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The 18th ICIT Conference “PROGRESS IN CRYOGENICS AND ISOTOPES SEPARATION”

Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania October 25-26, 2012

Tehnoredactare: Camelia Asprita Coperta: Camelia Asprita ISBN: 978-973-750-228-5

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CONTENTS Plenary Lectures 1. G. Gheorghe Popescu 3 . DETERMINATION OF TRITIUM BY ELECTROLYTIC ENRICHMENT IN ACCREDITED LABORATORY Jasmina Kožar Logar. Dan Daniel 2. Iuliana Piciorea. Mihaela Morega. THERMAL AND MAGNETIC DESIGN OF A HTS HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATOR USING SUPERCONDUCTING HELMHOLTZ COILS Ion Dobrin. Adrian Nedelcu. Sorin Gherghinescu. RESERVED TITLE Liviu Stefan SECTION 1: Stable Isotopes Physics. Denis Glavič – Cindro 3. THE ACCURACY OF FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY METHOD USED TO QUANTIFY THE DEUTERIUM CONCENTRATION IN HEAVY WATER STANDARDS Gabriela Raducan. Ioan Stefanescu SECTION 2: Cryogenics Technologies and Equipments 1. NITRIDE NUCLEAR FUELS Damian Axente 4. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCES OF THE INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN GAS ON THE TRIMER IONS IN LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES N. Bulubașa 2. IMPORTANCE OF LOCAL LEAK RATE IN DETERMINATION OF GAS LEAK LOCALIZATION IN ENCLOSED INDUSTRIAL BUILDING Stefan-Ionut Spiridon. Technologies and Applications 1. Alexandru Morega. SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY Ashok Vaseashta 2. Bidică. ISOTOPE TRANSIENT METHODOLOGY FOR CATALYSED SURFACE REACTION ANALYSIS Mihai Varlam 5. ECOSYSTEM OF INNOVATIONS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR SAFETY.

Marian Vacaru 7. Biris. R. O. VALCEA Sorin Brotac. Biris and L. Raita. Laurenţiu Popa. S. Zn1-xFexO POWDERS AS SEEN BY EPR O. Vasile. Giurgiu 2. Sabin Chivescu SECTION 3: Science and Materials Engineering 1. S. Giurgiu 3. Popa. HYBRID MATERIALS OBTAINED BY NICKEL IMMOBILIZATION ON MESOPOROUS MCM-41 AND THEIR APPLICATION IN ALCOHOLS OXIDATION Violeta Niculescu. Gheorghe Popescu. Marioara Abrudeanu. Stan and L. Biris. MAGNETIC RESONANCE INVESTIGATION OF Co2+ IONS IN ZnO NANOPOWDERS M. M. A. Vasile. Niţu. Alice Dinu 4 . Giurgiu 4. EVIDENCE BY EPR OF FERROMAGNETIC PHASE IN Mn-DOPED ZnO NANOPARTICLES ANNEALED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES D. Toloman. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF FLOW PARAMETERS VARIATION TO LOCATE ANY MALFUNCTIONS FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING INSTALLATIONS Sorin Gherghinescu. Velciu 7. B. PRESSURE LOSS DETECTION IN PLANTS WITH CONTINUOUS MONITORING BY MEASURING THE FLOW PARAMETERS Sorin Gherghinescu. Mirela Drăghia. D. Gheorghe Popescu 4. EVALUATION OF PHISICAL STABILITY OF THE U-ZrH SYSTEM Mariea Gruia (Deaconu). L. Raita. Ion Ciuca. Raita. Ramona Ene. Toloman. Popa. Stan. Popa. Popa. Giurgiu 5. A. M. Tunaru. O. Sorin Gherghinescu. Toloman. A. BEHAVIOUR EVALUATION OF SOME STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR HEAVY WATER PLANT EXPOSED TO SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN ENVIRONMENT Lucian Velciu. Silipas. Al. DETERMINATION OF LOCAL LEAK RATE AND GAS LEAK LOCALIZATION IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING Stefan-Ionut Spiridon. Ionut Iordache. L. D. Stan. T. Viorica Parvulescu 6. A. A. SOLUTII DE CONTROL UTILIZATE IN PROCESECRIOGENICE CU APLICATIE LA “PILOTUL EXPERIMENTAL” DE LA RM. Borodi. Ghe. Maria Mihalache. Alexandrina Dragoi. S. O. Raita. R. Gheorghe Popescu. L. SPIN DYNAMICS EVIDENCED BY EPR IN Sn1-xMnxO2 NANOPARTICLES ANNEALED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES A. Lucian Radu. A. D. Stefan-Ionut Spiridon. A. M. HIGH QUALITY PURIFICATION OF DEUTERIUM FOR CRYOGENIC DISTILLATION SYSTEM FROM CTRF PROJECT Florina Porcariu. M. Gheorghe Pasca 6. Ionuţ Spiridon. M.3. Popa. M. B. M. D. Iulia Dumitrescu 8. Marian Vacaru 5. Toloman. Mezaros. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON CHEMICAL CLEANING OF FILMED SA106 STEEL L. Tiberiu Meleg.

Stănciulescu. C. INR EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FP7. Viorica-Maria Nistor. INVESTIGATION OF THE OXIDES FORMED ON 304L ODS STEEL AND 304L SS IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER ENVIRONMENT Maria Mihalache. Diana Chiper 10. Bubueanu. UNSATURATED HYDRAULICS AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SIMPLE TEST MODEL FOR ALLIANCES AND FEHM BENCHMARK Alina Constantin.9. L. GLYCEROL HYDROGENOLYSIS OF GLYCEROL TO PROPYLENE GLYCOL ON COMMERCIAL NICKEL CATALYSTS DESCRIBED BY A MATHEMATICAL MODEL Adriana Marinoiu. Pana. M. Tuta. Constantin Paunoiu. Ionut Niţu 4. A.“STYLE” PROJECT Maria Roth. Daniela Diaconu. Bubueanu. V-4Cr-4Ti ALLOY-A PROMISING CORE CLADDING MATERIAL FOR GEN IV REACTORS D. V. Irina Petreanu. Rednic. S. THE WHY WHAT AND HOW IN NUCLEAR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Cristian Voiculescu. Mihail Mihalache 9. Vasile Tanislav. Amalia Soare SECTION 4: Nuclear Power . M. Mircea Raceanu.fission and fusion 1. MAGURELE C. Dinu. Bot. MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OXIDE LAYERS FORMED ON CARBON STEELS IN SECONDARY CIRCUIT CONDITIONS OF CANDU REACTORS M. Ohai 3. Vasile Piţigoi. Gh. GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS – OVERVIEW Ramona-Maria Voiculescu. V. D. Culea. Macavei 11. Leostean. Iordache Ioan 12. Maria Mihalache. C. Postolache. N. Catalin Capris. S. A. Laurentiu Patularu. Bele. INR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FP 7 STYLE PROJECT AS CONCERNING LBB CONCEPT Vasile Radu 5. THE DECOMMISSION AND UPGRADING OF TRITIUM LABORATORY FROM NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICS AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING. INVESTIGATED OF TUNGSTEN-LEAD-BORATE GLASSES BEFORE AND AFTER LASER IRRADIATION M. Eleonora Andreea Dragan 8. Marius Olteanu 2. BEHAVIOUR OF FLUOROPOLYMERS IN PRESENCE OF TRITIATED WATER C. Tuta. Mihalache 7. C. Soran. E. V. S. Elena Carcadea. Postolache. Fugaru. Manuela Fulger. C. Matea. Stefan. Rada. Gh. M. EFFECT OF DISPERSION SOLVENT IN CATALYST INK FOR MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES Adriana Marinoiu. Silipas 10. Fugaru 5 . Claudia Cobzaru. Aldea. PLATINUM BASED MULTI-SHELL MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES AND FUNCTIONALIZED COMPOSITES O. C. S. S. Rada. Alain Genty 6.

COLD NITROGEN RECOVERED USE TO INCREASE PERFORMANCE IN THE CRYOGENIC PILOT PLANT PURIFICATION MODULE Gheorghe Popescu. L. Ebrasu. Marian Vacaru 13. Vasile Tanislav. Catalin Capris 2. I. Catalin Capris 6. Mihai Varlam. M. Mihai Varlam. ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAPHENE SUBSTRATES Ana-Maria Ducu. D. OVERVIEW ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING THE ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS M. M. Ionut Spiridon. Adriana Marinoiu. Mihailescu.11. Ciocan 8. RESEARCH PROGRAM OF ICIT ON TRITIUM FIELD AS SUPPORT FOR FUSION PROGRAM Marius Valentin Zamfirache. Stefanescu. Ioan Stefanescu. Patularu. Culcer. Dorcioman. Vasile Tanislav. Varlam. Laurentiu Popovici. Mihai Culcer. Ioan Stamatin 6 . Ioan Stefanescu. G. Axente. Ioan Stefanescu. Mariana Iliescu. Schitea. Anisia Mihaela Bornea.N. Catalin Capris 4. Christoph Plusczyk 14. A. Carmen Varlam. Roxana Elena Ionete.M. Claudia Cobzaru. Adriana Balan. I. Mihai Culcer. Iordache. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION PROCESS OF GLYCEROL TO PROPYLENE GLYCOL Adriana Marinoiu. PROPAGANDISTIC VERSUS PROBABILISTIC RISK LEVEL OF ACCIDENTS IN NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSES Gheorghe Florescu. Sorin Gherghinescu. PARAMETRICAL STUDY OF STEAM METHANE REFORMING IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR Elena Carcadea. Stefan-Marian Iordache. NEW CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR PEM FUEL CELL Anghel Vasile 7. Patularu. Catalin Ceaus. Ioan-Bogdan Florescu SECTION 5: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 1. HEAT TRANSFER MODELLING OF STEAM METHANE REFORMING Elena Carcadea. EXPERIMENTS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF ISOTOPIC SEPARATION IN PEM ELECTROLYSERS Mariana Iliescu. Vasile Tanislav. Mihai Varlam. Enache Adrian. COMPOSITE NAFION/TiO2 MEMBRANES FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS D. Mihai Balan 5. Constantinescu 3. 3D SIMULATION OF A DEUTERIUM STORAGE SYSTEM Eusebiu Ionete. E. I. Roxana Ionete. Nicolae Bidica 12. Bogdan Monea. L. L. Elena Carcadea. Balan.

Gili Saros 10. ROMANIA (2012) Liana Simona Sbirna. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Oana Ramona Grigoriu. Constantinescu. Virginia Cristiana Săndulescu. Horia Butnariu 7 . Adrian Panait. Marian Androne. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY DEVELOPING EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS FOR THE COLLECTION. Felicia Bucura. Marius Constantinescu 4. Georgeta Totea 5. Ioan Iordache. Marian Androne. Felicia Bucura. Liviu Dan Postolache. Diana Bogdan 13. Sebastian Sbirna 7. EVALUATION OF THE DEUTERIUM MODULATION POTENTIAL OF LEAD STATUS ON Zea mays ORGANOGENESIS AND GROWTH Gallia Butnaru. Anisoara Oubraham 8. Felicia Bucura. George Alexandru Ciocan. Sebastian Sbirna. Gheorghe Titescu. David. Marius Constantinescu 12. Madalina Angela Zamfir. Laura Elena Serban. DETAILED CHARACTERIZATION AND PROFILES OF AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE MONITORING USING AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUES FROM IN SITU COLLECTED SAMPLES Diana Florescu. M. Nicoleta Georgeta Dobre. Irina Vagner.SECTION 6: Environmental and Life Quality 1. Ionela Halcu. Ioan Viorel Branzoi. S. Laura Elena Serban. Armeanu. Roxana Ionete. Maria Taralunga 9. Ionut Faurescu. Aldea. Bucura. MATHEMATICAL MODELS USED IN DESCRIBING AIR POLLUTANTS’ DISPERSION – APPLICATION IN CRAIOVA. METHODS USED TO ESTIMATE THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL E. ROMANIA (2012) Teclu Codresi. A. Denisa Faurescu. STORAGE AND REUSE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Viorel Serban. Alexandru Viorel Marinescu. Mocanu 11. STUDIES ON THE IMPORTANT POLLUANTS OF WASTEWATER FROM TEXTILE INDUSTRY Claudia Sandru. Ioan Sarac. Viorela Maria Postolache 3. Anisoara Oubraham. Mariana Marinescu 6. F. LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY DEVELOPING NEW INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS. VALCEA Mihaela Iordache. LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (PM10) – APPLICATION IN CRAIOVA. N. Teclu Codresi. D. Branzoi Ioan Viorel. Adrian Panait. Liviu Dan Postolache. EVALUATING MACROMINERALS CONTENT OF BONE MEAL POWDER Claudia Sandru. George Alexandru Ciocan. SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TO VIOLENT SEISMIC MOVEMENTS (EARTHQUAKES) Viorel Serban. Sandru. Marius Constantinescu. Ioan Iordache. Madalina Angela Zamfir. Giorgian Neculoiu. THE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF RM. VARIATION OF THE OLT RIVER QUALITY INTO THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX AREA OF RAMNICU VALCEA Mihaela Iordache. Luisa Roxana Popescu. Daniela Marinescu. Liana Simona Sbirna. PREPARATION METHODS FOR TRITIUM LIQUID SCINTILLATION ANALYSIS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES Carmen Varlam. Viorela Maria Postolache 2. C. Elena David. Preda.

Nicoleta Georgeta Dobre 18. AN OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CHEMICAL FINGERPRINTING Irina Geana. Ionete Roxana. Daniela Roşca. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING MICROALGAE T. Diana Costinel. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF PRIORITY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACCUMULATING IN SOIL. Raluca Popescu. Popovici. Andrea Iordache. AEROSOLS ON THE BLACK SEA SHORE: A STUDY USING SUNPHOTOMETER MEASUREMENTS Sabina Stefan. Dinca Oana 3. WATER AND SEDIMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF RAMNICU VALCEA Mihaela Iordache.14. Roxana Elena Ionete. Gabriel Vlăduţ 19. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF B20 BIODIESEL BLEND ON URBAN BUSES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Adrian Roşca. Ioan Stefanescu 20. L. A. Stamatin SECTION 7: Laboratory Analysis Methods 1. ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF α-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE USING COMPOUND-SPECIFIC STABLE ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION ANALYSIS (CSIA) AND ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS (ESIA) Silviu-Laurentiu Badea 8 . COMPOUND-SPECIFIC CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COMBUSTION ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY GC-C-IRMS Diana Costinel. Costache. Ioan Viorel Branzoi. Ioan Iordache. Viorica Parvulescu 17. Georgeta Totea. Roxana Ionete. I. Roxana Elena Ionete 4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGHLY ORDERED SBA-15 FOR RETENTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM RED WINE Violeta Niculescu. ANALYSIS OF IDEALIZED TROPICAL CYCLONE SIMULATIONS USING THE WEATHER RESEARCH AND FORECASTING MODEL Gabriela Raducan. Geana Irina. PARAMETERIZATION OF THE BACKGROUND CONCENTRATION TO IMPROVE THE OSPM PERFORMANCE Gabriela Raducan 16. Gabriela Raducan 15. Nadia Paun. ACTIVE THERMOGRAPHY – NON-DESTRUCTIVE & NON-CONTACT MATERIAL TESTING Marius Popovici 2.

Ioan Plaesu. Diana Florescu. Ecaterina Lengyel. Diana Costinel SECTION 9: Addendum 1. Raluca Popescu. TESTE PRELIMINARE PILOT PLANT FOR PROCESSING USED MINERAL OILS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION Floarea Pop. Bociu Diana. Ovidiu Tita 2. Kettney Otto. PRESENT AND FUTURE Ioan Stamatin 2. Roxana Ionete 3. GURA MINEI AND OCNITA LAKES.PAST. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FLAVORED AND DEMY FLAVORED WINES FROM RECAS VINEYARD Ecaterina Lengyel. Roxana Elena Ionete. Letitia Oprean. Elisabeta Pop 4. Cornelia Croitoru. Ion Popescu 9 . INSTALATIE PILOT PENTRU PRELUCRAREA PRIN DISTILARE IN VID A ULEIURILOR MINERALE UZATE. USE GIS TEHNIQUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN AN INDUSTRIAL ZONE AND A GREEN AREA Gili Saros. Roxana Ionete 3. Dorin Bombo]. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BRANCOVEANU. Andreea Maria Iordache. Emil Zaharia. AS REPRE-SENTATIVE FOR THE LACUSTRINE COMPLEX FROM OCNA SIBIULUI Diana Bociu. HYDROGEN . Ramona Iancu. Irina Geana. WINE QUALITY ASSURANCE USING MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUES Oana Romina Dinca. CERNAVODA NPP – SOURCE TERM AND DOSE REDUCTION Catalina Chitu.SECTION 8: Agriculture and food safety 1.

Plenary Lectures .

dynamic. concepts and theories. The rapid advances in both science and technology. Dr. in conjunction with algorithms for complex processing of information. such as in sensors/detectors. in order to provide accurate intelligence. Furthermore.S. coupled with universal access to the internet have inspired both state and non-state sponsored actors to a new levels of creativity in the development of novel and non-traditional agents. Implementation of effective countermeasures demands an understanding of transformational emerging sciences. control.. employing materials. Department of State. Furthermore. and exploiting different regions of electromagnetic spectrum provide various functionalities. cognitive sciences. and genetics offer an ecosystem of innovations and potential pathways to counter threat vectors in ways never imagined possible earlier.: 500. such as deployment of systems with enhanced capabilities. and bulk materials. artificial intelligence. The overall scope encompasses abilities to sense. and their potential applications. Keywords: sensors. 13873 Park Center Rd. and thwarting threat at point-of-origin (PO2). preparedness and interdiction of such combative postures. safety. toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). and/or toxic industrial materials (TIMs). nanomaterials The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 13 . specially formulated interfaces. it is widely known that drinking water distribution systems are vulnerable to intentional and/or inadvertent contamination. Ashok Vaseashta Institute for Advanced Sciences Convergence and Int’l Clean Water Institute NUARI. remote detection of explosives by neutron radiation. information gathering. Recent radiation sensors based on polymeric materials have gained significant technological attention. provide additional sensing capabilities. SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY Prof. Numerous technological advances arise from the potential of nanoscale materials to exhibit unique properties that are attributable to their small size. Ste.P Pl en na ar ec ur es le ry yL Le ct tu re s ECOSYSTEM OF INNOVATIONS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR SAFETY. device fabrication and characterization have provided the means to study. etc. and effects including multilayer semiconductor structures. the evolving asymmetric threat from non-aligned terrorist groups continues to grow and evolve. detect chemical-biological-radiological. high yield explosive. Washington DC 20520 USA ABSTRACT The geopolitical landscape of the 21st century has become rather complex. Thus. nuclear. Mechanisms such as refractive and nonlinear effects. providing end-to-end strategic assessments and modeling of mixed and complex hazardous environments to delineated signal from background interactions. This presentation provides many examples of such innovations using nanomaterials. and unpredictable than that faced in the previous century. Notwithstanding unparalleled level of technological advancements. various “designer” materials capable of producing devices and systems with remarkable. Consequently. The advancement of molecular biology and bio-mimetic using siderophores has several applications in environmental microbiology due to its ability to rapidly detect waterborne microbial pathogens. surveillance. avalanche phenomena for the detection of small fluxes of optical radiation. advances in material synthesis. fluorescence. or even manipulate the transitional characteristics between isolated atoms and molecules. security. Novel nanomaterials based sensors produce an e-tongue configuration to identify several contaminants in aqueous environments. Herndon. phenomena. tunable. understand. and desired properties have recently been fabricated. and water borne contaminants – all from safety and security standpoint. VA 20171 USA ACVC/VTT. U. Such contamination can be accomplished with classic and non-traditional chemical agents. absorption of electromagnetic radiation. biotechnology. detectors. Such advances coupled with information technology. advances in S&T offers prudent preparedness.

: +40264584037. UN has the best thermal conductivity for the temperature interval of 500-2500°C. NITRIDE NUCLEAR FUELS Damian Axente National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies 400293 Cluj-Napoca. The variation of thermal conductivity of different actinide nitrides and oxides with temperature is also shown. P. Slovenia + 386 1 477 3293. compared with the Np. Pu)O2 and UPuZr alloy. PuN and U2N3. In Slovenia.ro ABSTRACT The properties of U. Pu)O2.si ABSTRACT The tritium content in the environment is a consequence of natural and anthropogenic processes. Pu.cindro@ijs. Am nitrides and (U. . e-mail: jasmina. Conductivity and pH are tested during the whole process as well as all equipment involved. Laboratories use requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 standard to implement a quality system aimed at improving their ability to consistently produce valid results. Jamova cesta 39.P Pl en na ar ec ur es le ry yL Le ct tu re s DETERMINATION OF TRITIUM BY ELECTROLYTIC ENRICHMENT IN ACCREDITED LABORATORY Jasmina Kožar Logar. The electrolytic enrichment method for tritium analysis consists of primary distillation. Some countries have additional directiveswhich prescribe also the method for determination of tritium in national monitorings. secondary distillation.si. the main control charts and their effect to the final results will be presented and described. which makes them compatible with PUREX process. proven in the fast reactor BOR-60 . It is usually included in the national radiological environmental monitorings as well as in the special monitorings in the surroundings of nuclear power plants and other nuclear objects. fax + 386 1 477 3151. E-Mail: Damian.Box 700. SI-1000 Ljubljana. are presented.logar@ijs. compared to oxide fuels. The method of electrolytic enrichment as well as quality system.O. correctness and reliability of the results of tests performed in the laboratories. LSC counting and the analysis of measurement results. in comparison with of (U. Some drawbacks of the nitride fuel are: 14 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . the electrolytic enrichment and accreditation are obligatory for tritium measurements in the frames of the national monitoringprogrammes. 65-103 Donath Str. electrolytic enrichment.: +40264420042. Denis Glavič – Cindro Jožef Stefan Institute. The analyses of tritium for hydrological purposes become a »state of the art« because of diminishment of so called bomb peak. the accreditation according to ISO/IEC 17025 standard for laboratories which are involved in national monitoring programs is common practice. In EU member states. Tritium is also the ideal tracer for hydrological studies and its analyses are commonly performed in several commercial and research laboratories. Pu)C. Some others properties make nitride fuels attractive for fast reactors: . Fax. denis.low fission gas release to the fuel pin plenum. (U.Similar approach is adopted also in many others countries to assure the traceability. the most common and cheap process for fuel recycling and reprocessing.Axente@itim-cj.a high burn-up to 20%.high solubility rate in nitric acid. Romania Tel.

Starting from Uranium or Plutonium dioxide. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by ASGARD FP7-Euratom project. Uzinei Street no. . The sol-gel method for preparation of the nitride type nuclear fuels is based on the internal gelation of feed solutions containing urea.744. that has to be taken into account to avoid the pellet-clad mechanical interaction. Ramnicu Valcea. phone: 0250. RESERVED TITLE Mihai Varlam National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . giving 14C radioactive. Droplets of the feed solution are heated up in hot silicon oil. Romania. it has a small creep rate induced by irradiation.O.the (n. By heating an UF4 sample at 800oC in ammonia atmosphere the U2N3 was obtained. Box Raureni 7.732. has the following steps: hydriding the metallic uranium to get UH3. Ramnicu Valcea.732.17% U. P. P.744. at 1100oC it passes to UN of following composition: 93.as a ceramic fuel.ICIT Rm. . Valcea. in which INCDTIM Cluj-Napoca is partner. which has a very low cross section for neutrons. The produced ammonia initializes the gelation process and solution droplets become solid microspheres.746 RESERVED TITLE Liviu Stefan National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . the whole production process must be done in a controlled atmosphere.O. fax: 0250.69% O. Valcea. The most studied synthesis method of a nitride nuclear fuel. entitled: “Advanced Fuels for Generation IV Reactors: Reprocessing and Dissolution”. 240050. Some impurities have been reduced by heating for longer time period under NH3 atmosphere. 4.due to the very high affinity of nitrides for oxygen. forces to use the stable isotope 15N.732.732.ICIT Rm. 240050.P Pl en na ar ec ur es le ry yL Le ct tu re s . 4. 5. the conversion into nitride consists in: carbothermic nitridation of UO2 or PuO2 in a nitrogen-hydrogen atmosphere and decarburization in the same gaseous atmosphere. fax: 0250. phone: 0250. nitriding the produced hydride to U2N3 and dinitridation of U2N3 to UN. Uzinei Street no. Romania.746 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 15 . hexamethylentetramine (HMTA) nitric acid and a metaloxonitrate. starting from metallic uranium. Box Raureni 7. During the sintering step a carbothermic nitridation takes place and sintered nitride microspheres of high quality are obtained. p) reaction of 14N. which accelerates the protonation and decomposition of HMTA.14% N and 1.

Stable Isotopes Physics. Technologies and Applications .

