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Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E. Director, Center for By-Products Utilization
Shiw S. Singh, Ph.D., P.E. Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for By-Products Utilization
Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering and Applied Science The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee P.O. Box 784 Milwaukee, WI 53201 Telephone: (414) 229-4105 Fax: (414) 229-6958
______________________________________________________________________________ *For publication in the book titled "Recent Trend in Fly Ash Utilization", June 1993.
FLY ASH GENERATION AND UTILIZATION - AN OVERVIEW By Tarun R. Naik, and Shiw S. Singh ABSTRACT This chapter describes production and utilization of fly ash throughout the world. The utilization potential for fly ash generated from conventional as well as advanced coal combustion technologies are addressed. Constructive use options for fly ash are divided into three classes: low technology applications; medium technology applications; and, high technology applications. The low technology applications include the use of fly ash in fills and embankments, pavement and subbase courses, subgrade stabilizations, landfill cover, soil improvement, land reclamation, slurried flowable ash, and water pollution control. The medium technology applications include the utilization of fly ash in blended cements, lightweight aggregates, various types of concrete, precast/prestressed products, bricks, blocks, paving stones, artificial reefs, etc. The high technology applications involve the use of fly ash as a raw material for metal recovery, filler for metal matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, and several other filler applications.
Coal is used as a major source of energy throughout the world. In order to produce energy, pulverized coal is generally burned. During the combustion process, the volatile matter and carbon burn off, and the coal impurities such as clays, shale, quartz, feldspar, etc. mostly fuse and remain in suspension (Mehta, 1983). These fused particles are carried along with the flue gas. As the flue gas approaches the low temperature zones, the fused substances solidify to form predominately spherical particles which are called fly ash. The remaining matters which agglomerate and settle down at the bottom of the furnace are called bottom ash. Fly ash is captured by mechanical separators, electrostatic precipitators, or bag filters. It is a mixture of particles varying in shape, size, and composition. These particles can be classified as carbon from unburnt coal, thin-walled hollow spheres, and their fragments, magnetic iron containing spherical particles, and spherical particles (Berry and Malhotra, 1980; Berry and Malhotra, 1987; Berry et al. 1989; Mehta 1989). Size of spherical fly ash particles is found to lie in the range of 1 - 150 μm (Berry et al., 1989;
ASTM C-618 categorizes coal combustion fly ash into two classes: Class F and Class C. The Class F fly ashes are normally generated due to combustion of anthracite or bituminous coal. The Class C fly ashes are produced due to burning of lignite or subbutiminous coal. Most fly ashes are rich in SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, and contain significant amounts of CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, SO3, etc. ASTM Class C fly ashes (high-lime fly ashes) typically contain CaO in excess of 10% up to 40%, and Class F fly ashes (low-lime fly ashes) generally contain less than 10% CaO. Due to high CaO content, Class C fly ashes participate in both cementitious and pozzolanic reactions whereas Class F fly ashes predominately participate in pozzolanic reaction during the hydration process. Therefore, Class C fly ashes are classified as cementitious and pozzolanic admixtures/additives and Class F fly ashes as normal pozzolans for use in concrete. requirements for some standards for fly ash use in concrete is shown in Table 1. The
Traditionally, wet scrubbers, Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems, have been used to control power plant SO2 emissions and they produce wet by-products. The residue from such systems consist of a mixture of calcium sulfite, sulphate, and fly ash in water. Solid content can vary between 5 to 15% before dewatering. More recent FGD systems convert the calcium sulfite to calcium sulfate (gypsum).
0) 10 70 (50) 70 4.0 1.0 3.5 4.501 3812 A 6201 Aanbe-veling 83-415 3892 C618 6269 12 85 loss on ignition max wt% 8.0 5. 1993) Country Australia Austria Canada Denmark France Germany India Japan Netherlands Spain UK USA USSR Standard AS 1129 ONORM CAN/CSA DS 411 PR P DIN 1045 IS JIS CUR UNE BS ASTM GOST.1 1950 4.0 1.5) 3.5 34 (45) 70 70 60 70 80 75 90 85R 75 3 .5 7.1 1.Table 1: Requirements for Bituminous Coal Fly Ash. Clarke.0 SiO2 min wt% SiO2+Al2O3 min wt% SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 min wt% glass content min wt% MgO max wt% CaO (total) max wt% CaO (free) max wt% 2.0 40 5.5 0. B 3320 A23.0 30 60 50 40 70 98 40 40 15 12.0 0.0 (6.0 0.5 (1.5R 4.0) 3.0 1.1 Na2O** max wt% particle density min kg/m3 Particle size: <μm20 min wt% <μm32 min wt% <μm40 min wt% <μm50 min wt% <μm80 min wt% <μm315 min wt% >μm45 max wt% 50 34 >μm90 max wt% >μm150 max wt% 10 Relative compressive strength 28 days min % 80 90 days min % R indicates recommended or guide values () bracketed values are for ash with high lime content (Type C) 5.5 2.0 (5.5 1.0 45 5.5 2.0R 1.0 4.0 (6.5 70 7.0 2.0 1.0) 5.0 1.5 12.0) moisture max wt% 1.0 6.0 5.5 18.0 5.0 (3. 1987.0 5.5 0.0 SO3 max wt% 2.0 5.1 6.5 Cl max wt% 0.0 0.0 1.5 5. as Stipulated by Selected Concrete Standards and Guidelines (Berry and Malhotra.0 8.0 12 35 70 5.5 3.0 12.1 4.
