.^

So

at Haselberg, in

West Bohemia,
is

the

man

who

gives the last stroke at threshing oats

called the Oats-

goat*

At Tettnang,

in

Wurtemburg, the thresher who
it is

gives the last stroke to the last bundle of corn before

turned goes by the

name

of the He-goat, and

it is

said, "

He
the

has driven the He-goat away."

The person who,
is

after

bundle has been turned, gives the In this custom it the She-goat.^
The
corn-

last stroke of all, is called

implied that the corn

is

inhabited by a pair of corn-spirits, male and female.
Further, the corn-spirit, captured in the form of a goat at

formo^a^ threshing, is passed on to a neighbour whose threshing is not goat passed yet finished. In Franche Comte, as soon as the threshing is
on
to a nei ghbour

over, the
^

young people

set

up a straw
*

figure of a goat
John,
Sitte,

on the

E. L. Meyer, Badisches Volksleben

(Strasburg, 1900), p. 436. 2 F. Panzer, Beitrag ziir dejitscheti

Branch und Volksglanbe im deiitschen Westbohmen
A.
(Prague, 1905),
^

p.

194.

Mythologie,
kulte, pp.
2

ii.

pp.
sq.

225

sqq.,

§

421

;

W. Mannhnrdt,
167

AniikeJVa/d- itnd Fe/d-

E. Meier, Deutsche Sagen, Sitien
;

W. Mannhardt, Antike Wald- und

Feldkulte, p. 168.

mid Gebfcittche ausSchwaben {Stuitgart, W. Mannhardt, 1852), p. 445, § 162 Antike IVa/d- und Feldkulte, p. 168.

goat keep field with the words. and with two the its flail is horns.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A GOAT 287 has "'^ ^ He must who farmyard of a neighbour who is still threshing. '^''led Bavaria.^ ! ! ! op. the last stalks used to be left uncut on the harvest" the He. before his door. * Ibid. . F. Panzer. they set a real stuffed goat or fox . which is generally done on the field. 169. In the district of Traunstein."* in the field The children are then told Elsewhere. toat form at threshing. they tie the goat on his back.. when a stranger passes a cut or threshed grain.mid Feld1 W. in Elsace. the same cry is raised if the stranger does not take off his hat. p. p. " He-goat Schleswig. when a farmer is a week or more behind his neighbours with his threshing. to kill the Oats-goat. pp. 169. p.^ At Zabern. four sticks form legs. Mannhardt. 231 sqq. VViirtemburg. they barn imitates the bleating of a goat blacken his face and tie the Goat on his back. op. harvest-field. Beilrag zur deutscheii Mythologie.^ A similar custom is observed at Indersdorf. however.^ Sometimes the spirit of the corn in goat form is believed The corn- to be killed at threshing. The man who gives the last stroke who is must carry the Goat to the barn of a neighbour still threshing and throw it down on the floor if he . 224 sq. He is represented11by an old rake set up on • Upper 111 end. cit. the effigy of a goat is made out of the last its threshing. 170. A stranger passing a harvest -field is sometimes taken for the Corn-goat escaping in human shape from the Thus. p. he should die of hunger. Mannhardt. § 420 W. caught in the act. robbed of all his substance. At Ellwangen. ^ 169. pp. ^ Ibid. all the labourers stop and shout as with one At rape-seed threshing in He-goat " voice. 2 . 170. . above. and also between Calbe and Salzwedel. see W. in Upper Bavaria the man who throws the straw Goat into the neighbour's if they catch him. As to the custom of leaving a little corn on the field for the subsistence of the corn-spirit. " That shall Evidently the last corn was here left as a provision for the corn-spirit. they think that the Oats-goat is in the last TT sheaf of oats. cit. in 1^°' give them wine or money in return. the corn-spirit form of a goat is apparently thought to live in the Hence at Wannefeld near throughout the winter. in the Altmark. Mannhardt. lest. p. AntikeWald. ii. kiilte. Gardelegen. with an old pot for a head. bundle of corn at threshing .

skin on the large stone. Cow. Toboengkoe en de Tomori. when a great a large stone. Mythologische Forschungen. 394 sq. they say in some parts of East Prussia. " The Bull pushed him " " He has the Bull. ox. cow at harvest. The Corn. W. sat Then he placed the goatdown on it. pp. Afterwards they scrambled for the bunch of corn. xliv.^ § 7. cow. 23 sq. Baumkultus. 62. the young folks joined hands as acted who and danced round the oak and the pole. p. they say in the Graudenz district of West in Lothringen they say. Ibid Mannhardt. (1900) p. or lamed himself. 187 1). (Berlin. corn-spirit often assumes that spirit in the form of a When West the wind sweeps over the corn bull Prussia. it is said that he has " the wound of the Ox. after a prayer had been offered by a peasant priest ( Weidiilui).* So near Chambdry when a reaper wounds himself with his sickle. and the priest distributed goat-skin. " Steer is they say at Conitz. in running in the corn " . " The running in one Bull is The lying in it. who has punished the profane intruder with lameness.288 Old Prussian custom of THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL a goat at sowing. and hang the skin on a high pole near an oak and There it remained till harvest. Tomori of Central Celebes imagine that the spirits which cause rice to grow have the form of great goats with long hair and long lips." Mededeelingen van ivege het Nederlandsche . Mann- 241. consume its flesh with many superstitious ceremonies.^ on the field from sowing time to harvest perhaps represents The the corn-spirit superintending the grov/th of the corn. 4 5 58. or ox. Prussia. aanteekeningen omtrent de Ibid." The meaning of both expressions is that he has unwittingly lighted upon the divine corn-spirit. killing At sowing their winter corn the old Prussians used to kill a goat. lying in the corn." ^ In ' M. 3 hardt. ^ A. p. . C. pp.spirit as a Bull. bunch of corn and herbs was fastened to the pole above the Then. ^ when the corn is thick and strong through the corn or spot." When a harvester has overstrained and The cornspirit as a bull. and preached to the people about the history of their forefathers and their old The goat-skin thus suspended heathen customs and beliefs. Deliciae Prussicae Zendelinggenootschap. Praetorius. or Ox is The corn- Another form which the of a bull. Kruijt. " Eenige ethnografische W. . the herbs with a sparing hand.

Upper Rosenheim. The Cow was sometimes represented likes to be the Cow.^ All over Swabia the last bundle of corn on the field the Cow is .^ between the human and the animal form of the corn-spirit is at the harvest-supper . as it is called.^ is made up in These cases shew a confusion of the human is with the animal shape of the cornlike that of killing a the The name of confusion a wolf. is called the Cow. 1 Attached to Mannhardt. PT. in the district the when a farmer is later of getting in his harvest than his neighbours. Sitten iind Gebrduche aus Schzvaben (Stutt3 -• F. Mannhardt. ^ Ibid. they set up on his land a Straw-bull. some of Bohemia the last sheaf human form and spirit. § 428 . and In the butt of many a joke. r//. ii. Beitragzur deutschen sq. is called cuts the last ears " has the Cow. p. the last sheaf. E. p. In various parts of Switzerland the reaper is who cuts the last ears of corn called is Wheat-cow. § Mythologische Forschungen. Mythologische p. p. Deutsche Sagen. 153. 2 59. W. Corn-cow. W. I U . 427 ^ W. op. 234. parts is sometimes horned ox. Mannhardt. A/j't/io/ogisc/ieForsc/i/t/igeu. stuffed with tow and This figure is called the Old Man. op. pp. him and the neighbours turned out to laugh at him. if a large one. apparent. F. pp. p.^ some parts of East Prussia. 1852). Meier. V. 440 W. p. till the Here again the confusion farmer took the Cow from him. " Bull Bavaria.viii THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A BULL. Mannhardt. . Switzerit is land. This is a gigantic figure of a bull made of stubble on a framework of wood and adorned with flowers and ! ! leaves. 275. when a few ears of corn have been left standing by inadvertence on the last swath. Forschungen. accord- ing to the crop flowers he gets a nosegay of and corn-ears and a more liberal allowance of drink But he is teased and laughed at so no one than the rest.. the man who . 59. o/>. COW. p. p. Y?mze. OR OX into the shape of a in 2S9 the district of Bunzlau (Silesia) the last sheaf made wrapt In corn -ears. 233. Panzer.x. it is a label on which are scrawled Mythologie. W. the On Bull " ^ foremost reaper seizes them and cries. j^art. VOL.^ wether under In the Canton of Thurgau. 152. Mannhardt. ii. 59. Oats-cow. 58. §§ 151. cit."* by the figure of a woman made out of ears of corn and cornIt was carried to the farmhouse by the man who flowers. called the Buffalo-bull." and himself called Cow or Barley-cow or Oats-cow. The children ran after had cut the last handful of corn. 59 sq. of other hand. cit. ^ Above. or Corn-steer. 59.

being allured by a bait or driven by men with sticks. 61. Pouilly. 444 sq. p. in Thiiringen.-^ form of a bull or ox killed at killed the close of the reaping. Part of the flesh of the animal is eaten at the harvestpart is pickled and kept till the first day of sowing supper At Pont a Mousson and elsewhere on the evening in spring. W..290 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL man on whose land the is doggerel verses in ridicule of the Straw-bull The cornspirit in the set up. pp. Oats-cow. in goes by the name of the Cow. Meier. and two lads On the way thither lead him by ropes to the well to drink. sq. Lastly. gives the last stroke at threshing is called the Cow.^ Swabia. or the to the crop. each man is He entirely enveloped in straw is it careful to avoid giving the last stroke. and run allowed to Then it is the last ears of corn . p. Mannhardt. near Dijon. . and for a long time afterwards he At Obermedlingen.^ merchant of the the is Jewish Sometimes again the corn-spirit hides himself amongst the cut corn in the barn to reappear in bull or cow form at Thus at Wurmlingen. Siiten tind Gebrduche aus Sckwahen. Mannhardt. Deutsche Sage ft. followed by It is the year. flowers. is like. it is whoever catches it is called King of the Calf. in the form of a bull or ox is At on the harvest-field at the close of the reaping. Mythologlsche Forschungen. free the reapers chase it. Then a man disguised as the Devil cuts and immediately slaughters the ox. § 162. " He who does give his gets the Cow. Ibid. followed by the whole troop of Again. . and ears of corn is led all round the field. as butcher Luneville the man who acts at killed solemnly village. Mytho- . he must low like a cow. pp. Peas-cow. the corn-spirit reapers dancing. 60. the Barley-cow. a calf adorned with flowers and ears of corn is led thrice round the farmyard. or conducted by the The calf chosen for this ceremony farmer's wife with a rope. hood. according his head surmounted by sticks in imitation of horns. an ox adorned with ribbons. the man who threshing. 58 2 3 E. loglsche Forschungen." which is a straw figure dressed in an old It is tied ragged petticoat. when the last ears of corn are about to be cut. The corn- spirit as a bull or cow at threshing. on the farm in the spring of born first is the calf which was all the reapers with their tools. * on back W. and stockings. of the last day of reaping. or rather . when the threshing draws near an end.