S ab eI es Ph hy . mass spectrometry. Keywords: D2O. E-mail: Nicolae. Uzinei Street no. Valcea. equipped with an electron impact ion source.Bidica@icsi. This value is very low compared with the uncertainty estimated with the vibrational densimetry method. This device is not able to bring the sample at a preset temperature. uncertainty.165 to 99. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is used to record the heavy water InfraRed spectrogram.ro ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to estimate the uncertainty of the FT-IR spectroscopy method in heavy water concentration measurement. THE ACCURACY OF FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY METHOD USED TO QUANTIFY THE DEUTERIUM CONCENTRATION IN HEAVY WATER STANDARDS Gabriela Raducan. 240050. deuterium concentration. and this influence could be used to develop new procedures for hydrogen isotopes measurement by low resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 8 samples were prepared over the concentration from 99. e-mail: gabi_raducan@yahoo.744. using these samples as standards. ch ol lo og ie s a pp pl li ic ca ti io on s EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCES OF THE INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN GAS ON THE TRIMER IONS IN LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES N. fax: 0250.ICIT Rm. The uncertainty of the method was estimated. G.ro ABSTRACT This paper presents experimental results regarding the behaviour of triatomic (trimer) ions formed in the electron impact ion source of a mass spectrometer in the presence of high concentrations of nitrogen gas. The deuterium concentration of heavy water samples was obtained using the gravimetric method.732.961% D2O obtained from AECL and appropriate amount of ultrapure water. so this method can be used in the range of deuterium concentrations higher than 99% D2O mass. iulianap@icsi. The results show a high influence of nitrogen gas on trimer ions. Romania. These results were obtained during an experimental work performed in order to find solutions to correct the total ion currents (measured at masses of interest) that are affected by isobaric interferences in low resolution mass spectrometry of hydrogen isotopes. Ft-IR spectroscopy. Valcea. Ramnicu Valcea. Box Raureni 7. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 19 . A FT-IR spectrometer Nicolet 6700 was used to build a calibration curve. P. using D2O primary standard of 99. A commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer of unit resolution. Bulubașa National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies .924 % D2O.O. triatomic ions (trimers). Romania.746.com. 4. phone: 0250.T Te ec hn no gi es an nd d A Ap at ns St ta bl le Is so ot to op pe sP ys si ic cs s. heavy water. Bidică. where it is necessary a very good measurement accuracy.732. Keywords: hydrogen isotopes.Rm. but the temperature can be kept at a certain value with the air conditioning. was usedto analysehigh purity H2 and D2 and several H2/N2 and D2/N2 mixtures (of different concentrations). Ioan Stefanescu National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies –ICIT. Iuliana Piciorea.

Cryogenics Technologies and Equipments .

current leads and the cryogenic cooling system are integrated and the thermal influx towards the HTS coil system is evaluated by numerical methods. tel. 021. high uniformity magnetic field.346. usable in particle accelerators or nuclear physics experiments. cooled by a closed-cycle cryocooler Gifford-McMahon type with two cooling stages: 50 K for first stage and 4. So.ro 1 ABSTRACT This paper is concerned with the analysis of thermal and magnetic design of a high uniformity magnetic field generator using Helmholtz superconducting coils. cryogenics.8299.dobrin@icpe-ca. Since the cold head of a cryocooler has positional restrictions. because of its simplicity. In the last decades a new cooling technology (cryogen-free) has made increasing progress and became the preferred one instead of cryogens. Keywords: Helmholtz coils. aimed for use in particle accelerators or nuclear physics experiments. The HTS superconducting magnet and the cooling system are designed based on the associated analysis. Bucuresti. 313. in order to produce a 3T magnetic field. a conductive link between the magnet and the cryocooler is important in developing the superconducting magnet system. Adrian Nedelcu1. continuously refrigerated by a two-stage G-M cryocooler. By adequate methods. The superconducting coils. 1. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 23 . sector 6. Thus. 313. liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen). Bucuresti. numerical simulation. finite element. 2D numerical simulations are employed for the generated magnetic field optimization with respect to the field uniformity. thermal analysis. 021. CAD model of the system protopype. For relatively many years the only possibility to cool down a superconducting magnet system was the use of cryogens (liquid helium. many superconducting magnet systems have been designed to use just cryocoolers for reaching low and very low temperatures [1]-[5]. Our study is based a the three dimentional. Alexandru Morega2. Splaiul Independentei nr. Dan Daniel1 Institutul National de Cercetare Dezvolatare pentru Ingineria Electrica ICPE-CA. taking out the system heat by direct conduction and lowering the system temperature to de desired values. it needs to be located in a low magnetic field area to avoid degradation of its refrigeration capacity.7231. In a conduction cooled superconducting magnet system.pub. a two-stage G-M cryocooler is employed as a heat sink to cool the magnet down to the designed temperature. INTRODUCTION One of the most important factors for successful development of any superconducting magnet system (SMS) is the cooling technology. The numerical simulation results unveil the magnetic field spectrum and the heat paths within the agregate structure of the magnet system. easy handling and higher efficiency.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s THERMAL AND MAGNETIC DESIGN OF A HTS HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD GENERATOR USING SUPERCONDUCTING HELMHOLTZ COILS Ion Dobrin1. e-mail: ion.ro 2 Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti – Facultatea de Inginerie Electrica. high temperature superconductor. Mihaela Morega2. Fax. The Helmholtz coils are made of High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) tape of YBCO type.346. e-mail: amm@iem. sector 3. The paper presents a HTS magnet in Helmholtz configuration. The cryocooler acts as a heat pump. compactness. We present a mathematical model and finite element (FEM) experiments performed on the dipolar Helmholtz Magnet for high magnetic field uniformity. The aim is the construction of a 3 T dipole magnet system. Splaiul Unirii nr.2 K for the second stage.

2. A high purity aluminum radiation shield and a multilayered super insulation. b. The current leads used in this system are combination of normal conductor (copper) and HTS conductor. The main components of the superconducting magnet system are: the superconducting Helmholtz coils.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s This numerical analyze aims to obtain the optimal thermal functioning conditions for the designed HTS magnet system. Figure 1. The room temperature bore. made of nonmagnetic stainless steel with a 30 mm diameter is located in the middle of the HTS coils winding. 1 c. c. positioned between the outer wall of the cryostat and the shield (at room temperature). the cooling system and the cryostat. THE HTS MAGNET SYSTEM The schematic of the superconducting magnet system directly cooled by a cryocooler is shown in fig. The thermal shield is attached to the first stage flange of the cryocooler. which is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of a cryocooler through a conductive link. insulate the cold part. cooled by direct conduction in order to generate a high intensity magnetic field (3T) with high uniformity (~10-3). The HTS magnet with direct cooling system. The main parameters of the SMS cooled by are summarized in Table 1. thermally connected to the first stage of the cryocooler. a. CAD design. The HTS pancake type coils are wounded around the magnet holder. 24 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . The superconducting magnet system. Schematic of the superconducting magnet system.

02 1.25 kg.22 mm thick.5 W cooling power at 4. at 64 K.50 33. The two current leads comprise a copper element. The operating current is 250 A. The copper element was optimized to minimize the cryogenic load.length 35 Coil turns 360×2 Operating current 150 Operating temperature Cryostat dimensions: 4. B. A copper shield was suspended from the plate of the 1st stage cold head and thermally connected to it. The minimum heat load per unit current of copper element is 0. was wounded on the copper holder. The Cryogenic System The HTS magnet holder is thermally coupled onto the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a copper plate of 12 mm thick and thermal conductive flexible tinned copper braids.50 1.80 Thermal influx [W] Current leads. which has a 1 mm slot along the axis in order to reduce eddy currents losses during the magnet charging process.5 K. The cryogenic loads were estimated using relevant analysis and summarized in Table 2.35 0. conducting the current down to 4.outer diameter .inner diameter 30 110 . The main parameters of the HTS superconductor magnet system Parameter Value Central field 3 HTS wire YBCO Main field coils: 2 . The CryoSaverTM current lead from HTS-110 was used as an HTS current lead for this system between 50K and 4K.5 mm wide and 0. The total length of superconducting wire was 75m/coil and the overall mass of the magnet around 4.12 1. Table 2. to conduct the current from room temperature to an intermediate temperature (50 K) and a HTS element.5 K for the second stage.49 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 25 . A coil is of double pancake type and the two HTS coils are in a Helmholtz arrangement.80 13. in order to obtain a 3T high uniformity magnetic field of fourth order compensated.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s Table 1. YBCO type. The Helmholtz Superconducting Magnet The HTS coils were fabricated by the wet winding method using Stycast type epoxy for coil impregnation. The HTS composite superconducting wire. with 35 W cooling capacity at 50 K for the 1st stage and 1. and the conducting heat is about 175 mW [6]. It is worth mentioning that the total heat load for each stage matched the refrigeration capacity of the two stages Gifford-Mc-Mahon cryocooler (Sumitomo RDK-415D) [7].main diameter .5 . 4. ensuring maximum thermal conductance.040 W/A when the optimum lead parameter of copper is 2500 A/mm. Estimated heat load 1th stage 18. by conduction Measurement wires Radiation Total thermal load [W] 2nd stage 0. Cryogenic grease is applied between copper support of the coils and cold head of cryocooler as a thermal contact medium.bore diameter 650 30 Units T — — mm mm mm A K mm mm mm A.height 260 .

2): The shell (case) T = Tamb .300 K 0. therefore numerical heat transfer design relying on 3D computational domains (e. The first objective is then to size a composite structure made of thermal shields and vacuumed cavities to limit the heat influx.. and T [K] is the temperature. the thermal properties are assumed constant. to be conveyed to the external cryostat – this is the second objective. The steady state conduction heat transfer in the SMS cooling system is described by the energy equation k 2 (1) ∇ T=0. Tamb = 300 K is the ambient temperature. The Heat Transfer Problem The SMS coils operate below 4 K thus the heat inflow from the ambient has to be diminished such that the temperature stays within safe limits. Heat transfer properties Thermal influx Thermal conductivity. and J0 [W/m2] is the surface radiosity. (4) Here. The thermal design is then to combine conduction heat transfer parts and radiation shielding to limit the heat leakage. ε Stainless steel @ 80. G [W/m2] is the incoming radiation heat flux (irradiation). produced by CAD) has to be used. ρc p where ρ [kg/m3] is the mass density.67·10−8 W/(m2T4) is Stefan-Boltzmann constant. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION Two major problems are of concern to the proper functioning of the SMS – the heat transfer problem and the magnetic field problem – and both are solved for in our study by mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. ( ) (3) Shields surfaces (surface to surface radiation) (1− ε )G = J 0 − εσT 4 . complex structures such as that of the SMS. the Joule effect is negligibly small.02 400 The BCs that close the problem are as follows (Fig.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s 3. (2) Symmetry planes (adiabatic) − n ⋅ − k∇T = 0 .. 26 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . temperature independent. As radiation heat transfer is of concern.g. therefore the sole heat source is the boundary (the case). ε is the emissivity (Tab. 3) σ = 5. Table 3 lists the relevant heat transfer properties used throughout the numerical simulations. analytic solutions (if any) are not readily available. k [W/(m·K)] Emissivity. In this study. k [W/(m· K)] is the thermal conductivity.. Table 3.12 44.5 Copper shields @ 80…300 K 0. cp [J/(kg·K)] is the specific heat at constant pressure. As the HTS coils operate in the superconductor regime.06 400 Copper shields @ 4…80 K 0. A.

3 shows the FEM mesh network used for the numerical simulations. The magnetic field (azimuth currents. it is possible to simplify the magnetic field problem to a 2D (axial symmetric) model. ( ) (5) The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 27 . gauged. The small gap (0. Each side of the Helmholtz assembly is made of two planar coils made of tape conductor. magnetic vector potential) is described by the partial differential equation (PDE) −1 − 1 e ∇ × µ0 µ r ∇ × A = Jϕ . The boundary conditions in the heat transfer problem. 230. Fig. The problem is reduced to quarter by symmetry reasons. The mathematical model (1)-(4) is solved by the Galerkin finite element (FEM) technique. total. as implemented by [8]. B. The Magnetic Field Problem Considering the axial symmetry of the Helmholtz coils. 4.000 Lagrange linear elements. Figure 3.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s Twarm = 50 K Tamb = 300 K Symmetry Symmetry Tcold = 4 K Figure 2.a shows the computational domain. Fig. The computational domain – FEM mesh made of approx.5 mm) accounts for the resin filling used to mechanically strengthen the coils.

The radius of the circular containing space (computational domain) is 120 mm. The FEM mesh. b. 5 shows the temperature field through surface color map (color proportional to the local temperature). The FEM mesh (Fig.5 mm. the first and second stage casing shields (low temperature. The thermal design is then to combine conduction heat transfer parts and radiation shielding to limit the heat leakage. The computational domain. The vacuumed cavities are void (discarded from the computation) hence the shields and case are observable.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s a. Heat Transfer by Numerical Simulation The SMS coils operate below 4 K thus the heat inflow from the ambient has to be diminished such that the temperature stays within safe limits. e [A/m2] is where A [T⋅m] is the magnetic vector potential (only the angular component. 4. Figure 5.b) consists of 47. 4. “Tangential flux” and symmetry boundary conditions close the model. in the windings). The size of the finest mesh triangles is 0. µ0 is magnetic permeability of vacuum. Three regions are noticeable: the steel case (high temperature. below 50 K). and the working duct that crosses the entire 28 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . with a fine meshing area for the central region of the coils (r < ri). NUMERICAL SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. and J ϕ the external electrical current (source. The temperature field within the magnet.444 triangular elements. Figure 4. Fig. The 2D model of the magnetic field problem. while for the surrounding space it is at most 1 mm. 300 K). Aϕ).

01 T).016 0. The results are shown in Fig.00246T r a 3.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s structure. is provided to reduce the heat leakage from the duct to the Helmholtz coils. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 29 .57 A (for which B0 = 3 T). 6.88 Total thermal load 16.012 0. The initial distance between the two sides of the system is set to be equal to internal radius (ri). inner to the second.18 B. Table 4 lists the power thermal load to the two stages of the cryocooler.014 0. Optimal rezult: pid=4 d=0.7 2. The magnetic flux density along the axis of Helmholtz system for different distances. with resolution of 1 mm. The size of the “good field” for each value of the supply current can be seen in Fig.8 2. Table 4.9 |B| [T] 2.1 3 2.019 optim -20 -15 -10 -5 0 distance [mm] 5 10 15 20 Figure 6. coils casing system. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data. and the excitation current. With respect to this position the coils are shifted from -4 to +4 mm apart from each other in Oz axis direction.015 0.30 First stage cold chamber (through the cold head 1) 14. to determine the extent of the adequate field area (absolute error of the field below 0.5 0.014m ε =0. The optimal distance is that which minimizes εr = Bmax − Bavg Bavg (6) where Bmax and Bavg are evaluated on the ± 10 mm zone. A third casing (shielded).018 0.082205% ε =0. considering that the in the numerical model the Joule loses in the connecting wires are not accounted for. to find the optimum. Estimated heat load by numerical simulation Unit Heat (in)flux [W] Second stage cold chamber (through the cold head 2) 1.011 0.6 2. We set the optimal distance and the supply current was varied from 50 to 281.2 3.013 0.017 0. Magnetic Field by Numerical Simulation Simulations were performed for two parameters: first the distance between coils in Oz axis direction. 7.

5 1 1 1. with 281.5 3 3 2.53 T 50 100 150 Isupply [A] 200 250 300 Figure 7.5 0 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 distance [mm] 10 15 20 25 0. The results show good agreement with the heat load preliminary evaluations and they do not exceed the thermal cooling power of the G-M Cryocooler: 35W for 50K (first stage) and 1.2K (the second stage).57 3.5 1. The next step to accomplish this work is the realization and testing of the system.60 T 3. Field on the axis of Helmholtz system for different currents. The final aim is to obtain a “dry” system to generate high magnetic fields with high uniformity to be used in 30 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . These results show a proper design of the system.01 1.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s 3. 8 through the spectrum of the magnetic flux density.5 |B0| [T] 2. A 2D numerical simulation was done for the magnetic field generated by the HTS Helmholtz coil system in order to obtain the adequate conditions for the 3T magnetic flux density generation with 10-3 uniformity.5 0.00 T 2. 5. The results were found for 30mm bore diameter.66 T 2.5 2 |B| [T] ∆ B<0. The aim is to generate 3T magnetic field with high uniformity (~10-3) in an warm (300K) bore in order to be accessible outside.5 50 100 150 200 250 281. The magnetic field solution for the optimal case is given in Fig. The magnetic flux density surface color map.57 A current supply for the coils. CONCLUSIONS This work presents the functional parameters designed for a HTS magnet in Helmholtz configuration continuously refrigerated by a two-stage G-M cryocooler. Figure 8. Numerical simulations were made for the heat flux evaluation towards the superconducting coils and the thermal protective shield.5W at 4.13 T 2 1.07 T 0.

I.2 (2011) IMPORTANCE OF LOCAL LEAK RATE IN DETERMINATION OF GAS LEAK LOCALIZATION IN ENCLOSED INDUSTRIAL BUILDING Stefan-Ionut Spiridon. “8T Cryogen free Magnet With Variable Temperature Insert Using a Heat Switch”.. 4. F. Vol. the vacuum technology and especially the possible operational safety issues. Q. ICPE-CA acknowledges the funding under the Contract PN 0935102/2009. 17.589-592. phone: 0250/732744. 5. Leaks in the systems represent one of the main safety issues in a TRF.hts-110. On Applied Superconductivity. pp. Morega. Vol. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was financially supported by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research through the “Core Research” Program. 608-611.com 8. http:// www.” Thermal And Magnetic Design Of A Dipolar Superferric Magnet For High Uniformity Magnetic Field”. M. s. sensors. F. Numerical modeling and simulations were conducted in the Laboratory for Multiphysics Modeling at University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest. 3. detectors. pp. P. 612-615. 7th International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering . June 2010.ro ABSTRACT Byproduct of electricity production by nuclear power plants. Dobrin. Gheorghe Popescu National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies .J. Environmental and work safety regulations state that if leak from a system. Vol. On Applied Superconductivity. “An 8T Superconducting Split Magnet System with Large Crossing Warm Bore”. v.. This is further used as primary source in the fuel cycle of the fusion reactors. valves and piping arrangements. ISBN 978-1-4577-0507-6. http://www. Box Raureni 7. in a closed or open The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 31 .com/current leads 7. Valcea.shicryogenics.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s particle accelerators or nuclear physics experiments which requires such magnetic field parameters or higher. HTS-110 Co. 6. On Applied Superconductivity. Jing Shi.Piskunov and V. E-mail: ispiridon@icsi. E. 135-139. Ramnicu Valcea. 2. Sorin Gherghinescu. N. M. 3846-3850.Troitskiy. 20.ICIT Rm. IEEE Trans. 4. June 2010. The technical assembly of the TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) is regarded as a complex system of specialized equipment. Comsol Multiphysics AB.. REFERENCES 1. “A 5T Persistent Current Niobium-Titanium Magnet with 4K Pulse Tube Cryocooler “. 3. Morega. A. IEEE no: CFP1114P-PRT. et al. 4.a. IEEE Trans. Sumitomo Inc. G. Uzinei Street no. Y. 2007. pp. Yuen Tang. Working pressure and temperatures of the TRF system defines the types of sensors. 20. fax: 0250/732746.O. The tritiated water obtained in the fission reactors is transformed with the help of TRF’s in pure tritium gas. “ Development of Conduction Cooled HTS SMES”. 2004. Bucuresti.Wang. May 12-14. IEEE Trans. Superconductor Science Technology. V. 240050. Thummes and K. Giebler. is considered to be the main fuel source for fusion reactors. pp.5a (2010). Demikhov.ATEE 2011.. v.Dai.Kostrov. Tritium. pp.Lysenko. Romania.Best.

Keywords: leak rate. sorin70g@yahoo. exceeds some threshold value it must be reported.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s space. Discharge curves were plotted on an area covering the normal running of the plant. Uzinei Street no. e. The pressure in the system was recorded as a function of time. P. In cryogenic systems is important to determine the leakage of gas for the cooling power regulation and automation system. The pressure loss in the system was modelled by evaluating the leak through an orifice with specified open surface. By plotting discharge curves can be established the influence of change of parameters in the system and can locate the leakage occurred by measuring the corresponding flow. This study establishes the parameters of the thermal control system and gas purity. conductance and also the thermo-dynamical flow of the gas trough piping system of can be estimated from a simple pressure-decay measurement. the thermo-dynamic characteristics of gases leak rate through a system have been studied. PRESSURE LOSS DETECTION IN PLANTS WITH CONTINUOUS MONITORING BY MEASURING THE FLOW PARAMETERS Sorin Gherghinescu. Stefan-Ionut Spiridon. Ramnicu Valcea. like a cold-box. 240050. equilibrium parameters. Using a least squares technique in a spreadsheet.com ABSTRACT In this study. Gheorghe Popescu National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . In the cryogenic distillation process gas purity and thermal regime are very important design features. Romania.icsi.ro. The first step in the test was to fill the system. This loss in pressure was described as proportional to the orifice coefficient. Valcea. The calculations were based on a leak test using nitrogen and also industrial air. environment safety. This article describes a calculation procedure that demonstrates that the leaks in the system could be localized and estimated. subassemblies. This coefficient of opened surface was then used to calculate the loss of tritium in the system. In the evaluation of real components. to minimize the construction complexity of the piping and also to improve the insulation factor of the refrigeration system. Keywords: cryogenic systems. The thermal conductance influence was measured from both pressure-decay experiments and from constant pressure-flow experiments using gases at variable temperatures due the length of the gas supply piping. pressure leakage.ICIT Rm. tritium. Obtain values can be used to estimate the effect of thermal conductance on the leak rate.. Different pressures versus time scenarios have been applied to a model system. phone: 0250/732744. Nitrogen and industrial air were used to perform the pressurized leak rate test. work safety. parameters of a nonlinear equation can be determined for a localized leak in an enclosure. The experimental results obtained demonstrate the importance of continuous monitoring of flow in nuclear installations on the one hand due to ensuring the safety in operation and on the other hand to control the process parameters. 32 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . fax: 0250/732746. Tritium has a special regulation because of its radioactive impact and it’s strategically importance.g. 4. TRF. Results from the two type gas tests were compared and communicated in this paper.O. E-mail: sorin@. Box Raureni 7. or systems.

This work/paper shows the scheme of deuterium purification unit. cryoadsorbers. E-mail florina. equilibrium parameters. P.: 0356 173 660 . Gheorghe Popescu. 4. E-mail: sorin@.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF FLOW PARAMETERS VARIATION TO LOCATE ANY MALFUNCTIONS FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING INSTALLATIONS Sorin Gherghinescu. The purification of tritiated deuterium consists in adsorbtion on active charcoal at temperature of 40 K of any impurities such as water vapors. 240050. control of process parameters. including Cryogenic Distillation System. Ionuţ Spiridon. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 33 . Fax: 0356 173 660. Ramnicu Valcea. The values obtained can be used to estimate the thermal conductance effect on the leakage rate to minimize the complexity of pipeline construction also improving the insulation factor for the refrigeration system. Ap.icsi. The discharge curves plotting pressure over time have been set fornormal functioning system parameters. Valcea.S.com ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the gas flow characteristics by measuring the flow rate in a defined volume of a thermal system. The purification is based on selective adsorption of gases at low temperature which is a method with wide range of use in gas separation processes. nitrogen and oxygen. Tel. Results from the two sets of tests were compared and reported in this paper. fax: 0250/732746. Keywords: cryogenic systems. Keywords: Purification. Influence of thermal conductance was determined by measuring the temperature variation of the gasespolytropictransformations. the operating mode and the experimental results of cryoadsorbers sizing for deuterium purification . Romania.TECH SRL. In the cryogenic transformations is important to determine the flow of cooling power setting and system automation. Gheorghe Pasca SC I. As flow agents nitrogen and air were usedto determine the flow rate.2 Cod 300107 Timisoara. cryogenic distillation. The experimental results obtained demonstrate the importance of continuous monitoring of flow in nuclear facilities. This study establishes parameters for thermal control system and gas purity. high quality purification of the supplied gas to the cryogenic distillation columns is necessary. Unloading curves were plotted on an area covering normal operation of the facility.ICIT Rm. the leaks in the systems have been located. By measuring the corresponding flow. Marian Vacaru National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Tests were performed at different pressures for discharged unit. This facility consists of several systems.ro. sorin70g@yahoo. Nr. Uzinei Street no.O. deuterium. Box Raureni 7. In order to maintain proper operation of the Tritium Removal Facility and more specifically long time operation of the cryogenic distillation columns.porcariu@istech-ro. phone: 0250/732744. flow characteristics. In the cryogenic distillation process gas and thermal regime are important design features. and to meet the safety requirements. The correct sizing of deuterium purification unit is necessary for minimize the external heat input and also for reducing the thermal inertia of the system/installation. Str.T21.com ABSTRACT The CTRF detritiation facility will be built for tritium removal and recovery from tritiated heavy water during the operation of CANDU reactors at Cernavoda NPP. Mirela Drăghia.Timocului. on the one hand due to ensuring safe operation and on the other hand. HIGH QUALITY PURIFICATION OF DEUTERIUM FOR CRYOGENIC DISTILLATION SYSTEM FROM CTRF PROJECT Florina Porcariu.

DEUTERIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS FROM THE CRYOGENIC DISTILLATION SYSTEM The Deuterium Purification System (Figure 1) processes the tritiated deuterium gas. The Cryogenic Distillation System consists of six main subsystems: Tritiated Deuterium Purification System. Tritiated deuterium gas contains water vapors. and traces of other frozen gases at liquid deuterium temperature.e. Helium Refrigeration System. requires accurate knowledge of adsorption capacity and optimal operating conditions as well. oxygen that are frozen at liquid deuterium temperatures are currently assumed to be at a concentration of less than 0. including Cryogenic Distillation System. is cooled down to ~ 40K by heat exchangers in counter flow with low tritium deuterium gas of 25K extracted at the top of the first cryogenic distillation column. In the precooler. information from [2] were used. By determining the adsorption capacity of nitrogen on active charcoal in the range of 4050K at an average speed adsorption of 33 mm/s [1] will provide conditions for an optimal design of adsorption system from cryogenic processes. nitrogen and oxygen. i.01 ppm. supplied from the LPCE at a pressure above atmospheric pressure (130 ÷ 180 kPa) and the dew point -750 Celsius which correspond to a water content of 0. The tritiated deuterium purification consists in adsorbtion on active charcoal at temperature of 40 K of any impurities such as water vapors. 2. i. 34 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Experimental results [1] confirm that the adsorption capacity increased with temperature decreasing. Coldbox and Cryogenic Distillation Columns. According to [1] the pressure variation from 1bar to 10 bar in the range of temperatures 40-50 K does not influence the adsorbtion process. and they are trapped on charcoal in solid form.. Gloves Box.0013 g/Nm3. and to meet the safety requirements. INTRODUCTION The CTRF detritiation facility consists of several systems.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s 1. In order to maintain proper operation of the Tritium Removal Facility and more specifically long time operation of the cryogenic distillation columns.e from 300cm3/g corresponding to a temperature of 77K up to 1235 cm3/g for an adsorption temperature of ~ 45K. Using adsorption method at temperatures below 77K for the purpose of deuterium purification. consists of two branches similar as configuration. The method of deuterium purification on active charcoal at 40K is a high effective purification method . The content of nitrogen in the tritiated deuterium stream is 0. because the deuterium is cooling down to 40K and all the impurities become solid . For the nitrogen adsorption on charcoal at a temperature around 40K. one is on service and the other is on regeneration process or standby. On each branch there is a heat exchanger which provides pre-cooling of gas before entering into the cryoadsorbers. The other impurities. Deuterium purification system. Low and High tritium concentration Expansion Tanks.15 ppm. the tritiated deuterium gas from LPCE system with the temperature of 295K. high quality purification of the supplied gas to the cryogenic distillation columns is necessary. Hard Shell Confinement. feeding in the first cryogenic distillation column. small amounts of nitrogen.

shall be used to cool down the cryoadsorbers before enter in service.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s Figure 1. b. The regeneration of the cryoadsorbers and removing the impurities trapped in the feeding lines of the first CD column.70˚C . and the deuterium flow rate to be feed in the CD system of 3. The cryoadsorbers shall be heated up to 200K by a helium stream from the helium system for cryoadsorbers regeneration. SIZING THE CRYOADSORBERS FOR THE DEUTERIUM PURIFICATION SYSTEM The size of the cryoadsorbers is given by the amount of impurities contained in the deuterium stream coming from the LPCE . 3. the amount of water and nitrogen that have to be trapped in the cryoadsorbers during different periods of time between two regenerations is given in Table 1. pass further through the heat exchanger for advanced cooling down to ~ 25K. The desorbed gases shall be sent for processing in to the TRS. a cooled helium streams from the high pressure helium line. Provisions in the configuration of the deuterium purification system are implemented to heat up the cryoadsorbers up to 400K and to remove the water with a deuterium stream which is circulated towards the LPCE. nitrogen and oxygen. From the adsorber bed. in front of the CD condensers.0 ppm for nitrogen content in deuterium stream at the inlet of the cryoadsorber.0033 g/Nm3 (or equivalent to ~ 4 ppm) which corresponds to the dew point of . Considering a conservative value of 1. the tritiated deuterium gas with the temperature of ~ 45K. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 35 . Deuterium Purification System From the precooler.2 kmol/h. will be adsorbed in solid form on active charcoal at temperature of 40 K. shall be realized in two steps: a. the tritiated deuterium gas passes the cryoadsorber bed where the impurities such as water vapors. The advanced cooling of the gas is perform using an cooled helium stream from one high pressure helium line which feeds the CD column condensers. the water content of 0. After the regeneration of the cryoadsorbers and removing the water trapped in the precooling and advanced cooling heat exchangers.

2 0. 4/2002 2.[3]. 4. D. Materials Science and Engineering B108 (2004) 143-147. Y. Leningrad dist. AIST Tsukuba West . 493-497. 36 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . 38 (1960 5. H.510 1. Germany – “Adsorbtion Izotherms and heats of adsorbtion of neoh and hydrogen on zeolyte and charcoal between 20K and 90 K” – Journal of low temperature Physics.170 0. Basmadjian . S. BONDARENKO.Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. deuterium. 3.4 0.[6] the amount of charcoal necessary for trapping the water and the nitrogen for various periods of time between two regenerations is given in Table 2.Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute.62 Considering that the adsorbtion capacity of charcoal for water at 40 K is equivalent with 10% from the weight of charcoal bed and the adsorbtion capacity of charcoal for nitrogen is 300 cm3/g.D.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s Table 1. vol 45. and their mixtures”. Ion Cristescu. CONCLUSIONS The proposed method and the system configuration of the deuterium purification allow a high effective purification of the process gas.“Adsorptive hydrogen storage in carbon and porous materials”. REFERENCES 1. H. Russia “Study of isotopic effect for hydrogen and deuterium adsorbtion on nanoporous carbon (NPC) AT 67-78 K” .188300. C. Amount of impurities to be trapped in cryoadsorbers Time in between two regenerations 1 month 3 month 6 month 12 month Amount of D2O to be trapped (kg) Amount of N2 to be trapped (Nm3) 0.[4]. Canadian Journal of Chemistry Vol. [2]. “Adsorbtion equilibria of hydrogen. Marius Peculea – “Adsorbtia azotului pe carbine active la 40K dintr-un amestec de hydrogen” – Revista de Chimie Nr. Amount of charcoal needed to trap the water and the nitrogen Time in between two regenerations 1 month 3 month 6 month 12 month 2 6 12 24 Amount of charcoal needed to trap D2O (kg) 0. R. Heiden. Takagi. which provide efficient and safe operation of the CTRF facility.31 2.Hydrogen Materials Science and Chemistry of Carbon Nanomaterials.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Yanik. Due to safe margins. U. Hatori.04 Amount of charcoal needed to trap N2 (kg) Based on the data from above and taking into consideration the safe margins in the input data.051 0. ALEKSEEV . There is enough information in order to size the cryoadsorbers and good practice in industrial level.2 0. 1981 4. Gatchina. each cryoadsorbers shall be design to be filled with 15 kg active charcoal. Soneda . University of Toronto. Table 2. I. the period in between two regenerations shall be established during commissioning in order to avoid unnecessary regenerations.A.[5]..02 2.155 1. University of Giessen.6 0. Yahik. Ontario.

From the Environmental and Work Safety Regulations point of view leaks from a system.ICIT Rm. Gallego. Tritium has a special regulation because of its radioactive impact and it’s strategically importance. Gheorghe Popescu. like a cold-box. The calculations were based on a leak test using nitrogen and industrial air. racirea necesara pentru distilarea deuteriului fiind asigurata de o unitate de refrigerare bazata pe un ciclu de racire The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 37 . Oak Ridge. The pressure in the system was recorded as a function of time and the loss in pressure was described as proportional to the flow surface section characteristics. in a closed or open space that exceeds some threshold value must be reported. Alexandrina Dragoi1. valves and piping arrangements.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s 6. Valcea. Sabin Chivescu1 1 CELIN SRL. Burchell…. e. Using a least squares method in a excel spreadsheet. detectors. Obtained in the fission reactors the tritiated heavy water is transformed by the help of TRF’s in pure tritium gas. Thecalculation scheme presented in this article demonstrates that the leaks in the system could be estimatedandlocalized. TN 37831-6087. Nidia C. having the stationary gas characteristic of tritium. VALCEA Sorin Brotac1. Keywords: leak rate. environment safety.g. work safety SOLUTII DE CONTROL UTILIZATE IN PROCESECRIOGENICE CU APLICATIE LA “PILOTUL EXPERIMENTAL” DE LA RM. Lucian Radu1.2. 2Asociatia pentru Automatizari si Instrumentatie din Romania ABSTRACT Sistemul de distilare criogenica reprezinta un proiect de un interes si o importanta deosebita. e-mail: ispiridon@icsi. the vacuum technology used and especially the possible operational safety issues. The TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) regarded as atechnical assembly is a complex system of specialized equipment. Timothy D.Carbon Materials Technology Group Metals and Ceramics Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This coefficient of opened surface was then used to evaluate and estimate a possible loss of tritium in the system.. Distilarea criogenica este realizata de o cascada de patru coloane aflate intr-o incinta vidata.ro ABSTRACT Tritium main fuel source for fusion reactors is a byproduct of electricity production in the nuclear power plants. “Carbon materials for hydrogen storage” DETERMINATION OF LOCAL LEAK RATE AND GAS LEAK LOCALIZATION IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING Stefan-Ionut Spiridon. The working pressures and temperatures of the TRF system define the types of sensors. Sorin Gherghinescu.tritiated heavy water. Marian Vacaru National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies . Romania. parameters of a nonlinear equation can be determined for a localized leak in an enclosure. in principal datorita faptului ca reprezinta o instalatie experimentala din sfera domeniului nuclear. Bucuresti. Sistemul de distilare criogenica are ca functie de baza separarea tritiului din deuteriul tritiat alimentat de sistemul de purificare.sensors. Leaks in the systems represent one of the main safety issues in a TRF.2. The pressure loss in the system has been modelled by evaluating the leak through an orifice with specified open surface.

si debit vane – bloc reglare combinat). Datorita mediului de lucru special – temperaturi criogenice si vid inaintat – se propun spre implementarii solutii adecvate constand in senzori de diode cu siliciu pentru temperatura. Adevarata provocare pentru controlul instalatiei consta in stabilirea punctelor de masura si a elementelor de executie. Tritiul este separat/concentrat in baza ultimei coloane de unde este extras in vederea stocarii. 38 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Vehicularea fluxurilor de gaz intre cele 4 coloane de distilare se realizeaza prin intermediul unor pompe cu membrane care functioneaza la temperatura ambianta intr-o zona adiacenta. Intregul proces este monitorizat si controlat de un controller logic programabil PLC in cadrul caruia sunt implementate buclele de reglare (puterea de incalzire – SSR si optocuploare. alegerea aparatelor (avand in vedere mediul deosebit – criogenic. cabluri electrice speciale si incalzitori rezistivi de puteri reduse. fluxurile tehnologice reduse si functionare continua 24/7) si stabilirea buclelor de control.C ge en ni Te ec hn no gi es an nd d E qu ui en nt Cr ry yo og ic cs sT ch ol lo og ie sa Eq ip pm me ts s prin detenta heliului.

Science and Materials Engineering .

S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in

SPIN DYNAMICS EVIDENCED BY EPR IN Sn1-xMnxO2 NANOPARTICLES ANNEALED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES A. Popa1, D. Toloman1, O. Raita1 , M. Stan1, B. S. Vasile2, L. M. Giurgiu1
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2University "Politehnica”, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials 1-7 Gh. Polizu, 011061 Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: popa@itim-cj.ro ABSTRACT
Recently, an intense research activity is being pursued on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) since the predicted room temperature ferromagnetism in these materials could be useful in spintronics. Tin oxide (SnO2) doped with Mn ions is one of these DMSs where the presence of high-temperature ferromagnetism was reported. It was shown that there is a strong dependence of their magnetic properties on both the sintering temperature and doping content. It is believed that oxygen vacancies and substitutional incorporation are important to produce ferromagnetism in semiconductor oxide doped with transition metal ions. The present paper reports detailed electron paramagnetic resonance investigations (EPR) of the samples in order to investigate the influence of annealing temperature on the properties of Sn1-xMnxO2 powders. X-band and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of Mn2+ ions in Sn1-xMnxO2 powders with x = 0.5%, 1%, annealed at different temperatures is reported. These samples are interesting to investigate as Mn doping produce ferromagnetism in SnO2, making a promising ferromagnetic semiconductor at room temperature.
1

EVIDENCE BY EPR OF FERROMAGNETIC PHASE IN Mn-DOPED ZnO NANOPARTICLES ANNEALED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES D. Toloman1, A. Mezaros2, A. Popa1, O. Raita1, T. D. Silipas1, B. S. Vasile3, A. R. Biris1 And L. M. Giurgiu1
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 3University "Politehnica" from Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, 011061, Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: dana.toloman@itim-cj.ro ABSTRACT
This paper reports the influence of the temperature annealing (Ta) on the structural, morphological, Raman and EPR spectra of Zn0.975Mn0.025O nanoparticles. XRD studies reveal a wurzite-type structure, while the formation of ZnMnO3 secondary phase was evidenced only for the nanoparticles annealed at Ta=700 °C. This impurity phase was also identified by Raman scattering in the samples thermally treated at 600 °C and higher temperatures. EPR investigations show that depending on the annealing temperature, Mn ions are incorporated either in the interior of ZnO nanoparticles (Ta = 425 and 500 °C) or at their surfaces (Ta > 500 °C). For the sample annealed at Ta= 425 °C, a new broad resonance line arises, which was attributed to a ferromagnetic phase. We assume that this ferromagnetic phase could be due to the interaction between the Mn2+ ions and uncompensated acceptor defects incorporated in to the ZnO lattice during the thermal treatment of the samples. Our investigations show that the ferromagnetism in Zn0.975Mn0.025O nanoparticles could appear in the low-temperature annealed samples and disappears in the samples thermally treated at high temperatures. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 41
1

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MAGNETIC RESONANCE INVESTIGATION OF Co2+ IONS IN ZnO NANOPOWDERS M. Stan1, A. Popa1, D. Toloman1, O. Raita1, A. R. Biris2, Ghe. Borodi1, A. S. Biris1, L. M. Giurgiu1
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies 400293 Cluj-Napoca, P.O.Box 700, Romania; 2UALR Nanotechnology Center, Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Arkansas, 72204, United States, e-mail: manuela.stan@itim-cj.ro
1

ABSTRACT
Magnetic semiconductors, especially TM-doped ZnO, where TM is one of the transitional magnetic elements: Mn, Co, Fe have been of great interest in the last years since they exhibit ferromagnetism with high Curie temperatures above 300K and large magnetization. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a very sensitive technique for the investigation of the TM ionic states and their local environments and interactions. In the present contribution, we report an EPR investigation of Zn1-xCoxO (x = 0.01, 0.03) nanopowders. Nano-sized powders of Zn1-xCoxO were synthesized by the sol-gel method. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal a wursite- type structure, while the formation of a secondary phase was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and the size of the particles were evaluated by SEM. EPR spectra confirm the substitution of Zn site by Co2+ ions. The EPR parameters of isolated Co2+ ion were evaluated as function of temperature and the doping degree, x. The absence of the hyperfine splitting in our samples could be attributed to an increased number of randomly distributed defects which enhances disorder of the crystalline fields at Co2+ sites.

Zn1-xFexO POWDERS AS SEEN BY EPR O. Raita, A. Popa, D. Toloman, M. Stan and L. M. Giurgiu
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania ABSTRACT
ZnO is an attractive system for quite a wide variety practical applications, being a chemically stable oxide semiconductor. It has been shown that Fe doping produces ferromagnetic semiconductor at room temperature [1]. This material, therefore, has the potential for use in spintronic devices such as spin transistors, spin light emiting diodes, very high density nonvolatile semiconductor memory and optical emitters. It is believed that oxygen vacancies and substitutional incorporation are important to produce ferromagnetism in semiconductor oxide doped with transition metal ions. The present paper reports detailed electron paramagnetic resonance investigations (EPR) of the samples in order to investigate how Fe ions are incorporated into the ZnO lattice and their interaction with environment. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of Fe3+ ions in Zn1-xFexO powders with X = 1%, 3%, 5% is reported. These samples are interesting to investigate as Fe doping produce ferromagnetism in ZnO, making a promising ferromagnetic semiconductor at room temperature.

[1] S.K.Misra and S.I.Andronenko, Journal of Applied Physics 101, 09H120 (2007)

42

The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation”

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HYBRID MATERIALS OBTAINED BY NICKEL IMMOBILIZATION ON MESOPOROUS MCM-41 AND THEIR APPLICATION IN ALCOHOLS OXIDATION Violeta Niculescu1, Ramona Ene2, Ionut Iordache1, Viorica Parvulescu2
National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT Rm. Valcea, Uzinei Street no. 4, P.O. Box Raureni 7, 240050, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania, phone: 0250.732.744; fax: 0250.732.746; E-mail: violeta@icsi.ro; 2Institute of Physical Chemistry, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021 Bucharest, Romania
1

ABSTRACT
The mesoporous MCM-41 is successfully used as the support to immobilize transition metals like nickel, both in physical and chemical methods. UV-VIS spectroscopy and N2 adsorption are applied to characterizing these supported catalysts. The results of alcohols oxidation reveal that these supported catalysts have high catalytic activity as their homogenous counterpart does. Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, MCM-41, mesoporous, nickel catalyst, oxidation.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON CHEMICAL CLEANING OF FILMED SA106 STEEL L. Popa, M. Tunaru, L. Velciu
Institute for Nuclear Research PO Box78, 1 Câmpului Str., Mioveni 115400, ROMANIA e-mail: laurentiu.popa@nuclear.ro ABSTRACT
The carbon steel components from primary and secondary circuit of a Nuclear Power Station react with high temperature cooling agent forming several iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. These deposits can conduct to some damaging consequences such as: tubes constrictions, pitting and intergranular corrosion and finally to the decreasing of heat transfer and the development of a radiation field around the primary circuit. The cleaning process involves the chemical dissolution of the corrosion deposits in diluted organic acidic solution containing usually a complexing carboxilic acid, a reductant and one or more corrosion inhibitors. To evaluate the removing rates of the superficial films two types of methods were used: gravimetric and potentiodynamic. Correlating our experimental results with literature data, it established the chemical composition of one cleaning solution specific to carbon steels and some other parameters such as: the solution temperature during cleaning process, the contact period of time of sample/ solution and the rapport sample surface/cleaning solution. Finally two models of mechanisms applicable to our specific conditions have been adopted. Keywords: filmed carbon steel, cleaning solutions, gravimetric and potentiodynamic methods

1. INTRODUCTION It is known that corrosion of the mild steel equipments from the secondary circuit can produce thick and adherent deposits which will reduce the heat transfer in this circuit and implicitly will lead to its overheating and failure in severe cases [1].
The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 43

0.05%S and the rest iron. In this context.inh. 0. The filming of the samples was executed in this type of solution in autoclaves at the abovementioned parameters during 90 days.filmed samples in autoclaves at high temperature and pressure in AVT solution in conditions specifically to a NPP secondary circuit. The main objective of this operation is the improving of the thermal efficiency by removing of the deposits of corrosion products and oxide films. Temperature and pH values may be lower in some regions than in others. The experiments were made using two types of samples: .B steel having the following chemical composition: 0.rate) abs .uncovered samples mechanically polished. In this context.01%Al. therefore to try the efficiency of several acid cleaning solutions no inhibited or inhibited. P(%) – protection (in percents) Electrochemical measurements consisted in potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. it is very useful to control in real time the thermal and chemical stability of the cleaning solution maintaining the solution aggressiveness at a reasonable level. 44 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . To accomplish the paper objective.5)MPa in a solution prepared using demineralised water treated with volatile amines (AVT) having a pH comprised between 9. 0. The inhibitor introduced in cleaning solutions was triethanolamine (TEA). (corr. were used comparatively a gravimetric and an electrochemical method – potentiodynamic (PD).inh. the chemical cleaning of the circuits from the nuclear power plants became very important.rate)inh.21%C. which hinder the heat transfer through the tube walls and keep the loss of the uncovered metal as small as possible [2].4 and 9. In electrochemical cell were introduced in different cleaning solutions the following three electrodes: the working. The presence of a high density of pores could favour the accumulation of steam in pores. (corr. The uninhibited cleaning solutions (D) consisted basically in a diluted solution of citric acid and Na4EDTA having a pH ≤ 4. 0.inh (1) (corr. which is a poor thermal conductor. 2.rate) inh. In the case of the components subjected at high velocity of fluids are operative the flow assisted corrosion (FAC) mechanisms.7..rate )abs.05%Mn. The cleaning solutions are made usually from mineral acids or mixtures of organic acids. bringing about the protective oxides on carbon steel surfaces should become lesser stable. it was necessary to film the samples in the specific conditions of a NPP secondary circuit. The protection offered by the inhibitors was evaluated in the case of both methods with the equation: P(% ) = where: (corr . 0. To establish the inhibitors efficiency.5 ± 0. The component cleaning is reached using suitable acid solutions and appropriate corrosion inhibitors [3. rinsed.. EXPERIMENTAL The material used in our experiments was SA106 gr. degreased in acetone and dried and respectively .rate)abs. These measurements were made using an system constituted from a potentiostat interfaced with a computer.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in All parts of the secondary circuit can be subjected to corrosion by a variety of mechanisms.4].09%P.corrosion rate in presence of inhibitors.38%Si. The heat transfer is influenced both by the compactness degree of the magnetite film and by the fact that the thermal conductivity of magnetite at the operating temperature of a secondary circuit is about 10 times lesser than that of the carbon steels. auxiliary and reference electrode (SCE).corrosion rate in absence of inhibitors. − (corr .2. namely at (260 ± 5)oC and (5. whereas the inhibitors generally consist of a mixture of organic compounds that hinder the corrosion of the uncovered carbon steel by different mechanisms.

5 time (hours) Figure 1.the potential range: [(-250) ÷ (+1600)]mV(SCE).the tests were made at two temperatures: the room temperature (25±5)oC and respectively (80±5)oC. The gravimetric determinations of the corrosion rates consisted in the evaluation of weight losses recorded after cleaning of the filmed samples in presence and respectively in absence of inhibitors. Gravimetric and micrographic results Comparing the experimental weight losses curves corresponding to system uncovered carbon steel/ uninhibited cleaning solution and respectively the same system containing 0.the potential sweep rate: 0.2 mV/sec in the case of filmed samples and 1 mV/sec in the case of bare (uncovered) samples. TD6 (0. -2 Weight loss (mg/cm2) -4 Ts15( 0.5 1 1. In Figure 2 are presented the similar curves using filmed samples and an inhibitor concentration of 0.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in The main parameters of PD measurements were: . recorded in static and respectively dynamic regime.5 4 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3. 3. The weight loss views corresponding to uncovered SA106 steel descaled in static regime in uninhibited solution (Ts13) and respectively with 0.1. we concluded that the values of weight losses recorded in static regime in both situations had been smaller than those recorded in dynamic regime (Figure 1). . .003M (TEA). TD6) The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 45 . the last being the usual temperature in the installations during a real execution of cleaning operations.0005M TEA) -6 -8 -10 -12 0 0.0005M TEA (Ts15) and in dynamic regime in similar conditions (TD2.0005M TEA.0005M TEA) Ts13 uninh.5 2 2. The tests were made at (80±5)oC in a glass bottle equipped with an upward refrigerant and a magnetic stirrer. 0 TD2 uninh.5 3 3.

Representing the similar values recorded in other case in dynamic regime.00113 M (T10). 5 3 3. .S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in SA 106 F-T13 SA 106 F-T11 0 SA 106 F-TD2 SA 106 F-TD8 -2 Weight loss (mg/cm2) -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 0 0. The films formed after 90 days of autoclavization in AVT solution at parameters specifically to secondary circuit had a thickness comprised between 3 and 8 µm.0045 M (T11). we observed that the film is completely removed ( Figure 4). .0083 M (T12) 46 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .5 1 1. 5 2 2. we remarked a similar tendency of kinetic curves. 5 tim e (hours) Figure 3.003M TEA (T11) and in dynamic regime in similar solutions (TD2 and TD8) Representing in Figure 3 the weight losses data recorded in static regime corresponding to systems filmed samples/ solutions containing some increasing concentrations of TEA. only difference consisting in the greater values recorded. while after a dynamic cleaning of one hour.5 2 2. 0. 5 1 1.5 3 3. After 2 hours cleaning in static regime.5 time (hours) Figure 2.with the increasing of TEA concentration added in cleaning solution. 5 4 4. we remarked that: .5 4 4. 0. The weight loss views corresponding to filmed SA106 steel descaled in static regime in uninhibited solution (T13) and respectively with 0. being relatively uniform and continuous.the greatest values of weight losses were recorded in uninhibited solutions.the corresponding values of weight losses had been smaller and smaller. SA 106 F-T10 0 SA 106 F-T11 SA 106 F-T13 SA 106 F-T12 Weight loss (mg/cm2) -1 SA 106 F-T15 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 0 0. 0. The weight loss views corresponding to filmed SA106 steel descaled in static regime in uninhibited solution (T13) and respectively containing following TEA concentrations: 0. was ascertained a great thinning of film.0005 M (T15).

it remarked an acceleration of corrosion with the increasing of temperatures. In this Table are presented the electrochemical rates calculated on the basis of Tafel slopes (βc. we exhibit down the main data referring to the inhibitors studied. βa) and polarization resistance (Rp) in view to estimate the efficiency of inhibitors. a) b) Figure 5 a.003M TEA) (curves 1a. The PD diagrams corresponding to systems formed from filmed (a) and respectively uncovered samples (b)/ uninhibited solution (D) (curves 2a. • the better inhibitor the greater displacement of cathodic and anodic Tafel lines. proving that this compound acted as mixed-type inhibitor. Comparing the behaviour of the same system: filmed samples/uninhibited cleaning solution at two temperatures: 25°C and 85°C. the cleaning of filmed samples of three carbon steels types which proceeded at 85°C.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in a) b) c) Figure 4. Starting from above-mentioned electrochemical findings and considering also the values included in Table 1. c) remanent film after two hours of descaling in dynamic regime 3. Examining the two Tafel lines (cathodic and anodic. Micrographies of SA106 steel samples: a) filmed by autoclavization. b. • the values of corrosion rates of filmed samples were lesser 2. we observed: • the value of Ecorr corresponding to filmed samples was with max. we remarked that: • the presence of an increased concentration of any efficient inhibitor conducted at the parallel displacement of cathodic and anodic Tafel lines.2.003M TEA (Figure 5a. b). b) remanent film after one hour of descaling in dynamic regime. 1b ) and respectively/ (D+0. executed in presence of several concentrations of triethanolamine (TEA) shown that the most spectacular results were obtained in presence of 0. On the basis of literature data and our experience. These results indicated that the inhibitor present in solution inhibited both the hydrogen evolution and the dissolution process.5÷3 times than the similar values corresponding to uncovered samples. Electrochemical results Applying at 25°C the potentiodynamic method to systems formed from two kinds of samples/ uninhibited cleaning solutions. 2b) Therefore. respectively) corresponding to the behaviour of the system: filmed The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 47 .200mV nobler comparatively with the similar value corresponding to uncovered (bare) samples.