The solid waste products generated by these processes have some physical and chemical properties significantly different than those for conventional coal ashes. In addition. The calcined limestone reaction primarily forms calcium sulfate. and calcined limestone reaction products. and other clean coal technologies such as Integrated Coal Classification combined cycle process (IGCC). compared to a conventional Class C fly ash. Therefore. fine crystals of calcium sulfite/sulphate. The Lime Furnace Injection (LFI) by-products are made up of primarily coal ash. The sulfur reaction products are primarily composed of calcium sulfate and calcium oxide. and unreacted sorbent composed of mainly Ca(OH)2 and a minor fraction of calcium carbonate. Chemical composition of the AFBC residues is given in Table 2. The spray dryer by-products are higher in concentrations of calcium. The advanced systems include Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC). calcium sulfite. 4 . AFBC SO3 content is higher and SiO2 content is lower relative to conventional Class C fly ash. Lime Spray Drying. The AFBC process produces coal ash. sulfur. and hydroxide. aluminum.Recent increased concern over SO2 emissions from power plants has resulted in development of several advanced SO2 control systems that produce dry by-products. these processes require costlier sorbent materials. sulfur reaction products. these new processes avoid the complexity and operating problems encountered in handling large volumes of liquid wastes produced in the case of FGD systems. The spray dryer by-products consists of primarily spherical fly ash particles coated with calcium sulfite/sulphate. Sodium Injection. However. no dewatering is needed prior to utilization or landfilling. and lower in concentrations of silicon. iron. etc. etc. The chemical composition of the AFBC fly ash is similar to that of Class C fly ash except SO3 and SiO2 contents. Sorbent Furnace Addition.
it is evident that most SO2 control processes generate a by-product similar to conventional fly ash. The IGCC process produces by-products similar to the above SO2 control processes. The calcium injection process produces by-products similar to that of LFI and calcium spray dryer because of similarities in sorbents and injection methods used. 5 . This process uses a sodium-based sorbent such as sodium bicarbonate. trona. and unreacted lime. or nahcalite (ICF Northwest. 1988). and smaller non-fly ash particles composed of reacted and unreacted sorbents. The modified fly ash contain fly ash particles coated with sorbent and sorbent reaction products. and 10 to 35% calcium sulfate by weight. Most coal combustion by-products generated from both conventional and advanced combustion processes are non-toxic.calcium sulfate. The sodium injection process differs mainly from the calcium injection in regards to type of sorbent used. soda ash. and unreacted sorbent. fly ash is modified to a great extent. By-products generated by LFI contain 40 to 70% fly ash. Chemical composition of LFI by-products is also given in Table 2. By-products generated by this process include fly ash particles coated and intermixed with sodium sulfite/sulfate. 15 to 30% free lime. From the above description. The chemical composition of the sodium injection by-products is shown in Table 2. But due to sorbent addition.
24 1.60 0.02 17.77 13.13 21. 6 .73 31.20 24.84 2.88 20.05 6.93 0.50 11.90 30.93 2.29 1.27 29.99 4. 60 21.50 6.60 17.07 30.00 17.51 1.62 0.25 10.22 26.Table 2: Clean Coal By-Products Chemical Composition (in %) (a) [ICF Northwest.11 6.82 3.17 15.77 1.50 12.50 12.33 15.30 25.25 12. (b) SO3 content of the uncrushed sample.76 2.72 1.13 40.96 24.60 MgO 0.65 1.05 0.27 0.27 SO3 6.37 3.67 0.48 0.00 18.13 1.20 12.86 2.74 0.42 1.83 29.42 15.20 18.63 0.40 17.72 19.97 15.20 16.77 1.07 31.04 6.17 7.17 1.26 10.82 0.12 25.64 0.53 2.51 3.72 7.29 15.88 17.75 16.96 1.54 4.00 16. the crushed sample had a SO3 content of 23.59 1.54 0.70 0.52 17.00 13.56 1.86 8. (c) These by-products were obtained from different sources.15 36.89 (a) All elements expressed as their oxides.51 0.) Spray Dryer: (c) ARO7 STO7 LRO7 HSO5 APO7 NVO4 RSO5 AVO6 Furnace Injection: (c) SRO7 (lime) SRO9 (limestone) OLO3 (limestone) OLO4 (limestone) OLO8 (limestone) Calcium Injection: AHO6 AA1O-01 AA1O-02 Sodium Injection: NXO4 NBO4 A12O3 2.25 5.95 27.50 19.81 2.75 25.85 4.83 15.35 0.50 0.04 21.80 40.9%.90 15.11 1.80 17.72 20.25 18.34 0.34 9.45 SiO2 3.00 7.00 16.11 3.62 0.86 2.02 0.62 2.94 12.12 0.75 1.37 0.10 29.08 2.90 24.67 21.17 8.40 Fe2O3 4.11 4.45 0.18 27.33 2.78 1.25 6. AFBC: TVO3 (bed) TVO4 (char) TVO5 (ash) SFO6 (comp.31 0.84 2.50(b) 20.64 39.08 1.50 3.50 CaO 45.70 K2O 0.46 2. 1988] Sample No.20 17.39 13.91 16.58 2.23 14.13 1.48 0.92 6.32 28.78 33.26 6.25 14.16 0.00 17.48 13.37 28.18 24.80 9.81 Na2O 0.29 3.03 28.69 1.37 31.72 21.12 9.86 10.79 22.50 NA NA NA 12.17 11. but may occur in other forms.00 19.75 11.00 12.57 15.
Manz. The major portion of the coal ash 7 . Romania (7. there has been a dramatic increase in coal ash production in the world due to increased amounts of energy being generated by coal-fired power plants. A number of researchers (Clarke. China (55 million tons). the states of the former USSR. South Africa (28 million tons).8%) in 1989. 1993.3 million tons).7 million tons).3 million tons).5 million tons).4%) and the lowest is in the South Africa (0.. Greece (5. and Bulgaria (5. Turkey (15. and India. the former USSR (11. due to extensive restructuring in many countries (some European and the states of the former USSR). Manz et al.8 million tons). The largest amount of coal ash utilization was in the united Germany (17. However. USA (48.4 million tons). Germany including East and West (20. 1993).5 million tons).0 million tons). demand for coal is either practically constant or decreasing (Clarke.5 million tons). and Poland (4. and other countries which are marching toward rapid industrialization.9 million tons) followed by China (16.2 million tons). Several eastern European countries. 1989. The countries producing fly ash in the range of 5 -10 million tons are Spain (7. such as China. USA (16. Poland (26. are showing increasing demand for coal. the largest percentage of coal ash utilized was in the united Germany (47.PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION RATE During the last few decades.3 million tons). The countries producing large amounts of fly ash (10 million tons or more) are the former USSR (90 million tons).9 million tons). and United Kingdom (13.5 million tons).0 million tons). see Table 3. Yugoslavia (9. India (36 million tons).3 million tons). 1993) have compiled extensive data on production and utilization of coal ash in the world. Czechoslovakia (13.5 million tons). Of the countries producing above 10 million tons of fly ash. United Kingdom (5.