""* In these latter customs the confusion between the human and the threshers catch animal shape of the corn-spirit meets us again. ii. Beitrag zttr detitschen Mythologie.. and being bound is straw-ropes village.^ At Arad. 61 sq. •^ sq. we meet with confusion between the human and animal shape of the corn-spirit which we have noted in other customs." him they detain him over night and punish him by keeping him from the harvest-supper. the The man who If the throws it cries. as so the corn-spirit passed on to a neighbour many who has not finished threshing. is the effigy of a ragged old woman is flung into the barn of who in is last " with his threshing. Mythologische Forschunge7i. OR OX ."*' stroke at threshing that "he has is the Chambery join. the Corn-bull in Canton Zurich. p. where a ^°ifg^ ^j butcher of kills an ox on the it field immediately after the close threshing. 291 with a straw-rope with the his face is blackened. the man who gives the last stroke with the flail it is called Bull. and a race takes place it which at all the reapers When " last is stroke killed " given threshing they say that the Ox and immediately thereupon ^ E. Mythologische * Forschungen. At Auxerre. the sheaf of the in At Young Ox. they call out twelve times. 445 1 F. the reaping. p. Mannhardt." In the neighbourhood of Bordeaux. . In Canton Schaffhausen the man who threshes the last corn is called the Cow in Canton Thurgau.* is a straw-man and set up before a in neighbour's cases. the man who gives the last stroke at threshing is enveloped in straw and a cow's hide with the horns attached to it. 233. " We are killing buu supthe Bull. 60. § 163. the last sheaf the called to is . 62. p. Ibid. Mannhardt. W. Meier. He must make window. . Sitten itnd Gebrduche aus Sckwabeii. * Ibid. There Cow for you. again.^ At Pessnitz.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A BULL. in Thiiringen. Panzer. in Hungary. the farmer So at Herbrechtingen. is said of the man who killed gives the last Bull. apparently. Further. pp. pp. Deutsche Sageti. Here. .^ to a wheelbarrow he wheeled round that Here. 2 W. in the district of Dresden. p. 62. In the last-mentioned district he is wrapt in straw and bound to one of the trees in the orchard. in threshing the last fj^m jffjj"^ bundle of corn. § 427. COW. the corn-spirit in bull form is sometimes believed The cornto be killed at threshing. the Thresher-cow.

62. Mythologische E. near oats ' Radolfzell in Baden. the last sheaf of is called the Oats-stallion.292 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL real a ox is slaughtered of the that corn. this calf of the spring-time the same animal which afterwards believed to be killed at reaping." and imitate the bellowing of a bull. p. when the corn bends before the wind.^ on the Corn-baby a as born believed to be sometimes -spirit is corn young the Berry Similarly in when a calf form for the field in on born be to supposed the corn in sheaves. p. 1875). 1900). they say. p. pp. p.^ In these cases the woman is conceived as the Corn-cow or old corn-spirit. ^ ii." Clearly. at the "Crying the Mare in Hert- end of the reaping. 42S. " There runs the Horse. Badisches Volkslebcii (Strasburg. Meyer. 3 Laisnel de la Salle. 167. while the supposed calf is the Corn-calf or The Bull is young corn in corn-spirit. there standine: on the field 1 or used to be observed a ceremony left called " crying the Mare. op.^ S 8. Sometimes the corn-spirit appears in the shape of a Between Kalw and Stuttgart.^ The corn- Sf'lr calf at ^ harvest or in spring. The Corn-Spirit as a Horse or Mare The spirit as corna horse or horse or mare. 62: '^ II fait ieveatt. Ibid. 2 W." Ibid. are tied together and called the Mare. Forschungen. p. coming year. as is Mannhardt observes. mare running through the corn. 135. birth to a calf. 6 6 7 Mannhardt. lowing of a cow. coming." " ^ The meaning is that " the sheaf has given In Puy-de-D6me when a binder cannot keep up with the reaper whom he or she follows. cit. in similar circumstances. H. they call out to the " woman." In some parts of Prussia. sometimes the young corn-spirit. wind they is The Calf is going about. 63. Croyances et L^gendes du Centre de la France (Paris. Ibid. Mannhardt. all bind enough to rope has not binder he puts aside the wheat that remains over and imitates the have seen is We to quicken the corn of the . they say * He (or she) is giving birth to the Calf. Above." ^ At Bohlingen.^ is In last Hertfordshire." The blades of corn fordshire and Shropshire. W. The flesh by the reaper who cut the last ox is eaten by the threshers at supper. 150 sq. is whose task it harvest-field. ^ . is In some parts of Austria a mythical calf {Muhkdlbchen) in the believed to be seen say. " spring and to push the children amongst the sprouting when the corn waves .

hip. 'er ? W'eer sha't the' send 'er ? B. ! whad ! 'ast thee. B. " Whither will you send her ? " thrice. with acclamations cheer. better. Brand.'s. Maister B. or shouting the mare is a ceremony performed by the men of that farm which is the first in any parish or it district to finish their the harvest. " A Mare ! a Mare ! a ! — What — from a farm where the corn is all cut to another farm where it is still standing. ' 'Uth a hip. I 'ave 'er.. a 1 mon cumm'd wi' a autar [halter] to fatch ii. 24. " Tc C. " While we her help. calling. Maister A.'s. hip. and who is cannot send the Mare to any one all else. Maister A. hip." " and good have you After it is cut the reapers cry thrice with a loud voice. hip. I 'ave 'er ! " " " ' Whad 'ast thee. ! whad 'ast thee ? ' A mar' a mar' a mar' ' Whose Maister is 'er.'s ' (naming the 'er ? farmer whose harvest " * finished). w'eer sha't the' send to w'eer sha't the' send "'To Maister " ' to Maister is ! B.'s." The mocking offer of the Mare was sometimes responded to by a mocking acceptance of Thus an old man told an enquirer. whose is is 'er. All the men assemble (the wooden harvest-bottle being of course one of the company) in the stackyard. said to keep her winter. Bohn's edition. D." The farmer who therefore " his harvest last. " Crying. on the highest ground on the farm." naming some neighbour who has not reaped all his corn. " ? Mare " " Whose is ? " A. In Shropshire the custom is similar. hurrah finishes (in chorus). wun at supper. J. and to ' owd mar' mare] to help out their chem [team].'s' (naming one whose harvest not finished). . The object of is to make known ' own prowess. Popular Antiquities. and where therefore the corn-spirit may be supposed naturally to take refuge. preceding it by a grand Hip.'s.'s." naming the owner she " is next asked thrice.^ In this custom the corn-spirit in the form of a mare is passed on " — I have her " ! Others answer thrice. whose is 'er ? ! " ' A. hurrah [old ' ' ! taunt the laggards by a pretended offer of the " ' I 'ave 'er. or. and there shout the following dialogue.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A HORSE OR MARE he 293 The it . reapers stand at a distance and throw their sickles at who cuts it through " has the prize.

" The head man of the farmer who had finished harvest first leader mounted on the best horse of the team the horse and man being adorned with ribbons. have seen (above. p. 162 ^ Laisnel de la Salle." The leader " or King " of the harvesters gives the signal for going to sleep. We may compare the Scotch custom of giving the last sheaf to a horse or mare to eat. her away. MythoJogische Forschungen. a boy on foot led the pair in streamers. p. called the " Cross of the Horse. as usual. Perhaps he was spirit in the thus treated as representing the cornform of a horse." ^ sheaf horse - said to " beat the Horse. pp. 158. PP. 373 sq- ^ W. though good-humoured. for. the rest imitate him. boxwood Horse. Croyances et W. Mythologische Forschungen. Burne and G." that is." The first sheaf. is said. " He has the fatigue of the is Horse. Mannhardt. to the youngest horse of the parish {coinmune) to eat. Shropshire Folk-lore (London. 156. the Mare used really to be sent. the corn -spirit of the spirit following year. near Leebotwood)." The sheaf made out of these last blades is given This youngest horse of the parish clearly represents. as Mannhardt says. crying. the old corn-spirit takes last refuge in the is sheaf is The ^ thresher of the Again. it When a harvester grows weary at his work. . " See the remains of the placed on a cross of in the barn. treat^ ment. If he delays giving the signal. round the last blades of corn. This is called " seeing the Horse. ii. 141. 133 . coming back minus his decorations. 167. the Corn-foal. 267) that in We South Pembrokeshire the man who cut the " Neck " used to he " shod. Mannhardt.294 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL But at one place (Longnor. and so on. Thus arrayed." shaped corn - spirit reported ^ C. harvesters there are accustomed to take a noonday nap in the field. one of the harvesters will begin to neigh like a horse. 167 sq. L^gcndes du Centre de la France (Paris. F. Sometimes the triumph to the neighbouring farmhouses. to have the soles of his feet severely beaten with sods." about down to 1850. Jackson. \6o sq. a trace of the The from Berry. man who took the mare received." was —both — ' ' The corn- In the neighbourhood of Lille the idea of the corn-spirit in horse spirit as a horse in France. pp. 1875). See above." and the youngest The reapers dance horse on the farm must tread on it. etc. F. as well as plenty of harvest-ale. form is clearly preserved. and then they all go " to see the Horse. which absorbs the last final of the old Corn-horse by eating the his last corn cut . some rather rough. 1883)..