Electrochemical parameters corresponding to systems filmed SA106 carbon steel / several cleaning solutions Electrochemical parameters determined from System studied PD curves Rp E(I=O) Vcor βa βc [mV] [V/dec] [V/dec] [mpy] [Ω ] -280.37 131.6. The dissolution starts with the adsorption and attack of the chelating anion at the surface iron sites. Table 1. Fe2+ and decelerates with the increase of Fe3+ concentration.2÷2.5 100 100 25. Fe3+ ions mainly come from the oxidation of Fe2+ and are present at small concentrations.6. the magnetite dissolution proceeds through a chemical reaction having an electrochemical path. Furthermore. other minor source of Fe3+ ions is represented by the chemical dissolution of small scales of magnetite in the solution bulk. Other important consequence of the reaction (2) is that a corrosion inhibitor must not hinder her kinetics. From this standpoint. the main role of corrosion inhibitors added to acid cleaning solutions is to restrain the corrosive attack on the bare metal. otherwise the complete magnetite dissolution could take a long time.86 47.05 56.5 100 100 70. this fact is accomplished by a reductive agent. Thus. this fact indicates that TEA is a mixed-type inhibitor.D) SA 106 F/ T 10 -291. Some authors reported that the dissolution efficiency decreases in the order: EDTA> oxalic acid> nitriloacetic acid> ascorbic acid> citric acid1. where magnetite reduction and metal oxidation support the cathodic and anodic processes respectively.6 100 100 59.3 100 100 80. as a consequence of the reaction (2). the overall reaction: Fe + 2 Fe3+ → 3 Fe2+ (3) has only a negligible effect on the stability of base materials.00113M TEA) SA 106 F/ T 15 -318.0005M TEA) SA 106 F/ T 11 -303. by the preparation mode of the oxide or by a catalytic effect of Fe2+ in solution. The same rate increases with the increase of FeII in the surface lattice.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in samples/ (solution + inhibitor) respectively solution no inhibited.003M TEA) Curve PD 5 PD 6 PD 7 PD 8 If is considered that the magnetite film formed over carbon steel surfaces at the high temperature and pressure.84 41. it observes a displacement almost parallel of both lines. The free dissolution rate increases with the concentration of H+.8 (D+0. The decrease of the dissolution current with the cathodic polarization after the reach of the first maximum is explained by enrichment of the oxide surface in cations5. the maximum rate of dissolution is at pH = 2.19 (D+ 0. under reducing and alkaline conditions is a protective layer with low 48 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . followed by the complexation and dissolution. being considered that it promotes an electron exchange with FeIII from the crystal lattice. the removal of magnetite film is carried out by the overall reaction: Fe3O4 + Fe + 8 H+ → 4 Fe2+ + 4 H2O (2) This reaction shows that the direct oxidation of the base metal is an essential step.36 SA 106 F/T 13 (uninhibited solution . This observation means that ferric ions do not play a main role as concerns the corrosion of carbon and low-alloyed steels because. Experience has shown that as long as there is a galvanic coupling between magnetite and base metal. Therefore.62 (D+0. In the case of use for cleaning of chelating agents. when the stability constant of FeIII complex is high.

It is known that the variations in the chemical composition of the inhibitors may attract great changes in their performances. In the presence of the wet surfaces of samples.groups in this inhibitor. can be accurately quantified by simple methods such as weight loss or electrochemical methods. When this magnetite-coated carbon steel is exposed in organic acids and a complexing agent. TEA adsorbed molecules easier changes out of place the water molecules from the superficial film. Several studies shown that the dispersible inhibitor solutions under form of stable emulsions where the inhibitor concentrations are more or at least equally with the critic micelle concentration (CMC). easily are adsorbed on the surface of samples covered with iron oxides and respectively oxy-hydroxides. These OH. The explication of great efficiency of TEA consists in the presence of three OH. A possible method is the determination of iron concentration from cleaning solution simultaneously with the determination of hydrogen volume released.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in defect concentration. which functional groups contribute at the formation of the superficial films and the modality in which the chemical new formed bonds may affect the resistance of this new formed film. finally. When the corrosion inhibitor is in the proximity of the metallic surface. are more efficient in identical concentrations than the homologue substances that contain one amine group. it is important to establish which functional groups will tie with the metal. the magnetite film is progressively dissolved followed by complexation of iron ions. after that. The arylic inhibitors which contain amine and thio-groups bound from the benzenic nucleus. But a quantification of wall thinning that takes place when the magnetite film undergoes dissolution is difficult. at the diminution of corrosive attack of solution ions. It is known that the corrosion inhibitors contain hydrophile or hydrophobe groups. it is very probable that the both components of the system the superficial oxide and the solution . The carbon steel base metal. function of their molecular constitution. is clear that the transportation of ions through the pores in the oxide and along the oxide grain boundary is very important. The wall thinning taking place in the absence of magnetite film. the strength of these links. Figure 6 [4] Illustration of the possible amine adsorption mechanisms: a) chemisorptions on the metal surface and b) hydrogen bonding to the superficial passive film The inhibitors type amine containing two or more amine groups in their molecules. were been executed a lot of studies which followed the correlation of the molecular structure of several types of inhibitors with their efficiencies7. may change especially the cathodic process mechanisms by formation of some corrosion products which will participate The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 49 .groups having a polar character. has been found to undergo some corrosion by the anodic dissolution of the metal due to acid present in medium. may adsorb on the metals.should attract the hydrophile groups. Afterwards. in the absence of magnetite film. forming several complexes with the superficial iron oxides. are more efficient than the solutions where their concentration is placed under CMC value. In this way this process will lead. Consequently.

50 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Prince A. T. the inhibitor existing in these solutions will interact with anodic and cathodic surface reaction sites.Chen. A.. 3) The most rapid method of comparing of the efficiency of inhibitors was proved the superimposing of cathodic region of PD curves. 51. 1984. 1995. Y. Corrosion NACE.L. 2) Metallic corrosion in aqueous acid solutions being a complex and heterogeneous process. 3University of Pitesti. REFERENCES 1.A.groups in this inhibitor that having a polar character. During thermo-gravimetric research. 2. The experimental studies consisted in thermal cycling tests on uranium-zirconium hydride (45 wt% uranium) fuel over the temperature range 500 to 750°C. we used the gravimetric and potentiodynamic methods applied in parallel to the filmed and respectively bare samples of carbon steel SA106. Some researchers studying this phenomenon established that the organic inhibitors containing diamines might produce several configurations or orientations function of several adsorption possibilities on the metallic surface (Figure 6). 4) The explication of great efficiency of TEA consists in the presence of three OH. Blesa M. B. This inhibitor was used in the following concentration range: [(5. Journal of Nuclear Materials.10-2)]M. J. 797-805. Pitesti . 289. tests in cleaning uninhibited solutions and respectively in the same solutions containing several concentrations of triethanolamine as inhibitor were executed. R. fabricated at INR. 281-290. either retarding the electrochemical reactions or limiting the transport of reactive corrosive species from solution. EVALUATION OF PHISICAL STABILITY OF THE U-ZrH SYSTEM Mariea Gruia (Deaconu)1. 2. M. Borghi E. Iulia Dumitrescu1 1 RAAN -Institute for Nuclear Research. 103-110.M. easily are adsorbed on the wet surface of samples covered with iron oxides and respectively oxy-hydroxides. 2 University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest. Ion Ciuca2.. Romani ABSTRACT The physical stability of uranium zirconium-hydride fuel has been studied by means of simultaneous measurements of thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA-DTA). 2001. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experimental data which supplies the information regarding the practical use of TRIGA fuel elements...10-4)÷(2. 295-308. 1995. Nuclear Energy.Mioveni.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in afterwards at the formation of the superficial films. Tiberiu Meleg1.. CONCLUSIONS 1) To evaluate the efficiency of uninhibited and respectively inhibited cleaning solutions. The uranium-zirconium fuel is an integral fuel-moderator system and the fuel manufactory technologies are based on powder metallurgy. Marioara Abrudeanu3. Rufus A. 34. Colloid Interface Sci. Morphological and structural changes were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 100 heating-cooling cycles.deaconu@nuclear. 4.. In the same goal. Velmurugan S.. Godfrey.ro. we noticed mass los and the thermal events occurring (the phase transformation) to the sample are recorded by DTA. e-mail: mariea. 3. Romania.

INTRODUCTION This paper examined the action of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) on some metallic materials used in building of installations of heavy water production. remained in crystalline cell metal. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 51 . sulphuretted hydrogen. uranium zirconium hydride. Mioveni. different time periods. 1 Campului Str. In many materials the presence of hydrogen have a brittleness effect. 115400. România PO BOX 78. Argeş. caused the stress which favour the cracking. 1. In this installation of heavy water production is used carbon steel type G 52-28. is the hydrosulphurous proceeding called Girdler-Sulphide (GS). Another effect is that of crack determined of mono-atomic hydrogen which proceeds from generalized corrosion (cathode reaction) or from hydrogen in solution adsorbed on metal surface. after exposed period. Because at low temperature hydrogen no more diffused. Maria Mihalache.Câmpului Street. Mioveni.velciu@nuclear. Niţu. chemical elements determination (hydrogen content) and microhardness test. Because the layer formed has of a majority the pyrite compound. used in Romania at ROMAG-Prod Drobeta Turnu-Severin. The exposure time is also important: a large period leads to a negative impact especially for the carbon steel. E-mail: Lucian. No. microstructure. Keywords: carbon steel. stainless steel. it is used in building of installations because requiring very big quantity it is an economic material as against another [1].5 years. The contact of liquid and gaseous fazes circulated in counter-current is realized by some elements of contact (disks) made of stainless steels. thermo-gravimetric BEHAVIOUR EVALUATION OF SOME STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR HEAVY WATER PLANT EXPOSED TO SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN ENVIRONMENT Lucian Velciu. using the optic and electron microscopy. the proceeding is named “pyritization”. In conclusion was observed that the samples protected by different layers were less affected than the unprotected samples. A convenient method to obtain the heavy water by ordinary water. The analysis consisted in the evaluation of the quality of the structural materials and layers formed. ceramics or metallic deposit) and the others were not protected. Although this steel reacts easily at sulphuretted hydrogen.ro ABSTRACT This paper aim is to present the metallographic analysis performed on some structural materials liable to action of sulphuretted hydrogen environment. A protective method for the interior surface columns of installation against the corrosion products deposits is achieved by the chemical passivity (controlled attack of surface) whit form an impermeable layer for H2S.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in Keywords: Thermal cycling. Some of the tested samples were protected by different layers (pyrite. Were examinate two metallic materials: carbon steel and stainless steel (G52-28 and 304L) tested in GS1 column of ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant and in an experimental installation developed by ICSI Râmnicu-Vâlcea. Al. The samples were maintained in sulphuretted hydrogen environment for a time period comprised between one month and about 2. Alice Dinu Institute for Nuclear Research –Piteşti. The evaluation of materials behaviour was performed using the metallographic methods. [2]. Laurenţiu Popa. especially on those whit superiors mechanical proprieties. microhardness.

Aspiration pumps (P): 682-P1303C.8 1. Hot column: C1104B-GS1. notation: M-Inox Test conditions: The ROMAG samples were tested even in the installation of heavy water production (GS1 column) on her exploitation period (about 2. Cold column: C1103B-GS1column. Samples whit stainless steel deposition: A12 (720 hours pyritization) and B11(720 hours pyritization + 2358 hours tested). polishing. Table 1.Samples whit stainless steel deposition (308L) and followed of pyritization. the test conditions being presented in Table 1. and PH10. The origin samples and notations: 1. cold column temperature 32-35ºC and pressure 1. 2. [3] Metallographic analysis were performed visual for macroscopic examination (photographs by camera) and by optic microscopy for microstructure. H2 moist 3. The usual methods for examination were: optic and electron microscopy (metallography).0 MPa.5 Min. [3] Figure 1 . The ICSI samples were tested in an experimental installation developed by ICSI RâmnicuVâlcea. etching). Test conditions. ceramics or metallic deposit) and the others were not protected. the microscopic examination of structure were performed using a metallographic microscope type Olympus GX 71 (magnification x50-x200).S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Were exanimate two metallic materials: a carbon steel (G52-28) and a stainless steel (304L) which were exposed in GS1 (hot-cold bithermal) column from ROMAG-Prod Heavy Water Plant [1].96-2.5-4. notation CC or PC: Inox-CC. Macrostructure (visual examination). 3. Some of the tested samples were protected by different layers (pyrite. notation: M-OLC. as received (witness). As received samples (witness). 653-P1308. The samples were stamped for identification: A. The macrostructure aspect of the samples exposed in cold column (CC): 52 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .5-7.Carbon steel sample (type G52-28). Sample whit ZrO2 deposition: E11(720 hours pyritization) and E2 (720 hours pyritization +2358 hours tested). Vâlcea. Carbon steel G52-28.Samples whit ZrO2 deposition and followed of pyritization.5 2304 54 Metallographic analysis. D.99. Samples from ROMAG.[2] and in an experimental installation developed by ICSI Râmnicu-Vâlcea [3].9-2. PH3.5 years. E. PC10. B. C. Samples from ICSI Rm. [2] Parameters Pressure Temperature Working medium H 2 S Water saturation H 2 S Composition Flow (water + H 2 S) Exposure/test time Stop times (revisions) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION UM bar ˚C % % m3/h hour hour Values 10-21 30-135 H2O-H2S. ICSI: H2O. PC3. notation HC or PH: Inox-HC. The samples were maintained in sulphuretted hydrogen environment for a time period comprised between one month and about 2.5 years): hot column temperature 127-137ºC and pressure 1.H2S. After the preparation of metallographic samples (cutting. chemical elements determination (hydrogen content) and micro hardness test. F. where 720 hours is pyritization time and 2358 hours-tested time in H2O-H2S medium.06 MPa. Stainless steel (304L/316L). 761-P1304C.

CC sample: ferrite+pearlite Figures 5-6. Stainless steel. CC. Stainless steel. as received: Ferrito-pearlitic structure with pearlite (dark rows) rifed in ferrite mass (blank). Carbon steel. as received sample: austenite+carbides Figure 8. easily separate at manipulation. G52-28 Figure 2. 6V. after testing Figure. Figure 4. [3] The etching reactive used were: chemical etch whit nital (2%) for carbon steel. electrolytic etch whit 10% solution oxalic acid. Figure 1. 3. Carbon steel G52-28 samples: The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 53 . Figures 8-9.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in Figure 2 .Carbon steel.Carbon steel. Carbon steel. The carbon steel samples from the two columns present a similar microstructure: Ferrite+Pearlite with pearlite rifed in ferrite mass. Stainless steel (304L): Figure 7 . as received: austenitic structure with twined grains and carbides precipitates. [3] The study of the base material and the zone near the formed layers (iron pyrites) were realized with the electron microscope of high resolution TESCAN VEGA II LMU. As received sample. HC sample: ferrite+pearlite Figure 6. Figure 7. The stainless steel samples from the two columns present a similar microstructure: austenitic structure with twined grains and carbides precipitates. G52-28. CC sample: austenite+carbides sample: austenite+carbides Electron microscopy (SEM). Carbon steel (G52-28): Figure 4. as received sample: ferrite+pearlite Figure 5. HC. for stainless steel.Plate with instable dust deposit in superficial layer. G52-28. HC Figure 9.Stainless steel. Stainless steel. after testing Microstructure.Plate with adherent deposits (relative) and non-uniform corrosion zones. The macro structural aspect of the samples expose/maintain in hot column (HC): Figure 3 .

Figure 11 . The sample of cold column (≈30˚C) have a hydrogen content (ch=2.03 ppm) higher about 2. HC carbon steel: micro-cracks. porous layer +compact.2-0.5 time given the hot column (≈130˚C) samples (ch=1. porous layer+compact Figure 11. This thing it happen because at low temperature hydrogen no more diffused.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in Figure 10 . comparative with hot column.HC stainless steel. thickness layer ≈25 µm (centre) To notice that in the same test conditions. CC stainless steel. nonuniform+corrozive penetration in substrate. thickness layer 35-38 µm (centre) Figure 13.CC stainless steel. in the experimental conditions of cold column.4 grams which then were descaling and weighing. it was observed a higher absorption of hydrogen on the unprotected samples. remaining in metal. carbon steel: micro-cracks (x2000). Also. [3] The hydrogen content determination were realized with ELTRA OH 900 analyzer. CC carbon steel: porous external layer+corrozive penetration in substrate Stainless steel samples: Figure 12 .13-1. To notice an increment of hydrogen content on unprotect samples comparatively with as received samples. In general. the pyritized samples present a hydrogen content (ch) comparable with as received samples. Figure 13 . From the samples (witness and tested) were cutting pieces of 0. carbon steel: porous external layer+internal homogeneous. thickness layer ≈25 µm (centre)+unaffected base material (right-bottom). 54 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . HC stainless steel.Cold column (CC).99-3.44 ppm).Hot column (HC). The result of determinations is presented in Table 2. Figure 12. Figure 10. Hydrogen content (hc). crakes in layer (x250). thickness layer 35-38 µm (centre)+unaffected base material (right-bottom). the carbon steel samples were very corroded comparatively with stainless steel samples which not have significantly modifications.

as received 170 Cold column-CC 170 147-159 Hot column-HC 161 156 Pump-P1303/1304 141-181 151-165 A12. Inox-CC 175. the carbon steel samples were very corroded comparatively with stainless steel samples which not have significantly modifications.03 1. Hydrogen content.1) Microhardness. 720h – ICSI 181 158 E2.32 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 After experiments on comes a diminution of the microhardness of tested samples comparative with as received sample in central zone and a growth in the state/substrate interface.99-3.13-1.44 0.ICSI 193 158 Stainless steel. the Vickers micro-hardness tests were performed at 0.65 2. Microhardness Vickers (MHV0. 720+2358h .1 Kgf (100gf) micro-load and were obtained following average values presented in Table 3 [3]: Table 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Material Carbon steel Carbon steel Carbon steel Carbon steel Carbon steel Carbon steel Carbon steel Stainless steel Stainless steel Stainless steel State/ Test/ Origin as received Cold column -ROMAG Hot column-ROMAG Pump P1303C-ROMAG Pump P1304C-ROMAG 720 h / ICSI 720+2358 h / ICSI as received Cold column -ROMAG Hot column -ROMAG Hydrogen content.44 0.78 1.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in Table 2. MHV 0. [3] No. Microstructure: The carbon steel samples from the two columns present a similar microstructure: Ferrite+Pearlite with pearlite rife in ferrite mass. the sample on hot column presented an adherent deposits and non-uniform corrosion zones. hc [ppm] 0. [3] The determinations of Vickers micro hardness were performed on samples in cross section using a (micro) durometer OPL (x500). The stainless steel samples from the two columns present a similar microstructure: austenitic structure with twined grains and carbides precipitates. sample code Interface strate/substrate Central zone Carbon steel. crt.5 170 Stainless steel.81 In conclusion on remark that the pre-filmed material with the protective layers reducing the hydrogen adsorption in base metal. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 55 . After microstructure etch. Microhardness tests (Vickers). Electron microscopy (SEM): In the same test conditions.13 2. CONCLUSIONS Macrostructure: The samples on cold column presented an instable dust deposit. Inox-HC 210 186 No. as received 185 Stainless steel. crt.99 0.90 0.1 [kgf/mm2] Material.

Dinu.I nr. E. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. on comes a diminution of the microhardness of tested samples comparative with as received sample in central zone and a growth in the state/substrate interface. 2002 [3] L. Rada2. Culea2. Silipas1 2 National Institute for R&D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies. Cluj-Napoca. S.-Pitesti. Mihalache.C. V. Romania Department of Physics&Chemistry. Bot1.“Supravegherea proprietatilor fizice si chimice ale materialelor de structura si ale stratului piritizat”. REFERENCES [1] L. D.Velciu. comparative with hot column in the cold column. Structural investigations show that the photosensitive effect are due to a reduction of W+6 to W+5 and/or W+4 promoted by the oxidation of Pb+4 and some structural changes of the borate network. it was observed a higher absorption of hydrogen on the unprotected samples.R. 400020 Cluj-Napoca. A. the hydrogen content on unprotect samples growth comparatively with as received samples. M. Doanta -„Examinarea otelului G52-28 expus in coloanele de schimb izotopic”. Dinu. Rada1. A. V. Dragomir –„Evaluarea comportării în timp a materialelor structurale care funcţ ionează în mediu de hidrogen sulfurat”.Deaconu.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in Hydrogen content (hc): After tests. Rednic1.Pitigoi. Vickers microhardness: After experiments. Also. Aldea1. N. 400293. The exposure time is also important: a large period leads to a negative impact especially for the carbon steel. 2007 [2] A.RI nr. 2011 INVESTIGATED OF TUNGSTEN-LEAD-BORATE GLASSES BEFORE AND AFTER LASER IRRADIATION M. L.C. are obtained by conventional melting–quenching method and characterized using X-ray diffraction. These tungsten–lead–borate systems exhibit a photochromic effect which can be induced through laser exposures (λ=633 nm) directly on the bulk sample. 64xx/2002 –S. where 0≤x≤40 mol%. F.Voicu.N. 56 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . M.77xx/2007-S.Velciu. Romania 1 ABSTRACT Glasses in the xWO3·(100−x)[3B2O3·PbO] system.-Pitesti. A.C. FTIR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Also.N-Pitesti. the pre-filmed material with the protective layers reducing the hydrogen adsorption in base metal. DFT calculations show higher thermodynamic stability of the [W2O7] and [WO4] polyhedrons comparative with the [WO6] polyhedron. D.Velciu. Influence of sulphuretted hydrogen environment: was observed that the samples protected by different layers were less affected than the unprotected samples. 93xx/2011 – S.R I nr.N.

4 Uzinei St. in propylene glycol. and La0. Stefan1. The conversion of glycerol hydrogenolysis in aqueous solutions on a commercial nickel catalyst is evaluated under various conditions of temperature and time. in the thirst stage. Utilizing the glycerol. 400293 Cluj-Napoca. starting from K2PtCl6. 2University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. XRD and XPS. Leostean1. The process was realized by using a Stöber system resulted by mixing ethanol. Romania. C. through propylene oxide. 70050 1 ABSTRACT Bio-diesel is produced using alcoholysis of bio-renewable fats and oils. could have a major impact on the future use of bio-diesel fuel. Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection.33MnO3 (LSMO) manganite nanoparticles covered with platinum (LSMO@Pt). O. Iordache Ioan1 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies . not only would help the decreasing of bio-diesel production. S. Asachi” Technical University of Iaşi. Soran1. Macavei1 1 National Institute for R&D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies. Box 700. In case of LSMO@Pt nanoparticles the LSMO cores were prepared by using a sol-gel method followed by Pt shell formation by a seeding method. reaction pressure in range 8-30 bar.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in PLATINUM BASED MULTI-SHELL MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES AND FUNCTIONALIZED COMPOSITES O. the nanoparticles were covered with an additional silica shell. The creating a low-cost catalytic process for converting the glycerol. The bio-diesel production increasing will lead to large quantities of glycerine. The Fe@Pt nanoparticles were prepared by the reverse micelle method. C. D. These parameters are necessary and sufficient for developing a The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 57 . L.67Sr0. and reaction time for 2-4 hours. Claudia Cobzaru2. H2O and triethylorthosilicate (TEOS). Also.. GLYCEROL HYDROGENOLYSIS OF GLYCEROL TO PROPYLENE GLYCOL ON COMMERCIAL NICKEL CATALYSTS DESCRIBED BY A MATHEMATICAL MODEL Adriana Marinoiu1. HRTEM. Mangeron. In order to conjugate BSA-FITC onto the outer shell of nanoparticles 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was used. S. The commercial propylene glycol production route is propylene-based. Rm Valcea. In view of further bio-applications. First the iron cores were realized by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. Pana1. but the inexpensive propylene glycol could be used as a low. 2“Gh. From each unit of vegetable oil that is converted to bio-diesel approximately 10% by weight will be recovered as by-product glycerol. Romania ABSTRACT In the present work the following systems were prepared and characterized: core-shell iron / platinum nanoparticles. In the second stage. Vasile Tanislav1. Luminescent response of water dispersed nanoparticles was investigated by confocal microscopy. Romania. 71. Reactions were conducted in following conditions: temperature 180-2200C. C. glycerol is reacted over a heterogeneous catalyst with hydrogen at moderate conditions. reaction time 8 hours. The properties of the composites were investigated by TEM. Catalin Capris1. and therefore it is connected to the price of petroleum. M. ammonium hydroxide. the Pt shell was added. a by-product from bio-diesel production. Finally bovine serum albumine –fluorescein isothiocyanate was covalently bound to the multi-shell system. M.toxicity replacement for ethylene glycol. The activation of the catalysts was performed simultaneously with the hydrogenation at temperature in range 200-2500C. Elena Carcadea1. in 1-butanol and octane. SQUID and VSM techniques were used to study the magnetic properties of the as prepared functionalized multi-shell systems. (Fe@Pt). P.ICIT Rm Valcea. Matea2. In our study. Bele2.

