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**for Femtocell Network
**

∗

Kwanghun Han,

†

Seungmin Woo,

‡

Duho Kang, and

§

Sunghyun Choi

School of Electrical Engineering and INMC, Seoul National University, Seoul, 467-830 Korea

Email: {

∗

khhan,

†

smwoo,

‡

dhkang}@mwnl.snu.ac.kr,

§

schoi@snu.ac.kr,

Abstract—We propose an automatic generation scheme of

neighboring BS (Base Station) lists, utilized by an MS (Mobile

Station) to determine a target BS for handoff in a femtocell

network. Since the network topology of such a femtocell network

can be changed by users without prior notiﬁcation, a neighbor list

conﬁgured manually by a system operator is no longer effective.

Instead, a neighbor list might be automatically generated from a

local measurement of neighboring BSs’ signal strengths. However,

while a BS’s neighbor list should include all the geographically

neighboring BSs for a proper handoff support, such a neighbor

list based on only the local measurement might miss some

neighboring BSs due to shadowing. In order to overcome these

problems, we propose a neighbor list generation scheme by jointly

utilizing the measurements of multiple BSs. The simulation

results show that the proposed algorithm can handle the problem

effectively.

I. INTRODUCTION

Provisioning efﬁcient handoffs, e.g., switching to an appro-

priate BS (Base Station) with a short delay, is one of the most

important issues in cellular networks. Especially, if an MS

(Mobile Station) runs a delay-sensitive application, such as

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol), it is even more important

to ﬁnd a proper target BS to hand off, and it heavily depends on

scanning process, i.e., a process to search neighboring BSs. As

the number of candidate BSs to scan decreases, handoff delay

decreases. In many systems [1,2], a BS periodically broadcasts

a set of candidate neighboring BSs, referred to as ‘neighbor

list’ which has a ﬁnite size, in order to help MSs’ scanning

process. Accordingly, if the neighbor list is incomplete and/or

incorrect, an MS might hand off to an undesirable BS or even

fail to hand off. Thus, it is crucial to generate a proper neighbor

list for successful and efﬁcient handoffs.

Generally, in current cellular systems, system operators

manually conﬁgure and manage neighbor lists based on a

geographical topology when BSs are installed. Assuming that

a network topology hardly changes, this manual operation

seems reasonable and efﬁcient. However, in an unplanned

network such as a femtocell network [3], a network topology

can change continually owing to a random additions and

removals of BSs by users. Hence, an automatic generation and

management scheme of neighbor lists is inevitably required.

For instance, as a basic scheme, a BS can generate its

This work was supported by the IT R&D program of MKE/KEIT. [2009-

F-044-02, Development of cooperative operation proﬁles in multicell wireless

systems]

BS 2

BS 0 BS 1

wall

MS 0

Fig. 1. The neighbor list of BS 0 generated by its local measurement has

only BS 2 if the large shadowing due to the wall between BS 0 and BS 1

weakens the signal strength below the threshold. User 0 moving toward BS 1

scans only BS 2 so that it fails to hand off to BS 1.

neighbor list automatically by selecting top N

nl

neighboring

BSs through a local measurement of neighboring BSs’ signal

strengths, where N

nl

is determined by the neighbor list size

limit. However, with this basic scheme, geographically close,

but hidden neighboring BSs (due to large shadowing) can not

be found. On the other hand, it is quite possible that MSs

hand off between such hidden, but neighboring BSs because of

their geographical proximity. Consequently, the neighbor list

generated by the basic scheme might be inappropriate from

the MSs’ perspective for their handoff support as illustrated

in Fig. 1. Actually, it is an inherent drawback of the methods

based on signal strength measurement.

As another possible approach for supplementing such a

shortcoming, a BS can exchange its measurement result with

other BSs through a backhaul and complement its neighbor

list by a joint processing of the collected measurement results.

