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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the literatures and studies that are significant to the present study. These give insights into the variables presented by the researcher.

Related Literatures As educators, as teachers of the Filipino youth and the future of our great nation, we have the moral duty to ensure that our youth is given the education they deserve. (Secretary Jesli A. Lapus, 2006) Every teacher shall actively help ensure that teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling. (Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers, 1997) Comparable degree of competence and qualification were required from teachers in the public schools as mandated by Executive Order No. 282 and other pertinent Civil Service Laws in Administrative Code of 1987. Job performance is measured through indicators set by the department of education which described the performance report known as Performance Appraisal System for Teachers

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(PAST). This includes: instructional competence, personal and professional characteristic, punctuality and attendance plus factors. If all learners are to be effective taught, teachers must be prepared to adopt the substantial diversity in experiences the learner bring with them to school to make science meaningful to students, teachers need to know their characteristic. Knowing their characteristic will give ideas on how best they can learn. The learners cognitive, affective, physical, social and emotional areas are intricately intertwined. Learners cannot grow in one area without affecting the other areas. The teachers should bear in mind that he/she is responsible for the development of the whole individual. Learners of the same age group may not exhibit uniform characteristic. Some maybe more intellectually or socially advanced than the others in the same age group. The teachers should make allowances or provisions for the differences that may be found among teachers. Graduate education can be a way to attain knowledge, skills and attitudes. These developments can contribute much to the acquisition of competences an effective performance of teachers and enable them in performing their essential responsibility in molding the youth. (Mc Carron, 2002) graduate education prepares teachers for more professional practice an unmet human needs and untapped opportunities to enrich and improve

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their lives. It can be a way to attain knowledge, skills and attitude development that can contribute much to the acquisition of competencies and effective performance of teachers. These knowledge, skills, habits and attitude attained from continuing advance education enable teachers in performing their essential responsibility in molding the youth. Teachers are duly licensed professionals who posses dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence. In the practice if their noble profession, they strictly adhere to, observe and practice this set of their ethical and moral principles, standard, and values. (Preamble of the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers) To be effectively are the key to success in teaching and maintaining interpersonal and professional relationships. Being an effective

communicator and records manager is about delivering a message so that someone can receive, respond, adopt, and use the information successfully. The effective teacher keeps accurate anecdotal records of students. Teachers are expected to be knowledgeable of the content they are teaching and skillful in equipping students with functional and applicable skills to develop aspects of their lives. It is the emerging roles of teachers to empower students for lifelong learning. He/she is an active maker of meaning and learns whatever he needs to know in any context. Henceforth,

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teachers are empowered to process learning to gain lifelong skills so that he becomes a self-develop person. Such learning is also passed on to the learners (RBEC Primer 2002). Teaching was primarily to facilitate the growth and development of an individual (Gene, et al. 1998). The teachers professional knowledge gave this capacity to design learning activities such the learner will develop his full potential. The key to quality education in any country is the quality of its teaching force (Doctor, 1998:68). This means that teachers of higher level of preparation and learning, student could be equipped with better knowledge and skills as a result of teachers professional development. Ornstein, in 1990, listed at least 12 attributes of good teachers namely: intelligence, emotional stability, resourcefulness, consideration and compassion, buoyancy, objectiveness, self-motivation and drive, dominance and confidence, attractiveness and pleasantness, refinement,

cooperativeness, reliability and dependability. These great attributes if practice by teachers inside and outside to become wholesome individuals, successful in their lives a responsible in their actions. These are the kinds of persons our department envisioned them to be. In the Philippines, teachers are undergoing series of training to keep pace with the latest development in science teaching and science