58 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .ICIT Rm. Romania ABSTRACT Fuel cell systems offer the promise of economically delivering power with environmental and other benefits. and ethanol) were prepared and the effect of dispersion solvent was discussed. 4 Uzinei St. Rm Valcea. Laurentiu Patularu. mathematical model EFFECT OF DISPERSION SOLVENT IN CATALYST INK FOR MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES Adriana Marinoiu. Irina Petreanu. The mathematical model developed using Table Curve 3D software program for the hydrogenation process over the nickel catalyst has the correlation coefficient closed to unity. The efficiency of CCM made from iso-propanol solvent is attributed to aggregated ionomer that created large pores for fast mass transfer and better proton conducting network in the catalyst layer than those created by solution phase ionomer. such as methanol. Mircea Raceanu. The explanation is: the low boiling point solvent evaporated much faster than the high boiling point solvent during the coating of the catalyst ink. The deposition of the right catalyst content on the electrodes by a simple method is desirable in the effective production of MEA. glycerol. The prepared CCM (catalyzed coated membrane) were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine its morphology: the thickness and uniformity of the catalyst layer. The characteristic equation of this model describes the dependence of the hydrogenation process conversion on the temperature and time. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is the key component of the fuel cell. High drying speed caused surface cracks.. The number of equations decreases very much and the equation corresponding to the best mathematical model is finally obtained. Three equations specific to the hydrogenation process and the correlation coefficients were presented. The effect of dispersion solvents in catalyst ink on performance of structural catalyst layer is studied. Amalia Soare National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . The control of the surface tension of the catalyst ink is fundamental to allow the catalyst layer deposition by spraying technique and an optimal ink composition was studied. Different catalyst inks with various solvents (methanol. Proper dispersion of Nafion ionomer and catalyst particle is one of the critical factors for CCM obtaining and catalyst utilization. 2-propanol. In this study a precursor ink composition is developed to produce high performance catalyst layers. Additional studies regarding other methods for improving the performance of the membrane electrode assembly due to catalyst ink are currently under investigation. elemental map analysis was obtained for all the elements present in the catalyst layer. Keywords: copper chromite catalyst.S en nc ea an nd dM Ma at er al ng gi ne ee er ng g Sc ci ie ce te ri ia ls sE En in ri in mathematical model of the hydrogenolysis process. Ink containing high boiling point solvents (such as glycerine) had less cracks than inks containing a low boiling point solvent. The catalyst ink containing iso-propanol had better dispersion and proved a uniformity of the catalyst layer. Valcea. Micro structural characterization was carried out in connection with the prepared CCM and from EDS examination. hydrogenolysis.

Nuclear Power fission and fusion .

Molten Salt Reactor System. Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor System.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS – OVERVIEW Ramona-Maria Voiculescu*. There is currently 370 GWe of nuclear power capacity in operation around the world. Very-High-Temperature Reactor System) chosen by GIF for future R&D. On the other hand the importance of reducing emissions is vital. the purpose of the GIF-Generation IV International Forum and the vision for Generation IV were defined in Charter of the Generation IV International Forum: “the development of concepts for one or more Generation IV nuclear energy systems that can be licensed. international forum. * INR’s Reliability and Testing Laboratory. as well as the management and disposal of nuclear waste. nuclear plant must be economically competitive. Viorica-Maria Nistor. constructed. 1. the largest share provided by any non-greenhouse gas-emitting source. However challenges still exist to long-term deployment of nuclear. World Nuclear Reactor Fleet. Fax: +40248262449. E-mail: ramona. Marius Olteanu Institute for Nuclear Research. Keywords: generation IV. yet their safety must remain of paramount importance. Framework Agreement. Mioveni. Romania. deployment of The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 61 . nuclear energy must become more sustainable in its utilisation of uranium or thorium ores. nuclear energy will be needed to meet future global energy demand. MSC. Phone: +40248213400. safe and cost effective. innovative nuclear energy systems INTRODUCTION For the earth to support its population (which is expected to expand from 7 billion people today to over 9 billion people by the year 2050) we must increase the use of energy supplies that are clean. so many strategies and scenarios are proposed in order to achieve more sustainable future energy supplies. Responsibilities and Members) and to describe all nuclear energy systems (Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor System. producing Figure 1. For these reasons and others. The paper aims to summarize the reasons that led to R&D (Research&Development) of next generation of nuclear energy systems. the paper will present the Romanian position related to the participation in R&D of next generation of nuclear energy systems. Firstly. Phone: +40248213400.mihaiu@nuclear. 1954–2011 3000 TWh each year (15% of the world’s (Source: IAEA-PRIS. Additionally. 2011)[1] electricity). Structure. waste. climate change issues and sustainable development. while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety. Secondly. Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor System. and operated in a manner that will provide a competitively priced and reliable supply of energy to the country where such systems are deployed. Campului Street. proliferation and public perception concerns”. Prominent among these supplies is nuclear energy. 115400. Extension: 130. Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor System. Also.ro ABSTRACT Taking into account the expected increase in energy demand worldwide and the growing awareness about global warming. to present the GIF (GIF Charter.

N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f

nuclear plant must be undertaken in a manner that can guarantee worldwide non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Finally, some plants should help to meet anticipated future needs for a broad range of energy products beyond electricity. Generation IV nuclear energy systems are aimed to meet these challenges by delivering unprecedented performance. Given all this, the paper shall present the reasons leading to the need for a next step in nuclear reactors (that can be divided historically, into “generations”), the Generation IV International Forum mission and the innovative nuclear energy systems chosen by GIF for future R&D. Also, Romanian point of view, related to the national strategy and INR involvement in GEN IV, will be pointed. 1. Reasons for a “new era” in nuclear Population growth and economic development are the main drivers that lead to increased energy consumption and so it is clear that energy demand will continue to increase for many decades to come as emerging and developing countries strive for improved standards of health and greater prosperity. Regarding to this, the expected global growth of nuclear energy covers a wide range:

Figure 2. Range of expected nuclear power capacity in SRES* scenarios, 2000-2050. (Solid line represents median) [2] The need of increasing the energy supplies is obvious (from the point of view of population growth) but at the same time the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now universally recognized. In the majority of these, the prospects are good for nuclear energy’s growth. Nuclear power plants do not produce global warming [3] emissions when they operate, and the emissions associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and plant construction are quite modest (and will fall further if industry and transportation rely less on fossil fuels). For example, the 2008 World Energy Outlook forecasts an additional 250 GWe of nuclear capacity by 2030 in a scenario that would stabilize the atmosphere at 450 ppm CO2 and thereby limit global warming to 20C above preindustrial levels. [4] Another reason for R&D of GEN IV is that the world is now approaching to the end of the first era of nuclear power†. Most of the reactors built in the past several decades are still operating, and many will continue to run for a number of additional decades but a large number of these plants are at or near the end of their operating licenses. So, gradually the existing reactors will be shut down, and the number of commitments for further reactors is relatively small (details can be seen in

* †

SRES – Special Report On Emission Scenarios The terminology “nuclear eras” has been used by a number of authors, notably by Alvin Weinberg in his papers: A.M. Weinberg and I. Spiewak, “Inherently Safe Reactors and a Second Nuclear Era”, Science 224, 1984: 1398–1402 and A.M. Weinberg, I. Spiewak, J.N. Barkenbus, R.S. Livingston, and D.L. Phung, “The Second Nuclear Era: A New Start for Nuclear Power”, New York: Praeger, 1985 62 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation”

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figure no. 3). For that reason substantial efforts are underway to develop next generation‡ reactors that would usher in a Second Nuclear Era. [5] In the latter part of this century, the environmental benefits of nuclear energy can expand and even extend to other energy products besides electricity. For example, nuclear energy can be used to generate hydrogen for use in petroleum refinement and as a transportation fuel to reduce the dependence upon oil, and to desalinate water in areas where fresh water is in short supply. To deliver this benefit, new systems will be needed, requiring nearterm deployment of nuclear plants and significant research and development (R&D) on nextgeneration systems.

Figure 3. Nuclear Power Reactor Grid Connections and Shutdowns, 1956–2011 (Source: IAEA-PRIS, MSC, 2011) However, challenges still exist to further large-scale use of nuclear energy: (1) nuclear energy must be sustainable from the standpoint of its utilization of nuclear fuel resources as well as the management and disposal of nuclear waste, (2) the units must operate reliably and be economically competitive, (3) safety must remain of paramount importance, (4) deployment must be undertaken in a manner that will reduce the risk nuclear weapons proliferation, (5) new technologies should help meet anticipated future needs for a broader range of energy products beyond electricity, and (6) governments need to support the revitalization of their nuclear R&D infrastructures. The first four are the major goals of Generation IV; the latter two have become increasingly important in recent years. [6] 2. GIF mission The Generation IV International Forum has thirteen members (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom and the

The first generation was advanced in the 1950’s and 60’s in the early prototype reactors. The second generation began in the 1970’s in the large commercial power plants that are still operating today. Generation III was developed more recently in the 1990’s with a number of evolutionary designs that offer significant advances in safety and economics, and a number have been built, primarily in East Asia. Advances to Generation III are underway, resulting in several (so called Generation III+) near-term deployable plants that are actively under development and are being considered for deployment in several countries. New plants built between now and 2030 will likely be chosen from these plants. Beyond 2030, the prospect for innovative advances through renewed R&D has stimulated interest worldwide in a fourth generation of nuclear energy systems 63 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation”

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United States) which are signatories of its founding document, the GIF Charter§. The purpose of the GIF-Generation IV International Forum and the vision for Generation IV were defined in GIF Charter: “the development of concepts for one or more Generation IV nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide a competitively priced and reliable supply of energy to the country where such systems are deployed, while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation and public perception concerns”.

Figure 4. Structure of the Gen IV International Forum The Charter it was signed by Switzerland in 2002, EURATOM in 2003 and the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation, both in 2006 signed the Charter. Among the signatories to the charter, ten members (Canada, EURATOM, France, Japan, and the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, the Russian Federation, Switzerland and the United States) have signed or acceded to the Framework Agreement** (FA). Parties to the framework agreement formally agree to participate in the development of one or more Generation IV systems selected by GIF for further R&D. The countries have joined together to form the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide competitively priced and reliable energy products while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation, and public perception concerns. The objective for Generation IV nuclear energy systems is to have them available for international deployment about the year 2030, when many of the world’s currently operating nuclear power plants will be at or near the end of their operating licenses. 3. Goals for Generation IV The goals defined by GIF Roadmap, have three purposes: first, they serve as the basis for developing criteria to assess and compare the systems in the technology roadmap. Second, they are challenging and stimulate the search for innovative nuclear energy systems - both fuel cycles and reactor technologies. Third, they will serve to motivate and guide the R&D on Generation IV systems as collaborative efforts get underway.
§

**

http://www.gen-4.org/PDFs/GIFcharter.pdf http://www.gen-4.org/PDFs/Framework-agreement.pdf 64 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation”

investment protection. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 65 . Accommodate the range of national priorities and interests of the GIF countries. Generation IV nuclear energy systems operations will excel in safety and reliability. The proliferation resistance and physical protection goal focuses on controlling and securing nuclear material and nuclear facilities. 4. safety and reliability. Sustainability goals focus on fuel utilization and waste management. Generation IV nuclear energy systems will have a very low likelihood and degree of reactor core damage. improved accident management and minimization of consequences. safety and reliability) in order to provide a sustainable development of nuclear energy.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Eight goals for Generation IV are defined in the four broad areas of sustainability. thereby improving protection for the public health and the environment. and actinide management may be adequately addressed by Generation IV systems. Ensure that the important missions of electricity generation. and proliferation resistance and physical protection. The motivation for the selection of six systems it was to: Identify systems that make significant advances toward the technology goals. Table 1. and provide increased physical protection against acts of Sustainability–2 Economics–1 Economics–2 Safety and Reliability–1 Safety and Reliability–2 Safety and Reliability–3 Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection–1 Source: GIF Technology Roadmap The Generation IV of nuclear energy systems is intended to meet the above goals (while being at least as effective as the “third” generation in terms of economic competitiveness. Innovative systems of Generation IV The goals adopted by GIF provided the basis for identifying and selecting six nuclear energy systems for further development. Generation IV nuclear energy systems will minimize and manage their nuclear waste and notably reduce the long-term stewardship burden. Economics goals focus on competitive life cycle and energy production costs and financial risk. The goals adopted by GIF provided the basis for identifying and selecting six nuclear energy systems for further development. economics. Generation IV nuclear energy systems will have a level of financial risk comparable to other energy projects. Generation IV nuclear energy systems will increase the assurance that they are a very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials. Generation IV nuclear energy systems will have a clear life-cycle cost advantage over other energy sources. systems that will be described lower. hydrogen and process heat production. Generation IV nuclear energy systems will eliminate the need for offsite emergency response. Goals for Generation IV of nuclear energy systems Broad area Sustainability–1 Goals Generation IV nuclear energy systems will provide sustainable energy generation that meets clean air objectives and promotes long-term availability of systems and effective fuel utilization for worldwide energy production. Provide some overlapping coverage of capabilities. because not all of the systems may ultimately be viable or attain their performance objectives and attract commercial deployment. and essentially eliminating the technical need for off-site emergency response. Safety and reliability goals focus on safe and reliable operation.

Table 2. GEN IV nuclear energy systems chosen by GIF Generation IV System Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor System Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor System Molten Salt Reactor System Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor System Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor System Very-High-Temperature Reactor System Acronym GFR LFR MSR SFR SCWR VHTR Figure 5. The schematic representation of the six GENIV nuclear energy systems 66 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f The six Generation IV systems are summarized in the table and schematic details about each technology are presented in the figures below.

methods for thermal& mechanical testing of materials and components. Lochbaum. D. environmental and health impacts. †† ‡‡ ALFRED – Advanced Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor European Demonstrator INR – Institute for Nuclear Research-Pitesti The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 67 . on short and long term – implications in R&D of LFR technology. Gronlund. building world teams. Nevertheless. [2]. INR contributed to the national debate on the issue).8. Besides this. having numerous technological challenges. meaning end of U3&4). Addressing the Challenges. Lyman. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1]. Already. The future energy mix will be determined by the availability of technologies. CFD methodology for LFR investigations. Assessing the Risks. continue CANDU technology (by completion of Cernavoda NPP. E. Memorandum was initiated by INR‡‡. for Romania is a great opportunity to participate in R&D of GENIV nuclear energy systems and have access to innovative technologies to support sustainable development. Nuclear energy has an important feature: it potentially provides a stable base load quasi non-CO2 emitting source of energy that is readily available and can be deployed on a large scale to meet even fast growing energy demand. Romanian position and implication Romanian national strategy regarding nuclear is focus on: percentage increase (from 18% actual to 30-40%) of nuclear energy in total electricity production. life cycle generating cost. corrosion in lead environment. GIF has demonstrated political willingness to support and promote the development of sustainable nuclear energy systems. Schneider. tantalum and niobium alloys. major achievements have been accomplished within the GIF’s Project Arrangements. Particularly. CONCLUSIONS A reliable and accessible supply of energy produced in a sustainable manner is fundamental for the development of modern society. the development of new generation reactors it has others benefits: the increase of the overall share of nuclear energy. PSA for LFR. INR’s R&D programmes already included some specific studies (mechanical properties of austenitic and martensitic steels. attractive research topics that can be of interest for young scientist of many disciplines. DPA calculation. impact of ALFRED on geological disposal). [3]. methods for Po separation. impact of lead on radioactive waste management. the road to commercial deployment of Generation IV systems still appears to be long. Thomas. A. investigations on candidate materials for fuel cladding and SG tubes. Vienna 2010. Nuclear power in a warming world. M. ending with hosting ALFRED†† (in February 2011 – Romanian Government approved the Memorandum of Ministry of Economy for the Romanian option to host ALFRED. Froggatt. as well as enthusiasm on the part of the researchers involved in the Forum’s collaborative R&D to surmount these challenges. S. methodology for isotopic inventory calculation. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2010–2011. [8] replacing the current NPP with new technologies . For this purpose. L.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on 5. Design of corrosion loops. security of supply and public acceptance. December 2007. Nuclear Energy Development in the 21st Century: Global Scenarios and Regional Trends. IAEA NP-T-1. Nuclear Power in a Post-Fukushima World 25 Years After the Chernobyl Accident.on very long term (GENIV commercial systems). Union of Concerned Scientists.

especially Vanadium-base alloys. [6]. Annual Report. 2010. Proceedings of the International Workshop. The use of refractory metal-base alloy in Gen IV Reactors was not studied because there are very much difficulties in fabricability of cladding. GIF R&D Outlook for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. GENIV International Forum. Japan and Russia is V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy because: • The research on vanadium base alloys `covered a very large types of combinations between V and Ti. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. [7]. Turcu. In Europe. 16-18 May 2012. [5]. etc) to improve the alloys properties and behaviour in extreme conditions and reducing impurities content • The characterisation and testing condition (under and out of irradiation) was larger. I. ALFRED: Current Status and Future Developments in Romania. GIF-002-00. GIF. • Fabrication of small (30 kg). Nuclear 2012 Conference. Al. Russia. N). Pitesti. The most promising material developed by USA. also. Romania ABSTRACT The refractory metal-base alloy. Paunoiu. Japan. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. S. Valeca. having a very good behavior at high temperature and pressure. C. Pitesti. Romania. [8]. Belgium 2005. C. Peter Rullhusen. V-4Cr-4Ti ALLOY-A PROMISING CORE CLADDING MATERIAL FOR GEN IV REACTORS D. was studied for use in nuclear field.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f [4]. as cladding material. Cr [V(0-20)-Ti(0-20)] completed by addition of others elements (Si. Y. For the characterisation and testing of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy participated USA. The literature study performed in INR shown possibility to use the refractory metal-base alloy. the effort was focused for use of refractory metal-base alloy in fusion reactor. December 2002. especially at tubes manufacturing. Ohai Institute for Nuclear Research.C. Germany and Spain. Japan and Russia (in collaboration or not) contributed essential to improving the properties of this alloy and the content of impurities (O. • The thin wall tubes was obtained and the technologies are in progress 68 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . August 2009. medium (200 kg) and larger ingots (>500 kg) of V-4Cr-4Ti by USA.

Pitesti.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on INR EXPERIMENTAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FP7. IdS. the experimental data will be used as input in the other Working Packages. In the same time the experimental data will be used as input values for other WP-ies. WP 1. is directly involved in the experimental.3. SEM investigation of the fracture surfaces. INR carried-out tests on the structural material used to perform one of the Mockups. as follow: Brinnell Hardness Tests. modelling and computing activities of the STYLE Project. Further. Metallographic Analysis. in according to the Quality Program. on improvement and development of engineering assessment methods. The “STYLE TOOLS” will include best practice guidelines based on advanced tools. The experimental investigations are carried-out in according with the ASTM Standards requirements. [2]. According to the test matrix agreed in the framework of the WP. being one of the twenty partners. in according to the Quality Program.“STYLE” PROJECT Maria Roth. Romania ABSTRACT This paper outlines INR experimental contributions to the Collaborative Project STYLE (Structural Integrity Assessment for Safety and Lifetime Management of the Reactor Coolant System Piping and Components-other than the Pressure Vessel) carried-out in the European Framework Programme FP7. considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The Project will interact with the European Network of Excellence NULIFE [1] The Institute for Nuclear Research. the results carried-out as part Material Characterization Working Package. optimise and develop the use of advanced tools for the structural integrity assessment of reactor coolant pressure boundary components (RCPB) relevant to ageing and life time management and to integrate the knowledge created in the project into mainstream nuclear industry assessment codes. [3]) and the Testing Procedure developed and applied at INR. To date. including SS 316L Tub material properties evaluation are presented. applied for metallic materials (ASTM E-8. ASTM E-112. Keywords: nuclear structural material. mechanical properties INTRODUCTION The main objective of the STYLE Project (Structural Integrity Assessment for Safety and Lifetime Management of the Reactor Coolant System Piping and Components-other than the Pressure Vessel) carried-out in the EURATOM FP7 Programme is to assess. applied for metallic materials and the Testing Procedure developed and applied at INR. INR. Integrity assessment case studies and large scale demonstration experiments will be performed on Mock-ups of safety-relevant components. This material will be used to manufacture one of the relevant Mock-up of the Project. EAM. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 69 . tensile tests at room temperature has been done on both directions of the tub. [4]. Ionut Niţu Institute for Nuclear Research. France has been characterized from the mechanical and microstructure point of view. The experimental investigations comply with the ASTM Standards requirements. Romania. Stainless Steel 316 L material supplied by Institute de Sudure. Maria Mihalache. For a better and complete characterization of the material supplementary tests and analysis have been applied. Vasile Piţigoi. As STYLE Project partner.

YS1%). ε25mm.2% YS1% Direction (MPa) (MPa) minimum 239 281 Longitudinal maximum 256 302 70 UTS (MPa) 545 564 ε25mm (%) 60. GL=25 mm and the Figure 1.00 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . for each direction of the tested 316L Tube.2% (MPa) Direction ID Cod L2 256 Longitudinal L4 241 L5 243 L6 239 T1 221 Transverse T2 231 T3 218 T5 218 YS1% (MPa) 302 283 286 281 285 280 273 270 UTS (MPa) 564 558 556 545 562 555 545 554 ε25mm (%) 61 60 60 61 61 59 58 58 Table 2. Figure 3. Table 1. having the gage length. has been used. ultimate tensile stress UTS.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f TESTING METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS A 316L Tube offered by Institut de Soudure. Sample Dimensions (mm) Figure 2. equipped with extensometer. have be machined following the ASTM E-8M Standard. T = transversedirection Table 1 summarises the mechanical properties values for: yield stress. Mechanical properties Tube Sample YS0. Statistical analysis .2%. made in Swiss by Walter+Bai. and elongation on 25 mm. Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T) samples cut from the 316L unwelded tube section (OD=250mm. has been used to investigate the material properties at room temperature. Testing System Figure 1.00 61. (YS0. To perform the tensile tests a Static & Dynamic Materials Testing System 30KN. France. The average values and the statistical results are included in Table 2. Samples machining: L= longitudinal directions. Figure 2. Figure 1. thickness=27 mm). Walter+Bai Universal total length of 100 mm.Mechanical Properties Tube YS0.

longitudinal.24 Figure 4 outlines the difference. at 3% for YS1%. yield stress values between the two directions of the 316 Tube. are verifying the well known relation correlating this parameter with the yield stress: YS ∼ d-1/2. longitudinal direction. Figure 5.2% YS 1% UTS elon Mechanical Properties Figure 2. the grains are larger in the transverse direction. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 71 . of about 9%.2%.40 0. UTS. Tube microstructure. transverse direction. The average grain size is about 42µm in the longitudinal direction (Figure 5) and 49µm in the transverse one (Figure 6).4 270 285 277 6.10 1. d. average grain size = 49µm The measured grain sizes values. L 600 T 500 400 MPa 300 200 100 0 YS 0.6 556 7. The ultimate tensile strength. analyzed by the metallographic technique by using a Zeiss type optical microscope. average grain size = 42µm Figure 6.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Transverse average standard dev minimum maximum average standard dev 245 7.6 60.42 58.8 545 562 554 7. Mechanical Properties Comparision of 316L Tube on longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) directions From the microstructure point of view.3 288 9.00 60. Tube microstructure. If the plastic deformation is increased this difference is reduced.8 218 231 222 6. of the YS0. values and total elongation are identically on both directions. respectively transverse.80 59.

On the longitudinal-radial fracture surface the dimples are quite shallow. The transversal-radial aria presents a large grain size structure. Figure 7. involving the micro voids joining by shear along the slip bands (Figures 8a and 8b). Brinell Hardness Values Tube Sample Direction ID Cod Longitudinal L3 L8 Transverse T4 T9 2. containing depth and conical shape dimples corresponding to the high deformation level (Figures 7a and 7b).148. b) – (x 295) Figure 8.149.5 HB/187.148 151.151.145.150.151.148.149.5kgf 150.( x 35). Fracture surface of a sample tested under uniaxial state of stress in the longitudinal direction of the 316L Tube: a) .( x 35).148 HB Mean Value 149 148 150 149 72 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . b) – (x 295) Table 3 is containing the Brinell measurements obtained by using a WOLPERT type Hardness system.148.150. Table3. well defined. The micrographs have been obtained by a TESCAN scanning electronic microscope.150. Fracture surface of a sample tested under uniaxial state of stress in the transverse direction of the 316L Tube: a) .148 150.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f The fracture surfaces analysis of the tested samples.150. The fracture occurs by dimple fracture. made in Germany. are in agreement with the mechanical and microstructure results.148 148.

transverse respectively. applied for metallic materials. probably due to the sliding bands more favourable orientated to deformation.96 “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials”. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 73 . If the plastic deformation is increased the behavior is identically. about 9%. Mechanical tests and microstructure analysis have been done in according with the ASTM Standards requirements. carried-out in the European Framework Programme FP7. The yield stress value at 0.2% deformation is lower in the circumferential direction.95 “Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size” [4] *** INR .Seventh Framework Programme of EURATOM for Nuclear Research and training Activities (2007-2011). CONCLUSIONS • A detailed material properties characterization has been performed on Stainless Steel 316 L tube material used to carried out one of the experimental Mock-up of the STYLE Project.Procedure “Tensile Tests Procedure “Mechanical Procedure under uniaxial state of stress in the RT-1000°C Temperature Range” INR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FP 7 STYLE PROJECT AS CONCERNING LBB CONCEPT Vasile Radu Institute for Nuclear Research. Pitesti. [3] *** ASTM E-112 .N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on The analysis of the Brinell Hardness results have no suggest a significant difference of the material behaviour on the two directions of the 316L Tube.STYLE . • The mechanical properties will be used as input data for the structural integrity assessment of the experimental Mock-up manufactured from unwelded and unrepair SS 316L material. Romania ABSTRACT This paper outlines INR contributions to the “Structural Integrity Assessment for Safety and Lifetime Management of the Reactor Coolant System Piping and Components-other than the Pressure Vessel” Project. • The experimental results shown a textured behavior of the material at low deformation. independently of the stress direction. Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection Theme. STYLE. longitudinal. GA 249648 [2] *** ASTM E-8M . Acknowlegments The research was carried out as part of the Collaborative STYLE Project in the framework of the FP7 European Programme managed by AREVA GmbH Germany. REFERENCES [1] *** Structural Integrity Assessment for Safety and Lifetime Management of the Reactor Coolant System Piping and Components-other than the Pressure Vessel Project .