Based on this approach, we propose an automatic neighbor list

generation scheme which utilizes the topology reconstructed

from the measurement results. By using this information,

we can reconstruct the geographical topology more correctly

and additionally discover hidden neighboring BSs from the

reconstructed topology. As a result, we obtain the neighbor

lists which are more appropriate for the efﬁcient handoffs

regardless of shadowing.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The sys-

tem model in consideration is described in Section II. In

Section III, we present the proposed neighbor list generation

scheme. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated

in Section IV, and ﬁnally the paper concludes in Section V.

251 978-1-4244-8086-9/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE ICUFN 2010

Managemnet server

Femto BS

Ìnternet

Ìnternet

Core Network

Fig. 2. A generalized structure of the femtocell network in consideration.

A BS connects to an assigned management server in the core network via

the Internet. The management server is in charge of managing the connected

BSs.

II. SYSTEM MODEL

A femto BS is a small low-cost BS with a short service

area (e.g., with a radius of 10 to 15 m), referred to as a

femtocell. It is typically designed to serve under 10 users

in an indoor environment such as small ofﬁces and homes.

A BS is typically connected with a macrocell network via a

broadband wired connection, e.g., an IP (Internet Protocol)

network over xDSL (x Digital Subscriber Line) or a dedicated

backhaul network.

The architecture of the considered femtocell network is

illustrated in Fig. 2. The network is assumed to consist of a

group of BSs and a management server in charge of gathering

the local measurement of neighboring BSs’ signal strengths

from the BSs in the group. The number of BSs in a group

can vary over time due to dynamic BS installations/removals,

and it causes the dynamics of a femtocell network topology.

Especially, if a home femtocell network is considered, such

dynamics might happen more frequently.

We assume that medium access control (MAC) frames of

a ﬁxed duration repeat over time in the considered network,

e.g., [1, 2]. A BS periodically broadcasts the cell identiﬁcation

via the preamble of each MAC frame in order to have both

mobile users and other BSs within the transmission range

identify itself. We assume that BS i can identify BS j through

the preamble detection if BS i receives the BS j’s preamble

signal with the strength over a detection threshold denoted as

θ

rx

.

This detection threshold determines the relation of every

pair of BSs, and we consider only the reciprocal shadowing

environment in this work. If two BSs mutually have a mea-

sured RSS value of each other over the detection threshold θ

rx

,

they are identiﬁed as neighbors of each other. If shadowing

is considered, a hidden neighbor relation can happen to

geographically close BSs, especially in an indoor environment

which is the main target of femtocell networks.

III. NEIGHBOR LIST GENERATION

The proposed automatic neighbor list generation scheme

operates in three steps: 1) measuring and reporting, 2) recon-

structing the topology of identiﬁed neighbors, and 3) ﬁnding

hidden neighbors. First, a BS measures the RSS (Received

Signal Strength) of the neighboring BSs locally and reports

m measurement results to the management server via a

wired backbone network, where m represents the number

of identiﬁed BSs. Then, the BS requests the other BSs’

measurement results to the management server and receives

them. Consequently, the BS has an n × n (> m) matrix

composed of mutual measurement results of n BSs’ including

itself. The value n is determined by the management server.

Second, a BS reconstructs the topology of the identi-

ﬁed neighbors, and the topology is used for ﬁnding hidden

neighboring BSs in the next step. Such a reconstruction is

processed by using PCA (Principal Components Analysis) [4].

Mathematically, PCA is a process which ﬁnds uncorrelated

orthogonal bases from a correlated data set, e.g., the n × n

measurement result matrix in this work. PCA will be detailed

in Section III-A.

Third, a BS discovers hidden neighboring BSs with the help

of other identiﬁed neighboring BSs. The identiﬁed neighboring

BSs play as anchor nodes and determine the locations of some

hidden neighbors on the reconstructed topology by using a

least square approach. This process is referred to as HND

(Hidden Neighbor Discovery). These three steps can repeat

periodically and/or be triggered by the management server

whenever the network topology dynamically changes, e.g., a

BS installation/removal.