Rev. 1867). " Mind the Quail " and make believe to grab at the bird amid shouts and laughter. ii.^ Connected with this identification of the corn-spirit with a quail is probably the belief that the cry of the bird in spring ! is prophetic of the price of corn will its in the autumn . Schneller. - Volksthumliches Schlesien Osterreichisch aus (Troppau. Mdrchen tind IVahchtirol (Innsbruck. Peter. A. place and the time of the appearance of the bird suggest to time when the rice the natives the notion that the blue bird is the rice incarnate. Esquisses du Bocage TNorma7id (Conde-sur-Noireau. this Volks And 1 like the note of the quail in * Europe the note of A. 1880). as the reapers rush they say. 173. 295 The Corn-spirit as a Bird The com^P""'^^'^^ Sometimes the corn-spirit assumes the form of a bird. 238. ^ vania there is a saying that the quail is sitting in the all last standing stalks on the harvest-field. p. 189. from the note of the bird in central and western France.THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A BIRD ^ 9. 755. Thus among the Saxons of the Bistritz district in Transyl>=> -^ a quail. tiiid Der deutsche aberglaube"^ (Berlin. 1886). 2 1869). §277. run about the corn crying. and Thus both the which disappears again after the harvest. Wuttke. whatever the kind of grain may be. p. 3 Lecoeur. New Edition (London. 18831S87). Ch. they surround them for the purpose of catching They the quail. when the reapers have come to the last ears of the last rig. p. 240. aus G.^ In the Bocage of Normandy. in Germany Similar they say that corn the quail uttered sell at as many gulden a bushel as cry over the fields in spring. ii.^ Similarly the Toradjas of Central The • prognostications are drawn rice- Celebes think pretty at the little that the soul of the rice its is embodied in a X^bird blue bird which builds is nest in the rice-field beginning to germinate. Swainson. in Switzerland and in Tuscany. to catch the quail. Chr. A. Dictionary of Birds. and at these stalks in order.^ Exactly the same expression is used by reapers in Austrian Silesia when they are about to cut the last standing corn. p. without making much of a nest. 268. 18931896). The Folk Lore and Proinncial Names of 1865-1867). Sagen p. which is supposed to have taken refuge there. ^ Alfred Newton.* Perhaps one reason for identifying the quail with the cornspirit is that the bird lays its eggs on the ground. British Birds (London. 21. Heinrich. Agrarische Sitten Gebrdttche unter den Sachsen Siebenburgens (Hermannstadt. .

they say that the bird they will not kill it.. which they call toge. . when it the reapers are cutting the last corn they leave a handful standing and throw their sickles at called the Fox." Mededeelirigen vati wege het Ncderlandsche grafische Verslageii en der koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. xliv. in Westphalia. 1 it. The rice- In Minahassa. TJie Corn-Spirit as a Fox The corn- spirit as a fox running through the corn or sitting in it. ethno- aanteekeningen omtrent de Toboengkoe en de Tomori. foretelling whether the rice will be abundant or scarce. children are warned against straying in the corn. " The foxes are marching through the corn. hold him ! fast the whether pression Department of the Moselle they say. id. so ^ 10.ig6 little THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL bird in Celebes is believed to prognosticate the state of the harvest. " because the Fox is there. in Kurhessen. Thus at Nordat various places in Germany and France. they call reaping the last out to the reaper. a similar spirit as a quail. they say in the Lower He has the Fox.. van A." In Bourbonnais the exis. In The Fox is sitting there. Nobody may drive the bird away to do so would not merely injure the rice. Indischen Mededeelingeii Zendelinggenootschap. 1903). when the corn waves to and fro in the wind." At Campe. 228. " The fox goes through the corn. " in Saone-et-Loire. near Stade. ' You will is catch the Fox. lingen in Bavaria. it would hurt the eyes of the sacrilegious person and might even strike him blind. 3 (Amsterdam. a district in the north of Celebes. Vierde Reeks. Kruijt.^ is putting the grain into the rice. " De rijstmoeder in den part sq." and at Usingen in Nassau they say. C. 374 . He has killed the Fox. croaking among the rice in ear. though less definite belief attaches to a sort of small quail which loves to haunt the rice-fields before the rice is reaped and when the Galelareeze of Halmahera hear a certain kind of bird. they say. ." When a reaper wounds himself or Loire that " sick at reaping. " Watch the Fox comes out. and at Steinau. Afdeeling Letterkunde." In Cote-d'or they say." hits is and two " Eenige girls deck his bonnet with flowers. (1900) pp. v. 229 . spirit as a fox at when they " are about to cut the last corn. He who Archipel. The corn- Another animal whose shape the corn-spirit is sometimes The conception is recorded thought to assume is the fox." At Louhans." At Ravensberg. pp.

" and having made the figure of an animal out of white cloth and some ears of the last corn. L. 162 sq. p. they cry out. the last sheaf is called the Fox." and occupies farmer's house a place on the table during the harvest-supper and the custom is to drench it with water. Ji^P^n^sc rice-god associated '^^'^ In front of his shrines may ^'^'^ usually be seen a pair of foxes carved in 1 wood or stone. girls. After that it is set up on the chimney-piece and remains there the whole year. Glimpses of Uiifamiliar Japan (London. pp. F. of carrying a dead or living fox from house to house in spring the intention of the custom they say. in Saone-et.. in Lot they say. Aston. G. and the fox is always associated with this deity. . celebrated on the nineteenth of April. In the Canton of Zurich the last sheaf is called the Fox.e. 1905). Forschuiigen. W. . W. " The Fox is sitting in the last sheaf. 1894). at which the follows is Fox dances also called with the all the . . foxes were allowed to run about with burning torches tied to their tails. 109 note ^. Mannhardt. Fox was perhaps to diffuse the refreshing and invigorating In Japan The ^ influence of the reawakened spirit of vegetation.\iono\.^ W.^ In Poitou." meaning that they have partaken of the harvest-supper. Folk-lore dii (Paris. Mark (Iser- Mannhardt. they set a stuffed fox before the door of the threshing-floor With of a neighbour who has not finished his threshing. ^ Lafcadio Hearn. pp. also. Woeste. Shinto 312 sqq.^ At threshing. Mannhardt. W. all the reapers strive to finish as quickly as possible in order that they may send " the Fox " to the fields of a farmer who has not yet garnered his sheaves. . in Ain. 27.viii THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A FOX is 297 In the evening there a dance.* man with a Inari is represented as an elderly the rice-god ' ° ^ long beard riding on a white fox. ii.^ this conception of the fox as an embodiment of the cornspirit may possibly be connected an old custom. . At the festival of the Roman corn -goddess Ceres. 2 L. (London. Mythologische Forsclumgen. * VblksUberlieferJ. tingen in der Grafschaft lohn. Pineau. pf. when the corn is being reaped in a district. 3 Poitou 500 sq. p.^. At Bourgogne. Mythologisclie Alythologische Forschungcii. they dub it the Fox and throw it into the house of a neighbour who has not yet got in all his harvest. 109 sq. The man who cuts the last handful of standing corn is said This last handful is carried to the to "have the Fox. fo"'at^^^ " We are going to beat the Fox " and at Zabern in Alsace threshing. 1892). The supper which " VVe have eaten the Fox. 1848). note ^.The cornLoire. observed in Holstein and Westphalia.

in Anhalt {Zeitschrifc Volkskunde. Meyer.\\\. vii. ^ The Boar is rushing through the corn. shall notice the pig (boar or sow). §§ 417. the thresher who gives the last stroke is called Sow Barley-sow. Witzschel. Mannhardt. Birlinger. So des at Klepzig. 419. 150). Badisches Volksleben (Strasburg. they sometimes say. » W. 187. W. p. 428. according to the crop and at Baden the person who brings the is last armful for the The sheaf called the Corn-sow or the Oats-sow. Whether the custom and the tradition are connected with the idea of the fox as an embodiment of the corn-spirit is doubtful. ii. wheat " has Rye-sow or Rohrenbach last the Sow. sqq.). In reply he which he prays for plenty. (1897) p. is He who cuts the last stalk " gets the Sow. Mythologische Mannhardt. 1872). the Rye-boar on your back!" up a song. Radolfzell in Baden. 1874). the last sheaf in cornspirit as a the Wheat-sow. B. Warde Fowler. 107 . § 4. according to the crop. Forschuugen.^ is At Bohlingen." or " has In the Traunstein district. Mythologische Forschwigen." the man who cuts the last handful of rye or is Upper Bavaria. Corn-sow. L." and Sow-driver. in Swabia. Vereins fiir down 679 the crops (Ovid. pp. Beitrag ziir deutschen Mythologie (Munich. ^ E. or the Rye-sow. pp." Amongst The corn- Esthonians of the island of Oesel the last sheaf is called the Rye-boar. The Corn -Spirit as a Pig {Boar or Sow) The spirit cornas The last animal embodiment of the corn-spirit which we is a boar rushing through the corn. Samson said have burned the crops of the Philistines in a similar fashion (Judges xv. 10% sq. or the like. 77-79^ A. pp. Heft 2 (Dorpat." Verhandhtngoi der geleh?-ten Estnischen Gesellschaft zn Dorpat. Holzmayer. * V. Sagen. Sitten und Gebrduche aus Thiiriiigen (Vienna. p." and also the man who * laughed at. stalk by stalk. at the close of the harvest. Mythologische Forschungen. is Baden the thresher who gives the last stroke the last to hang up his flail on the wall. "Osiliana. Panzer. 2 J. p. in by all the reapers in turn. 223. when the the wind sets the " young corn in motion. is Fasti. to iv. the last bunch of standing corn is cut down. 1900). 112. called the Rye-sow. Compare W. Mannhardt.^ at is Sow At Friedingen. ii. 328.^ At Kohlerwinkel. near called the . Ronian Festivals of the Period of the Repiblic (London. near Augsburg. . 224. 1899). or called the at threshing. In Thliringen. Aus Sckwaben{y^i&sbaden.). W. and the man who gets it is saluted with a cry of spirit as a boar or "You have strikes sow at reaping. 213. and the custom was explained as a punishment inflicted on foxes because a fox had once in this way burned 1878). ^ A. 1848.^ In other Swabian villages cuts the last corn " has the Sow. p.298 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL ^11. 436.1855). 4 sq.^-^. And in the sow south-east of threshing. .