The problem refers to unsaturated water flow and contaminant transport in a two layered soil system in transient state. Alain Genty2 1 Institute for Nuclear Research. The purpose of this study is to propose a simple test model in order to make a comparison of results generated by the two codes. mainly focussed in the nuclear energy. France ABSTRACT ALLIANCES is a software platform allowing simulation of the characteristics phenomena of all disposal and storage situations and was developed by CEA. FEHM 74 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . optimise and develop the use of advanced tools for the structural integrity assessment of reactor coolant pressure boundary components (RCPB) relevant to ageing and life time management and to integrate the knowledge created in the project into mainstream nuclear industry assessment codes. ANDRA and EDF. INR Pitesti is responsible to manage the “Probabilistic assessment of LBB” and “LBB and Assessment Methods” Work Packages. Romania. modelling and computing activities of STYLE project. Daniela Diaconu1. one can conclude that INR is a viable strong player for the international research area. 2CEA Saclay. INR Pitesti is directly involved in the experimental. Alliances. It was licensed to INR in the framework of the NSRAWD project aiming to model and solve the problems related to nuclear waste disposal sites in Romania. Keyworks: contaminant transport. a possible location for the near future national LILW repository. FEHM is an American numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes and has been used to simulate groundwater and contaminant flow and transport in deep and shallow. From the point of view of activities already carried out or in progress in the framework of STYLE project. UNSATURATED HYDRAULICS AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SIMPLE TEST MODEL FOR ALLIANCES AND FEHM BENCHMARK Alina Constantin1. INR received a license to use it and developed several models for the Saligny site. having as objectives to provide an overview of state-of-art probabilistic approaches to Engineering Assessment Methods including Leak Before Break in various countries and to define STYLE LBB case studies associated with experiments planned to be performed on three Mock-ups during the subsequent stages of the STYLE project. fractured and un-fractured porous media. The profiles obtained were similar in both water flow and contaminant transport problems. with good results that were appreciated by partners. The “STYLE TOOLS” will comprise best practice guidelines on the use of advanced tools. water flow.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f The objective of the project is to assess. on improvement and qualification EAM as a part of European Leak-before-break (LBB) procedures and on life time management of the integrity of RCPB components in European nuclear power plants.

To mitigate the corrosion process there are programs of monitoring the chemistry of the aqueous medium of the secondary circuit as a modality to upgrade the management of this circuit. There are other factors that influence the corrosion but one of the most important is the cleaning state of the material. the characterization of oxide films formed on carbon steel as nuclear material is a subject of investigation to understand environment-related material failure problems [1]. coolant and protective oxide coatings [2]. Arges. An important factor in understanding the causes and the mechanisms of corrosion is the water chemistry control. and especially Grazing Angle Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) to identify the oxides. The inner layer is a fine-grain compact oxide.ro ABSTRACT The carbon steels are widely used in the construction PHWR secondary circuits. sometimes. Carbon steels are ductile. also the layout of the oxides in the analysed oxide layers. relatively easy to weld and inspect. One of the principal materials used for the secondary circuit (cooling agent system) of PHWR reactors is carbon steels. The rezults are correlated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images to have a better microstructural characterization of the oxide films. M. GIXRD. • the minimization of chemical impurities concentration. It is known that carbon steels corrosion in the aqueous medium at high temperature determines the formation of a duplex oxide layers on the material surface. Particularly. Stănciulescu. total exchange of components. followed by reconditioning or even total exchange of the compounds. occupying the The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 75 . of greate interes is the determination of the oxides that can be formed on the surface of the carbon steel components during CANDU operation. Mioveni. a temperature of 265±5 oC and a pressure of 6. Câmpului Street. Introduction CANDU-PHWR Reactors (CANadian Deuterium Uranium Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors) have two independent systems: one for the moderator and one for the cooling agent.stanciulecu@nuclear.7 ± 0. The chemical control in nuclear reactor circuits consists of: • the addition of chemicals to minimize the harmful effects of products generated by radiolysis. • the adjustment of the pH to values that correspond to a low corrosion rate of the structural materials and that compensate the acidity variation. No. which grows in the direction of the base material.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OXIDE LAYERS FORMED ON CARBON STEELS IN SECONDARY CIRCUIT CONDITIONS OF CANDU REACTORS M. Degradation by corrosion of carbon steels in CANDU-PHWR conditions is a real economic problem in the nuclear industry and that is why it needs frequent inspections. Dinu. The analized material is SA106 carbon steel autoclavized in demineralizated water with AVT at a pH of 9. In this context. Mihalache Institute for Nuclear Research-Piteşti.7 ± 0. The materials used for the secondary circuit have to respect some specific tasks for corrosion limitation. e-mail: mada. A. minimization of the radioactive isotopes production and the activity transportation in the circuit. which catalyses the degradation material. Keywords: oxidation kinetics. followed by reconditioning. Characterization of oxide films formed on metals and alloys is an important subject of study because chemical and physical properties of the oxide films can alter the mechanism and kinetics of corrosion processes.1. carbon steel 1.5MPa.1. This paper presents the posibility of using X-ray Diffraction. or. Degradation by corrosion of carbon steel compounds represents an expensive problem in the nuclear industry and that is why it needs frequent inspections.

The corroded iron cannot precipitate as long as the Fe2+ ions diffuse through the inner layer to the interface oxide layer/ cooling agent.e temperature (265±5oC) . at elevated temperatures and pressures. The aquisitionation of the diffractograms were made with the X’Pert PRO MPD Diffractometer existent in LADICON laboratory at SCN Pitesti . Table 1. The SA106 carbon steel samples have been autoclavized in clasical AVT (All Volatile Treatment) solution containing morpholine and cyclohexylamine dissolved in demineralized water.5mm at both ends. The testing system consisted of a steady state Prolabo autoclave with 1L capacity. These samples were polyshed on abrasive papier untill 800 granulation. in addition a quantity of hydrazine hydrate was added to assure an oxygen concentration of 10ppb.7. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 76 . By increasing the path length of the incident beam through the film. i. then on αalumina to obtain a mirror surface.28 Ni 0.5)MPa and pH (9.022 P 0. the film intensity is increased. 2.003 S 0.7 ± 0. This method consists in the exposure of the metallic samples in different aqueous environments.1). EXPERIMENTAL The material investigated was carbon steel SA106. The role of the amine dissolved in the demineralized water together with cyclohexylamine was to assure a final pH of 9. pressure (6. GIXRD. as seen in the reactions (1) and (2)[3]: N2H4 + O2 → N2 + 2 H2O N2H4 + 6 Fe2O3 → 4 Fe3O4 + N2 + H2O (1) (2) The autoclavization was done in CANDU secondary circuit conditions. Fe2+ ions resulted from the corrosion process supersaturates the existing layer at the fluid limit. The incidence angle is fixed and very small (<5°). resulting in low diffracted intensities compared to those of the substrate and background. The compositions and layout of the oxide layers have been determined using an X-ray diffractometer. determining the precipitation of de outer oxide layer [3]. The oxidized samples were microstructurally characterized by DRX. If the cooling agent is already saturated in dissolved iron.026 Mn 0. By GIXRD it is possible to perform many of the XRD analyses with the added ability to have supplementary information as a function of depth by collecting successive diffraction patterns with varying the incidence angles. as close as possible of the conditions present in the secondary circuit of CANDU systems. It is very difficult to analyze thin films due to their small diffracting volumes.78 Cr traces Co 0.7±0. The layout of the oxide layers present on the sample surface can be determined by varying the incidence angle [4]. The samples were autoclaved between 20 and 70 days. this will be named AVT solution.024 Si Fe 0. In table 1 presents the chemical composition of carbon steel SA 106. the oxide layers formed on SA106 carbon steel during exposure in secondary circuit conditions are characterized by DRX. which was prepared before autoclavization conform usual metalographic proceed for sample preparation. increasing the path length of de incident beam through the film and the detector is rotated with a 2θ angle. metallographic microscopy and SEM. Chemical composition of the carbon steel used in the work Elemente (%gr) C 0. In this paper.23 balance The samples are paralelipipedic with the dimensions 50x15x3mm with a hole of 2. GIXRD and SEM.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f volume of the corroded material.

N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on

The microstructural characterization of the oxide layers was made using a VEGA II LNU microscope with the secondary electron detector. The microscope NEOPHOT 2 was used to determine the thickness and homogeneity of the oxide films. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS As previously said, the phase composition of the oxide layers formed on the carbon steels samples were assessed using X-ray diffraction. The first step is the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyze of the samples by DRX in normal geometry. The layout of the oxide layers in the total oxide layer is determined by GIXRD methode.

Figure 1. Spectrum of the samples autoclavized 20 days in AVT solution Fig.1 presents the diffractogram of samples autoclavized 20 days in the already specified solution. It can be seen that the principal oxides formed are hematite and magnetite. The diffraction lines for iron are very high meaning that the oxide layer is very thin. The semi-quantitative analyse gives a concentation of 40% Fe, 38% Fe2O3-hematite and 22% Fe3O4-magnetite in the analysed layer. To have a better ideea of the oxide film composition and layout it is necessary to use the grazing angle X-ray diffraction method. By GIXRD the evolution of the oxide layers in function of the incidence angle can be determined. The incidence angles used for the comparation of the diffractograms are 2° and 0.5°. Comparing the diffractograms (Fig. 2) aqusitioned at small incident angles, it can be seen that at 2º high diffraction lines of iron apare again, so it is confirmed that the oxid layer is thin.

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N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f

Figure 2. Comparation between the diffractograms aquisitioned at different angles (theta-theta,2º,0,5º) for the sample autoclaved 20 days in degazated AVT solution At an incident angle of 0.5º, the intensity report between the diffraction lines hematite/magnetite is higher then that obtain in theta-theta configuration and at 2º, indicating that the Fe2O3 layer is on the top of the oxide film and magnetite is at the interface oxide film/metal (substrate).

Figure 3. Difractograma of the samples autoclaved 70 days in AVT solution After 70 days of autoclavization the oxide film gets thicker. The oxide film composition is the same, magnetite and hematite. The iron specific diffraction lines descrease and those of the oxides increase even in θ-θ configuration, showing that the oxide film is thicker than the one formed after 20 days in the aquous solution (Fig. 3). Also, the semi-quantitative analyse shows a decrease in the Fe concentration (20%) and an increse in the oxide concentration (hematite 41% and magnetite 39%) in the analysed layer. Fig. 4 reprezents the comparation between the diffractograms aquisitioned at different incident angles for the samples autoclavisated 70 days in the same solution. It can be seen that the lines of iron disapear at 2º incidence, an confirmation that the oxide film is thicker than in the first case. Also, the diffraction lines of hematite increase with the decrease of incidence angle and those
78 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation”

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of magnetite decrease, rezulting that the outer layer is formed of hematite and the inner layer of magnetite.

Figure 4. Comparation between the spectra aquisitioned at different angles (theta-theta, 2º, 0,5º) for the sample autoclavizated 70 days in AVT solution The SEM pictures of the oxide film formed after 20 days of exposure are shown in Fig.5. Scanning at lower magnifications demonstrated that the oxide film is not homogenously covering all the surface of the sample. The film formed on the sample autoclavised 70 days in the same solution is homogenous on the surface of the carbon steel (Fig.6).

Figure 5. SEM imagies on the film formed on Figure 6. SEM imagies on the film formed on carbon steel autoclavizated 20 days in AVT carbon steel autoclavizated 70 days in AVT solution solution It is metallographically confirmed that after 20 days of autoclavization a thin, non-uniform oxide film forms and after 70 days a thinker and much uniform oxide film forms on the surface of the carbon steel samples (Fig.7). Figure 7. Metallographies of films formed on carbon steel autoclavized in AVT solution: (a) after 20 days and (b) after 70 days

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GIXRD. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the assistace of M. fine-grained compact layer of magnetite –Fe3O4 and the outer layer is a loosely adherent. This layer does not protect the material from corrosion and it can be spalled and carred out in all the circuit and can form the crud. finegrained compact layer of magnetite –Fe3O4.CONCLUSIONS The oxide films formed on carbon steel SA106 in secondary circuit conditions demineralized water with amines at temperature (265±5oC) .5)MPa and pH (9. By GIXRD analyses it can be said that the magnetite layer is found at the interface substrate/oxide film and the hematite represents the outer layer of the oxide film. different sizes particule layer of hematite-Fe2O3. which has the role to protect the material from corrosion and is well formed after a bigger number of days in the corrosive environment. 4.1) were analysed by DRX. pressure (6. The principal oxides formed are magnetite and hematite. GIXRD is a fiable technique for the determination of the oxide layers layout in the total oxide films.7±0. The SEM examinations confirmed that the inner layer is a tightly adherent. SEM and metallography. different sizes particule layer of hematite-Fe2O3.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f The results of SEM are in concordance with those obtained by X-ray diffraction. The outer layer is a loosely adherent. This inner layer is a tightly adherent. it can be concluded that the evolution of the oxide layer formed on carbon steel components is a dynamic process that implies both the deposition mechanism and the releasing of the superficial compounds mainly by erosion and dissolution.7 ± 0. SEM imagies on the film formed on carbon steel autoclavizated 70 days in AVT solution On the bases of the owned experimental results and those presented in the literature. The DRX and GIXRD analyse technigues shown that the thicker oxide film was found on the specimens autoclavized 70 days and that the oxide films are formed of a duplex oxide layers on the material surface. Metallography conforms the results of X-ray diffraction and SEM. Radulescu and thank her for the valuable discussions. 80 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . composed of small dimenstion rombohedric crystals in the inner part of the oxide film.8 shows a duplex layer morphology. The micrography in Fig. Figure 8.

For data to be of value. Extension: 412. et al. Extension: 395. 1999.nuclear. E-mail: cristian. a brief insight over the main steps in developing a NKM program from researching and design to implementation. Long term nuclear energy scenarios show an industry whose major challenges are ageing workforce. Web: http://www. Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti Phone: +40 248 213 400.ro 2 Foreign Relations. Knowledge is derived from information. the approach used to implement a NKM program. NKM Tools INTRODUCTION To understand the knowledge management concept.-J. Analyses of oxide film formed on type 304 stainless steel in 288°C water in containing oxygen. Keywords: Nuclear Knowledge Management.7883/2007. 1 Metrology & Information Technology Laboratory. JNRD.1. Phone: +40 248 213 400. R. No. Diminuarea acumularii produsilor de coroziune pe componentele din otel carbon prin reglarea pH-ului in circuitul secundar. THE WHY WHAT AND HOW IN NUCLEAR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Cristian Voiculescu1. Dinu A. E-mail: eleonora. Eleonora Andreea Dragan2 Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. Fax: +40 248 262 449. [4] Stanciulescu M.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on REFERENCES [1] Kim Y.a complex method for material characterization. based on which decisions can be made.dragan@nuclear. first there has to be made a distinction between data. Romania.81-88. Mioveni. The paper will highlight the current state of Nuclear Knowledge Management and the organizations involved in researching and developing this field. Technology Transfer and Administration. A special attention will be given to the NKM Tools and Methodologies utilized in capturing and transforming different types of knowledge. [2] Radulescu M. a knowledge management program in a nuclear organization seems to become a necessity. Given this already present issues. Generally speaking. 1. Knowledge is perceived as meaningful information.I. No.ro. Coferinta ICSI 2011. its current state of development and future projects. 2007’. 2012. data are raw facts. 55. The paper aims to summarize the reasons that led to the development of Nuclear Knowledge Management Programs. 115400. X-ray diffraction. an increased interest has been noticed concerning knowledge management in nuclear organizations. It The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 81 . information. Corrosion-Vol. Management of CANDU 6 secondary circuit water chemistry using several amines. [3] Radulescu M.13-18. hydrogen. declining student enrolment numbers and the risk of losing accumulated knowledge and experience.1. and knowledge.voiculescu@nuclear. Campului Street. it must be processed to obtain information. Also.pp. pp..ro ABSTRACT Over the recent years. thus its ongoing development depends heavily on the employees’ expertise. Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti Phone: +40 248 213 400. The Nuclear field is a highly regulated and knowledge based industry. and hydrogen. the paper will present the Romania’s position concerning the NKM necessity.

Categories of knowledge Knowledge can be categorized as explicit and tacit. philosophy and psychology. knowledge is neither data nor information. identifying consequences. databases. Three main components of Knowledge Management • people and organizational culture to stimulate and nurture the sharing and use of knowledge. The right place refers to the point of action or decision such as in a meeting. and share knowledge with others. systematic approach to identifying. Good knowledge management is about getting the right knowledge. So. intuition and learning. Knowledge Management defines as an “integrated. Applied disciplines such as information technology. and one gains knowledge through experience. Above all this. databases and more often in peoples’ heads. journal articles. Some experts include wisdom and insight in their definition of knowledge. in the right place. reasoning. hospital bedside and customers complaint counters. It has a pragmatic approach that is concerned with real solutions and the ability to analyze and measure its applications accurately. manage a project. Knowledge management focuses on: Figure 1. sharing and preserving knowledge. Individuals expand their knowledge when others share their knowledge. help desk. transforming. databases and web documents. using. Explicit knowledge is why it is not a problem for the employee to tell about 82 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . at the right time. and making connections. It contains all technical information gathered while carrying out R&D activities. interpreting a piece of research or deal with suppliers and many others of the kind. KM combines and applies multiple theories to practical problems within organizations. Knowledge is an understanding. Explicit knowledge implies declared knowledge. reuse. • processes to find. disseminating. people prove to be the most important component of all. operating within culture that ideally recognizes the worth of knowledge. drawings. 1. developing.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f results from making comparisons. given the fact that they are the ones managing knowledge and it’s up to them to use. The right knowledge is the knowledge you need in order to be able to undertake a certain task. acquiring. KM CONCEPT Knowledge management is a multi-disciplinary field that draws from theories in economics. Wisdom is the utilization of accumulated knowledge. library science and business also contribute to understanding this field. make a decision or plan strategically. designs. sociology. • technology to store and make knowledge accessible which will allow people to work together without being located together. relevant to achieving specified objectives” [1] Knowledge management revolves around the combination of people. technical reports. and one’s knowledge is combined with the knowledge of others to create new knowledge. calculations. capture and share knowledge. create. procedures and manuals. manuals. The right knowledge can be obtained from a variety of sources such as research reports. Explicit knowledge is contained in documents. The right time is when the person or team of workers needs the knowledge. processes and technology.

why is knowledge management useful? It is useful because it places a focus on knowledge as an actual asset. Tacit knowledge includes knowledge about topics such as how to ride a bicycle or how to talk. every individual possesses a lot of tacit knowledge. • It enhances the firm's ability to protect its key knowledge and competencies from being lost or copied. or how to organize a meeting. Figure 2. how to behave in different situations. etc. rooted in practice and experience. rather than as something intangible. it enables the organization to better protect and exploit what it knows. • Mechanisms for transferring and transforming knowledge. So. Such knowledge cannot be completely explained. modifying knowledge from a past process to create a new solution. Tacit knowledge has been called ‘what we know but don’t know we know’. using knowledge from one department to improve or create a product in another department.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on rules and obviously learned facts. The iceberg metaphor describes the relationship between Explicit & Tacit Knowledge Employees. records or a report of research findings. • It promotes a long term focus on developing the right competencies and skills and removing obsolete knowledge. and transmitted by apprenticeship and training through watching and doing forms of learning. • It better exploits existing knowledge assets by re-deploying them in areas where the firm stands to gain something. Another aspect is the tapping of tacit knowledge. e. his knowledge will still be available for the benefit of organization. and to improve and focus its knowledge development efforts to match its needs. to transfer. expressed through skillful execution. The knowledge that resides in the expert’s mind has to be recorded so that when an expert leaves the organization. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 83 . • It enhances the firm's ability to innovate. • Knowledge loss while capturing. It is the most difficult type of knowledge to recall and. [2] Experts in the area of knowledge management present explicit-tacit knowledge in the form of knowledge iceberg which demonstrate that codified (or explicit) knowledge is normally about 5% of total knowledge and 95% is implicit and tacit knowledge. However. The issues to be addressed are: • Appreciation of importance of knowledge captured. These examples describe knowledge everybody just has. R&D organizations generate knowledge mainly from within the organization. In so doing. The challenging barrier for knowledge organizations is that of creating a culture in which knowledge and knowledge sharing are valued and encouraged. Examples that contain explicit knowledge include NPP documentation and databases such as a website. In other words: • It helps firms learn from past mistakes and successes. an operational manual. tacitly know how they persuade other people. thus. since it is wholly embodied in the individual.g. for example. Very often this knowledge is already written down in books.

the result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio. §§ A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. radiological and biological interactions of materials as well as the sociological. To calculate ROI. and it is extremely difficult to determine a specific ROI§§. the information. 2. 2. • Timescale – the time period between the creation of knowledge and its use can be very long. • Rapid evidence review – a rapid evidence review (RER) provides R&D organizations with a way of quickly reviewing research and development evidence on a particular subject and consolidating knowledge at the beginning of a new project or study. The IAEA has produced a self-assessment questionnaire and Excel spreadsheet specifically for nuclear R&D organizations that can be used to facilitate the process.2. 2.1.1. The information and data used and the experiences. the benefit (return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment. 2. • Cooperation – many individuals.1. skills and insights applied must be carefully monitored to guarantee robustness.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f Unfortunately. KM analysis tools • KM maturity self-assessment – this tool is used to help determine the current KM capability in an organization and to assist in identifying KM areas for future improvement. 84 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . the creation of nuclear knowledge is quite costly. The construction of the nuclear facility and its operation are large tasks and complex engineering projects require sophisticated safety systems and specialist staff. chemical. information-oriented approach. KM is an area in which companies are often reluctant to invest because it can be expensive to implement properly. • Education – is essential for people to acquire the experience and insights needed to create new knowledge and apply it to emerging challenges. the time between radioactive waste being created and its disposal could be many decades. During this time. economic. and for example within IT one often sees a much shallower. political and security aspects must all be considered as a whole. For example. KM Tools and Techniques The purpose of this section is to provide a brief outline of the KM tools and techniques that nuclear R&D organizations should consider to help deliver business benefit to the organization. KM IN NUCLEAR When it comes to Nuclear Knowledge Management there are several factors to take in consideration: • Complexity – nuclear knowledge is highly complex on both the micro and macro scale. • Cost – due to its complexity. • Knowledge loss risk assessment – is used to determine the potential business impact of the loss of critical knowledge from an organization • Identification of critical knowledge – Identification of critical knowledge is carried out to help identify those individuals who are critical to its on-going success. the capability to access.1. interpret and understand it. must be maintained. Moreover KM is a concept the definition of which is not universally accepted. The physical. organizations and Member States have legitimate cause for both contributing to and accessing the nuclear knowledge base. Knowledge capture techniques The techniques used to extract tacit knowledge are of key significance to R&D organizations because there are many experts who have tacit knowledge and this is usually the most important resource of the organization and a resource that it very difficult to measure.

). calibration techniques. • Observation – observational techniques are another valuable means of capturing tacit knowledge. 2. Example concept ladder or tree. Laddering uses a hierarchical approach to show relationships between concepts. all questions are pre-established. • Constrained tasks – the constrained task approach limits the choices an expert is given when capturing knowledge (e. actions or events. and who come together to develop and share their knowledge in that field for the benefit of both themselves and their organization. A concept map is similar to a ladder. • Peer assist – peer assist is a process in which an individual or team arranges a meeting or a workshop in order to make use of the knowledge and experience of other individuals or teams before embarking on a project or activity. Process knowledge is often found in narrative procedures. Figure 3.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on • Interview techniques – interviews are important in helping to understand and capture knowledge associated with an expert’s role. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 85 . • Process mapping – processes are characterized by stages. However. This can lead to the understanding of the knowledge about properties. • Laddering and concept mapping – laddering and concept mapping are diagrammatic ways of representing knowledge in a particular area or ‘knowledge domain’. although this is a timeconsuming process.g. equipment set-up and operation. these allow no flexibility. These techniques are particularly useful when trying to capture special skills (e. • Knowledge marketplace – a knowledge marketplace can be regarded as a ‘dating service’ to assist in knowledge and competence transfer.g. tasks and relationships between concepts.1. structured interviews. Social interaction and knowledge sharing techniques • Communities of practice – community of practice (CoP) is a network of people who work on similar processes or in similar disciplines. There are three main types of interview techniques: o Unstructured interviews have an outline agenda but no pre-defined questions or structure. with each stage having inputs and outputs. quizzes and guessing games) • Concept sorting – sorting techniques are a well-known method for capturing the way experts compare and order concepts. specialist welding etc. Simply observing and making notes as the expert performs their daily activities can be useful. o Semi-structured interviews (the most commonly used) have a structured agenda with the flexibility to ask additional questions following an answer. the layout usually starts from a central theme and shows concepts as nodes and the relationships between them as labelled arrows. on-line or via email. Example of concept map. The process begins by identifying what people currently know and what they would like to know on a particular topic and then connects them as appropriate. The knowledge marketplace process can be facilitated face-to-face.3. self-assessment questionaires. o Structured interviews. Figure 4.

also known as Enterprise 2.1. • Knowledge café – a knowledge café brings people together to have an open.hummingbird.A portal is a comprehensive access structure to resources (web ‘super site’) that provides a single. It takes the form of a quick and informal review and discussion at the end of a project or at a key stage within a project or other activity. is a term describing social software used in an enterprise (business) context. o Providing management with powerful data management tools (for an effective overview of performance and activities). Most systems incorporate a workflow module that allows the circulation of documentation amongst users maintaining configuration control for document updates following check and approve cycles. A simple search engine is often included in the document/content management systems. creative discussion on topics of mutual interest. design information.com).com). o Carry out decision making and problem solving activities to replicate human thought processes. component data. o Allow users to find and access knowledge. It can be organized in a meeting or workshop format. Such systems are particularly important in R&D organizations to help maintain in electronic format items such as research papers. • Knowledge base systems – a knowledge-based system is a computer system that is programmed to imitate human problem solving by means of artificial intelligence and reference to a database of knowledge on a particular subject.). The purpose of a portal is: o An integration tool to provide easy. often personalized interface point for accessing and consolidating information from disparate sources. IT Tools • Document and content management systems – document and content management systems have been used for many years to hold explicit knowledge in the form of documentation. o Livelink (www. drawings and other data and information relating to the research center and its operations. o More effective decision-making (based on access to needed knowledge). • Explicit knowledge search/retrieval – all types of nuclear R&D organizations require personnel to be able to search for and have access to explicit knowledge. • Portals . The purpose of a knowledge base system is to: o Allow knowledge to be stored and structured. o FileNet (www. Examples of the most frequently deployed systems include: o Documentum (www.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f • After action review – after action review (AAR) is a process used to capture and evaluate lessons learned.4. In and R&D organization a portal offers many advantages: o Increases staff productivity (by reducing the time taken to access information and provide it in a more useful form. teams and ‘communities of practice’ to share and discuss ideas and knowledge.ibm. • Collaboration and social networking tools – enterprise social software. o Recognition of the value of knowledge (as a key element of human capital with significant commercial value).com). o Microsoft SharePoint (www. unified and integrated access to an organization’s own resources. o A communication tool to enable individuals. results of experiments. but the emphasis should be on flowing dialogue that allows people to share ideas and learn from each other. o Interface with other IT systems that contain knowledge. 2.com).microsoft.opentext. o An access tool for other (internal and external) information resources. 86 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .documentum.0.com). o Hummingbird (www.