A. Topology Reconstruction with Identiﬁed Neighbors

For the convenience, the measured RSS values are trans-

formed into absolute values. The absolute value of the BS j’s

RSS (in dBm) measured by BS i is referred to as s

ij

and is

collected by the management server. Note that RSS (in dBm) is

practically a negative value, and we assume that all the RSSs in

consideration are negative. Therefore, the larger s

ij

, the longer

the distance between BS i and BS j is likely. For instance,

| −90| is larger than | −80|, and hence, is likely to correspond

to a longer distance link. When BS i requests measurement

results to generate its neighbor list, the management server

sends the measurement results to it. The delivered information

is formed as an n × n matrix, S

all

(= [s

ij

]). The value of

n is determined in such a manner that S

all

includes the

measurement results of (1) BS i, (2) all of the k−1 neighboring

BSs identiﬁed by BS i and (3) all of the n − k neighboring

BSs of the k −1 identiﬁed neighbors. In addition, s

ij

are set

to inﬁnity when BS i cannot identify BS j. s

ii

’s are set to 0.

In order to reconstruct the BS topology from S

all

, S

all

is

reduced to a k×k matrix S including only the k−1 identiﬁed

neighbors of BS i and BS i itself. We refer to column vector

s

i

of S as the k-dimensional coordinates of BS i. It means

that, for instance, BS i is located at coordinates s

i

in the k-

dimensional space. We can generate the neighbor list of BS i

by selecting the top N

nl

(out of k − 1) BSs according to

the Euclidean distance from BS i in the k-dimensional space.

However, hidden neighboring BSs cannot included in the

neighbor list in this manner. In order to discover hidden neigh-

bors, we ﬁrst reduce the dimension of the considered space

into two because of the following reasons. First, obviously

252

the k-dimensional space requires too much computational

complexity to ﬁnd the hidden neighbors as it will be clearer in

Section III-B. Second, since the considered geographical space

is 2-dimensional and the channel gain function mainly depends

on the geographical distance, the k-dimensional matrix can be

projected into a 2-dimensional space without much loss of

information. Consequently, we reconstruct the 2-dimensional

topology of the identiﬁed neighbors by using PCA.

PCA is a widely adopted method for analyzing multi-

dimensional data [4]. We can reduce the dimension of the

considered data by using PCA, since it can ﬁnd a smaller

number of uncorrelated bases from the correlated data in a

higher dimensional space [5]. Especially, it is widely applied

to the problems which reconstruct a topology from diverse

measurement data [6–9]. From a mathematical perspective,

PCA can be achieved by applying SVD (Singular Value

Decomposition) to a data matrix with zero empirical mean [4].

A matrix, S

0

, with zero empirical mean can be obtained

from S by subtracting a column mean vector from all the

column vectors of S, where the jth element of the column

mean vector is a mean value of the jth row vector of S.

Then, we apply SVD to S

0

so that it is decomposed as S

0

=

UWV

T

where U and V are column and row orthogonal

matrices, respectively, and W is the diagonal singular value

matrix. Then, all the column vector u

j

’s of U are the principal

bases of S

0

. In order to ﬁnd reduced p-dimensional (p < k)

coordinates c

i

of BS i, we generate U

p

= [u

1

, ..., u

p

] by

selecting p columns of U corresponding to the p largest

singular values and calculate c

i

= U

T

p

s

i

. Please note that

p = 2 in our work. Without loss of generality, we consider

that BS 1 is generating its own neighbor list from now on.

Hence, we obtain new coordinates x

i

of neighboring BS i

with respect to BS 1, i.e., x

i

= (c

i

−c

1

). We refer to a set of

these BSs as an identiﬁed neighbor set of BS 1, and the BSs

in this set are used as anchor BSs for HND.