^ In various parts of Upper Bavaria " the man who " gives the last stroke at threshing must is. " There. So he goes to a house and throws the straw-rope into it. supper or dinner the gets a large hair. §§ 409> 410. after being wheeled round the village.^ siiz. ii. in Swabia the man who gives the last stroke with the flail is called Sow. and throws it into the barn. " Siiz. pp. while the other When threshers strike at his hand with spoons or sticks. stroke in at a sheaf and dragged by a rope along the ground/ And. followed on a cart and by a crowd " as if they were calling swine. 413. 415. 221-224. . Birlinger. 412. 2 A. p. 418. 1852). Volksthiimliches aiis 1S62). and so on if the bearer of they cut off her . 1S61- U7id Gebrdtiche aus Schwaben (^VoM^zxt. Sometimes he has the right to be the first to put his hand into the dish and take out as many small dumplings (" sucking-pigs ") as he can. 41 1. He may. generally. by his fellows. all the people at table cry in calling pigs. § 379^ F. all in pig form. Beitrag ziir detdschen Mythologie. however. he is flung on the dunghill. and drawn round the crying " Siiz. again. 445. threshing blackening or dirtying his binding the the or face. ropes. carry the Pig — that either a straw effigy of a pig or merely a bundle of straw- This he carries to a neighbouring farm where the is not finished. 425. dumpling and a number of small ones. Panzer. Meier. Sometimes. crying. If the threshers catch him they handle him roughly. I bring you the Sow. which is the badge of his position as Sow. Sitten ^C/^wai^^w ( Freiburg im Breisgau. p. § 162. the large one being called the sow and the small ones the sucking-pigs. Deutsche Sageit. siiz ! " that being the cry used Sometimes village ! after dinner the is man who set " carried the Pig " has his face blackened. into filth. At the harvest man who " carried the Pig " gets one more dumplings made in the form of pigs sometimes he is Sow Sow on a woman his back. throwing him . beating him. and oblige him to take the " Sow " away . siiz. rid himself of this invidious distinction by passing on to a neighbour the straw-rope. 414. the dumplings are served up by the maid-servant. shut him up for several hours in the pig-sty.vin THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A PIG the " 299 At Onstmettingen threshing has the man who gives the last Sow " he is often bound up . ii. siiz 1 E." All the inmates give chase and if they catch him they beat him.

272 compare 268. W. land. aits Sitten tiiid Gebrduche Thiiringen. At Neuautz. cit. and to cause the flax to grow well and tall.^ In many parts of White Russia people eat a roast lamb or sucking-pig at Easter. as we have seen. Ralp. but and brings it to the sower on the field. sq. He eats of it. whose fertilising power is 1 W. but the bone is put amongst the ashes which the neighbours exchange as presents on St. pp. P. and then throw the bones backwards upon the fields. The ribs are then collected and hung in the room till sowing-time. 2 Stt/en Jtnd Gebrduche (Marburg. in Courtime in the year. Witzschel.^ the last sheaf is called Somewhat similar customs are observed in the Rye-boar. 189. Mannhardt. and as a pig he reappears amongst the ripe corn at harvest. 298. Peter's Day (the twenty-second of In the whole February). op. Above. W. This is thought to be an infallible specific against earth-fleas and moles. p. For amongst the neighbouring Esthonians. S. Mannhardt.300 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL Again. 1S8 ston. ^ * ^ Above. . to preserve the corn from hail. Mythologische Mannhardt. the farmer's wife boils the chine of a pig along with the tail. . near Meiningen. it is believed that tail. The corn of This is called the Yule Boar. i86 sq. R." The flesh of this bone is boiled on Shrove Tuesday. at. Meiningen. In Sweden and Denmark at Yule (Christmas) it is the custom to bake a loaf in the form of a boar-pig. p.^ But the idea of the corn-spirit as embodied in pig form is nowhere more clearly expressed than in the Scandinavian custom of the Yule Boar. Songs of the Russian People (London. 6 W. the corn-spirit in The corn- the form of a pig plays his part spirit as a pig at sowing. and then mix with the seed-corn. Forschitngen. at sowing-time as well as at harvest. Here someAs a pig he is times supposed to lie especially in his tail. 187 . people eat pea-soup with dried pig-ribs on Ash Wednesday or Candlemas. Mannhardt. Kolbe. op. Sagen. when barley is sown for the first cuts off the tail and will sticks it in the field .^ of Hesse. W. Germany. Hessische Volks- Forschungeii. A.35- W. and other districts. 220. when they are inserted in the sown field or in the seed-bag amongst the flax seed. 1888). pp. the ears of corn the pig is then grow as long as the the corn-spirit. p. 1S7.^ put in the ground at sowing-time.^ The corn- spirit em- bodied in the Yule Boar of Scandinavia. In the Salza district. p. a certain bone in the pig is called " the Jew on the winnowing-fan. . pp. 1872). Mythologische 218.

Dictionary of the Scottish Language. so many will be the sheaves of rye he will have to thresh at harvest. seats himself on a log and his eldest son or daughter.. Similarly we saw that the Corn -wolf makes his appearance at midwinter. It is strewn over the floor at Christmas. in the expectation of a good In this custom the corn-spirit. The Yule straw is long rye-straw. s. On Christmas night children sleep on a bed of the Yule straw (/^/(/. p.v. . p. Mannhardt. up to the ceiling and as many as lodge in the rafters. one by one. it is only the Yule straw which may be used in bindlast sheaf. and his quickening influence on the corn is shewn by mixing part of the Yule Boar with the seed-corn. iibersetzt von F. Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie. Volkslieder aus neuerer Zeit. from the sheaf out of which the Yule Boar is made.^ We may conjecture that The Vuie the Yule straw. F. Often it is kept till the mixed with the seed-corn and part given to the ploughmen and ploughhorses or plough-oxen to eat. . or the mother herself.. 491 . comes. Lloyd. and throws them. pp. ^ L. 17. 275. 1870). immanent in the harvest.^ sowing-time in spring. 177). p. 182. For example. . Afzelius.^ These uses fertilis. i. ing the fruit-trees as a charm to of the Yule straw fertilise them.viii THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A PIG is 301 the last sheaf often used to make it. Art and the Evolution of Rings. in part at least. iind Arv. 206 sq. and giving part of it to the ploughman and his cattle to eat. Compare The Magic ii. 27 j^. * U. and the peasants attribute many virtues to it. ^ Above. 1884). Aug. if the children are not old enough. ii. they think that some of it scattered on the ground will make a Again.^ Again. All through Yule it the Yule Boar stands on the table. 215. 1879-1882). Jahn. Schwedens dlterer und H. which Swedish peasants turn to various '^^'^^^^ '" superstitious uses. Volkssagen Ungewitter (Leipsic. pp. "Maiden". Peasant Life in Sweden (London. vol. 1842). From this he draws out single straws. 169 sq. shew that it is believed to possess ing virtues analogous to those ascribed to the Yule Boar we may 1 therefore fairly conjecture that the Antike IVald-tmd Yule straw is W. places a wisp of the Yule straw on his knee. iii. pp. 9. Etytnological Jamieson. J. Panzer. Die dentschen Opfergebrdnche (Breslau. 197 sq. New Edition (Paisley. a portion of which is always set apart for this season. the time when the year begins to verge towards spring. . when part of is appears at midwinter in the form of a boar made from the corn of the last sheaf. the peasant at Christmas barren field productive. Feldkulte.

This. ^ A.^ at harvest In other parts of Esthonia. g .302 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL the chap. till the day when the cattle are driven out to It is then put in the the first time in spring. before sunrise. On New Year's Day and Epiphany. Heft 2 (Dorpat. Afzelius. and stands on the table it is till the morning of New Year's Day. so that the projecting straw of wisp a carries made from same slieaf as the sacrificed at Christmas/ knife is brought. light beside it on the table all through the festal season. " Osiliana. or three dints are made in It stands with a it with a buckle or a piece of charcoal. o/>. when distributed among the cattle. i. 55 sq. often without the knowledge of the other members of the family. Peasant Life in Sweden. Holzmayer. cit. ^ J. is baked of the first rye cut it has a conical shape and a cross is impressed on it with a pig's bone or a key. Yule Boar. 31. vii. i. L. and an old woman. again. in his mouth. cit. The other half of the cake it is kept till sowing-time comes round. A. 1872). straws look like the bristles of a boar. It IS Called the Christmas Boar. character of at least. On Christmas Eve the little pig is secretly killed. B. when half of it is divided among all the members and all the quadrupeds of the family." A The Christ- On Christmas Eve in some parts of the Esthonian they bake a long cake with the two ends TmoifThe island of Oesel Esthonians turned up. as it is called. A. and observed in Sweden. A. where it remains in this posture for several days. the Christmas Boar. and set on the table standing on all fours. op. Formerly a and apparently also real boar was the Yule Boar. which the housewife fattens secretly. again. pp. Jiandliingen . with her face blackened. pp. In other parts of the island the Christmas Boar is not a cake but a little pig born in March. in the a man may perhaps be inferred from a Christmas custom still A man is wrapt up in a skin. Lloyd. Afzelius. though the Christmas cake the has neither the name nor the shape of a boar. In other parts of the island." Ver- 181. 185. pretends to sacrifice him. then roasted in the oven. when in is similarly distributed the morning among human beings and beasts. the cake rest is is kept pasture for ^ The crumbled with salt and given to the cattle. it is kept till New Year. a little of . der geleh-ten Estnischen Gescllschaft zu Dorpat.