650 50 2778 50 821 1293 470 7365 17.776 35.000 7391 225 1089 1000 15.300 48.147 414.Table 3: Coal Ash Production and Utilization in Thousand Tons in Various Countries in the World.000 1190 147.250 13.000 370 1249 3341 1929 1360 765** 0 26.521 820 5239 4240 250 220 10 15 721 30 1627 78 27 2757 850 890 250 78 10 72 1100 40 775 919 161 100 21 250 3 65 260 10 89 300 10 393 20 30 920 120 95 (imported from Denmark) 8 215 10 236 63 55 209 550 150 757 58 145 (a) 210 250 170 20 27 105 3 239 369 104 23 118 192 438 155 1250 200 530 128 1907 12 9 312 11 132 65 78 174 309 20 445 3 96 50 5 Cement Raw Blended Cement Grout Nonaerated Aerated Material Cement Replacement Blocks Blocks 710 8 .000 450 13. 1993) Country Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Canada Chile China Colombia Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Germany (East) Germany (West) Greece Hong Kong Hungary India Israel Italy Japan Korea (South) Mexico Netherlands Norway Poland Romania South Africa Spain Sweden Taiwan Thailand Turkey UK USA Former USSR Yugoslavia Total Fly Ash Bottom Ash & Boiler Slag 5539 341 872 5300 3463* 200 55. 1987 and 1989 (Manz.783 840 434 2288 12.458 90.479 7980 5730 1012 3880 36.000 1304 25 272 90 1865 2200 16.000 12.300 7000 28.000 32.765 1024 43 150 1060 1096 18 7500 300 4334 86 49 421 6578 4330 516 112 937 4000 40 131 459 214 240 90 0 3200 20.
9 18.Table 3: Coal Ash Production and Utilization in Thousand Tons in Various Countries in the World. 1987 and 1989 (Manz.2 100 12.8 1 27.1 % Used Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Canada Chile China Colombia Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Germany (East) Germany (West) Greece Hong Kong Hungary India Israel Italy Japan Korea (South) Mexico Netherlands Norway Poland Romania South Africa Spain Sweden Taiwan Thailand Turkey UK USA Former USSR Yugoslavia Total * ** (a) 11.2 7.4 16.1 2. Land.6 85.3 2 61 91.6 2.6 87 13. or Pits 20 770 96 826 65 1288 0 1500 16197 15 141 1445 783 412 1549 7156 10710 757 1124 597 800 250 1266 1758 100 45 760 95 4445 745 492 1500 10 446 0 0 522 204 2 1212 842 65 5599 1457 16393 980 850 2529 4007 200 7241 1300 40 20 48 5 14358 123 1195 5467 11500 985 10809 90564 5641 15974 25.4 9.8 8 84.8 82.3 4 32.2 + 180 imported from USA + 65 imported from West Germany and Belgium unknown quantity 9 . or Embankment Fill Pavement Base Course or Subgrade 30 Filler for Mines.2 4.2 37.3 24. 1993) (continued) Country Lightweight Bricks or Aggregate Ceramics Asphalt Filler 10 18 3 30 1 62 1 91 29 17 4059 55 100 10 610 1200 8 934 319 75 105 4258 320 74 1 (a) 3 61 28 61 18 120 345 5 21 100 49 4 125 12 600 40 120 50 270 1570 1000 2 126 84 50 271 168 12 (a) 2 30 35 131 139 3 1045 1530 700 6420 616 29 40 55 25 433 448 260 55 2500 1 39 40 4600 21 3 5 20 Structural.8 0.8 0 0 35.3 57.4 25 80. Other Total Quarries.7 46.6 100 15.8 17.
A.4 million tons in 1966 to 10 million tons in 1979 (Table 4). percent utilization of the total ash production is still very low. and. Beyond the 1983. procedures. 10 . In most countries. was less than 10 million tons. reported the largest amounts of annual use of coal ash in concrete in the world.S.used was in the form of fly ash. The institutional constraints may include those requirements. Although 560 million tons of coal ash was produced in the world in 1989. policies. However. fly ash is composed of approximately 70 . Concrete and concrete ingredients shared the largest use of fly ash markets. in blended cement. the highest utilization occurred in 1990. and cement replacement. standards.9 million tons were used world-wide in concrete production as a raw material in production of cement.12 million tons.1983 in the U. The U. About 27. There has been about 300% increase in the amount of coal ash use as a cement replacement in the world compared to the amount used in 1977 (Manz. The utilization rate during 1979 . except in 1986. the use of fly ash varied approximately between 10 .S. 1993). The utilization varied greatly from countries to countries.A. the U. 1993). In 1989. but in general countries producing lower amounts of coal ash reported higher percentage use of their total annual production.80% of the total coal ash produced. only 90 million tons of this (about 16% of the total) was utilized (Manz. specifications. lower utilization rate of coal ash is attributed to a number of regulatory and institutional constraints.S. showed rapid increase in fly ash use from 1.A. and attitudes.
85 5.0 16.0 6.35 51.2 66.0 2.18 4.2 4.8 34.7 39.6 9.91 52.43 11.87 13.2 3.2 3.15 12.53 2.38 48.97 2.93 1.8 46.5 27.1 26.7 12.7 1.11 66.4 15.55 12.93 Bottom Ash 8.43 4.0 1.9 67.13 4.2 42.8 12.15 2.75 2.9 10.71 Boiler Slag --2.45 12.2 5. In 1974 a more comprehensive data collection program was developed.65 4.3 8.8 68.6 40.3 49.6 2.39 8.7 10.1 18.10 3.41 70.3 42.3 3.3 57.7 5.27 5.42 Bottom Ash 1.59 4.21 3.36 Boiler Slag --1.0 3.21 13.26 50.7 6.78 11.S.77 5.5 14.1 75.87 Fly Ash 1.6 2.41 13.6 5.1 10.5 4.8 5.6 2.86 67.8 2.6 31.6 4.8 2.32 48.95 7.76 2.96 4.52 10.40 68.4 4.29 69.31 65.25 Total Ash 3.-1966 to 1990* Ash Collected in Millions of Tons Fly Ash Year 1966a 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974b 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 a b Ash Utilized in Millions of Tons Total Ash 25.11 50.94 4.3 1.8 4.1 3.9 3.3 1.65 2.3 13.20 71.8 4.0 1.0 61.5 48.4 19.3 59.13 14.9 2.63 2.03 17.4 1.1 9.5 1.7 12.23 First year that data was taken.04 17.5 60.9 3.7 14.0 8.Table 4: Comparative Ash Collection and Utilization in the U.05 11.8 31.9 1.0 4.81 16.3 2.4 10.95 70.4 1.27 14.41 14.4 1.41 7.64 5.44 2.0 13.3 7.8 21.72 14.12 5.07 3.8 48.15 65.7 2.3 4.3 14.9 2.6 7.2 3.5 48.1 3.6 3.36 10.42 9.83 17.15 13.11 5.52 18.52 21.5 5.03 4.5 4.9 5.83 2.87 14.4 42.1 3.1 8.38 2.7 9.52 3.26 47. 11 .1 7.80 68.2 27.8 5.1 14.37 3.26 19.31 49.4 14.26 4.8 2. thus resulting in a substantial increase over previous year.4 1.0 3.5 29.31 50.8 1.43 16.5 8.1 14.62 13.91 53.