B. Hidden Neighbor Discovery

In the HND process, BS 1 investigates identiﬁed neighbors

of the BSs in its identiﬁed neighbor set in order to discover

other BSs hidden from itself. Let us consider BS k, which is

hidden from BS 1 as shown in Fig. 3. NB(k) is deﬁned as a

subset of the identiﬁed neighbor set of BS 1, including only

the BS k’s neighbors. By utilizing all such BSs in NB(k), we

apply a triangulation method to ﬁnd adequate coordinates of

BS k. Since we assume a 2-dimensional coordinate system,

NB(k) should include at least 3 BSs, which are not on a

straight line, to determine the coordinates of BS k uniquely.

The output of this method is the coordinates of BS k hidden

from BS 1, x

k

.

However, since the distance values utilized for the method

are not based on the Euclidean distance in the 2-dimensional

space but the measured RSS, x

k

which satisﬁes all the distance

values of BSs in NB(k) from BS k, might not be uniquely

determined based on the triangulation method. Then, we

speciﬁcally solve the following minimization problem to ﬁnd

Fig. 3. A dashed arrow and a solid arrow indicate relations of identiﬁed

neighbor BSs and desired but hidden neighbor BSs, respectively. BS k is

desired to be included in the neighbor list of BS 1, but it is hidden due to

shadowing. In a 2-dimensional space, if BS 2 to BS 4, which are the identiﬁed

neighboring BSs of BS 1 can identify BS k, BS k can be discovered as a

neighboring BS of BS 1.

the most appropriate x

k

:

argmin

x

k

�

∀xi,i∈NB(k)

{�x

i

−x

k

� − s

ik

}

2

where �x −y� is the Euclidean distance between x and

y. Since this is a problem to minimize a sum of mean-

square errors between the Euclidean distance and the RSS

value, we can obtain a solution by using standard least square

methods [9–11]. In general, solving a problem deﬁned in an n-

dimensional space by a least square method requires too much

computational complexity. However, a problem deﬁned in a 2-

dimensional space such as our problem can be linearized, and

hence, solved by using a matrix inversion [10].

Such an HND procedure repeats to discover all the re-

maining hidden BSs of BS 1. Finally, after combining the

discovered hidden BSs with the identiﬁed neighbor set of BS 1,

we select proper BSs from this combined set to determine the

neighbor list of BS 1. That is, up to N

nl

closest BSs from

BS 1 (in terms of the Euclidean distance in the 2-dimensional

space) out of those in the combined set are selected for the

neighbor list.

IV. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

In this section, our objective is to show actual demonstra-

tions and the performance of the proposed neighbor list gener-

ation algorithm through simpliﬁed simulations. Especially, we

compare the proposed algorithm with the basic scheme, which

generates a neighbor list only by a BS’s local measurement,

since the basic scheme is one of the most simple, efﬁcient and

reasonable candidate schemes if no enhanced algorithms are

employed as a neighbor list generation scheme. Then, since the

main difference between these two algorithms comes from the

shadowing of the channel, two different cases are considered

for the performance comparison: the cases without and with

the shadowing between BSs.

In both cases, the same network topology is considered.

Fig. 4 shows the actual geographical topology of the BSs,

where a small circle represents a BS. Additionally, we focus on

BS 1’s neighbor list generation for the following evaluations.

253

Fig. 4. The actual geographical topology of the femtocell network in

consideration. 13 BSs are located. We consider the situation in which BS 1

generates its neighbor list. If the generated neighbor list contains BSs 2 to 9,

it should be the most ideal outcome.

BSs 2 to 9 in the ﬁrst tier have almost the same distance from

BS 1, and BSs 10 to 13 in the second tier are located at the

same distance from BS 1. For the evaluation, the transmission

power of a BS is assumed to be ﬁxed at 45 mW, and the

channel with path loss exponent 5 is assumed. In this work,

the maximum size N

nl

of the neighbor list is set to 8 so that

the neighbor list of BS 1 should ideally include all the 8 ﬁrst

tier BSs, i.e., BS 2 to BS 9. The detection threshold, θ

rx

, is

set to −65 dBm so that BS 1 can identify all the ﬁrst tier

BSs while it cannot identify the second tier BSs when the

shadowing effect is not introduced.