Romania is one of the countries with a dynamic nuclear program having a research institute – INR with 41 years of activity and 2 operating NPP units with another 2 in plan and looking for financing.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Examples of social software include Facebook. industry. and • Enhancing nuclear education and training. IT tools are available to help do this. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ROMANIA’S POSITION IN NKM The challenges and trends in the nuclear field in the recent years have convinced researchers as well as the management people that NKM is an increasingly important element that needs to be dealt with. • Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge. The mission of the Agency’s NKM programme is to assist Member States to sustain and further enhance nuclear knowledge by applying modern knowledge management tools and practices. [3] 3. • Facilitating knowledge creation and utilization. • Skills/competency management systems – for nuclear R&D organizations. The objective is that Member States develop the capacity and means to manage nuclear knowledge as a resource for the efficient and safe implementation of both current nuclear programmes and socio-economic development in the future. as well as various non-nuclear applications and radioactive waste repositories. in particular. Myspace. Key activity areas: • Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management. should use its potential in assisting Member States to ensure the preservation of viable nuclear education and training which is a necessary prerequisite for succession planning. Wikipedia etc. demonstrating staff competence to regulators and clients in a very important management practice. The graphs The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 87 . Flickr. activities by governments. • Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems. • Implementing effective knowledge management systems. 4. THE IAEA APPROACH IN MANAGING NUCLEAR KNOWLEDGE IAEA is engaged in leading activities towards preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge by complementing and as appropriate supplementing. academia and international organizations. • Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector. Among the key challenges of the nuclear field in Romania one can mention without any doubt the retiring staff and attracting the young generation to a career in this field. A related activity is the actual process of maintaining and enhancing competence throughout the entire organization. and these systems are generally used by individuals outside the work environment. The Agency.

The average age of the personnel has increased continuously in the last 10 years and in 2010 the research staff had an average age of 45-65 years old at INR. Age distribution at Cernavoda NPP and INR Pitesti Another important issue that needs to be addressed is the scientific and technical heritage of several decades of nuclear development that exists in a decentralized manner in Romania as well as many Member States. networking education and training and working on mutually accepted curricula can make studying nuclear subjects more attractive. Nevertheless. In the last years. Once the KM system is developed for a specific organization it can be implemented. [6] This means that a KM health check is the first step before considering any further project action.Capacity Building and Knowledge Management that was funded through a grant from Innovation Norway through the Extra budgetary Programme for Safe Nuclear Energy in Romania and was carried out by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). based on the IAEA Safety Standards and only in the end it should be carried out an implementation plan for ensuring sustainable education and training in nuclear safety and links with other national centers of knowledge. This means that the tacit and explicit knowledge needs to be identified. in INR were developed or some very important activities. Also. which were decisive for the future evolutions of its organizational knowledge management. We have to mention here the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) developed between 2006 – 2009 on "Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation” and another Regional Contract IAEA on “Strengthening Capabilities for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation” started in 2007. facilitate exchange of human resources and contribute to the development of educational quality benchmarks. it is worth mentioning the involvement of INR in the setup of the Educational Network for Nuclear Physics and Engineering. it is important to improve the access to nuclear knowledge as sharing and pooling knowledge can contribute to the ongoing development and innovation. related with the finding and implementation of the appropriate methods and tools for transfer and preservation of the relevant accumulated knowledge. Additionally. To support all these actions it is required a training utilizing the Systematic Training Needs Analysis (STNA) tool. REFIN. The programme consisted in an integrated series of projects aimed to further enhance nuclear safety in Romania and IAEA acted as the programme implementation agent. Then the KM processes map and of the KM processes overview are vital to be developed. while at Cernavoda NPP most of the employees were ages 40-50 years old. [4] Figure 5. assessed and afterwards the valuable knowledge to be preserved for future use. The steps in the project and the results obtained can be used as guidelines for future similar initiatives that need to be developed in the other nuclear organizations in Romania. 88 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Therefore. INR was involved in some activities. since 2005. [5] Another important initiative at the level of the regulatory body this time was a project that completed in April 2011 .N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f below illustrate the aging trend of the personnel at INR and at Cernavoda NPP.

[3] IAEA-TECDOC-1675. The oxides developed on the ODS samples in SCW are layered. Balaceanu.ro/m. Keywords: ODS steel. V. University Politehnica Bucharest 1 ABSTRACT In order to fulfil new superior cladding the requirements for new reactor generation GIV. Mihail Mihalache2 2 Institute for Nuclear Research. The new material resulted 304 ODS was characterised by different techniques and the behaviour in supercritical water (SCW) environment was considered. INVESTIGATION OF THE OXIDES FORMED ON 304L ODS STEEL AND 304L SS IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER ENVIRONMENT Maria Mihalache1. The weight gains of ODS samples were measured and compared with those of the 304 L stainless steel. In the last twenty years. IAEA. M. Planning And Execution of Knowledge Management Assist Missions for Nuclear Organizations IAEA. Valeca „The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti Strategy On Nuclear Knowledge Preservation”. VIENNA.cne. Annual Report INR Pitesti 2010. Pitesti. [4] http://www.asp?s=8&l=62. [2] IAEA-TECDOC-1586. businesses throughout the world – including those enterprises engaged in activities related to or employing nuclear technology – have recognized that deliberate and effective attention must be paid to the management of an organization’s knowledge. Valeca. Constantin. SCPW. 2008. The morphology of oxide surface was investigated with backscattered electrons in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). [5] S.aspx?id=87&it=3. the capture. retention and utilization of an organization’s knowledge has become a critical element of the business strategy formulation process. VIENNA. Nuclear 2011. M. VIENNA. The weight gains of ODS samples are higher than that of the austenitic steel after 1320 hours. The corrosion tests have been performed in supercritical water at a temperature of about 823 K and 25 MPa pressure. using two nano-oxides: titanium and yttrium oxides. Manuela Fulger1. Knowledge management for nuclear industry operating organizations. As intellectual capital has come to be recognized as a principal asset.org/projects/roman_bulgar/romania. the austenitic 304L stainless steel was improved by oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS). thicker and more uniform oxides were observed in ODS steel after corrosion than in 304L SS. The composition of sub-layers has been analysed using an energy dispersion X-Ray spectrometer (EDS) coupled at SEM.iaea.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on CONCLUSIONS Lately. Constantin Paunoiu1. 2012. Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations IAEA. [6] http://www-ns. much has been learned about ways by which KM can most effectively be implemented in an organization. cladding material The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 89 . Romania Power Engineering Faculty. 2006. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] IAEA-Tecdoc-1510.

specified by supplier. which operates at 550°C. The next step in materials research and development is the introducing of other alloying chemical elements for improving the mechanical.00-10. welding properties. INTRODUCTION Development of new materials for structural applications in advanced generation IV reactors. coolant compatibility.00-20.2 0.95 18. is one important issue of reactor material science. The first step is the testing and characterisation of normal materials used in generation III and earlier in new reactors operating conditions.00 16. forging ratio 3:1. Powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing process (HIP) in two steps: first step was performed for 2 hour at 1100°C under a pressure of 100MPa and the second for 1 hour at 1150°C under same pressure.35 0. The chemical composition of the tested alloys are presented in Table 1.045 0. are weld able. and the qualification for safety assessment. but have an inferior irradiation resistance [1].1 Materials The austenitic steels tested were A/SA .10 0.030 0. an attractive candidate material for cladding tubes of Gen-IV reactors will result. Subsequently. final forging temperature 970oC. main for fuel cladding materials.75 0. 2. For all materials it is need to perform an advanced qualification with the goal of the evaluation of the behaviour in high temperature and high dose conditions. Chemical composition samples Element Percentage by Weight Maximum Unless Range is Specified 304L (ASTM A240) 304 ODS (producer) Rest 73. Compared with ferritic-martensitic steels. The oxide dispersion strengthening of austenitic steels may improve the irradiation resistance and thus if the corrosion resistance is reliable.5 2.08 0.240 type 304 L and the same steel with addition of yttrium and titanium oxides. are follows: AISI 304L stainless steel powders were mechanically alloyed (MA) with 0. 90 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . austenitic steels are known to have superior hightemperature strength. extended operation period.5% TiO2. the irradiation behaviour and to provide coolant compatibility.35% Y2O3 and 0.5 Iron Chromium Nickel Silicon Nitrogen Manganese Carbon Phosphorus Sulfur Y2O3 TiO2 The manufacturing processes of 304 ODS samples. Table 1. The microstructural changes of ODS steels is the adding of nono-oxides (yttrium and titanium oxides).7 8. is historically a long process.00 0. Oxide dispersion Strengthened (ODS) stainless steel are considered candidate material for fuel cladding in both reactor concepts.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f 1.8 0. The compatibility with cooling agent from SCW reactor. EXPERIMENTAL 2. such as supercritical pressurized water (SCW) reactors. The next fabrication process was forging of the hot isostatic pressed billet at an initial temperature of 1150-1170°C.00 7. for fission and fusion. for using in SCWR the corrosion of austenitic ODS Steels in SCW must be studied.

4 µS/cm2. Supercritical Static Autoclave 91 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . The AISI 304L SS sheet and 304-ODS block were cut in coupons of 15 x 10 x 2 mm in sizes. The corrosion experiments have been performed in demineralised water at supercritical temperatures. Few images of grains from austenitic 304L stainless steel after microstructural electrolytic etching with oxalic acid. During exposure in SCW environment. the corrosion rate was evaluated by the weight gain/unit surface area. the oxygen concentration couldn’t been controlled. magnify a) x100.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on The forged pressed billet was hot-rolled at 1150°C from a plate with a thickness of 20 mm into a plate with a thickness of 11 mm and then subjected to a subsequent heat treatment (annealing) at 1150°C for 30 minutes followed by a free cooling in furnace.1 to 0. using a balance with readability of 1µg. SEM Images of ODS sample surface after electrical discharging.8 g/cm3 while the water density is 1g/cm3 and the gas density is 0. obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy is presented in Figure 1. After periods of 240.001 g/cm3 [2]. 6V. Figure 2. the density of SCW varies from 0. Prior to being exposed in autoclaves. 550oC. 3. and the conductivity was 0.1 Microstructural analysis The microstructure of austenitic 304L SS was examined in polarised light after metallographic preparation. The samples were cut from billet by electrical discharging. The pH of solution at room temperature was about 6. a) b) Figure 1. only at 1000C a thermal degassing for oxygen removing has been performed. 480 and 816 hours. the as received samples were polished with abrasive papers up to 1200 grade and cleaning in a mixture 1/3 acetone. b) x2000 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3. 2 min are displayed in Figures 3 and 4. An image of sample surface after electrical discharging. The physical properties of SCW are different from the properties of liquid or gas. The optical microstructures on the longitudinal planes of the as received 304L samples depict twinned grains. and a pressure of 25 MPa. 1/3 isopropyl alcohol and 1/3 benzene.2 SCW experiments Experiments were carried out in an one liter supercritical static autoclave (Figure 2).

Metallographic image of 304 L SS sample microstructure (polarised light) Figure 4. The metallographic images (figures 5 and 6) of ODS steel present oxide particles non uniform distributed in the matrix. Metallographic image of 304 ODS Figure 6.60 software. displayed as areas with very many points combined with areas of large textured grains. The first. the grain morphology of samples appears to be extremely elongated and parallel to the rolling direction. For the adsorbed species removal. Metallographic image of 304 L SS sample microstructure (polarised light) Figure 5. In figure 7 is presented XPS wide-scan survey spectrum obtained for a 304 ODS coupon exposed in supercritical water at 550oC for 44 days. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a method that provide the information related to chemical composition on a surface from the photoelectron spectrum obtained by irradiation with XRays. 92 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .2 XPS analysis The XPS investigation has been performed by “ESCALAB 250” electron spectrometer using a monochromatic Al Kα (1486. a XPS spectrum is a Counts/Binding Energy diagram that map out the emitted photoelectrons number in function of their binding energy on atomic energy levels. using “NIST” and “Handbooks of Monochromatic XPS Spectra 2005” spectrum databases. In spectrum were presented peaks of the chemical elements identified on the investigation surface. the analysed regions washed by Argon ions.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f Due to the cold working of heat-treated austenitic ODS steels.6eV) excitation X-ray source. these characteristics usually cause the tensile anisotropy of the ODS steels. Figure 3. Metallographic image of ODS sample microstructure (polarised light) sample microstructure 3. Electrons spectrum has been acquired and processed by Thermo Avantage v4. and its composition on surface are presented in the table 2. with a special resolution of 500µ m. corresponding to each chemical element on the surface.

62 0.06 13. Wide-scan survey spectrum for 304 ODS sample.38 At.44 1.99 233.08 At. and two peak for chromium corresponding to metallic chromium.42 For each element identified.65 43. After processing were identified three peaks corresponding to follows iron oxides: FeO. and to chromium oxide Cr2O3.89 285. the peaks were deconvoluted.88 Table 3.49 3.34 398.58 42. In spectrum were presented peaks of the chemical elements identified on the investigation surface.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Figure 7. the peaks were deconvoluted. Table 2. and MoO3.63 573.41 2. In figure 8 is presented XPS wide-scan survey spectrum obtained for a 304 ODS coupon exposed in supercritical water at 550oC for 56 days. and gama-Fe2O3. After processing were identified tree peaks corresponding to follows iron oxides: FeO and gama-Fe2O3. and the its composition on surface are presented in the table 3. after 44 days of exposure in SCW at 550oC For each element identified. % 24. Chemical composition of oxides on the surface of 304 ODS sample 44 days SCW 550oC Energy level Fe2p3 Cr2p3 O1s C1s Mo3d5 Binding Energy [eV] 710. and two peaks for molybdenum corresponding to the oxides MoO2.31 285. % 6.32 4.82 531.13 57. alfa-Fe2O3.73 574. Chemical composition of oxides on the surface of 304 ODS sample 56 days SCW 550oC Energy level Fe2p3 Cr2p3 O1s N1s C1s Mo3d5 Binding Energy [eV] 711.85 233. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 93 .06 531.

94 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .38 577.31 531. after 56 days of exposure in SCW at 550oC In figure 9 is presented XPS wide-scan survey spectrum obtained for a 304 L SS coupon exposed in supercritical water at 550oC for 56 days.98 At.16 285. Chemical composition of oxides on the surface of 304 ODS sample Energy level Fe2p3 Cr2p3 O1s C1s Mo3d5 Mn2p3 Binding Energy [eV] 711. Wide-scan survey spectrum for 304 L sample. and three peaks for chromium corresponding to metallic chromium.20 46. alfaFe2O3 and gama-Fe2O3. and to chromium oxides Cr2O3 and CrO3.72 233.34 641.32 39.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f Figure 8. The peaks of the chemical elements identified on the investigation surface and its composition on surface are presented in the table 4. after 56 days of exposure in SCW at 550oC Table 4. Wide-scan survey spectrum for 304 ODS sample.47 3.25 1. Figure 9. % 7.43 After processing were identified three peaks corresponding to follows iron oxides FeO.33 2.

The images of oxides developed on ODS exposed coupons revealed a rough and porous oxide morphology. After 10 days islands and rows of oxide crystallites is forming on the ODS samples (figure 10 a)). In figure 13b) at 10000 magnify crystallites with different shapes and sizes can be visualized. the forming of these rounded crystallites. Ones have the straight edges and others have a rounded shape. can be seen both porous or compact islands. only some islands are visible. This layer contains smaller crystallites. In figure 12 a) can be seen in few crystal tops. which will increase later. The crystallites have different sizes from zero to 6 microns. At higher magnify (figure 13a) and 13 b) an oxide layer under the large crystallites and islands is visible. These characteristics could be attributed to different oxide types.3 Oxide surface morphology The surface morphology carried out by “TESCAN VEGA LMU” scanning electron microscope.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on 3. On the sample. a) b) o Figure 10. but on 304L SS sample. In same time on 304L sample aren’t present any visible crystallites at the same magnification (figure 10 b). but crystallites with different shapes are visible. Many crystallites containing cavities and small rounded non adherent crystallites appeared on the oxide surface. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 95 . respectively on 304L SS sample after 30 exposure days. The oxides formed are granularly and the size is dependent on time. The secondary electron images have been acquired and processed by “Vega TC” software. a) Oxide morphology at 550 C after 10 days on a) 304 ODS sample b) 304L SS On ODS samples after 44 days the morphology is changed (figure 12 a). In figure 11b) can be observed the islands developed from grouping of small crystallites. For ODS sample large areas covered by oxides are visible. In the figures 11 a) and b) is shown the oxide morphology developed on 304 ODS samples. After 44 days the oxides island developed on 304L SS are connected (figure 12 b).

N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f a) b) Figure 11. a) Oxide morphology at 550oC after 44 days on a) 304 ODS sample b) 304L SS 96 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . a) Oxide morphology at 550oCafter 30 days on a) 304 ODS sample b) 304L SS a) b) Figure 12.

It can observe the existence of a Y2O3 particles on the scan line (at 13 µm position on the scan line). Cr. nickel. b) EDS Line scan for Fe. yttrium and oxygen and a secondary electron image. In figure 14 b) are presented the results of EDS line scan for iron. Cr. Y. Ni. O in the oxide layer for 304 ODS sample (550oC. titanium. chromium. a) b) Figure 14. 56 days) The images suggest a stratification of oxide. The oxide layer located adjacent to interface can be a spinel Fe. An external iron oxide layer without chromium and nickel is followed immediately by a chromium oxide layer with minor iron content and by an enriched in nickel oxide layer close to metal/oxide interface. of oxide sub-layers grown on a 304 ODS corrosion coupon exposed in supercritical water at 550oC for 56 days.4 Oxide cross-section chemical analysis To identify the oxides present on the samples the electron probe microanalysis have been performed. a) Oxide morphology at 550oC after 44 days on 304 ODS sample a) x5000 b) x10000 3. a) secondary electron image. Ni oxide. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 97 .N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on a) b) Figure 13. figure 14 a).

In few points. Immediately under this layer an chromium enriched layer is present. The presence of the iron oxide in P1. at the metal-oxide interface is present an oxide layer enriched in chromium and nickel. The outer layer is an iron oxide layer. P5 and P7 points is indicated the presence of an oxide enriched in chromium and nickel. oxygen. an other type of electron probe analysis has been performed. the existence of three sub-layers. a) b) Figure 15. Cr. In the picture. The florescence spectra in each point was aquired and processed by Esprit software. and under this. It can be observed the oxide layer stratification. EDS Maps for Fe. chromium. P2 and P8 points are confirmed. The chemical compositions determined in each analysis point are presented in the table 5. In P3. In figure 15 are presented EDS maps obtained for iron. marked in figure 16.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f The fluorescence profile from figure 14b) presents a chromium concentration increasing at middle of oxide layer with a corresponding decreasing in iron concentration. A cross-section by oxide layer and EDS analysis points (304 ODS Sample) 98 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Ni. The presence of yttrium oxide is proved in the P4 point. a composite map and a secondary electron image of oxide sub-layers grown on a 304 ODS corrosion coupon exposed in supercritical water at 550oC for 56 days. Figure 16. the absence of chromium and nickel in the first sub-layer iron – enriched is indicated. The composition of P10 point suggest the normal alloy. 56 days) To confirm these observations. EDS multipoint analysis has been performed. O in the oxide layer for 304 ODS sample (550oC. nickel.

Alloy fragments or metallic chromium.40 0. iron and nickel are encapsulated in the oxide layers. or by forming FeO layer in the earlier stage of oxidation and afterward the formation of Fe2O3.57 36.57 - 4.04 Ni 10. The next step is the forming the cavities or pores in the crystallites. Chan Bock Lee and Dohee Hahn . chromium and molybdenum oxides at the surface. On 304L stainless steel the oxides grow slower than ODS samples.39 1. iron(III) oxide alfa-Fe2O3 and iron(III) oxide gama-Fe2O3. and the chromium oxide sub-layer will increase under iron oxide.94 0.35 Cu 1.91 0.86 2. When the oxide layer increases.Pitesti by Circuits Chemistry.42 1. HCM12A and HT-9 in supercritical water .Nuclear Engineering and Technology.61 75.45 9.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Table 5.80 1. The XPS results suggest that if the oxide is thinner it contains more oxide types.Journal of Nuclear Materials 371 (2007) 1-17 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 99 .06 Ti 1.96 17. Initially. At higher magnifies an oxide layer with small crystallites can be observed under the large crystallites and islands.Institute for Nuclear Reasearch . June 2008.54 0.6 1.92 22.73 0.40. REFERENCES [1] Tae Kyu Kim. chromium and iron oxides. only few islands interconnected could be visualised.63 17. Acknowledgements This research was supported by RAAN . the FeO proportion decreases and Fe2O3 proportion increases.40 5. When the oxide thickness increases. However the iron oxide layer is very thin.Oxidation of ferritic–martensitic alloys T91.61 7. at the end of experiments after 56 days. Was .97 14.57 Mn 0.47 16. iron.51 86.63 10.85 1.02 Y 1.53 1. p 305-310.10 10. EDS analyses indicated a stratification of oxide layer. 5. CONCLUSIONS The 304 ODS coupons exposed in supercritical water at 25MPa develop a rough and porous oxide morphology.89 0.41 0. The oxides formed are granularly and its sizes are dependent on time.63 7.81 22.“Microstructural Observation and Tensile Isotropy of an Austenitic ODS Steel” . Chang Soo Bae1. Next the islands increase and become connected.56 4.98 0. the oxides arrange in layers.14 46. Vol.52 Cr 1. Jinsung Jang*.16 21.80 0.46 1.50 1.21 1.40 12. Do Hyang Kim1.25 9.34 44. three sub-layers can be observed: an iron oxides external layer.78 4.63 6. a median sub-layer enriched in chromium oxides. The authors thank IAEA for financial support and to University of Beijing for providing the 304L ODS steel coupons for corrosion tests.91 1.44 52.91 Fe 93. the iron oxides are maintained at the surface. Sung Ho Kim. That is produced by iron oxide layering with forming of a Fe2O3 external layer and a FeO internal layer. Chemical composition of oxides determined by EDS (SEM) in points from figure 11 Spectrum P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P 10 O 5. Gary S.14 12.04 50. it contains three main oxides : iron(II) oxide FeO.33 19.42 66.00 4. extending on large areas.53 74. and an internal layer near metal-oxide interface containing nickel. This layer contains smaller crystallites with different shapes and sizes.83 1. islands or rows grow on the sample.57 52. Romanian National Reasearch and Development Program.4. [2] Pantip Ampornrat. No.