NOTE: 1 ton = 907 kg * Compiled by CBU from American Coal Ash Association publications. 12 .
1993). The inclusion of fly ash in construction fills and embankments not only provides economical alternatives to natural soils and rocks due to its 13 . while non-structural fills made with fly ash are used for development of parks. The most dominant barrier in the utilization of fly ash appears to be the general lack of knowledge about fly ash. etc. 1993). Fills and Embankments. Structural fills containing fly ash are used for the support of buildings and other structures. This may lead to development of regulations by environmental regulatory agencies and standard specifications by the contracting agencies associated with the fly ash utilization in construction materials (Kyper et al. regulators. The following sections describe each of these categories of applications. This constraint can be overcome through education to the public. designer. As a borrow material. contractor. Medium Technology Applications. POTENTIAL USES OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCT MATERIALS The conventional coal combustion by-products utilization options are categorized into three classes of applications: Low Technology Applications.. Such education should convince the potential users and the other associated parties that coal ash is a beneficial raw material not an inferior waste product. playgrounds.that adversely affect utilization of by-products (Kyper et al. legislators. Low Technology Applications The low technology applications for conventional coal combustion by-products are enumerated below. High Technology Applications.. and. its properties and potential applications. etc. parking lots. fly ash is utilized in the construction of both structural and non-structural fills.
For construction of base and subbase courses for pavements. fly ash is used in either with a combination with lime or portland cement. Fly ash is used as a backfill material for bridge abutments.. The subgrade stabilization is needed in the construction of roadways. high shear strength. trenches. 1992). Inc. embankments. 1992). enhance strength. is used to stabilize the subgrade in order to reduce plasticity. Inc. and cementing behavior.. 1992. ease of handling.. GAI Consultants. floor slabs. Landfill Cover.. airport runways. self-hardening properties. excavations. or other structures. and aggregate. a combination with cement and lime. Fly ash alone or in combination with lime. railroad beds. and final covers.. etc. such as light weight. Jr. 1984. A subgrade is a surface which acts as a foundation for pavements. etc. with or without the addition of lime (GAI Consultants. Inc. Subgrade Stabilization. Pavement Base and Subbase Courses. and improve workability of weak soils (GAI Consultants. GAI Consultants. Backfills. moisture insensitivity. retaining walls. This enhances the durability of the base or subbase course. 1992). buildings. In general.. parking areas. This is primarily because of favorable properties of this material. building foundations. the behavior of the fly ash and the stabilizer mixture is similar to that of a fine-grained soil cement mixture. Inc. etc. shrinkage. or a combination with the on-site soils. Baker. etc. Inc. It can be used in place of silts or clays for daily. intermediate. but pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash results in an increase in strength and impermeability with time. (Collins. pozzolanic properties.availability in urban areas but also it improves their properties such as shear strength. M.. The use of fly ash cover becomes 14 . Fly ash is an excellent cover material for landfills due to its several favorable properties such as compactability. 1986.
buildings. bridge abutments. sealing of contaminated sediments. retaining walls. etc.. moisture-holding capabilities. and other underground facilities as fills. 1991. 1988. Jr. The flowable ash slurry is a low strength material whose strength can vary between 50 to 1200 psi (0. 1991. Inc. Addition of fly ash to soil results in improvements of infiltration characteristics. as backfills.22 MPa). 1984). M. sewers.. Brendel et al. grouts.34 . (Baker.. Warren et al. parkland. (Baker/TSA. and plant nutrients (trace elements) (Jacobs et al. phosphorus removal from wastewater. sorbent for various organics.. utility trenches. turf-grass. 1990.economically attractive where other soils are scarce. 1990 b). Land Reclamation.. and as embankments. Water Pollution Control. Naik et al.. Flowable Ash Slurry. Fly ash can be utilized in water pollution control. has been accomplished by adding fly ash to it.. 1991).. Inc. for abandoned tunnels. etc. Soil Improvement. etc. This type of material contains large amounts of fly ash (20 to 90% of the total mix). Waagepetersen and Kofod.. etc. Medium Technology Applications 15 .. Fly ash can be used to neutralize the acidity of soil by increasing its pH value (Jacobs et al. and requires high water-to-cementitious material ratio to produce a high degree of fluidity.. 1991). This includes neutralization of acidic wastewaters. physical conditioner for sludge dewatering. The resulting material is suitable for foundations. low amounts of cement.8. The reclamation of soil to be used for agriculture.
1987. 1993. The technical benefits include the improvement in properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Inc. and other cementitious composites. In order to save a significant amount of energy and cost in cement manufacturing. Fly ash is used as either a raw material in the production of the cement clinker. 1987.. Baker/TSA. 1991. In general. Naik and Ramme. Jr. Structural Grade. 1993). Inc.. adding of fly ash as a partial replacement of cement in concrete mixtures improves workability. Both sintered (fired) and unfired (cold bonded) processing methods are used to manufacture lightweight fly ash aggregates for use in lightweight concrete structures (Baker. Inc. Baker/TSA. Naik et al. 1993. and High-Strength Concretes. 1991.. fly ash is utilized as a component of blended cements.A great deal of research has been done to find use of fly ash in cement. ecological and technical benefits (Berry and Malhotra. Malhotra and Painter.. cohesiveness. Lightweight Aggregates. concrete. M. Inc. Naik and Singh. Fly ash has been utilized in manufacture of aggregates. 1991).. Gypsum obtained from FGD process may be added to the clinker as a set retarding agent. Hay and Dunstan. 1991. and causes reduction in water requirements. 1984. Courts. Strength and durability properties of concrete up to an optimum level of cement 16 . Blended Cement.. Langley. interground with the clinker or blended with the finished cement (Clarke. M. inclusion of fly ash in concrete provides economical. 1992 a). pumpability.. 1990. Low-Strength.. Fly ash can be substituted for up to 8% of the clinker in manufacture of cement (Clarke. 1988.. 1991. In general. It also enhances strength and durability of hardened concrete due to both pore and grain refinements resulting from pozzolanic reaction of fly ash. Naik et al. 1984. Jr. bleeding and segregation of fresh concrete. 1990). Baker. Manz..