First, we consider the case where no shadowing is intro-

duced. For the basic scheme, BS 1 performs a local measure-

ment. It can identify all 8 BSs in the ﬁrst tier, i.e., BSs 2 to

5 with RSS values around −57.3 dBm, and BSs 6 to 8 with

RSS values around −57.6 dBm based on the assumed channel

parameters. Finally, the neighbor list of BS 1 generated by the

basic scheme, NL

basic NoSh

, is as follows:

NL

basic NoSh

= {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.

Meanwhile, for the proposed scheme, we assume that the

measurement and report procedure is done, and BS 1 has

received the measurement results from the management server.

In this paper, the server has sent to BS 1 the measurement re-

sults, 13×13 matrix S

all

, which contains all the measurement

results among BSs 1 to 13 based on the reported RSS values.

Among these 13 BSs, BSs 2 to 9 are the identiﬁed neighbors

of BS 1. Then, in order to reconstruct the topology from 8

identiﬁed neighbors, BS 1 reduces S

all

by the following 9×9

matrix S where all the RSS values are rounded to the nearest

tenth, and the indices of the column and the row are the same

Fig. 5. The reconstructed topology from the RSS measurement data.

Compared to the original geographical topology, it is rotated by 90 degree in

a counterclockwise direction, since BS 1 does not have an absolute direction.

However, it mostly preserves the relative positions among the BSs.

as the indices of the BSs:

S =

0 57.3 57.3 57.3 57.3 57.6 57.6 57.6 57.6

57.3 0 64.9 72.4 64.9 51.7 51.7 70.8 70.8

57.3 64.9 0 64.9 72.4 70.8 51.7 51.7 70.8

57.3 72.4 64.9 0 64.9 70.8 70.8 51.7 51.7

57.3 64.9 72.4 64.9 0 51.7 70.8 70.8 51.7

57.6 51.7 70.8 70.8 51.7 0 65.1 72.7 65.1

57.6 51.7 51.7 70.8 70.8 65.1 0 65.1 72.7

57.6 70.8 51.7 51.7 70.8 72.7 65.2 0 65.2

57.6 70.8 70.8 51.7 51.7 65.1 72.7 65.2 0

Then, S

0

is generated from S by subtracting the column

mean vector. After processing S

0

by PCA, we obtain new

coordinates of BSs 1 to 9, x

1

to x

9

, in a 2-dimensional space

as follows:

X =

�

0 −42.9 7.1 42.9 −7.1 −35.5 −25.5 35.5 24.5

0 7.1 42.9 −7.1 −42.9 −25.5 35.5 25.5 −35.5

�

Next, HND process can discover the coordinates of BSs 10

to 13. In Fig. 5, the regenerated topology well preserves

the relative positions of the neighboring BSs from BS 1

even though it rotates the original topology by 90 degrees

counterclockwise and distorts the distances of BSs 10 to

13. Since BS 1 never knows the absolute direction and the

RSS is not linear to the geographical distance, the rotation

and distortion are inevitable. Consequently, the neighbor list

NL

prop NoSh

generated by the proposed scheme is as follows:

NL

prop NoSh

= {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

where BSs 10 to 13 are not included in the neighbor list

because of the size limit of the neighbor list, 8. Note that

it is the same as the neighbor list NL

basic NoSh

generated by

the basic scheme. From this comparison, we ﬁnd that both the

basic and proposed schemes generate the same neighbor list

when there is no shadowing.

Second, we show the results for the case with shadowing

among some BSs. Here, we assume that three BSs, i.e., BSs 2,

3, and 9, are not identiﬁed by BS 1 due to large shadowing.

Consequently, the neighbor list NL

basic Sh

generated by the

basic scheme is as follows:

NL

basic Sh

= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

254

As we can expect, BSs 2, 3, and 9 under shadowing are

excluded in NL

basic Sh

. There is no way to discover the

hidden BSs 2, 3, and 9 by BS 1 only by the local measurement.

