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Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Dr. Deming's Ideas Dr. Deming's famous 14 Points, originally presented in Out of the Crisis, serve as management guidelines. The points cultivate a fertile soil in which a more efficient workplace, higher profits, and increased productivity may grow.
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Create and communicate to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company. Adapt to the new philosophy of the day; industries and economics are always changing. Build quality into a product throughout production. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone; instead, try a longterm relationship based on established loyalty and trust. Work to constantly improve quality and productivity. Institute on-the-job training. Teach and institute leadership to improve all job functions. Drive out fear; create trust. Strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts. Eliminate exhortations for the work force; instead, focus on the system and morale. (a) Eliminate work standard quotas for production. Substitute leadership methods for improvement. (b) Eliminate MBO. Avoid numerical goals. Alternatively, learn the capabilities of processes, and how to improve them. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship Educate with self-improvement programs. Include everyone in the company to accomplish the transformation.

Comments on some of Dr. Deming's points: The first of the 14 Points charges management with establishing continual improvement through the redefinition of the company's purposes. Quite simply, the company must survive, compete

the third point bars shoddy workmanship.In order to promote cooperation. poor service. Deming believed that every worker has nearly unlimited potential if placed in an environment that adequately supports. Part of the evolutionary mentality is to abandon practices that. Point number four specifically warns against this scenario: the purchasing department of a company consistently patronizes those vendors who offer the lowest prices. anger. a company must develop a consistent. Deming urges companies to establish loyal ties with suppliers of quality equipment. the company often purchases low quality equipment.2 well. Profound knowledge involves expanded views and an understanding of the seemingly individual yet truly interdependent elements that compose the larger system. A company cannot expect to ignite and feed a quality revolution from which it will prosper for all time. In the long term. the use of better equipment and a more intense worker-oriented method of inspection will markedly improve productivity and lower costs. Eliminate tools such as production quotas and sloganeering which only alienate workers from their supervisors and breed divisive competition between the workers themselves. Instead. the company. envy. Cooperation. such a philosophy prevents stagnation and arms the company for the uncertain future. A manager seeking to establish such an environment must: Employ an understanding of psychology--of groups and individuals. Dr. Dr. and revenge from the workplace. he stated that the majority--85 percent--of a worker's effectiveness is determined by his environment and only minimally by his own skill. despite their obvious short term benefits. it must adopt an evolutionary philosophy. for that reason. Eliminate fear. a product should be monitored by the workers. a company must harness the power of every worker in its employment. and constantly replenish its resources for growth and improvement through innovation and research. and negative attitudes from the company. Deming based his new business philosophy on an ideal of cooperation. Theory of Profound Knowledge -. throughout the assembly process. Point five condemns mass inspection procedures as inefficient. In the fifth point. Spread profit to workers as teams. Deming espouses his Theory of Profound Knowledge. active plan that involves its entire labor force in the drive toward total quality. and nurtures senses of pride and responsibility. to meet a series of quality standards. As a result. not individuals. Form the company into a large team divided into sub-teams all working on different aspects of the same goal. educates. barriers between departments often give rise conflicting objectives and create unnecessary competition. ultimately detract from the company's effectiveness. Deming states that only a commitment to a process of continual improvement truly rewards.Dr. In order to accomplish these goals. Employ sensible methods such as rigorous on-the-job training programs. In order to fulfill its own potential. .

W.3 In the resulting company. like Deming. organizing. thus stimulated and empowered. "It is not enough to just do your best or work hard. and personal responsibility. The ideas of W. they perform better. Juran Juran. decency. workers better understand their jobs--the specific tasks and techniques as well as their higher value. .". Edwards Deming may seem common or obvious now. Deming's ideas (and personal example) of hard work. Edwards Deming Joseph M. sincerity. and controlling and focused on the responsibility of management to achieve quality and the need for setting goals. Dr. they've become embedded in our culture of work. was invited to Japan in 1954 by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). You must know what to work on. forever changed the world of management. The expense pays for itself. however. His lectures introduced the management dimensions of planning.

The threadbare Jakob Juran family welcomes a newborn son. 1904. Organize to reach goals. he has earned enough to bring the rest of the family to join him in Minnesota. over the longer term. The program. He promoted a concept known as Managing Business Process Quality. Juran became one of two engineers for the Inspection Statistical Department.S. 6. his level of mathematical and scientific proficiency so exceeds the average that he eventually skips the equivalent of four grade levels. From a group of 20 trainees. Five years later Jakob leaves Romania for America. Juran’s 10 steps to quality improvement are: 1. Thus. the family continues in poverty.000 workers. Despite this hopeful emigration and American opportunities. 2. Romania. conformance. Keep score. 9. 7. Build awareness of opportunity to improve. designed to implement new tools and techniques. Juran contribution may. Joseph Moses. his concept more closely incorporates the viewpoint of customer. availability. In 1920. Set-goals for improvement. one of the first of such divisions created in American industry. December. manned by 40. By 1925. which is a technique for executive crossfunctional quality improvement.4 Juran defines quality as fitness for use in terms of design. . he focuses on top-down management and technical methods rather than worker pride and satisfaction. Report progress. Carryout projects to solve problems. while Deming’s focus on statistical process control is more technical orient A Lifetime of Professional and Worldwide Quality Braila. By 1912. in school. In 1926. Provide training 5. 3. He is prepared to measure everything and relies on systems and problem-solving techniques. he enrolls at the University of Minnesota. Juran is founder is the founder of Juran Institute in Wilton. Communicate results. 4. Young Joseph Juran demonstrates his affinity for knowledge. and field use. he had received a B. The complexity of this enormous factory. a team of Quality Control pioneers from Bell Laboratories brought a new program to Hawthorne Works. the first member of his family to pursue higher education. safety. in electrical engineering and is working with Western Electric in the Inspection Department of the famous Hawthorne Works in Chicago. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company. presents Juran with his first challenge in management. may be greater than Deming’s because Juran has broader concept. 8. required a training program. Connecticut. Unlike Deming. Give recognition. 10.