This type of concrete can be manufactured by using lightweight aggregates made with or without fly ash in which fly ash is used as a partial replacement of cement. which also enhances the pumpability of such concretes (Baker. 1992 a). Lightweight Fly Ash Concrete. 1993) have reported that concrete incorporating Class C fly ash to replace cements up to 30% attains high early strength appropriate for precast/prestressed concrete products.. Improved workability of concrete mixture with fly ash results in products with sharp. Prusinki et al. Researchers (Naik et al. 1990 a. workability and finishability is improved and water demand is decreased when fly ash is added to the mix.. Additionally. Courts. M. 1987).. Jr.. Recent studies have revealed that concrete containing large amounts of fly ash (for cement replacement in excess of 50% by weight) can be proportioned to meet strength and durability requirements for highway paving work (Naik et al.. Naik et al.replacement by fly ash is either equivalent or superior to no-fly ash concrete. 1984. Precast/Prestressed Products. 1991). 1993). Inc. This concrete is proportioned to obtain lower slump compared to structural grade as well as high strength concretes. 17 . distinctive corners and edges (ACI 226 Committee. Paving Concrete. Recent studies have substantiated that superplasticized fly ash concrete with low water-to-cement ratio can be proportioned to meet the very early age strength as well as other requirements for precast/prestressed concrete products. The use of fly ash in high strength precast/prestressed concrete has been limited due to manufacturers concern about slow strength gain of fly ash concrete systems at very early age.. More recent studies have shown that high-volume fly ash concrete having more than 50% cement replacement with either Class C or Class F fly ash can be proportioned to meet strength requirements for structural applications (Naik et al.. 1992 a.
In order to manufacture ACC. Fly ash pipes are more watertight and more resistant to weak acids and sulfates attack relative to plain portland cement concrete pipes. Thermalite. Autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC) or aerated concrete is a lightweight material. of the finished products (Golden. RCC is very low in water-to-cementitious ratio (zero slump) and contains higher proportions of fine particles to reduce segregation. namely Celcon. This concrete has been used in some pavements and several major concrete dams in the U. and water generate hydrogen gas which aerates the mixture producing millions of non-connected microscopic cells (Pytlik and Saxena. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) is placed and compacted by using asphalt paving equipment for construction of pavement or earthwork equipment for construction of dams (GAI Consultants.A. limestone. 1991. 1991).Concrete Pipe. It is manufactured using powder silica sand.S. 1992).. the ingredients are mixed into a slurry and poured into greased molds up to two-thirds of their depth. calcium hydroxide. aluminum powder.K. 1954). Autoclaved Cellular Concrete (ACC). a). In the case of fly ash ACC. The reactions that occur between the aluminum powder. Fly ash can be used in large amounts as a fine filler material as well as a pozzolan in the RCC mix (Berry and Malhotra.. Roller Compacted Concrete. etc. Concrete pipe made with fly ash is superior to no-fly ash concrete pipe (ACI 226 Committee. Davis. 1987. 1991 a). Golden. ft. 1987. and water as raw materials. The U. fly ash replaces 30 to 100% of the sand. and the 18 . Inc. portland cement.35 lbs of fly ash per cu. Durox. Several manufactures. The lower water-to-cement ratio results in higher strength compared to the conventional mix. are using fly ash in production of autoclaved concrete blocks. The fly ash autoclaved cellular concrete can consume about 20 . YTONS.
the fly ash ACC offers several advantages such as lower weight. Fly ash can be utilized in manufacture of the fired.. Compared to plain portland cement ACC. 1992 b. In 1989. U. etc. has shown that a mixture of large quantities of fly ash.. tongue and groove jointed panels. a fire rating of at least two hours. Fly ash can be used in high-flexural strength ceramics. etc. 1992). grouts.S. and steam cured bricks (Wei. more easily worked with carpenter's tools. the Coal Research Bureau of West Virginia University has developed a method for molding and firing brick from a mixture of 72% fly ash. and Paving Stones. Wisconsin. Thermolite in the U.A. Rai. Blocks and paving stones can also be manufactured by adding appropriate amount of coarse aggregate to the mixture (Wei.5 million cubic meters of ACC blocks. etc.000 metric tons of fly ash annually to produce 1. electric line insulators. Pytlik and Saxena. uses 600. low amounts of cement. 1991. 1992. wall and roof panels with or without reinforcement. lintels. It can also be used in clay bricks as a large-volume replacement of clay (Naik et al. 1991. (Golden.K. Shen and Wu. Manufacture of High-Strength Ceramic Products.. can be proportioned to produce good quality bricks. higher insulation capability (R-value of 10 to 12 for six inch thick material). Currently these products are being made with concrete or clay-based materials. beams. 25% bottom ash. In the U. UW-Milwaukee. 1991 a. SILBET in the USSR utilized 367. Frigione et al. A more recent study at the Center for By-Products Utilization (CBU). 1992 b). Other Binders. unfired. fence posts. Fly ash can be used to manufacture mortar for brick walls.. etc. Bricks. The ACC is manufactured in a number of shapes to allow flexibility in construction of structural units such as blocks. and 3% sodium silicate (Naik et al. Naik et al. Blocks. 1993). 1991).USSR are the major users of fly ash in ACC. 1992 b).A.200 metric tons of coal ash and shale-oil fly ash in production of ACC blocks. and sand. These include railroad ties.. 19 .S.