In the meantime, for the proposed scheme, BS 1 also

receives 13 × 13 matrix S

all

from the management server,

which contains all the measurement results among BSs 1 to

13. However, in this case, among these 13 BSs, only 5 BSs,

i.e., BSs 4 to 8, are the identiﬁed neighbors of BS 1 because

of shadowing. Consequently, a 6 ×6 matrix S is generated as

follows:

S =

0 57.3 57.3 57.6 57.6 57.6

57.3 0 64.9 70.8 70.8 51.7

57.3 64.9 0 51.7 70.8 70.8

57.6 70.8 51.7 0 65.1 72.7

57.6 70.8 70.8 65.1 0 65.1

57.6 51.7 70.8 72.7 65.2 0

where the indices of the columns and the rows correspond to

the BSs’ indices, i.e., 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, sequentially. Simi-

larly, after processing S by PCA, we obtain new coordinates,

x

1

and x

4

to x

8

, of the 6 BSs in a 2-dimensional space as

follows:

X =

�

0 33.5 −33.5 −41.0 0 41.0

0 28.2 28.2 7.7 −47.3 7.7

�

where the indices of the columns correspond to the BSs’

indices, i.e., 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, sequentially. In addition,

by the HND process, BS 1 can discover all 3 hidden BSs by

shadowing in the ﬁrst tier. Finally, the neighbor list NL

prop Sh

of BS 1 by the proposed scheme is generated as follows:

NL

prop Sh

= {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}.

Note that BSs 2, 3, and 9 are included in both NL

prop Sh

and

NL

prop NoSh

irrespective of shadowing, and the results show

that the proposed scheme can supplement the deﬁciency of the

basic scheme when shadowing is introduced. Although such

a conclusion might depend on the shadowing status, we can

say that the proposed scheme always gives better performance

than the basic scheme, since the proposed scheme includes the

basic scheme.

V. CONCLUDING REMARKS

Where the network topology can change dynamically due to

a random additions and removals of BSs, an automatic neigh-

bor list generation problem becomes important for supporting

an efﬁcient handoff. As a basic scheme, a BS can generate

its neighbor list automatically by selecting neighboring BSs

through a local measurement of neighboring BSs’ signal

strengths. However, it cannot discover some neighboring BSs

which are hidden due to large shadowing. In this work, we

propose a neighbor list generation scheme by using PCA and

HND in order to compensate such shadowing effects. The

proposed scheme can operate automatically by utilizing the

channel reports from multiple BSs. Compared with the basic

scheme that exploits only a single BS’s measurement values

to generate the neighbor list, it gives more robust results

regardless of shadowing effect.

REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16:

Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems

Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access Control Layers for Com-

bined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands and Corrigendum

1, IEEE Std. 802.16e-2005 and 802.16-2004/Cor 1-2005, Feb. 2006.

[2] The 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Speciﬁcation Group

Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-

UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol speciﬁcation, (Release

8), 3GPP Std. TS 36.321 v8.1.0, Dec. 2007.

[3] V. Chandrasekhar, J. Andrews, and A. Gatherer, “Femtocell networks:

a survey,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 59–67,

September 2008.

[4] I. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis., Springer, 2002.

[5] C. Ding, X. He, H. Zha, and H. Simon, “Adaptive dimension reduction

for clustering high dimensional data,” Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf. Data

Mining, pp. 147–154, 2002.

[6] H. Lim, J. C. Hou, and C.-H. Choi, “Constructing internet coordinate

system based on delay measurement,” IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking,

vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 513–525, 2005.

[7] P. Francis, S. Jamin, V. Paxson, L. Zhang, D. F. Gryniewicz, and Y. Jin,

“An architecture for a global internet host distance estimation service,”

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[8] E. Ng and H. Zhang, “Predicting internet network distance with

coordinates-based approaches,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 170–179,

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[9] H. Lim, C. Lim, and J. C. Hou, “A coordinate-based approach for

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255

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