and the pig is eaten sacramentally by ploughmen in spring. etc. Petersburg. as its flesh a substitute for the real flesh of the divine being. 344. In the last corn cut or the last sheaf threshed either the Corn-mother or the Corncalled either the made up in The person who called either the The last sheaf is itself supposed to be present. The reader has probably remarked the complete parallelism between the conceptions of the corn-spirit in human ^ ^ and in animal form. etc. pig-shaped dumplings are eaten by the harvesters. etc. On the Animal Ejiibodimejits of the Corn-spirit So much for the animal embodiments of the corn-spirit Sacraare presented to us in the folk-customs of Northern ^^^^^^ as they ^ Europe.. 485. 277 j-^. is . Children are warned against straying in corn-fields either because the Corn-mother or because the Corn-wolf. for the purpose of thereby producing a heavier crop. 300.^ Again. Corn-mother or the Corn-wolf. the goose. The conceived embodied in an animal this divine animal is slain. Aiisdeni innereii dussern Leben der Ehsten (St. In some places the Christmas Boar is partaken of by farm-servants and cattle at the time of the barley sowing. wolf. and and blood are partaken off by the harvesters. the hare. 280. 285. und In regard to the hare. according to J. 290. the cock. When the corn waves in the wind it is said either that the Corn-mother or that the Corn-wolf. the substitution of brandy for hare's blood is probably modern. as These customs bring out clearly the sacramental corn-spirit is character of the ^=^''^'"^" character of the harvest-supper.. the cat. is passing through the corn. Thus. or threshes the last sheaf is Old Woman or the Wolf. and loaves made in boar-shape (the Yule Boar) are eaten in spring by the ploughman and his cattle. etc.^ ^ 12. is there. etc. 1 F. 1876).. and is the shape either of a woman or of a wolf. Parallelism '^^tweenthe conceptions of the i^nhiiman' and animal etc. and the ox are eaten sacramentally by the harvesters. The parallel may be here briefly resumed.Wiedemann. cuts. .. the goat. and at evening is divided among the cattle to guard them from magic and harm.. . pp. binds. pp. 281. 2 Above.VIII THE CORN-SPIRIT AS A PIG 303 herdsman's bag.. 301. bread or dumplings are made in his image and eaten sacramentally thus.

ass. bgfQj-g fields werc fenced in. and kite. and partridges. so part of is given to the ploughing horses or oxen in Lastly. As in some places sheaf made in human form and called the Maiden. bear. . be that wild creatures moniy penned by the advance of the the^iasV"^° patch of com which is usually theTast refuge of the cornspirit. kept from one harvest to the next in order to secure a continuance of the corn-spirit's so in some places the Harvest-cock and in others blessing the flesh of the goat harvest to the next. As part cattle at Christmas or to the horses at the first ploughing. is kept for a similar purpose from one in some places the grain taken from the Corn-mother is mixed with the seed-corn in spring so in some places the feathers to make the crop abundant of the cock. and make their ^ escape from it as it is being cut down.304 THE CORN-SPIRIT AS AN ANIMAL chap. mouse. the death of the corn-spirit is represented by or his animal killing or pretending to kill either his human and the worshippers partake sacramentally either of the actual body and blood of the representative representative . stork. or of bread The reason made in his likeness. As and mixed with the seed-corn for a like purpose. be found straying in an English com-ficld. This explanation applies with peculiar force to t^6 very common case in which the animal embodiment of the corn-spirit is believed to lurk in the last standing corn. which nowadays could not. Mannhardt. is Mother of the Maize. wc may reply that to primitive man the simple appearance of an animal or bird among the corn is probably euough to suggcst a mystcHOUs link between the creature and the corn and when we remember that in the old days. 1868). Die Koynddmonen (Berlin. are kept till spring . such as hares. and in Sweden the Yule Boar. of the divinity.. of the Corn-mother or Maiden is given to the the Yule Boar spring. rabbits. all kinds of animals must have been free to roam over them. So W.^ ^^^?' ^m-spWt is thought If it is asked why the corn -spirit should be thought to forms 'of so appear in the form of an animal and of so many different many ani- animals. are commonly driven by the progress . we need not wonder that the corn -spirit should have been identified even with large animals like the horse and cow. p. c^cept by a rare accident. i i • i i i of the reaping into the last patch of standing corn. the etc. the a name bestowed on the sheaf itself. I. swan. Other animal forms assumed by the corn-spirit are the ^°^' sheep. -^ r -i ^ox at harvest a number of wild animals. .

v. primitive man. finds it most natural that the spirit of the corn. I . enough to identify him as the spirit of the corn escaping from the cut or threshed corn. with which they kill the animals as they dart out of the last among the stalks. PT. Those who look to some other principle than the one here suggested for the explanation of the latter identification are bound to shew that their theory covers the former identification also. should make his escape in the form of the animal which is seen to rush out of the last patch of corn as it falls under the scythe of the reaper. Now. their last refuge whom magical identification of the corn -spirit with an animal analogous to the identification of him with a passing As the sudden appearance of a stranger near the stranger. is Thus the harvest- field or threshing-floor is. The two identifications are so analogous that they can hardly be dissociated in any attempt to explain them. driven from his home in the ripe grain. VOL. to the primitive mind.VIII ANIMAL EMBODIMENTS OF THE CORN-SPIRIT happen that 305 regularly does this reapers and others often stand round patch of corn armed with sticks or guns. so the sudden appearance of an animal issuing from the cut corn is enough to identify it with the corn-spirit escaping from his ruined home. to changes of shape seem perfectly credible.

.

362-366. 2 Mr. according to their manner." Globus. Andrea. and who therefore lack that incentive to ^ ^'j^^ observe the stars which is possessed by peoples in the agricultural Australian stage of society . Now amongst the rudest of savages known to us are the Australian aborigines. Richard Andree. Kamilaroi {Sydney. quoted by the Rev. for we can scarcely doubt that in early ages the aborigines. 1875).') 279. worship the hosts of heaven. 1 R. " Report on Australian Languages and Traditions. Pleiaden im Beziehung zum Jahresbeginn und Landbau. {\%']'3. McKellar. but the constellation worshipped by one body as the giver of rain if it should be deferred. (1893) pp. and it may be worth while to put certain of the facts together. and believe particular conFor such they have names. practical need of ascertaining the proper seasons for sowing and planting has done a great celestial more than mere speculative curiosity to foster knowledge of astronomy by compelling savages to scrutinise the clock for indications of the time of year. p. none of whom in their native state ever practised agriculture.NOTE THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS The constellation of the Pleiades plays an important part in the importcalendar of primitive peoples. Mr. the Anthropological Institute. whose evidence on . instead of blessings curses are apt to be bestowed upon it. Ixiv." ^ According to a writer. " Die W. id. Mythus und in ihrer Ridley. and stellations rule natural causes. sing and dance to gain the favour of the Pleiades (Mormode/h'ck). and in particular they have agricultural calendars. Some evidence on the subject was adduced by the late Dr. indeed for reasons which at first sight are ^'\f^ not obvious savages appear to have paid more attention to this constellation than to any other group of stars in the sky. 138.^ but much more exists.. both in the northern and in the ^nce of the '" southern hemisphere ." yipz^rwa/ i?/" \i. p. commonly timed the various operations of the its year by observation of heliacal rising or setting. Yet we are told that "they do. In the first place it deserves to be noticed that great attention Attention has been paid to the Pleiades by savages in the southern hemisphere P^'f '° ^^^ who do not till the ground. McKellar's evidence was 307 .

Native Tribes of Central Australia (London. Stan- bridge. the Abipones of Paraguay.ith the queen and ran away with her. po/iibus (Vienna. the time and neighbouring tribes is at hand. 75. I. ^ James Dawson. (Sydney. and gradually sinking again in autumn as the days grow or lost to view acquainted with the natives of Victoria in the early days of the colony and whose testimony can be relied upon. till in winter it is either barely visible altogether. they saluted the return of their ancestor with joyous shouts and the glad music of flutes and horns. p. Native Tribes of South-East Australia (London. given before a Select Committee of the Legislative Council of Victoria in 1858 . Baldwin Spencer and F. 1899). For example. 1881). 302. Then at sunset they feasted and kept up the revelry all night by the ancestor was then sick. and that since then the Pleiades have been only six in number. from which we may perhaps infer that his statement refers especially to the tribes of Victoria or at all events of south-eastern Australia. summer heat increases. the Abipones believed that their for visiting friends Attention paid to the guay and and they were dreadfully afraid that he would die. Joicrnal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of N'ew South Wales. Northern Tribes Aborigines of New 'HoWa. p. [1^61) p." ^ Again. 1904). J. 'H. xvii. id. believed that the Pleiades were originqueen and six of her attendants. belief It of Central Australia (London. P. Sydney. invisible in the sky of South America the'indLns ^^ ^^^^ constellation is of Parafor several months every year. the season for emu eggs has come. who neither sowed nor reaped. ally a p. Historia de Abiii. because as the the real cause of w^arm weather they held to be the Pleiades. from which they brewed a favourite beverage. 1 00. ' seems to the abo- be a common among rigines of central and south-eastern Australia that the Pleiades are women who once lived on earth but afterwards went up into the sky. that constellation rises higher and higher in the sky. and they congratulated Next day they all went out to him on his recovery from sickness. reaching its greatest elevation in the height of summer. 1 1 8. Australian. 1784). Gillen. (Sydney. E. 628 .?). "Notes on the rigines inhabiting the great Lacustrine and Riverine Depression of the Lower yivixxa. But when the constellation reappeared in the month of May. See James Dawson. 1904).^ Another writer. Beveridge. 429 sq. because he shines also in winter when the weather is cold . "Of the Abo- Manning. Dobrizhoffer. 1S83) p. when the cooler. See W.y. W. 1884) p. Howitt. xvi. Some tribes of Victoria pp.. and Adelaide.3o8 THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS note other matters of Australian beliefs is open to grave doubt. when Canopus is a very little above the horizon in the east at daybreak. who was well Pleiades are visible in the east an hour before sunrise. but that the Crow (Waa) fell in love v.^ nevertheless regarded the Pleiades as an image of their ancestor. as indications of the seasons. Abo- rigines. 168. some of the aborigines of New South Wales denied that the sun is the source of heat. 566. collect wild honey. tells us that an old chief of the Spring Creek tribe " taught the young people the names of the favourite planets and constellations.'' eic. J. Australian Aborigines (Melbourne. A.. . p. 61 .nd" Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Neiv South JFfl/t'j'. ^ M. iu Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London.