Smith. Baker et al. Waste Stabilization/Solidification. Livingston et al. results in formation of C-S-H matrix in which wastes are entrapped or microencapsulated (Tyson. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The use of fly ash as an asphalt additive is economically attractive. Collins and Fazzini. 20 . 1986. lime. Research Foundation of State University of New York. Inc. Addition of fly ash to wastes can improve their handling characteristics due to increased fluidity.Filler in Asphalt Mixture.. Artificial Reefs. Tyson. FGD sludge. portland cement. 1984. 1984).. Smith. The reactions of fly ash in the mix.. for stabilization of the wastes. 1984. Jr.. 1991). 1993. 1991. etc. both cementitious and pozzolanic. Fly ash is used as a binding agent alone or in conjunction with other binders such as lime. 1981. organic. bottom ash. 1991. 1991. 1991. and cement... 1991. Most investigations have indicated that reefs made with coal-combustion by-products are environmentally sound and economically feasible. Coal ash is utilized effectively in stabilization/solidification technologies for both industrial and municipal wastes (Eklund. Fazzini et al. or combined/complex. Fly ash can be used as a mineral filler in the asphaltic concrete mixtures. A number of projects (Baker M. Burnham. 1991. These wastes can be inorganic. Smith.. Inc. 1991. The wastes can be further classified as hazardous or non-hazardous wastes. These studies have substantiated that these by-product materials perform equivalent or better than conventional artificial reef materials. Albino et al. Michaud. The mixture of waste containing fly ash with or without other binders is proportioned to meet environmental criteria especially leaching characteristics.. Jr. and strength and durability requirements. 1993). and its performance in the asphaltic mixture compares favorably with other fillers (Baker M. 1991) have been carried out to make artificial reefs with blocks composed of fly ash. 1993.
polypropylene. two methods are used to recover metals from fly ash: the direct acid leaching (DAL) and pressure digestion. In general. reduced shrinkage during cooling.acid leach (PDA) for extraction of metals. Fillers for Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC). The polymeric matrix can be composed of either thermoplastic or thermosetting plastics. 1986. (Golden. Several metals have been extracted from fly ash. etc. Due to spherical shape of these particles. and thermal conductivity. Kruger and Toit. reduced wear of fabrication equipment. and metals such as alumina. etc. reduction in thermal expansion. However. Cenospheres derived from fly ash are an ideal filler material for manufacture of polymer matrix composites (Hemmings and Berry. mostly tensile strength and fracture properties deteriorate due to inclusion of large amounts of the filler. The polymer matrix materials that have been used in such PMC include epoxy resins. The improvement in properties of the composites due to inclusion of the cenosphere are compressive strength. etc. Therefore. Kline and Associates. The use of such fillers not only reduces the demand for costly plastic matrix materials but also improves several properties of the matrix. etc.High Technology Applications Material Recovery. 1990. 1991 a. cenospheres. reduced warpage of injection molding components. elastic modulus. 21 . 1993. magnetite. they offer several advantages over the fillers having irregular shapes (Golden 1991 a). and the other trace elements include chromium. manganese. The resource components of fly ash for which favorable cost-effective process exists are carbon. PVC.. The major metals extracted from fly ash are alumina and iron. cobalt. polyethylene. Quanttroni et al. iron oxide. These include: ease of wetting and dispersion. nylon. b). 1991). uniform stress distribution during molding. optimum level of the filler concentration should be determined for a particular application.
Besides. 1991 a). calcium carbonate. (5) molded ornament panels used in furniture. bearings. the replacement of aluminum with fly ash would provide large savings in cost of the materials. There are several applications where currently aluminum hydrate. joint compounds. For such applications fly ash cenosphere can be utilized (Golden.Metal Matrix Composites (MMC). (2) closed pore insulating material being used as heat shields in aerospace industries. kaolin. 1993). and increases in its elastic modulus. The fly ash cenospheres have also been found (Baker M. Fly ash has been used as a component of the metal matrix of a suitable composite prepared by foundry processes (Keshavaram. talc. carpet backing. and tribological properties of the matrix material. Researchers have shown that second phase particles can improve physical. In general. (3) liquid epoxy molding systems for electronic castings.. inclusion of fly ash particles in aluminum alloy matrix has shown a decrease in its density. However. and ground silica are used. Other Filler Applications. 1991. a very limited information is available about fatigue and fracture behavior of such composites. 1984) appropriate for numerous applications such as: (1) tape for fireproofing and insulating high voltage cables... Other potential filler applications include asphalt roofing shingles. Rohatgi et al. and hardness (Rohatgi et al. Inc. vinyl flooring. wallboards.. and current collectors. Additional research is needed to evaluate these properties of the composites made with fly ash before they can be recommended for commercial applications. 1986. etc.. cylinder liners. It is reported that such a low-cost composite can be made suitable for a number of automotives and electromechanical applications such as pistons. (7) replacement for glass beads in synthetic foam used to achieve buoyancy in 22 . Jr. industrial coatings. 1993). (4) foundry sand to reduce weight and improve flow of sand used in molding. Rohatgi et al. mica. (6) fabrics for protecting personnel from molten metals. mechanical. abrasion resistance.
Hnat and Talley... 1984. and. It is generally manufactured from mixtures of metal processing slags and limestone or silica (Hnat and Talley. (8) medium for growing turf grass. These ashes can be processed to produce fine insulating fibers. 1991) have shown that mineral wool can be manufactured using either bottom ash or fly ash. Inc..oceanographic applications. fibrous insulating material. similar to that of commercial mineral wool. 23 . 1991). Mineral Wool. Jr. Studies (Baker M. Mineral wool is primarily a glassy.
CS-3122. 2.Berry E E. April (1987). p. Fly Ash Use in Concrete .Berry E E. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. January (1991). ACAA. 7. Supplementary Cementing Materials for Concrete. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Use of Fly Ash.Baker W B. Inc. 428. Hemmings R T. Orlando. 8-1 to 8-12. Stabilization/Solidification of a Residue of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator By Combined Used of Coal Fly Ash and Chemical Gypsum. EPRI Report No. 11. Waste Disposal/Utilization Study Draft Report.S. 3.REFERENCES 1. 241-273. ACI Journal. CS-5116. 3. September-October (1987). and Strength Development in Portland Cement Systems. Laboratory Testing of Fly Ash Slurry. (1987). Norway. January (1993). 381-409.Baker M. EPRI Report No. Glogowski P E. Silica Fume. Malhotra V M. Kelly J M. ACI Materials Journal. December (1988).Brendel G F.Baker M. Microstructure. Malhotra. 6. Santoro L. Morgantown Energy Technology Center.A Critical Review. Beneficiated Fly Ash: Hydration. Inc. Morgantown. (1989). Ottawa.. 8. Jr. Classification of Fly Ash for Use in Cement and Concrete. 59-73.M. 10. Prepared for the U.Albino V. Langley W S. Curry M A. Ed. Trondheim. 5. 1. March-April. Malhotra V M. West Virginia. Ray S M. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium.Berry E E. Jr. (1980). EPRI Report No. Canadian Government Publishing Center. 77 (2). EPRI Report No. CS-2009. 48-1 to 48-14. Cioffi R. EPRI Report No. 1. Phase 3. Coal Waste Artificial Reef Program. GS-7162. ACAA. 2. CS-6100. Use of Fly Ash in Concrete. Landry A M. Evaluation on the 4. Canada. Utilization Options. February (1990). February (1984). 24 . TR-101774. Slag. Jr. Investigation of Coal Combustion By-Product Utilization for Oyster Reef Development in Texas Bay Waters.Baker/TSA Inc. Carette G G. 9. August (1981). 1. and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete.. Department of Energy.ACI 226 Committee. V. EPRI Report No. ACI Special Publication SP-114. Florida. Coal Combustion By-Product Utilization Manual.Baker/TSA Inc.