C. first released in 1951. Rather. His work involved visiting other companies and discussing methods of quality management. It was his time with NYU and the AMA which allowed for the development of his management philosophies which are now embedded in the foundation of American and Japanese management. eliminating excessive paperwork and thus hastening the arrival of supplies to the United States' overseas friends. The following table outlines the major points of Dr. Edwards Deming. to teach them the principles of quality management as they rebuilt their economy. Juran's temporary leave of absence from Western Electric stretched through four years. and wrote books and delivered lectures for American Management Association. Translate those needs into our language." By the end of the war. as an assistant administrator for the Lend-Lease Administration. is still the standard reference work for quality managers. he chose to devote the remainder of his life to the study of quality management. Juran finally left Washington in 1945. Develop a process which is able to produce the product. He also created a thriving consulting practice. Develop a product that can respond to those needs. where he taught for many years. Juran received Second Order of the Sacred Treasure . Along with W. During that time. Quality Improvement    Quality Control  An Honored Theorist The Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers invited Dr. Juran was the chief of Industrial Engineering at Western Electric's home office in New York. Juran to Japan. As early as 1928. Transfer the process to Operations. Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection. Juran had written a pamphlet entitled "Statistical Methods Applied to Manufacturing Problems. Optimise the process. He and his team improved the efficiency of the process. Determine the needs of those customers. he was a well-known and highly-regarded statistician and industrial engineering theorist. Juran became Chairman of the Department of Administrative Engineering at New York University.5 By 1937. his more colorful and perhaps better-known American colleague. After he left Western Electric. D. Juran's quality management ideas: Quality Trilogy:      Quality Planning Identify who are the customers. During WWII. he served in Washington. the Quality Control Handbook. His classic book. Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs. but he didn't return to Western Electric.

As a result of the interest shown in Quality is Free (1979). . videos and other materials to support the wide use of Dr. One can obtain the papers.6 award from Emperor Hirohito of Japan. The Juran Foundation. After working his way up. Philip Crosby Career Crosby was born in West Virginia in 1926. Philip Crosby died in August 2001. The Juran Institute is today one of the leading quality management consultancies in the world. and started his working life on the assembly line in 1952. Juran's methods. Juran published his lectures from Japan in his book Managerial Breakthrough in 1964. and it produces books. and tapes of Dr. becoming quality manager for Martin-Marietta where he developed the 'Zero Defects' concept. exploring the social and industrial implications of quality improvement while making his and others' valuable contributions more accessible. he saw service in the Korean War. which he founded. Dr. Dr. he left ITT to set up Philip Crosby Associates Incorporated and started to teach organisations quality principles and practice as laid down in his book. Juran founded The Juran Institute to better facilitate broader exposure of his ideas. Crosby became Corporate Vice-President and Director of Quality at ITT for 14 years. continues his work. lectures. workbooks. In 1985 his company was floated for $30 million. Juran from The Juran Institute or other quality management educational providers. In 1979. and only recently retired from his semi-public life. In 1991 he retired from Philip Crosby Associates to launch Career IV Inc. a consultancy advising on the development of senior executives. Juran worked to promote quality management into his 90's. The institute and the consulting practice continue to thrive today. A graduate of Western Reserve University.