1S62) p. . P. Coleccion de Obras y Dociimentos relativos a la Historia antigiia y moderna de las Provincias del Rio de la Plata (Buenos 2 7Va/?<rt'<)fer. ^ C. and feasts are held at this time. 1648). heavy rains set in. Pedro de Angelis. ztimal Brasilietis (Leipsic. iv. Matto Grosso. hailed the rising of the Pleiades with great respect. and that just as it rises so do they that it brings much cold and rain . 191 1). the regular. Phil. Th. ascribe to the Pleiades a special influence for the thirsty. viii. (Leipsic. an agricultural people who subsist mainly by the cultivation of manioc. ii. Koch-Griinberg. while a sorceress. ^ ^ IOI-105. 77 sq. ^ 104. An Uninown People in an Unknotun Land * (London. sayings In the Amazon a number of popular are current Thus they say that in the first days of its appearance firmament. cit. believing that this brought them health. Anthropologic Th. determine the time for their various field labours by the position of certain constellations. reappearance of the Pleiades. 441. generally of a markedly immoral character. 19091910).^ The Omagua Indians of Brazil with songs and dances. destiny. Description choro- ponibtts."* The Guaranis of Paraguay knew the time of sowing by observation of the Pleiades ^ they are said to have revered the constellation and to have dated the beginning-. referring Hist.^ present day the rising of the Pleiades is connected with the beginning of spring.^ " Mother told. formerly a numerous and warlike tribe of Brazil. while it is still low. and lation worshipped the constel- Indians of north-western Brazil. ii. The the constellation. y animales del Gran Chaco (Cordova. that when the that the reeds constellation vanishes. rios. 1836-1837). 1 M. 203. Ziir Ethiogj-aphie Avierika^s. Waitz. op. Dobrizhoffer. especially the Pleiades when that constellation has sunk beneath the horizon. Dobrizhoffer. (Amsterdam. p. On this occasion they held a festival which men and women. ''^ The . dcr Pedro de Angelis.. But the proceedings were perfectly decorous the sexes did not mix with each other. Barbrooke Grubb. 139. 1867).^ The Tapuiyas. 5 and 12. and danced. A Brazilian of those name who are the Pleiades is Cyiuce. Zii<ei Jahre nnter den Indianern (Berlin.67. Martius. 418. F. of. and victory over Amongst the Lengua Indians of Paraguay at the their enemies. 3 iv. the serpents lose their venom about in the . 15. rerum naturalitwi Brasil. cit. W. we are " is known valley to Indians of whole tribes of in Brasil and appears to be even worshipped by some of the it." on human that is. graphico del terreno. the birds and especially the fowls sleep on the lower branches or perches. rattle 309 who presided at the festivity. p. ^ The Mocobis of Paraguay also looked upon the Pleiades as their father and creator.their year from the rising of the constellation in May. . Historia de Abiii. 1733). 14. M. ^ Ayres. Lozano. P.NOTE light THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS of torches. op. to Marcgrav de Liebstadt. iii.^ The Guaycurus of the Gran Chaco used to rejoice greatly at the shook her . at . v. arboles. boys and girls all beat each other soundly. abundance.

Hakluyt Society). Hence the legend relates that everything which appears before the constellation is renewed. that is. which in the latitude of Vera Cruz (19° N. de Society). . midnight. Their reappearance coincides with the renewal of vegetation and of animal life." und Volkssagen aus Anthropos. i. They expected that at the close of one of these periods the stars would cease to revolve and the world itself would come to an end.e. and was worshipped Mexico. J. alte S. II. marks the beginning of spring. pp. " Mythen Brasilien. It their maize to grow.s\lea. the Pleiades disappear in May and reappear in June. the appearance of the Pleiades.. Extirpacion de la Idolatria del Firzi (Lima. ii. History of the Neio World called America. Acosta. 1869-1S71. referring to Petrus Martyr. else they will be worm-eaten.'' The Aztecs appear to have attached great importance to the Pleiades. 1521).Se\QX. when the critical moment approached. Hence. these Indians celebrated their chief festival of the year and adored the constellation " in order that the maize might not dry up. 304. translated by (Sir) Clements R. 1892) p.. 2^ sq. The Incas venerated the Pleiades because of their curious position and the symmetry of their shape. i.3IO THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS note used in making arrows must be cut before the appearance of the According to the legend Pleiades. Natural and Moral History of the Indies (London. 254^^. Carolo repertis inst/lis (Ba. ii. accordingly. and another to the planet Venus. 736. the Peruvian name for the Pleiades is Oncoy. 1758). for they timed the most solemn and impressive of all their religious ceremonies so as to coincide with the moment when that constellation was in the middle of the sky at The ceremony consisted in kindling a sacred new fire on the breast of a human victim on the last night of a great period of fifty-two years.^ Attention By the Indians of Peru " the Pleiades were called Collca paid to the /^j-jg maize . 166 stj. (Berlin. 492.heap) in this constellation the Peruvians both of Pleiades by sierra and the coast beheld the prototype of their cherished the Indians of Peru and stores of corn.) in the year 15 19 fell on the first of May of the Gregorian calendar. iii. J. (1906) p. according to their dialect." ^ The Indians of the Orinoco called the Pleiades Ucasu or Cacasau. First Part oftheRoyalCommentai-iesoftheYncas. One of these halls was dedicated to the Moon.J. ^ J. 1899) pp. De miper sub D. p. ^ Garcilasso de la Vega. 1880. Markham (London. (Oxford. Payne. on the coast of Mexico. 275. ^'E. i. and they dated the beginning of their year from the time when these stars are visible in the east after sunset. dated the beginning of their year from the heliacal setting of the Pleiades. Histoire Naturelle et Civile et Geographiqiie de rOrenogite (Avignon.^ The tribes of Vera Cruz." * Adjoining the great temple of the Sun at Cuzco there was a cloister with halls opening off it. Gumilla. 15. Hakluyt Compare J. the Pleiades. According to Arriaga." ^ the Pleiades appeared above the horizon on or : ^^ made When about Corpus Christi Day.Alt-AfexikanischeSttidien. 1621). * P. ' Carl Teschauer. 3 E.de Arriaga. and all the other stars.

Histoire Gi'iiirale des ckoses de la Nouvelle Espagne {Va." 1 children can be seen in the sky every it ^ This version of the myth. for every fire throughout the country had been extinguished as a preparation for this solemn rite. iii. no little seen during the moon. 222 . and together with the rest of his body was thrown into the fire. when the but. the time of their shame). Stevens (London. The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America (London. who were so ashamed because they had yellow hides of buffalo calves that they wandered away on " They are not the plains and were at last taken up into the sky.American Indians. F. and one of the priests made fire by twirling a stick between his hands on the board. is always presented towards the Pleiades. the breast of the victim was cut open. de Herrera. 1807). which is supposed to represent the dance of the seven young men who are identified with the Pleiades.NOTE THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS 311 the priests watched from the top of a mountain the movement of the stars. de Sahagun. 1S67). pp. the season. 315 i'$'. Runners carried the new fire at full speed to all parts of the kingyears. General History of the Vast Continent and Islands of America. " Ethnological Notes on the Astronomical Customs and Religious Ideas of the Chokitapia or Blackfeet l\\d\a. that constellation for they knew was seen to cross the meridian. translated by C. J. who guarded by night the field of sacred seed and danced round it to keep themselves awake during the long hours of darkness. P^'^ 'o '^e About the first and the last days of the occultation of the Pleiades Se^North^ there is is a sacred feast national. History of Mexico. great was the that the world was respited for another fifty-two .. 288 sq. 1880).. p. i. When joy . with the utmost anxiety. A. 1910). iii. Pleiades are six children. CuUen (London." At the general meeting of the nation there is a dance of warriors. 1725-1726). 490. Attention and regulate their most important feast by those stars. H. and especially of the Pleiades. with invocation for hfegiving goods. the night. Miiller. J. translated by Capt.. or pipe.'^ According to another legend told by the Blackfeet. every year. The women swear by the Pleiades as the men do by the sun or the morning star. 301-303. For the Indians say that the seven stars of the constellation were seven brothers. Clavigero. 519 y^'. whole of the tribe turning out for the celebration of its rites. Bancroft. In all highly religious feasts the calumet. Geschichte der ainerikanischen Urreligionen (Bale. the among the Blackfeet. recognises B.ns" Journal of the Anthivpological Institute. Immediately the bravest and handsomest of the captives was thrown down on his back a board of dry wood was placed on his breast. G. H. S. ^ Jean I'Heureux.. xv. will when the calves turn brown (autumn). Zy/t? C/r/A'fjr//^ 7>a// (London. (1886) . pp. The mode of observ. 1875-1876). ance .^ The Blackfeet Indians of North America "know and observe the Pleiades. lost buffalo calves are yellow (spring. be observed. dom to rekindle the cold hearths .x\s. which include two sacred vigils.. his heart was torn out. the solemn blessing It is the opening of the agricultural and planting of the seed. 393-395. ^ Walter McClintock. As soon as the flame burst forth. pp.. 489 sqq.

Second Polynesian ReEdition (London. the ocean. It commenced when. which speaks ill for the keenness of their vision . p. to discern seven.312 THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS note only six stars in the constellation. Ellis. It is also designated Tau-ono. (1895) P. during which. W. immediately after sunset. The Society Islanders in the South Pacific divided the year into '•^^^ seasons. and many savages apparently see no more. "The Tusayan New 2 Fire Ceremony. 43* Rev. especially an invocation addressed to the six The deities who are believed to rule the six quarters of the world. the culmination of the Pleiades is often used to determine the proper time for beginning a sacred nocturnal rite. W. In many islands extravagant joy is still manifested at the rising of this constellation out of * For example. cit. and why of all stellar objects this minute cluster of stars of a low magnitude is more important than other stellar groups is not If the Pueblo Indians see only six stars in the clear to me. Rev. west. 317. Gill. W. down to cluster. and continued until at that hour they appeared again above the horizon. Pleiades below." Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural Histoiy. compare . and below. 1876). and expressed by singing. W. I understand. Gill. 44. The Pleiades were worshipped at Danger Island. east. which they determined by observation of the Pleiades. i. these stars appeared on or near the horizon and the half year.453- 1832-1836). dancing. which was shattered into six fragments by " This cluster of little stars is appropriately named the god Tane." ^ : Attention p^-^ H° *h*^ the Polynesians. they were The other season seen above the horizon." 1 J. seatrhes. it might seem to them a reason one of the stars to each of the six quarters. above. south. 87. " The first they called Matariii nia. or the-six. the stars were invisible. p. " when the constellation Pleiades was seen there was unusual joy all over the month. which I cannot speak. on account of the apparent number of the fragments the presence of the seventh star not having been detected by the unassisted native eye. that is. Walter Fewkes. commenced when. was called Matarii i nia. Among the Pueblo Indians of Tusayan. since among ourselves persons endowed with unusually good sight are able. Pleiades above. op. xxvi. This season was called Matarii i raro. the introduction of Christianity in 1857. cluster of stars in many of the South Sea Islands. at sunset. ^ Rev. on account of their brightness. as to for assigning ." ^ Among these islanders the arrival of the new year was indicated by the appearance of the constellation on the eastern horizon just after sunset. Mata-riki or little-eyes. Myths and Songsfrom the South Pacific (London. namely. South Pacific. p. " I cannot explain its signifiwriter who records this fact adds cance. W. in Manahiki or Humphrey's Island. in the evening. an ancient province of Arizona. about the middle " Hence the idolatrous worship paid to this beautiful of December. north. and at the Penrhyns." ^ In the Hervey Islands of the South Pacific it is said that the constellation was originally a single star.