Lanzillota B. GS-7388. 3. Managing Powerplant Wastes. EPRI Report No. Environmental and Engineering Characterization of By-Products from Calcium-Based Dry Sorbent Technologies for SO2 Control in Coal Combustion in the USA. January (1991). 1-1 to 1-13. GS-7162. 33-1 to 33-8. 15. 14. 25 .Frigione G. 66-1 to 66-14. January (1991). January (1993).With Special Reference to Their Use in Concrete Pipe. ACAA.Clarke L B. Florida. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. The Rate of Fly Ash in Waste Stabilization and Solidification for a Contractor's Viewpoint. 22. 2. Orlando. EPRI Report No.Collins S. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium.Eklund A G. Colussi J J. 17. ACAA. Florida. (1954). GS-7162. January (1991). ACAA.Davis R E. January (1991). Utilization Options for Coal Use Residues: An International Overview. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. 20.Eklund A G. TR-101774. Pozzolanic Stabilization of Municipal and Industrial Sludges. The Aggregate of the Future is Here Today. Fly Ash as Basic Raw Material in Manufacture of Bricks. 70-1 to 70-15. Technical Memorandum. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. ACAA. Florida. Survey of the Use of Coal Fly Ash in Hazardous Waste Stabilization. Golden D M. Proceedings of the Shanghai 1991 Ash Utilization Conference. 16. EPRI Report No. January (1991).Fazzini A J. EPRI Report No. 18. 80-1 to 80-15. EPRI Report No. 15-27.12. EPRI Report No. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium.Courts G D. Use of Coal Ash Products as Alkaline Admixtures in the Sludge Stabilization Process. 1954. GS-7162. ACAA. 2. January (1993). August (1992). Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. 3. 19. Vienna. Orlando. Smith I M. 1. September (1991). Management of Residues from FBC and IGCC Power Generation: An International Overview. Power. 2. ACAA.Clarke L B. American Concrete Pipe Association. Orlando. 21. 21-1 to 21-10. EPRI Report No. 28-1 to 28-20. 29-1 to 29-14. Collins R J.Burnham J C. EPRI Report No. Cirillo G. January (1993). Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium.Collins R J. 1. 2. TR-101774. 13. Fazzini A J. Pozzolanic Materials . GS-7162. EPRI Report TR-10174. ACAA. ACAA. Ferrari F. GS-7162. 14-15. CA. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. 2. 118-1 to 118-22.
Hay P D. EPRI Report No. January (1991). GS-7059. Inc. 26. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. ACAA.ICF Technology. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium.ICF Northwest. Erickson A E. January (1991).GAI Consultants. 1.D. September (1986). Laboratory Characterization of Advanced SO2 Control By-Products: Spray Dryer Wastes. Coal-Fired Vitrification Process for Recycling of Utility Fly Ash.Golden D M. 34. 31. January (1991). CS-6044. EPRI Research to Develop Coal Ash Uses in the USA. ACAA. Improving Crop Yield Potentials of Coarse Textured Soils with Coal Fly Ash Amendments. Advanced SO2 Control By-Product Utilization Laboratory Evaluation. TR-100472. EPRI Report No. 3. 69-1 to 69-24. 3. GS-7162.Hnat J G. EPRI Report No. GS-7162. May (1988). 59-1 to 59-12. Berry E. 24.23. EPRI Report No. EPRI Report No. 25. 1.Hemmings R. Berti W R. 5-1 to 5-15. November (1990). September (1991 a). Inc. (1986). GS-7388. February (1986). ACAA. 27. EPRI Report No. Preparation and Properties of Al-Glass and Al-Fly Ash Particulate Composites. GS-7162.GAI Consultants. September (1988). CS-4765. Dunstan E R. EPRI Report No. Thesis. University of Kerala. EPRI Report No.Keshavaram B N. MacKellar B M. 33. ACAA. Fly Ash Design Manual for Road and Site Applications.Kline and Associates. Incorporated. 1. 3.Golden D M. April (1992). EPRI Report No. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. Market Opportunities for Fly Ash Fillers in North America. Ph. 74-1 to 74-13. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. 1. 29. 30. Talley W F. 27 .Jacobs L W. Evaluation of Plastic Filler Applications for Leached Fly Ash. Research to Develop Coal Ash Uses. GS-7162. Lightweight Aggregate Production and Use in Florida. EPRI Report No. CS-4419. 32. 28. CS 5782. 22-1 to 22-10. Proceedings of the Shanghai 1991 Ash Utilization Conference. January (1991 b). Fly Ash Design Manual for Road and Site Applications. EPRI Report No.
