You are on page 1of 2


The Dot Product


Spherical Coordinates


Lagrange Multipliers

The dot product is defined as: A · B = |A||B| cos θ This can be used to find the angle between two lines. Two vectors are perpendicular if their dot product is 0.

x = ρ sin φ cos θ, y = ρ sin φ sin θ, z = ρ cos θ, EXAMPLE: Find the minimum of x2 + y2 + z2 r = ρ sin φ on the surface 2x + y + 2z = 9. , φ = ρ = x2 + y2 + z2 , θ = arccos x y r arctan y v g(x, y, z) = 2x + y + 2z − 9 = 0 The Jacobian is ρ2 sin φ.



f (x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2 ∇f = λ∇g 2x = 2λ 2y = λ 2z = 2λ x 2x + + 2x = 9 2 Solve for each variable and insert into f for minimum.

2 The Cross Product Given a vector r, where the derivative is v The cross product is an operation that pro- (velocity), several things can be found. duces a vector perpendicular to two other vecσ = |v| tors. Additionally, it is the area of the parallelogram formed by the two vectors it is used on. v T = σ a × b = |a||b|n sin θ
The volume of a parallelopiped composed of vectors a,b, and c is: |(a × b) · c| a = σ T + σ κN H =v×a=r ×r H κ = | 3| σ N =B×T Here, N is the unit normal, T is the unit tangent, and B is the unit binormal. If the binormal is constant, the curve lies in a plane. For the tangential component of acceleration: at = σ = |v · a| The normal component of acceleration is: an = a − σ T




Double Integrals

The definition of a plane through vector r0 =< x0 , y0 , z0 > with normal n is: n · (r − r0 ) = 0 Two planes are parallel if their normals are equal. The angle between two planes is defined as the angle between their normals. The angle between a line (b) and a plane with normal n can be found using: n · b = |n||b| sin θ

Double integrals may be reversed by Fubini’s theorem. Additionally, you may use a change of variable. This requires multiplication by the absolute value of the Jacobian. The Jacobian is the ratio of partial derivatives between the variables used in the change. ∂ (x, y) ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x = − ∂ (u, v) ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v


Unit Normal
ru × rv |ru × rv |

17 18

Triple Integrals Surface Area

Basically super-double integrals.



A projection is when a line is ”dropped” on another. The projection of vector w on v can be found using: v·w P rojw v = w |w||w|

This can be used to find tangent planes.


Grad, Div, and Curl

|ru × rv | dA


Quadratic Surfaces

A quadratic surface takes the form ax2 + by2 + cz2 = 1. If a,b, and c are positive, the surface is an ellipsoid. If one coefficient is negative, it’s a hyperboloid of one sheet. If two terms are negative, it’s a hyperboloid of two sheets. If the constant at the end (1 in this case) is 0, it’s a cone. If one term is missing, it’s a cylinder. If one term is missing a degree and there is one negative, it’s an elliptic paraboloid. In the same case with two negatives, it’s a hyperbolic paraboloid.

The gradient of a function is ∇f =< fx , fy , fz >. The Divergence of a function is ∇ · f = fx + fy + fz . The curl of a function is ∇ × f . The divergence of curl is always 0. The divergence of the gradiant is the laplacian.

2 2 fx + fy + 1 dx dy R

f |∇g|


Linear Approximation 19
L(x) = f (a) + ∇f (a) · (x − a)

dx dy gz

Vector Fields


Critical Points


Arc Length for Vector Functions

Given the vector r(t) =< f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t) > the arclength is:

A critical point is where ∇(f ) = 0. A point is 2 a maximum if the laplacian (fxx fxy − fxy ) is positive and fxx is negative. If the laplacian is positive but fxx is greater than zero, it’s a minimum. If the laplacian is less than zero, it’s a saddle point.

A vector field is said to be conservative if F = ∇f for some function f . A vector field cannot be conservative if curl F = 0. A path must additionally be piecewise smooth. If the partial derivatives are continuous, it can be shown that F · dr = F (B) − F (A)

f1 (t)2 + f2 (t)2 + f3 (t)2 dt

Directional Derivatives
Dv = ∇f · v |v|


Green’s Theorem



Polar Coordinates

P dx + Q dy =

(Qx − Py ) dA

x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ, z = z y r = x2 + y2 , θ = arctan x The Jacobian is r.

Note: The direction of maximum increase is the direction of the gradient. Minimum increase is the opposite of the gradient.


This can only be used on positively oriented fields. ALWAYS parametrize.

z) on S by the formula: by 1 a cos(t)(b cos(t)− (xdy−ydx) = 1 2 C 2 C b sin(t)(−a sin(t)) dt = 1 abdt = πab. it proves 23 Surface Integrals. when gy = 0 and we take x. However. so that we have the basic relation gx dx + gy dy + gz dz = 0. 2π Orientable Surface. surfaces don’t usually come with We now define the surface integral of a a ready parametrization and it is useful to vector field F on the surface S by defining it ∇(g) have a more general formula handy. gz gx gy 2 . The idea of the proof is to make consider some small circle totally contained inside C and apply the Green’s theorem to the region between the two curves. ωg = by −1 if we wish to change the direction. y(u. Here dS is ∇g|ω| where ω is the fundamental differential. then we can even make sense out of S D an outward or inward normal. v). v) ∈ D. as the integral of the function F · n = F · |∇ . 2 0 Note how the third formula made the work easier! 3. b sin(t) > is easily found f (x. Thus. y. We multiply dx dy dy dz dz dx = = . we define the integral of a function r(t) =< a cos(t). ω= dx dy dy dz dz dx = = gz gx gy Now we have a single formula for all cases: f (x. For example the area inside the ellipse (u. We note that ∇(g) defines a normal to our surface at all smooth points (points where ∇(g) is defined and non zero. then C P dx + Qdy = 0. meaning Qx − Py = 0. our integral reduces to S D f (x. If P dx + Qdy is closed. z) = 0.) Also. v)) · ru × rv dA. v) > where 2. a sphere. Thus. z) dS = S dx dy . 1. z as parameters. v). F · n|∇(g)| |ωg | = F · ∇(g) |ωg |. using a mild generalization of the theorem. Then such a surface has a well defined unit normal vector field at all smooth points. z as parameters D and when gx = 0 we take y. ∇(g) . it varies continuously if g is continuous. f |∇(g)| |gz | D For a parametric surface. y. We define the Fundamental differential Note that the above formula presumes on S to be: a certain direction of the unit normal as determined by ∇(g) or ru × rv .Our formula becomes tion g(x. the result about the conservative vector If a surface S is given in parametric form fields without finding the potential function. v))|ru ×rv | dA. z(u. (g)| Let the surface S be described by an equa. Changing the path without changing the integral. the formula becomes: 22 Stoke’s Theorem F · dr = C S curl F · dS It is easy to see that a similar formula holds f (r(u. y. y. z) dS = f (r(u. y. Then for any simple closed positively oriented piecewise smooth curve C going around the origin the integral C P dx + Qdy is the same. r =< x(u.21 Uses of Green’s Theorem Many results can be deduced using the theorem. namely n = |∇ (g)| If our surface encloses a bounded solid (like f (x. Suppose that we have Py = Qx in a region D around the origin. z) dS = S D f |∇(g)| |ωg |.