the approaching appearance of the constellation above the eastern horizon soon after sunset. Stephens that. the Pleiades and Orion's belt seem to be those which are most familiar to the natives of Bougainville Straits.*^ The Kai and German New Guinea. Turner.the'Mda-^ ing the Pleiades./\ 1846 by Horatio Hale (Philadelphia. ' that \. 1856). 279. p. 6'awi?a( London." ^ The natives of the Torres Straits islands observe the appearance Attention of the Pleiades {Usiam) on the horizon at sunset. n the lor r . and when they P\"^ ^°/'?'^ see it.Z. H. p..Tx<t^&2x.. Makalii..• . H. They have also names for they name Vuhu . Haddon. two agricultural tribes of new yam time has come. Ethnography and Philology. 1887). 1 p. Superstitions of the New Zealanders. Guppy. ^. * Rev. The R.l<ie\xha. they say that the the Bukaua. and Traditions Shortland."'^ nesians. . the a constellation of great significance with the inhabitants The Treasury Islanders hold a great feast towards of these straits. B.Guinea (Berlin. p. 349). Matahki. pp.tC. Probably. p. the Pleiades are visible above the horizon at night. " the company cit. Maori-Polynesian ' 'I /. also ^•^^ natives of New determine the season of their labour in the fields by observation of Guinea and the Pleiades the Kai say that the time for such labours is when ^^hiIn some peiago. . Codrington. 1 8S4). "The Banks' islanders and paid to the Northern New Hebrides people content themselves with distinguish.NOTE THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS 313 and blowing-shell trumpets. T. in Ugi. by which the approach of yam harvest is marked. ' . which they speak of as possessing six stars. Matalii. "Legends 7 • /^uM J V. of maidens " {op.ViSs. r from /tC^^\ „ (1890) p. 2 E. 348. ." Folk-lore./-' ^^^.di In the island of Florida the Pleiades togo ni saiitu. another Polynesian people of the South Pacific. . Pleiades is Pleiades alone receives a name. this event marks the beginning of their year. the natives are guided by it in selecting the times for planting and taking up the yams. Deutsch A'eu. " Amongst the constellations. The Solomon Islands Natives (London. ^„^ 56. 6 ^. the end of October.. divided the year into moons and determined the first moon by the rising of the Pleiades. as far as I could learn.1 ^ The United States Exploring Ex. 159. which they called Matariki} Indeed throughout Polynesia the rising of the Pleiades (variously known as Matariki.. " new yam time ' yams. p. „.) seems to have marked the beginning of the year. where of all the constellations the a few other stars. j A.''' districts of northern Celebes the rice-fields are similarly prepared for cultivation when the Pleiades are seen at a certain height above the : 1 G. planting ^ ^ > "^ coniecture We may . to celebrate. as in many of the Pacific I learned Islands.• means the time X YL. Second Edition (London. 170.. etc. „^^.. Melanesians (Oxford. The former. 1. -NT '^ o a N.T7 11r? Comparative Dictionary (Wellington.^ Among some of the Melanesians also the Pleiades occupy an Attention important position in the calendar." ^ So the Maoris of New Zealand.\\e. 3 \ 219- _. Tj Tj 7 I •' \- zr A Torres Straits. 43' ^^- . from Mr. 6 p.. .re C3. 1911). 226.-'.' . the latter Matatala. As in the case of many other savage races. a. C. r-^i ^7 J m -7 1 peditton. 1 891). 1891).^^/^..Tnr r.

168 sq. Ten Years in Sarawak (London. an island to the east of Java. do they cut down the forest. in Dutch Borneo. Charles Modes of computing the Time for Planting among the Races of Borneo. i.en Volkenktinde. I sq. Charles Brooke. van Spreeuwenberg. 484-486. F. F. the length of the shadow cast by an upright pole at noon . Life in the East. 42 (SingaCompare pore. (1869) p. 1904-1907)." Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal. " Various 3 Dr. . John. "Sea Dyak Religion. i. Riedel. (187 1) p. D. p." J. 292 sq. 10 (Singapore. Rev." Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. p. Sarawak (London. Compare . " Aanteekeningen betreffende de Kindjin Dajaks in het Landschap Baloengan.. Dr. Journal of the Straits Branch of tlie Royal Asiatic Society. Second Forests of the Far i. Vierde Deel (Batavia. Boalemo. 316. p. determine the agricultural seasons by observation of the sun rather than of the stars and for this purpose they have devised The Kenyahs measure certain simple but ingenious mechanisms. 2 Spenser St. do the Dyaks think it desirable to burn the fallen timber and to sow However.^ The ' ' Pleiades and A.Land. 59. The Natives of Borneo. the appearance of the Pleiades at horizon. of Andagile. Low. 1906) p. blik op id. Handbuch der K. Limoeto. 1905). note As to the Dyaks of Sarawak we read that " the Pleiades themselves tell them when to farm and according to their position in the heavens. G.* Mahakam river. pp. 404. sunset in 1 March marks the end of the year.en Volkenkunde. 1896). The Malays are obliged to follow their burn. pp. Kiikenthal. J. see also W. Some Dyaks employ a species of sun-dial for dating the twelve months of the year. cit. Engelhaard. 140. 424. two other tribes of the rice. No. As soon as the constellation is seen to rise while it is yet dark. Hose.^ Sarawak. Charles Hose. W. Nieuwenhuis." Journal of tiie Antliropolcgical Institute. * of the sun. 4.^ Bali." Tijdschrift voor Neerlaiids Indie. the Kenyahs and Kayans. morning and evening. and the Kayans let in a beam of light through a hole in the roof and measure the distance from the point immediately below the hole to But the Kayans of the the place where the light reaches the floor. or their lunar year would soon render their farming operaWhen the season for clearing fresh land in tions unprofitable. 214. No. See H. Edition (London. ^ F.314 THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS . Perham. " De landschappen Holontalo.Land. example. they know that the time has come But not until the Pleiades are at the zenith before dawn to begin." Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal. (1894) pp. 1866).. iii. mode 1883). Compare H. in Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie. xxiii. ^ A. at Kattinggola. 1863). xix. though the Kayans more usually determine the time for sowing by observathe rice tion 1848). plant. 1845). logie. Bone. Forschungsreise in den Molukken und in Borneo (Frankfort. Ginzel. 229. xxxix. and reap. determine the time for sowing by In observing when the sun sets in a line with two upright stones. (Leipsic. 160. where the writer tells us that the Kayans and many other races in Borneo sow just when the Pleiades appear above the horizon at daybreak. E. maihematischen undtechnisclien Chrono- op. p. a wise man is appointed to go out before dawn and watch for the Pleiades. 251." ^ the forest approaches. i. (1S97) pp. Quer diirch Borneo (Leyden. As to the Kayan of determining the time for sowing by the length of shadow cast by an upright pole. " Een de Minahassa. id.^ .

but they have names for the Morning Star and for the Pleiades . ^ Africa we again find the Pleiades employed by tribes in various . von Rosenberg. the people assemble to till their fields. pay little heed to the stars. Far to the north of the tropics the rude of Africa. slag van hat eiland Bali. Krascheninnikow. vol. iS63)p. We have seen that the Caffres of South Africa date their new year from the rising of the Pleiades just before sunrise and fix the time " They calculate for sowing by observation of that constellation. i. . The three stars are 1766). 119. probably the Belt. (Leipsic. 2 J. an island to the south of Sumatra. xxiii. and particularly by the appearance (heliacal rising) of the bintang baniak or Pleiades . the Great When we pass to Bear. it was regulated by the stars. 1906) p. xxx." In some districts of Sumatra " much confusion in regard to the period of sowing is said to have arisen from a very extraordinary cause. (Batavia. p. 1 16. say the natives. Handbuch der mathematiscken undtechnischen Chjvnologie. p."^ the various operations of the agricultural year by the positions of Orion and the Pleiades. K. T. (1849) p. lingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap Knnsten en Wettenschappen. p. 1 1 T-» -1 • 1 parts of the continent to mark the seasons of the agricultural year.^ The natives of Nias. the order of the seasons was soon inverted . 49. " Verslag omtient het eiland Nias en deszelfs Bewoners. but after the introduction of the Mahometan religion.^ ^ R. the Pleiades. being eleven days short of the sidereal or solar year. for they think that to do so before the rising of the constellation would be useless. ^ See above. the Achinese of northern Sumatra the time has come to sow the rice. (London. and it is only astonishing that its inaptness to the purposes of agriculture should not have been immediThe Battas or Bataks of central Sumatra date ately discovered. 217. and forgot their old rules. . schappen.* know that Scattered and fragmentary as these notices are. . When the Pleiades rise before the sun at the beginning of July. Beschreibiing des Landes Kamtschatka (Lemgo. consequence of this was obvious for the lunar year of the hejrah . Friederich. they suffice to Attention shew that the Pleiades have received much attention from savages Pf ^ ^° ^^ Pleiades by ^ r in the tropical regions of the world from Brasil m the east to t^e natives Sumatra in the west. and when the Pleiades appear in the sky. Kamchatkans are said to know only three constellations." vatt Third Edition Marsden. . B. Anciently." Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Weten- * F. they were induced to follow the returns The of the pudsa or great annual fast. History of Sumatra. ^ S. 428. i. with the solar by prolonging the month Asada until the Pleiades are visible at sunset. Ginzel. " Voorloopig VerVerha7ide7 1 ^ W. Nieuwenhuisen en H. they bring the lunar year into harmony tion.NOTE THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS 315 Orion are the only constellations which the people of Bali observe for the purpose of correcting their lunar calendar by intercalaYor example. C. and three stars in Orion. 181 1).