and other minerals in Concrete. 37-45. October (1986).Manz O E. 41. ACAA. 50-1 to 50-9. D. and Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Concrete Incorporating High Volumes of ASTM Class F Fly Ash. January (1993). The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete. Painter K E. V. Silica Fume. Wisconsin Electric Power Company. Coal Ash Artificial Reef Demonstration. Brendel G F. Worldwide Production of Coal Ash and Utilization in Concrete and Other Products. 39.Kyper T N. SP-114. Montebellow. 11 (1).Livingston R J. Pozzolanic and Cementitious By-Products and Mineral Admixtures for Concrete A Critical Review. 1. January (1991).Another Look. Ed. 44. Faber J H.. Fly Ash Block . Toit P D. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. (1983). Malhotra.M. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Use of Fly Ash. 64-1 to 64-12. 2. Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete. Ed. 1-40. Malhotra. ACI Special Publication No. Orlando. ACAA. Compiled by Mohamad Alasali. 40. 2. January (1991).35. GS-7162. ACAA.Malhotra V M. February (1988). (1989). Trondheim. and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete. 2. Norway. V. WI. 38. Brendel G F.Kruger R A. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. Florida. 65-1 to 65-12. Canada.. ACAA. Pozzolanic and Cementitious By-Products in Concrete . Long-Term Strength Development and Temperature Rise in Mass Concrete Containing High Volumes of Low-Calcium (ASTM Class F Fly Ash) Fly Ash. Takagi H. 37.M. Trondheim. Silica Fume.Mehta P K. Bruzek D A. Phase II: Final Report. Recovery and Characterization of Cenospheres from South African Power Plants. 1-43. Institutional Constraints to the Beneficial Use of Coal Fly Ash. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. Florida. 43. Golden D M.Manz O E. 36. Preliminary Cost Assessment. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Use of Fly Ash. (1989). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Use of Fly Ash. Washington. 1-15. Norway.Mehta P K. Silica Fume. January (1991). Presented at the 70th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board.. SP-79. ACI Special Publication No. EPRI Report No.Artificial Reef Project. Early-Age Strength Properties. Milwaukee. 76-1 to 76-20. 42. Slag. 2. 1.C. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. Orlando. Worldwide Production of Fly Ash and Utilization in Concrete.Michaud D T. January (1993). Supplementary Papers. 28 .Langley W S.
Maronetti A. Fly Ash Based Autoclaved Cellular Concrete: The Building Material of the 21st Century. November (1984). January (1991). 19-25. 2. 29 . GS-7388. Accepted for publication in the American Concrete Institute Structural Journal. 47.Naik T R. 51. EPRI Report No. ACAA. 54. 1301. Florida.45.Products and Problems.Quanttroni G.Naik T R. 40-47. Fly Ashes as Modifier for Low-Cost Polymeric Materials. EPRI Report No. Fouad F H.Naik T R. September (1991). Proceedings of the Tenth Ash Symposium. Orlando. Singh S S. National Research Council. April (1992 b). January (1993). Sivasundaram V.Naik T R. 12. March (1992 a).C. August (1991).. 75-1 to 75-9. Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program Phase 4B.Naik T R. Florida. 56. Superplasticized Structural Concrete Containing High Volumes of Class C Fly Ash. EPRI Report No. ASCE Journal of Energy Engineering Division. 57. 2. 1. Proceedings of the Shanghai 1991 Ash Utilization Conference. TRB. February (1993). TR-101774. ACI Proceedings. November-December. Singh S S. Washington. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. Use of CLSM Fly Ash Slurry for Filling Abandoned Underground Facilities. EPRI Report No. 87-95. Ramme B W. Singh S S. TR-101774.Rai M. 72-78.Naik T R. January (1991). Orlando. 58. EPRI Report No. 55. Ramme B W. D. 50. 117 (2). Singh S S. Tews J H. 48. Kolbeck H J. Donovan M J. 25-1 to 25-12. CS-3726. Concrete International. High Early Strength Fly Ash Concrete for Precast/Prestressed Products.Prusinki J R. Transportation Record No. Hu W Y. January (1993). ACAA. Use of High-Volume Class F Fly Ash for Structural Grade Concrete. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium.Naik T R. (1990 a). Low-Cost Ash-Derived Construction Materials: State-of-the-Art Assessment.New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. 3-1 to 3-8. ACAA. Levita G. TR-100473. 46. EPRI Report No. Ramme B W. Pavement Construction with High Volume Class C and Class F Fly Ash Concrete. Saxena J. Wei L. Utilization of Fly Ash in India . Plant Performance of High Strength Prestressed Concrete Made with Class C Fly Ash. TR-100563. 1. July (1990 b). High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Technology. 49.Pytlik E C. PCI Journal.
Rohatgi P K. EPRI Report No. TR-101774. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. Research with Coal Fly Ash as Soil Amendment in Denmark. Golden D M. Coal Ash for the Remediation of Environmental Problems in Highway Projects. Florida. Florida. January (1993). Chemical and Biological Analysis and Evaluation of Coal Waste Blocks in Fresh Water. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium.59. EPRI GS-7388.Fixation FGD Sludge.Smith R L. Microstructure and Properties of Cast Aluminum Fly Ash Particle Composites. The Use of Fly Ash in Production of Walling Materials. ACAA. 3. 15 Million Tons of Fly Ash Yearly in F & D Sludge Fixation. Proceedings of the Shanghai 1991 Ash Utilization Conference. Golden D M. 62. 30 .Waagepetersen J. Guo R. 76-1 to 76-22. Keshavaram B N. 1. 64. January (1993). 66. GS-7162. TR-101774. 3543. Kofod J. 57-1 to 57-13. EPRI Report No. GS-7162. ACAA. 2. Eylands K E. 30-1 to 30-15. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. TR-101774. Physical. Utilization Potentials for Duct Injection Residue. Pflughoeft-Hassett D F. Orlando.Research Foundation of State University of New York. January (1991). 2.Smith C L. EPRI Report No. January (1991). GS-7162. Asthana R. EPRI Report No. EPRI Report No. ACAA. EPRI Report No. June (1984). January (1991). EPRI Report No.Strobel T M. Cast Aluminum-Fly Ash Composite A Material Conserving Abrasion Resistance Alloys. Case History in Full Scale Utilization of Fly Ash . Huang P. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. Keshavaram B N.Shen K. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. 35-1 to 35-7. 58-1 to 58-14. EPRI Report No. 69. September (1991). GS-7162. 61. 2. 60. 75-1 to 75-23. Procedure for Evaluating Coal Fly Ash for Use in Waste Stabilization/Solidification. ACAA. 3. ACAA. January (1993).Tyson S S. ACAA. 67. Orlando. Orlando. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. Dockter B A. 2. Proceedings of the Ninth International Ash Use Symposium. EPRI Report No. Florida.Rohatgi P K. ACAA. GS-7162. 1. 34-1 to 34-13. ACAA. Hassett D J. 65. 63. Wu Z. 2. Proceedings of the Tenth International Ash Use Symposium. January (1991). Reinhardt S. Odor D. 19-1 to 19-10. 2-1 to 2-10. January (1991).Smith C L.
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