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The Dot Product

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Spherical Coordinates

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Lagrange Multipliers

The dot product is defined as: A · B = |A||B| cos θ This can be used to find the angle between two lines. Two vectors are perpendicular if their dot product is 0.

x = ρ sin φ cos θ, y = ρ sin φ sin θ, z = ρ cos θ, EXAMPLE: Find the minimum of x2 + y2 + z2 r = ρ sin φ on the surface 2x + y + 2z = 9. , φ = ρ = x2 + y2 + z2 , θ = arccos x y r arctan y v g(x, y, z) = 2x + y + 2z − 9 = 0 The Jacobian is ρ2 sin φ.

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Curvature

f (x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2 ∇f = λ∇g 2x = 2λ 2y = λ 2z = 2λ x 2x + + 2x = 9 2 Solve for each variable and insert into f for minimum.

2 The Cross Product Given a vector r, where the derivative is v The cross product is an operation that pro- (velocity), several things can be found. duces a vector perpendicular to two other vecσ = |v| tors. Additionally, it is the area of the parallelogram formed by the two vectors it is used on. v T = σ a × b = |a||b|n sin θ
The volume of a parallelopiped composed of vectors a,b, and c is: |(a × b) · c| a = σ T + σ κN H =v×a=r ×r H κ = | 3| σ N =B×T Here, N is the unit normal, T is the unit tangent, and B is the unit binormal. If the binormal is constant, the curve lies in a plane. For the tangential component of acceleration: at = σ = |v · a| The normal component of acceleration is: an = a − σ T
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Planes

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Double Integrals

The definition of a plane through vector r0 =< x0 , y0 , z0 > with normal n is: n · (r − r0 ) = 0 Two planes are parallel if their normals are equal. The angle between two planes is defined as the angle between their normals. The angle between a line (b) and a plane with normal n can be found using: n · b = |n||b| sin θ

Double integrals may be reversed by Fubini’s theorem. Additionally, you may use a change of variable. This requires multiplication by the absolute value of the Jacobian. The Jacobian is the ratio of partial derivatives between the variables used in the change. ∂ (x, y) ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x = − ∂ (u, v) ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v

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Unit Normal
ru × rv |ru × rv |

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Triple Integrals Surface Area

Basically super-double integrals.

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Projection

A projection is when a line is ”dropped” on another. The projection of vector w on v can be found using: v·w P rojw v = w |w||w|

This can be used to find tangent planes.

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|ru × rv | dA
R

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A quadratic surface takes the form ax2 + by2 + cz2 = 1. If a,b, and c are positive, the surface is an ellipsoid. If one coefficient is negative, it’s a hyperboloid of one sheet. If two terms are negative, it’s a hyperboloid of two sheets. If the constant at the end (1 in this case) is 0, it’s a cone. If one term is missing, it’s a cylinder. If one term is missing a degree and there is one negative, it’s an elliptic paraboloid. In the same case with two negatives, it’s a hyperbolic paraboloid.

The gradient of a function is ∇f =< fx , fy , fz >. The Divergence of a function is ∇ · f = fx + fy + fz . The curl of a function is ∇ × f . The divergence of curl is always 0. The divergence of the gradiant is the laplacian.

2 2 fx + fy + 1 dx dy R

f |∇g|
R

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Linear Approximation 19
L(x) = f (a) + ∇f (a) · (x − a)

dx dy gz

Vector Fields

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Critical Points

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Arc Length for Vector Functions

Given the vector r(t) =< f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t) > the arclength is:
b

A critical point is where ∇(f ) = 0. A point is 2 a maximum if the laplacian (fxx fxy − fxy ) is positive and fxx is negative. If the laplacian is positive but fxx is greater than zero, it’s a minimum. If the laplacian is less than zero, it’s a saddle point.

A vector field is said to be conservative if F = ∇f for some function f . A vector field cannot be conservative if curl F = 0. A path must additionally be piecewise smooth. If the partial derivatives are continuous, it can be shown that F · dr = F (B) − F (A)
C

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f1 (t)2 + f2 (t)2 + f3 (t)2 dt

Directional Derivatives
Dv = ∇f · v |v|

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Green’s Theorem

a

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Polar Coordinates

P dx + Q dy =
C D

(Qx − Py ) dA

x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, z = z y r = x2 + y2 , θ = arctan x The Jacobian is r.

Note: The direction of maximum increase is the direction of the gradient. Minimum increase is the opposite of the gradient.

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This can only be used on positively oriented fields. ALWAYS parametrize.

z) on S by the formula: by 1 a cos(t)(b cos(t)− (xdy−ydx) = 1 2 C 2 C b sin(t)(−a sin(t)) dt = 1 abdt = πab. it proves 23 Surface Integrals. when gy = 0 and we take x. However. so that we have the basic relation gx dx + gy dy + gz dz = 0. 2π Orientable Surface. surfaces don’t usually come with We now define the surface integral of a a ready parametrization and it is useful to vector field F on the surface S by defining it ∇(g) have a more general formula handy. gz gx gy 2 . The idea of the proof is to make consider some small circle totally contained inside C and apply the Green’s theorem to the region between the two curves. ωg = by −1 if we wish to change the direction. y(u. Here dS is ∇g|ω| where ω is the fundamental differential. then we can even make sense out of S D an outward or inward normal. v). v) ∈ D. as the integral of the function F · n = F · |∇ . 2 0 Note how the third formula made the work easier! 3. b sin(t) > is easily found f (x. Thus. y. We multiply dx dy dy dz dz dx = = . we define the integral of a function r(t) =< a cos(t). ω= dx dy dy dz dz dx = = gz gx gy Now we have a single formula for all cases: f (x. For example the area inside the ellipse (u. We note that ∇(g) defines a normal to our surface at all smooth points (points where ∇(g) is defined and non zero. then C P dx + Qdy = 0. meaning Qx − Py = 0. our integral reduces to S D f (x. If P dx + Qdy is closed. z) = 0.) Also. v)) · ru × rv dA. v) > where 2. a sphere. Thus. z) dS = S dx dy . 1. z as parameters. v). F · n|∇(g)| |ωg | = F · ∇(g) |ωg |. using a mild generalization of the theorem. Then such a surface has a well defined unit normal vector field at all smooth points. z as parameters D and when gx = 0 we take y. ∇(g) . it varies continuously if g is continuous. f |∇(g)| |gz | D For a parametric surface. y. We define the Fundamental differential Note that the above formula presumes on S to be: a certain direction of the unit normal as determined by ∇(g) or ru × rv .Our formula becomes tion g(x. the result about the conservative vector If a surface S is given in parametric form fields without finding the potential function. v))|ru ×rv | dA. z(u. (g)| Let the surface S be described by an equa. Changing the path without changing the integral. the formula becomes: 22 Stoke’s Theorem F · dr = C S curl F · dS It is easy to see that a similar formula holds f (r(u. y. y. z) dS = f (r(u. y. Then for any simple closed positively oriented piecewise smooth curve C going around the origin the integral C P dx + Qdy is the same. r =< x(u.21 Uses of Green’s Theorem Many results can be deduced using the theorem. namely n = |∇ (g)| If our surface encloses a bounded solid (like f (x. Suppose that we have Py = Qx in a region D around the origin. z) dS = S D f |∇(g)| |ωg |.