p. (1901) p." ^ The Amazulu call the Pleiades which means "The digging-for (stars). or when they may commence their labours of the This call is their likhakologo (turnings or revolvings). and a fresh start is made and things go on smoothly till once more the moons stars. 1833). and accordingly the youths are selemela. '^ long as ardently for the rising of the constellation as for the rising of the moon which will put an end to the fast of Ramadan. The Pleiades they call which may be translated 'cultivator. 1870). Macdonald. G. agriculture. ^ regarded as indicating the tion. for which they have descripnames." because when the Pleiades appear the people begin to dig. McCall Theal. and is not seen. planting season. when particular roots can be stars first. They formed no theories concerning the nature of the heavenly bodies and their motions. they gave expressive names. it begins to appear Isilimela.^ The Hottentots date the seasons of the to said Mohammedans Africa. Records of South-Eastern Africa. Thus. Sechefo. Second Edition (London.3i6 777^ PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS note tive only twelve lunar months for the year. . Travels and Re- searches in Caffraria (London." Anthropos. 1890). for use. "The Twelve Lunar Months ^ Rev. the relative verb to cultivate for and se. 1842). 77^1? Religiotis of the Amazulu. ." and reference has again to be made to the According to another authority on the Bantu tribes of South Africa.i. 359. They say that " Isilimela (the Pleiades) dies. when the winter is coming to an end. a pronominal prefix. Compare J. Missionary Labotirs and Scenes in Southern Africa (London. Thompson. It is not seen in winter . iv. going on increasing it when the sun is about to rise."^ The Bechuanas "are directed by the position of certain stars in the heavens. pp. when this constellation assumes a certain position in the heavens. and Adventures in Southern Africa 273. 418. and were not given to thinking of such things. or what we should the spring time of the year. and the year is renewed. distinguishing them as the actors. j^gy^ among '^ the Basuto. until is perfectly clear dug up field. " the rising of the Pleiades shortly after sunset was get out of place. and this results in frequent confusion and difference of opinion as to which month it really is. Callaway. and at last. 931." Among some of these South African tribes the period of seclusion observed by lads after circumcision comes to an end with the appearance of the Pleiades. 397. To this constella- as well as to several of the prominent stars and planets. Part iii. that the time has arrived. p. h. one of its becomes a cluster of stars. (1909) p. ^ ii. Compare G.. and so we begin to dig. Lig-ht in J. and then and three. Stephen Kay. it is the signal to commence cultivating their fields and gardens. '^ System (London. 1827). pp. vii. 194 sq. ls/lo^a. (London. K. And we say Isilimela is renewed. The confusion is always rectified by the first appearance of Pleiades just before sunrise. Travels etc.' or the precursor of from lemela. 337 *> sq. in the revolving year.

lift their little ones will show to them stars. may ripen. p. that those friendly : ' the fruits (bulbs." Tribes of British Central Journal of the R. 333. 275. ^ A. " Notes on some Africa. called The Pleiades. which begins after the in Stannus.^ To the Masai of East Africa the appearance of the Pleiades in the west is the sign of the beginning its name from the constellation. appear above the eastern horizon mothers will and running up to elevated spots. l88i). The Nandi (Q-doxA. 15s. reports that "at the return of the Pleiades these natives celebrate an anniversary . June. Die Masai May. as they express it themselves. and the Pleiades are no For the Pleiades that showers has month and are not seen again until the season of ^ it is then that they reappear. the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi (London. and teach them to stretch their little hands towards them. ^ plenty of food. searches W.^ of British East Africa have a special name i^Koremerik) for the it is by the appearance or non-appearance of these Nandi know whether they may expect a good or a bad harvest.* In Masailand the Pleiades are above the horizon from September till about the seventeenth of May . quoting the Moravian missionary George Schmidt. Die Eingeboreneii ^ A. when rain falls only occasionally . " know whether it will rain or not according to the appearance or non-appearance of the six stars. When the month which of the rainy season. S.NOTE THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS An early 317 year by the rising and setting of the Pleiades. xl. Anthropological Institute. The Masai. 2S9. ' IOC. The Masai (Oxford. as soon as these stars missionary settled among the on their arms. 3 to the Cape of Good The 1905). reappearance of the Pleiades September. H. 1872). Hollis. July. 43. ^ (Berlin. p.' " and that we may have With some tribes of British Central Africa the rising of the Pleiades early in the evening is the signal for the hoeing to begin. A. send us a good year. " 275 * M. our Father above our heads. C." ^ The Kikuyu of the same region say that " the Pleiades is the mark in the heavens to show the people when to plant their crops they plant when this constellation is in a certain position early in the night. " and stars that the . C. and the people. Kikuyu Kamba . "season of showers" seems to be a name for the dry season (June. p. which follow after one another like cattle." ^'^ In Sierra Leone " the proper time Pleiades. August). 340. it is thus distinguished from the rainy season of winter.^ Moravian Hottentots. who was sent out Hope in 1737. (1910) p. uie^itjes. pp. into Hobley. The people of a kraal will assemble to dance and to sing according to the old custom of their ancestors. which takes the Masai call set ' Of the Pleiades ' ^ arrives. 2 Theophilus Hiihn. 198. sq. etc. p. "Further and Re- 1894). 1 Gustav Fritsch. Siid-Afrika's (Breslau. Merker. compare p. longer visible. The chorus always sings O Tiqua. they in know that the rains are over. C. HoUis.August. pp. give rain to us. Tsmii-Goam." come to an end "^ : The only other groups of stars for which the Masai appear to The Nandi have names are Orion's sword and Orion's belt. Hollis.). 1909). 100.

^ proper season for sowing the corn. 383 See above. und 1 technischen Chronologie sq. season. look on the Pleiades as the givers of rain. An Account maturitatem conplexae" Ideler. Hesiod. and commencetherefore that they themselves have more to eat after a heavy fall of ment of rain than after a long drought. inathe?natischen (Berlin. Compare L. (191 442.* So widespread over the world has been and is the association of the Pleiades with agriculture. p. 45. pp. Both the Greeks and the Romans dated the beginning of summer from the heliacal rising of the Pleiades and the beginning of winter from their heliacal Pliny regarded the autumnal setting of the Pleiades as the setting. and he tells us that in Greece and Asia all the crops were sown at the setting of that constellation. 241 Pliny. p. 49 and 223. ii. season to sow and plant is the time seems to be of year when the newly-planted seeds or roots will be quickened by based on the coincidence of their rising abundant showers. 1803). xviii. especially with the sowing or planting of the crops. xli. In point of fact we saw that some the rainy . the only stars which they observe or distinguish by peculiar names. * 280. are not produced by them. 307. ii. Nat. called by the BuUoms a-warrang.1 826).3i8 THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS shewn by the note for preparing the plantations is particular situation in Attention paid to the Pleiades by the Greeks their fields which the Pleiades. Beliefs Religious Journal of ^ the and Customs. particularly the wheat and the barley. and curse the constellation if its appearance is not followed by the expected showers. 48. The reason for the association seems to be the coincidence of the rising or setting of the constellation with the commencement of the rainy season . Aratus. The widespread association of the Pleiades with agriculture when the constellation set at sunrise in November. they yet or setting with the can hardly fail to observe that wild fruits grow more plentifully. 825. Phaeiiofnena. 264 267 - Works and Days. " Vergiliae privatim attitient ad ^ Pliny. Hist. sonenstri spatio intra se messes vindemiasque et o>nnium Thomas Win terbottom. are to be seen We have seen that ancient Greek farmers reaped their at sunset. ^ 615 sqq."' On the other side of the world. who are wholly ignorant of agriculture. 123. and that they ploughed interval and Romans. of the Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone (London. 125. Hist. the civilised setting of the Pleiades against the supposition. occasu hiems. Pliny dated the rising of the Pleiades on the loth of May and their setting on the i ith of November {^Nat. .. since men must very soon have learned that the best. The same association of the Pleiades with rain seems sufficient to explain their importance even for savages who do not till the ground for ignorant though such races are.^ The between the two dates is about six months." ^ corn when the Pleiades rose at sunrise in May. Hist. Nat. and at the opposite end of the scale of Greeks similarly supposed that the autumnal was the cause of ttie rains which followed it and the astronomical writer Geminus thought it worth while to argue culture. . pointing out that the vicissitudes of the risings weather and of the seasons. See above. ut quariim exortu aestas inciptat. fructus. sq. of the Australian aborigines. if not the only. xviii. 123. 125)." Royal Anthropological 1) p. 48. 2 Handbuch der i.. Institute. though they may coincide with the and settings of the constellations.

B. pp. but not the causes. The Revised English Version translates the words in should naturally explain the "sweet influences" by the belief that the autumnal setting of the constellation is the cause of rain. Pleiades " in words is doubtful ." " the cluster of the Compare H. they . . tions serve as the signals. Edinburgh. Clark. 1907). Elemcnta Astronomiae. END OF VOL. 31. he says.^ 1 xvii. But the rendering of the question Pleiades. Grimme. which are the signals. though the constellamust not be regarded as the causes. 61 sqq. Hence. Limited. Peak on the passage. we See the commentaries of A. Das israelitische Pfingstfest nnd der Pleja- denktilt (Paderborn. & R. Davidson and Professor A. of atmospheric changes and he aptly illustrates the distinction by a reference to beacon-fires. I Printed by R. it is not even certain is that the constellation referred to Pleiades. of war. the Authorised Version of the English Bible were an exact translation of the corresponding of the the Hebrew words in Job xxxviii. If " the sweet influences lo sqq. Geminus.NOTE THE PLEIADES IN PRIMITIVE CALENDARS 119 the stars being too distant from the earth to exercise any appreciable influence on our atmosphere. S.

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3d ed. 3>' . (Sir) James George The golden bough.BJWD8NG MAR 1 5 1979 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS POCKET CARDS OR SLIPS UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY BL 310 F7 1911a V.7 Frazer.

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