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education. This is for mastery of the content, develop skills in teaching the subject for effective behavior (Noe, et al, 2005) towards the discipline that could enhance their competencies. In determining the training designs, it is important to set the objective of the activities in relation to the goals of the organization. Teachers could learn best if they understand what they need to learn. They are more likely to learn when the training content is the form of concept, terms and examples are linked to the current teaching experiences, task and situation. Selection of training methods counts in the activities and evaluation of teachers performance give them a boost in their moral to implement what they learn. Consequently, teaching was primarily to facilitate the growth and development of an individual (Gene, et al, 2008). The teachers professional knowledge gave this capacity to design learning activities such that the learner will develop his full potential. As instructional manager, teachers perform the function of planning, directing, controlling and evaluating the learning process. To insure effective instruction, the teacher needs to motivate learners, encourage sequential and commutative learning that promotes integration and transfer of learning. He should enhance learning by adapting materials and experiences to the context of the learningteaching situation. He should model through a process like planning so that

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students experience cognitive apprenticeship. He must adapt teaching styles that jibes students learning ability, stage of maturity, personal beliefs, perceptions, learning styles and learning strategies. Lastly, he should monitor student performance and progress and give appropriate help or remediation. The professional development of teachers through their further education and training increased capability and efficiency in enhancing the educations benefits of the learner. This was based on the maxim that the more you have, the more you can share and one cannot give what he doesnt have. The mission of teacher education in the Philippines is to prepare teachers of Philippines life and culture and sufficiently equipped with knowledge of an effective delivery system as effective conveyors of organized knowledge, as efficient promoters and facilitators of learning and as true humanist (Hidalgo, 2005). Competent teachers are careful not to development phase. He must use teaching devices and appropriate strategies to the lesson or subject matter. The generalization should come from the students through the skillful art of questioning. More exercises should be given during the application phase and give test frequently on small unit of work covered thoroughly in

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class to know whether or not she re-teach the same lesson or to proceed to the next lesson. Assignment should be differentiated according to the specific needs of the students. Managing of time wisely is one of the qualities of a competent teacher. He should spend six hours with his students for the instructional process and two hours in lesson planning and visual and making checking of test papers and recording. (Ornstein, 2005). In the words of Arellano (2005), he said that the competent teachers knows the learning is directly related to the amount of time learners are engaged in planned learning activities. He must demonstrate these competencies in managing his time wisely: a) planning for the efficient use of class time; b) minimizing the amount time spend on procedural matter; c) maintaining focus on the lesson topics; d) making use of vacant time for a certain purpose like remedial teaching for slow learner; e) avoiding time whether like chatting with other teachers during hours, or on other pointless conversation. Moreover, Harris (2006) provides method for improving teaching by analyzing classroom behavior. It requires teachers and supervisors to agree upon behaviors that will be observed and analyzed, and upon the importance of those behaviors.

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According to lupdag (2005) the factors that affect learning may be grouped into three, namely, the learner, the teacher and the environment. These three do not act independently but interact with each other to affect learning. The importance of a teacher in the learning process must not be underscored. They are very crucial in affective learning. They play multirole in the process. These features of teachers are needed in the role they play in the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, Harmer (as cited by Sevilla, 2006) reiterates that the method by which students are taught must have some effect on their motivation is larger in the hands of the most important factors affecting intrinsic motivation, the teachers. The teacher should be able to give clear instruction and examples and as far as possible have answer to the questions of student. According to Garcia (as cited in by Sevilla, 2006) teaching maybe categorized into ten major headings, namely; (1) teaching as pre-active or the giving of process, (2) teaching as involving more of the learner than of the teacher, (3) teaching as system of action and interaction between the teachers and his students, (4) teaching as basically an adjective act on the part of teacher to promote student learning, (5) teaching as providing the learner with basic tools of learning so in the process he become a self-

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sufficient and self-reliant individual, (6) teaching an inherent humane activity, (7) teaching as structuring the learning environment, (8) teaching as an inquiry process, (9) teaching as the process of concretizing and actualizing the fundamental principles of other significant related discipline, and (10) teaching as complex process. Moreover, Delfin (2008) states that a teacher must know not only the goals or aims to be accomplished but also the most effective methods, techniques or strategies which can best accomplish them. Bustos and Espiritu (2006) say that the main role of a teacher is to facilitate student learning. This role calls for the proper application of teaching methods to make the learning experiences meaningful. Basic to the to the successful use of any teaching is the teachers understanding of certain psychological principles underlying the relationship between teaching approaches and student performance.