4. through training and the provision of visible evidence of the concern for quality improvement. The goal is to meet requirements on time. The cost of nonconformance equals the cost of not doing it right first time. Cost of Quality Evaluation: the cost of quality is not an absolute performance measurement. He believes that the prime responsibility for poor quality lies with management. first time and every time. Crosby advocates delegation of this task to the people who actually do the job. in Crosby's estimation. Nonconforming products are ones that management has failed to specify or control. is on prevention. and not rooting out any defects in processes. Management Commitment: the need for quality improvement must be recognized and adopted by management. bad. and where corrective action is necessary. carried out to produce identified outcomes. Crosby's approach to quality is unambiguous. is neither intangible nor immeasurable. so setting the stage for defect prevention on the job. with an emphasis on the need for defect prevention. Instead. and that management sets the tone for the quality initiative from the top. but that companies should not begin with 'allowances' or sub-standard targets with mistakes as an in-built expectation. 'Zero defects' does not mean that people never make mistakes. The emphasis.' 2. Quality Awareness: this involves. 3. These should be people who have sufficient authority to commit the area they represent to action. His seminal approach to quality was laid out in Quality is Free and is often summarised as the Fourteen Steps. work should be seen as a series of activities or processes. high and low qualities are meaningless concepts. not inspection and cure. This means establishing quality measures for each area of activity that are recorded to show where improvement is possible. In his view. 'Acceptable' quality or defect levels and traditional quality control measures represent evidence of failure rather than assurance of success. and the meaning of quality is 'conformance to requirements'. where it really counts. Quality improvement is equated with profit improvement. for Crosby. A quality policy is needed which states that '… each individual is expected to perform exactly like the requirement or cause the requirement to be officially changed to what we and the customer really need. but an indication of where the action necessary to correct a defect will result in greater profitability. Quality Measurement: the status of quality should be determined throughout the company. 5. defined by clear requirements. Crosby emphasized.can cost organizations between 20% and 35% of their revenues. Quality Improvement Team: representatives from each department or function should be brought together to form a quality improvement team.7 Key theory Quality. Systems that allow things to go wrong . The fourteen steps 1.so that those things have to be done again . making employees aware of the cost to the company of . good. It is a strategic imperative that can be quantified and put back to work to improve the bottom line.

12. one-page form. Do It Over Again: during the course of a typical programmed. 6.its purpose is to communicate and instill the notion that everyone should do things right first time. The act of recognition is what is important. these comprise 30-. Goal Setting: each supervisor gets his or her people to establish specific. Systems for measuring conformance. 7. Corrective Action: discussion about problems will bring solutions to light and also raise other elements for improvement. This constitutes a key step in building up trust. 10. 60-. Quality Without Tears. any problems that prevent them from carrying out error-free work. A manager should understand each of the 14 steps well enough to be able to explain them to his or her people. 8. Quality Councils: the quality professionals and team-leaders should meet regularly to discuss improvements and upgrades to the quality programmed. measurable goals to strive for. starting with Zero Defects day.8 defects. although this should not be in financial form. Operations so that procedures. products and systems are proven before they are implemented and are then continually examined. 9. Supervisor Training: all managers should undergo formal training on the 14 steps before they are implemented. as people will begin to grow more confident that their problems will be addressed and dealt with. People need to see that problems are being resolved on a regular basis. on a simple. Crosby stresses that this sharing process is a . Usually. . Establish an Ad-hoc Committee for the Zero Defects Programmed: Zero Defects is not a motivation programmed . Later work In his 1984 book. It is important to set up a new team of representatives and begin the programmed over again. Zero Defects Day: it is important that the commitment to Zero Defects as the performance standard of the company makes an impact. should make a lasting impression as a 'new attitude' day. and 90-day goals.key step in his view of quality. when supervisors explain the programmed to their people. corrective action and defect prevention become routine.or even . 14. unambiguous and establish the primacy of quality throughout the organization.the . Zero Defects Day. Crosby developed the idea of a Quality Vaccination Serum with the following ingredients:      Integrity for the Chief Executive Officer. Problems should be acknowledged within twenty-four hours by the function or unit to which the problem is addressed. conveying progress and recognizing achievement. 11. Corrective action should then become a habit. Recognition: it is important to recognize those who meet their goals or perform outstanding acts with a prize or award. Error Cause Removal: employees are asked to describe. and that everyone gets the same message in the same way. lasting from 12 to18 months. turnover and change will dissipate much of the educational process. This 'starting over again' helps quality to become ingrained in the organization. and educating all employees and suppliers so that quality. Communications for identifying problems. Policies that are clear. all managers and all employees. 13.

bibles to many. The system of quality is prevention. Crosby's practical and easyto-read books on quality became . then it would certainly be mentioned in the next. When Crosby's name is not mentioned in the very same sentence as the best-known quality thinker. The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance. 2.9 In The Eternally Successful Organization (1988). Everyone is happy to work there. New products and services appear when needed. a broader approach to improvements is reflected. 5. People routinely do things right first time. Deming. Growth is consistent and profitable. but also the general vocabulary of management. 3. 4. 'getting it right first time'. 2. The performance standard is zero defects. . and 'conformance to requirements' have now entered not only the vocabulary of quality itself. and Crosby identified five characteristics essential for an organization to be successful: 1. Crosby's thinking was consistently characterized by four absolutes: 1. The definition of quality is conformance to requirements. His timing was perfect for the quality movement.and remain . CONCLUSION Thus from the above mentioned contribution it can be concluded that the the three quality gurus Played an very important role in improving the quality aspect and widely contributed to the study Of TQM. 3. and his writing has marketed quality to a wide audience. The major contribution made by Crosby is indicated by the fact that his phrases 'zero defects'. 4. In perspective Throughout his work. Change is anticipated and used to advantage. demystifying some of the jargon formerly associated with quality.