INSIGHTS LEARNED FROM THE REVIEWED RELATED LITERATURE Human Resource Management, Training and Development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been

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known by several names, including human resource development, and learning and development. (Harrison 2005) Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by thr Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. Employee Development was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as partners or associates to be comfortable with. Human Resource Development was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that the people were resources an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon Learning and Development, although that was itself not free from problems, learning being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other names. Training and Development (TD) encompasses three main activities: training, education and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, (1995) of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated activities. Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an

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individual currently holds. Education: This activity focuses the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. The stakeholders in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the process. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialist in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason why people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Dr. John Hoover points out, Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid. Training an employee to get along well with

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authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone wont compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer. Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving ones capability, capacity, and performance. Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve their performance: Training and Development. There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employees. Some example of these services includes career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive services. One can generally categorize such training as on-thejob or off-he-job: (Jacuby, 2004) On-the-job takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has

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the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in calculating concepts and ideas. A more recent development in job training is the On-the-job Training Plan or OJT Plan. According to the United States Department of Interior, a proper OJT Plan should include: An overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, and a method by which the training will be evaluated.

Related Studies Kraiger and others (1993) asserted that examining the outcomes of a training program helps in evaluating its effectiveness. This outcome should be related to the training objectives which help trainees understand the purpose of the program. Training outcomes can be categorized as cognitive, skill-based, affective reaction and return of investment. According to Clemente-Reyes (2002) study, a number of experienced teachers attribute their success in teaching to their resourcefulness, creativity, innovation, and risk talking, coupled with discipline, an intrinsic motivation to teach well, and a strong motivation to succeed. Other personal traits which teachers can develop as are follows; enthusiasm in teaching,

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open-mindedness to students varied opinions or viewpoints, pleasing personality and good grooming. Effective teachers are deeply concerned with the kind of learning environment that motivates and promotes selfdirected learning. They provide a learning environment that is conductive to independent investigators and problem-solving modes. Meanwhile, Nistalquita (1999) cited the findings of the study of Garcia which revealed that teaching efficiency is more on the experienced teachers that the less experienced ones. The number of years a teacher experienced ones. The number of years a teacher experienced in the teaching profession was a determinant for his competence. Effective teacher possess solid background knowledge of the basic of how children learn. Her teaching style is amply guided by this knowledge, thus ensuring a robust teaching and learning experience for both. They are through their reflective ability, able to gain from the experiences and are driven to move on, further improve on their teaching skills, update content and employ new teaching technologies. They conduct a consistent and systematic review of their educational practices and problems in order to try new ways of doing things. On the other hand, Grabatu (1999) as cited in by Berliners pointed out that competent teachers have many distinguishing characteristic such as certain domain of knowledge. Knowledge was founded on teachers

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academic preparation which includes teachers educational degree earned plus specialization. The ideal teacher in the interactive process is a trustworthy facilitator or manager of the learning process. He enables the learners to become active contractors of knowledge and not just a passive recipient of information. He help students to learn and how to reflect on, characterize and discuss problems, and how, on their own initiative form and find valid answer. Ferraris (2004) mentioned that UNISCO surveyed the opinion of five hundred learners of 50 countries all over the world. The results showed some of the most revealing description of great teachers; Great teachers interact with the learners physically, mentally and emotionally. They teach not only with their minds but also with their hearts. Like loving parents, these teachers are fair, respectful, and flexible and not deterred by setbacks. Great teacher allow students to ask questions help themselves. Great teachers respect all students and encourage good performances by bringing out the best in each one. They prepare for their classes and use varied support materials to make the lesson interesting. They have self-control and regulation. They understand a students problem and are ready to help anytime.

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One of the concerned of teacher training is to bring about changes in attitude. Lorties study (Hussain, 2004) remarked that in the realm of attitude change, teacher training is concerned with desirable changes in student teachers attitudes toward himself and his pupils. Teacher training programs in general also contribute to shaping teachers attitude. Several studies have reported positive changes in the attitudes of student learners as a result of education courses. In one study significant positive changes were reported with regard to expansion and reorganization of curriculum, formal discipline, recognition of individual differences and personality development.