B. 1. The Tritium Laboratory is in the refurbishment process. MG-6.Characterisation and safety storage of resulted radioactive wastes . The main steps of TL refurbishment Cleanup of old TL Upgrading Activities Period Activities Area measurements for inventory of radioactive 2009-2011 Feasibility study and non-radioactive wastes resulted from the refurbishment activities Dismantling and decontamination of the used 2009-2011 Designing of new TL equipment Decontamination of the radiochemical hoods 2010-2011 Re-construction and (RH) and glove boxes (GB) extension Removal of the apparent ceiling. Fugaru.New equipments building or purchasing. Magurele has been commissioned as part of Radioisotope Research and Production Centre in 1976. In this paper the preliminary refurbishment activities and reconstruction of new tritium laboratories are described as follows: -Radiological features for inventory of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes resulted from the cleanup activities -Decommissioning of the used equipments. Diana Chiper Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering. A several national research projects (3 CEEX. Romania has been commissioned as part of Radioisotope Research and Production Centre in 1976. Since 2006. tritium laboratory were designed for synthesis of labelled compounds. Refurbishment Strategy The refurbishment of TL implied two main steps: (a) preliminary cleanup activities and (b) reconstruction and extension of the new TL (see Table 1) Table 1. utilities and 2011 New equipments paintwork from walls building or purchasing Characterization and storage of resulted 2010 radioactive wastes 100 Period 2005-2006 2007-2011 2011-2012 2007-2012 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f THE DECOMMISSION AND UPGRADING OF TRITIUM LABORATORY FROM NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICS AND NUCLEAR ENGINEERING. At first. e-mail: cristip@nipne. Tuta. MAGURELE C.2. C. which involves dismantling of the used equipment and facilities. S. Romania. Postolache. P. 077125. tritium detection and tritium wastes management researches. radiochemical hoods and cleaning up of glove boxes and hoods . Gh. 6 PNCDI project and POS CCE/BCP 7PM/2008) were used as financially support to decommission and upgrading activities.O. A project POS Priority Axis 2 and several national research projects financially support the upgrading works. Bubueanu.Designing and reconstruction of tritium laboratory .ro ABSTRACT The Tritium Laboratory from NIPNE. Magurele. the activities were extended with tritium sealed sources obtaining. INTRODUCTION The Tritium Laboratory (TL) from NIPNE. V. the TL is in the refurbishment process1. Later. 2 NP.

C-Connectors. Sample oxidation system V-valve. the facility for removal of labile tritium. The components of facilities were cleaned up and radiological characterized. Decommissioning of Broken Equipments Tritium manifolds for synthesis of labelled compounds and respectively for obtaining of beta light sources.Determination of RSC .Determination of FC from samples of walls (paint and plaster).4.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on 2. F-Funnel. The oven is provided with an air detritiation system (catalytic gases oxidation and desiccation cartridges). The components of glass. steel and aluminium were decontaminated using a sulpho-chromic solution followed by thermal treatment at 600°C for 60 min at L X/11/B170 Nabertherm oven. The collected activities are measured at LSC. S – Sample. pavement and apparent ceiling . 2. The radioactivity of the resulted liquid wastes was measured at LSC. Designing and reconstruction of Tritium Laboratory In cooperation with SC SILER TRAINING SRL Pitesti and CITON Magurele the new TL are designed by reconfiguration of old TL and extension of controlled area. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2. WS-Water Saturator. The determination of fixed and in depth contamination was performed by catalytic oxidation of samples using a RT Nabertherm Tube Furnace coupled at OS1700 Tritium Collector (figure 2). TC.3. functional and broken equipments. Figure 1. The components of vacuum pump were preliminary cleaned up using organic solvents. The RH was decommissioned and temporary deposited in RPC area 2. glove boxes. Boxes and Hoods cleaning up After decommissioning of facilities and equipments. Evaluation of Contamination in Tritium Laboratory The area measurements carried out in the old TL on 13 sampling areas (figure 1) by monitoring of the following parameters: . The distribution of sampling areas in the Tritium Laboratory Figure 2.Tritium collector 2. The remained activity of cleaning materials was determined as FC using the protocol described in in the previous paragraph. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 101 . the hoods and boxes were cleaned up using abrasive materials and selective solvents. the radio-chromatographic stand and endurance test facility were decommissioned. The GB were kept in TL and used as tritium wastes storage area.1. The determination of RSC has been carried out by smear test using polystyrene smears3 followed by the measurement of activity at Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC).Determination of RSC from radionuclide fume hoods.2.

5 275 Internal hood paint External hood paint 102 354.1 110 0. clothing and masks with tritium retention cartridge were used for less critical areas in the Tritium lab. RESULTS 3. Evaluation of Contamination in Tritium Laboratory The radiological characterization of the rehabilitation areas carried out by evaluation of RSC and FC. 3.6 - - The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .5. The total estimated RSC values classified on type of facility surfaces RSC Surface [kBq] GB and RH-external surfaces 92.inner surfaces 3274. Personnel protective equipment like gloves.61 Walls in storage room 33. The total estimated RSC values classified on type of laboratory surfaces RSC Surface [kBq] LSC Laboratory walls 81. The total estimated FC values for different materials correlated with the radioactive wastes resulted after cleaning up of walls and pavement FC Area Volume of Radioactive Weight of Radioactive [kBq] [m2] waste [m3] wastes [kg] Wall paint 44.5 168 1.35 Walls in tritium laboratory 53. Dose monitoring was another aspect of the protection of the personnel.36 Radiochemical table–external surfaces 24.2 1.86 Apparent ceiling in entire laboratory room LSC Laboratory pavement Storage room pavement Tritium Laboratory pavement 31. The workers submitted regularly bioassays for evaluation of tritium concentration in bodies.41 SS radiochemical table inner surfaces 12. The obtained results are shown in Table 2-5.55 1500 Apparent ceiling <3 110 2. During cleaning up activities the space area is monitored using 400SBDγC Overhoff TGM and OS1700 Ortec Tritium Collector.96 Table 3.84 18 14.60 13.9 168 0.36 Stainless steel sink 8. Table 2.12 Radiochemical table – inner surfaces 16.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f 2.08 168 Plaster 699.68 3360 Pavement 462.35 273.24 Stainless steel radiochemical table external surfaces RCTI 32. Dose Received by Workers.74 Table 4.12 GB and RH.1.88 33.

6 15603.Aluminum components from vacuum systems and TLC scanner . facility for removal of labile tritium and facility for endurance test. Decommissioning of Broken Equipments In decommissioning activities the following elements have been removed: . the RSC decreased at 3…14 Bq/dm2. The cleaned up components are stored in sealed plastic bags for future applications.2.Liquid wastes (oil) After the first decontamination procedure of stainless steel components. Electronic components and plastics are stored for future processing by incineration. The radioactivity of the oils from vacuum pumps and liquid wastes resulted from cleanup process of decommissioned equipments was measured by LSC.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Table 5.3 2353.68 148.35 3. facility for tritium removal and facility for endurance test . Aluminum and steel components were preliminarily decontaminated at an estimated RSC of 280 Bq/dm2. Liquid wastes resulted from decommissioning of used equipments Activity Resulted liquid wastes Volume [l] [MBq] 5. the maximum value of measured RSC was estimated to 260 Bq/dm2. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 103 .35 24.1 Oil from diffusion vacuum pumps 2 183.85 34.21 124.4 Sulpho-chromic solutions from decontamination 3. . After chemical and thermal treatments.Plastic.7 Organic solutions from decontamination 2 234.74 126.89 247. Values obtained for RSC for old equipment from TL Analyzed Surfaces/facility Tritium manifold for labelled compounds synthesis with 1 U Bed-GB1 Tritium manifold for obtaining of beta light sources with 4 U beds-GB2 External surfaces of 3 delocated high vacuum systems GB2 oven external surface 2 GB2 oven internal surface 2 Furnace -GB2 external surface Glass labile tritium removal facility-GB3 Preliminary vacuum pump-GB3 Berthold TLC scanner Glass endurance testing facility-GB1 Recycling pumps and thermostats Activity [kBq] 5. the RSC of internal surfaces was determined.Glass resulted from tritium manifolds.64 7. Boxes and Hoods cleaning up After cleaning up of GB and RH. Table 6.23 424.35 4.5 U Bed furnaces from 2 tritium manifolds .Electronic components . resulted from vacuum systems.3.Steel from different equipments .9 Oil from preliminary vacuum pumps 0.67 76.Stainless steel components of vacuum systems (AV 05 N&V) . Obtained results are shown in Table 6.

The total weight of solid wastes was almost 8 kg with 783. The new TL has about 400 m2 area and contains: . LSC. FTIR. . dedicated only for activities with tritium sources (~110 m2 surface) .Access corridor (~200 m2 surface) . Designing and reconstruction of Tritium Laboratory The structure of the new TL is shown in figure 3. The structure of new Tritium Laboratory Architecture solution and utilities is summarised in table 7 Table 7. and 1 stainless steel sink in LRRL (technological) Drains for potentially radioactively Existing technical solutions (LRRL) contaminated liquid effluents Each sources is provided with collection tanks (HRRL) VAC System Existing technical solutions Security Controlled access doors Intrusion detection and alarm facilities (broken glass detectors) Equipment and radiological facilities in TL is presented in Table 8 104 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f .RSC values for radiochemical hoods are in range of 7…130 Bq/dm2. etc) Plumbing 2 porcelain sinks in HRRL (only for personal cleaning) 1 porcelain sink (personal cleaning). Mipolan Esprit 500 type (Gerflor) pavement Access corridor and laboratories Steel plates covered with antistatic paint ceilings Corridor walls Aluminum sandwich panel structure covered with antistatic paint Laboratory and utility access doors Aluminum structure covered with antistatic paint Windows Aluminum covered with antistatic paint/ glass 4 mm thickness Laboratories walls Covered with Mipolan PVC foil with 1 mm thickness (Gerflor) Access lock chamber with 3 routes Aluminum covered with antistatic paint/ glass 4 mm thickness Utilities Electricity 2 power lines (220 V and 380 V / 200 kVA total power) UPS facilities for critical equipments (T NMR.High Radiological Risk Laboratory (HRRL).RSC values for GB are in range of 4…45 Bq/dm2.76 MBq total activity (estimated using sample oxidation system) 3. HPLC.Low Radiological Risk Laboratory (LRRL) for life sciences researches (~95 m2 surface) Figure. UVVIS.4. 3. Architecture solution and utilities in new TL Architecture Access corridor and laboratories PVC carpet. .

labelled compounds synthesis and radiation chemistry fields. tritium facility designing and testing. Equipment and radiological facilities HRRL Tritium manifold (Tritec & Pfaiffer) and Labile tritium removal facilities Radio chromatograph HPLC (Agilent & Raytest) and Radio TLC (Raytest & Cammag) UV VIS (Analytic Jena) and FTIR ATR (Bruker Optics) spectrometers ESR Spectrometer (Brukler Biospin) LSC (PE) 2 Cryostats (DLK and Proline types) and high power chiller Preliminary and high vacuum pumps 4 new radiochemical hoods (Kotterman). determined using RS400-HTO Overhoff TGM. The tritium emissions in the environment. REFERENCES 1. Fusion Science and Technology. 1 T Surface Contamination Monitor LB1230 (Berthold) and 1 Tritium Colector (Ortec) LRRL T NMR (Bruker Biospin) with high power UPS and oil free compressor Beta Imager (Raytest) Ovens. 3. Postolache Tritium Laboratory with Multiple Purposes at NIPNE Magurele. (2011). The new TL is designed to develop researches in the tritium detection. Lidia Matei. Fusion Science and Technology. Dose Received by Workers. (2008) 149-152 2. tritium wastes. The radiological characterization of the TL areas carried out by area measurements. Old GB were taken in TL and used as tritium wastes storage area and old RH were decommissioned and temporary deposited in RPC area. 60. 1021-1024 3. evaluated with 400SBDγC Overhoff TGM was lower than 5 µSv/h.5. 413-415 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 105 . C. 48. determined using OSI 700 Ortec tritium collector. Since 2007 TL is in the process of refurbishment using as support several national researches projects.33 E+9 Bq/year 4. Refurbishment of the Tritium Laboratory from NIPNE Romania. The derivate limits for tritium 1. was lower than 74 kBq (2µCi)/m3. was between 67 E+6 Bq/ winter moons and 78. (2005). Postolache. The air contamination in TL area. “Evaluation of unfixed tritium surface contamination“. Useless equipments and facilities have been decommissioned and temporary deposited in RPC area. C. C. In the next step. The refurbishment activities involved two main steps: clean up followed by designing and reconstruction/extension of new TL. 54.5 E+6 Bq/summer moon for HTO and 4. Incubator Freezer and bioassays storage container with liq. Lidia Matei. The concentrations of tritium in the bioassays provided by operational workers were in range of 40 … 280 Bq/l. new TL has been designed and upgraded. old 14-C laboratory is commissioned as part of new TL (LRRL for life science researches activities) New equipments have been purchasing or build.83 E+7Bq /moon for T2/HT respectively. Fusion Science and Technology.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on Table 8. 2 new GB (Jacomex) and 3 old GB 3 portable TGM (Overhoff). Postolache Lidia Matei.8 E+6 and 4. Nitrogen 3 old GB 4 old radiochemical hoods 3. The exposed dose. CONCLUSIONS The TL has been commissioned in 1976 as part of Radioisotope Production Center.

BE med (1) G = ∑ Gi = ∑ a ⋅ x ⋅ ⋅ ALUMO ( i ) BEi 106 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Tuta. V. The mixture is purified and then tritium is recovered by catalytic isotopic separation technique. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2. P. Keywords: tritium. (b) molecule neutralization by free electron capture from medium and fast molecule fragmentation without geometrical re-optimization. computational chemistry.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f BEHAVIOUR OF FLUOROPOLYMERS IN PRESENCE OF TRITIATED WATER C. In both cases the samples were characterized by FT IR ATR. Radiochemical yields (G) were associated with the probability of homolytic fragmentation of chemical bonds. BE were determined by simulation of homolytic dissociation processes5. and fluoride ions emission from polymeric matrix. Radiolytic stability of the fluoropolymers: HTO system was analysed by: (a) Simulation of radiolytic processes by quantum mechanical methods.B. S. respectively electron capture by ionizing molecule is happening. Simulation of radiolytic effects by quantum chemical methods For simulation of polymeric substrate behaviour in ionizing radiation field. In this paperwork the radiolytic effects induce by presence of tritiated water / heavy water were studied. (c) Immersing of fluoropolymers samples in HTO with high activity for different time period.ro ABSTRACT The behaviour of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). For primary radiolytic effects evaluation was used an original model5: (a) molecules ionization by an electron release from highest occupied molecular orbital followed by molecule rearrangement for reaching the minimum energy value. Romania. It is necessary to analyze the spatial distribution of molecular orbital to identify the molecule zones where energy absorption. 077125. radiolysis. The simulation was realized on Intel Duo Core T6600 computer with 3 GB DD RAM using HYPERCHEM 4 and 6 computing software. e-mail: cristip@nipne. Bubueanu. The chemical bonds predisposed to breakage due to radiolysis have minimum binding energy (BE). deuterium and tritium. Fugaru Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering. In this sense G represents the sum of individualized yields (Gi) for every chemical bond which is present in the LUMO orbital covering area.1.O. Gh. MG-6. fluoropolymers 1. INTRODUCTION One of the most used methods for tritium recovery from tritiated water (HTO) or tritiated heavy water (DTO) relies on the combined techniques of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange and Cryogenic Distillation processes1. Significant structural alterations of fluoropolymers with potentially negative effects can be identified. Postolache. (b) Simulation of radiolytic effects by exposure of fluoropolymers immersed in H2O at 60Co gamma radiation field. C. Magurele. NAFION ionomer membranes and VITON fluoroelastomer in presence of high activity tritiated water (HTO) was analysed. in this study. The electrolytic cell converts the tritiated water or tritiated heavy water into a mixture of hydrogen. olygomer structures with molecular masses between 1000 and 2500 Dalton were used. Tritium presence in the system induces an intense radiation field especially at the interface between the polymeric support and the aqueous solution2-4.

VITON and NAFION samples were exposed at 60Co gamma source which assure a 6. The total concentration of fluoride ions were measured in tritiated water. The samples exposure at tritiated water with high activity Tritiated water with high activity was obtained by isotope exchange technique 3T23 He:H2O7. with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) of 14 ppb. in function of volume concentration n. Em= main energy of tritium βradiation and m = exposed material weight.Em/m.3.4. at room temperature in a Glove Box. Samples weighting approximately 500 mg were introduced in 20 ml HDPE vials containing 10 ml ultra purified water.77078   = n ⋅ 24. Simulation of the tritiated water effects by exposure at gamma radiation field The PTFE. The dilutions were performed using ultra purified water.ions concentration using a WTW INOLAB MULTI 720 pH meter with F. where d = dose flow rate. The radius of the hemisphere is equal with the maximal rate of β-radiation emitted by tritium. 2. HTO with initial activity of 45 GBq/mL has been purified by double distillation in quartz device. 450 and respectively 1000 kGy. The flow rate of absorbed dose is computed with the relation: d = Φ . The samples were stored for 60 and 182 days respectively. αi = emission coefficient in effective angle (in direction of spot surface) at level of semispherical calotte. ( ) 2. correlated with calculated value of HTO exposure (Matei Lidia. yi = attenuation coefficient in tritiated water stratum of β radiation emitted by tritium from water volume circumscribed to two hemispheres surfaces and absorbed in tritiated water volume circumscribed of internal hemisphere surface.131⋅ π ⋅ 37 ⋅ n ⋅10−22 i=60 2 i  −i / 5. The fluoropolymers weighting approximately 500 mg were introduced in 4 ml HDPE vials containing 3 ml of HTO with radioactive concentration of 3.2. For this purpose an evaluation model was developed6. and al 2008). Φ = total radiation flux which interacts with the material surface. i = 60 Φ= ∑ Φ i = ∑ φi ⋅ α i ⋅ yi i=0 i =0 i = 60 (2) Where: φi = radiation flux emitted by tritium atoms of water volume circumscribed to two hemispheres. The conductivity was 0. 2. expressed in GBq/L can be calculated the value of dose flow rate. and x is weighting factor for protector effect of delocalized orbital. Evaluation of radiolytic processes by IR spectrometry and fluoride emission The radio-induced fluoride release was studied by determination of pH and F. were 300. methanol and finally dried by storage for 24 hours in a vacuum desiccator. The The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 107 . A hemisphere represents the volume of tritiated water that irradiates the polymer surface. obtained using SIPLICITY UV MILLIPORE system. The samples was decontaminated by multiple washings with water.67 kGy/h dose rate. Absorbed doses. BEmed is average BE for coverage area of LUMO orbital.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on where: a is parameterization constant deduced from experimental data.25 µGy/ s d= 3 i + 3 i + 1 ⋅ e ⋅ 1 − (3) ∑   2 3m i =0 i +1  In this case.28 TBq/l.selective electrode8. Evaluation of absorbed doses at the interface fluoropolymers: tritiated water Due to the very low energy of β-radiation emitted by tritium. ALUMO(I) is LUMO orbital covering grade on chemical bond. 2. the direct measurements of absorbed dose by the fluoropolymers using classical methods is practically impossible. Based on previous presented data the value of dose rate can be calculated using the formula:  9.3 µS. BEi is bonding energy.5.

The F2CCF2 BE decreasing from 269.23 0.69 kJ/mol (for neutral structure) to 219.25 0.25 0. because the energy decrease is not significant and LUMO orbital is distributed in sulfuric acid terminal zone. Radio sensibility of C-F and C-CF3 bound is still low. Polymeric chain analysis in LUMO orbital zone shows a significant modification of C atoms stereochemistry.033 0. 3. On basis of dose rate is determined the value of 412 kGy for 60 days and 1250 kGy respectively for 182 days exposure at tritiated water. In case of NAFION structure. The radio-induced alterations of polymeric structures have been analyzed using IR spectrometry. LUMO orbital is located on main chain. Radio sensibility of main chain is still low.093 G (C-C main chain) 1. C-S. Table 1.1. Hydrophilic structure presents reduced radiolysis stability.2.28 TBq/L the calculated dose rate is 79. at tetrafluoroethylene monomer unit.22 0.40 kJ/mol. primary radiolytic effects simulation suggest higher stability in relationship with PTFE. In VITON case.77 kJ/mol.004 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . modeling of primary radiolytic effect reveals a relative stability of PTFE backbone for those 2 structures (acid form and salt form). Simulation of radiolytic effects by quantum chemical methods In case of PTFE. In table 1 the radiochemical yields obtained values by simulation are shown. for samples exposed to tritiated water and for reference samples were collected and compared.004 G (C-CF3) G (C-O) G (C-S) G (C-H) 108 - 0.23 0.230 0. Radiochemical yields determination by computational methods NAFION salt NAFION acid PTFE VITON A form form 0.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f radiochemical yields were estimated by correlation between the obtained results.22 0. primary radiolytic effect simulation reveals a distinguish radio-sensibility of polymeric main chain.52 10-3 Gy/s.91 kJ/mol (in transitional state case). sample masses and absorbed doses. C-C and C-O are the most exposed bonds to fragmentation. so C atoms have the conversion tendency of hybrid state from sp3 to sp2. in ionized state C-C BE manifests an important energetic decreasing from 268. but it reveal the tendency of hydrophilic groups losing. RESULTS 3.038 G (C-F) 0. because the energy decrease is not significant and LUMO orbital is distributed in C-C main chain zone. In this study an FTIR ATR TENSOR 27 spectrometer Bruker type was used. The IR spectra for samples irradiated in a γ field. 3. individualized yields (Gi) is not dominant like PTFE case. for neutral structure to 24. In case of geometrical optimized PTFE structures.32 0. Determined radiochemical yields present high value in a case of PTFE and an inferior value in NAFION case. This fact represents practically transition state in homolytic fragmentation of polymeric chain at CC bond level. Because LUMO orbital covering grade on analyzed chemical bond have a small value.15 0. Evaluation of absorbed doses at the interface: solid surfaces-tritiated water solutions For radioactive concentration of 3.

64E-04 3.23E-05 1.6 Dose [kGy] 1000 450 300 410 1250 1000 450 300 Release F / mass sample 4. Evaluation of radiolytic processes by IR spectrometry and fluoride emission 3. Table 2. gamma irradiated PTFE at 300 kGy (2).66E-04 3. 1000 kGy (4) and PTFE exposed at HTO for 2 months (5) and 36 months (6) Figure 2.1 0.3 0. 450 kGy (3).70E-05 3.0 1 2 TFA 0.5 6 5 4 3 2 1 3500 3000 2000 1500 1000 -1 Wavenumber [cm ] 500 0. experimental results (spectral analysis-figure 1) sustain simulation obtained results.00E-05 5. 1440 cm-1.12 2.39E-04 3. 813 cm-1).75 0.96E-05 2.79 3.36E-05 G(F-) 1.0 FxC-H aldehyd C-H >C=O OH carboxyl monomer 0. The characteristics bands associated with vibration mode of C-O-C (980 and 968 cm-1) and SO3 (1320 cm-1. gamma irradiated NAFION at 300 kGy (2).19 0.48E-05 2. 1202 cm-1 and 1060 cm-1) were decreasing at dose between 100 and 1000 kGy.96E-05 G(F-) 0.7 0.0 0. 1000 kGy (4) and NAFION exposed at HTO for 2 months (5) and 36 months (6) The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 109 . 450 kGy (3).1.2.25 0.38 0.67 Sample NAFION:HTO NAFION:HTO VITON:H2O VITON:H2O VITON:H2O VITON:HTO VITON:HTO Dose [kGy] 410 1250 1000 450 300 410 1250 Release F / mass sample 8.25 0.5 0.44E-04 4.12 0.5 0.0 3 4 5 6 1.58E-04 1.66 0.8 0.34E-04 2. IR spectra of unirradiated PTFE (1).3.5 TFA 2. IR spectra of unirradiated NAFION (1).5 3.31 3.07E-05 2. Fluoride radio-induced emissions analysis from PTFE.75 2. Thus it was identified a specific band for unassociated carboxyl OH (3470 cm-1) and also trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) characteristic band (1780 cm-1.16 1.78 0.3. In reference sample peaks from 2930 cm-1 and 2850 cm-1 domain are also present with a higher intensity and can be attributed to aldehyde C-H groups and the most probable to H-CF2-. The high stability of PTFE backbone is confirmed also. IR spectral analysis (figure 2) is also in accord with quantum chemical simulation.2 0.1 3500 3000 2000 1500 1000 -1 Wavenumber [cm ] 500 Figure 1.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on 3. Evaluation of radiolytic processes by fluoride emission determination Determination of fluoride ions concentration from aqueous (H2O/gamma radiation and HTO) solutions reveals a higher stability of VITON and NAFION in relation with PTFE. 3. In case of NAFION.0 -0.3.72 0. C-F vibrations at 1200 cm-1 and 1144 cm-1 were unaffected.4 1. NAFION and VITON samples Sample PTFE:H2O PTFE:H2O PTFE:H2O PTFE:HTO PTFE:HTO NAFION:H2O NAFION:H2O NAFION:H2O 3. The determined values of radiochemical yields for fluoride release (GF) were shown in Table 2.9 0. Evaluation of radiolytic processes by IR spectrometry In PTFE case.75E-04 9.

HF formation is on the other hand significant and cannot be ignored. Two tendencies with lots of hydrophilic groups were identified: fragmentation of C-SO3 bonds and fragmentation of C-O and F2C-CF2 bonds from pendant hydrophilic sulfonate side chains. IR spectra are similar with gamma irradiated Figure 3. used as a solid polymer electrolyte. In case of PTFE. quantum mechanical analysis evidence main chain homolytic fragmentation associated with HF and hydrophilic groups like OH and COOH formation. (2005).3 1166-1129 cm with amplitude 1 0. In NAFION case. Radio-induced hydrophilic groups ponder is insignificant and does not affect polymeric support properties. irradiated VITON at 300 kGy (2). gamma fluoropolymers at high absorbed dose. 97-101 110 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . present higher stability at radiolysis in relationship with PTFE and NAFION.8 5 existing pick of reference sample. “Trenta Facility for Trade-Off Studies Between Combinated Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange and Cryogenic Distillation” Fusion Science and Technology.7 cm-1. quantum chemical analysis evidenced a higher stability in relation with PTFE.. 1000 kGy (4) and VITON exposed at HTO for 2 months (5) and 36 months (6) -1 1. used as isotope exchange support catalysts. NAFION and VITON fluoropolymers in presence of tritiated water.2 inversion. We identified TFA characteristic 0. Exposed samples were analyzed by IR spectrometry and fluoride release analysis. CONCLUSIONS The behaviour of PTFE. fluoropolymers are not recommended to use as catalytic support. and by storage in tritiated water with high radioactive concentration for 60 and 182 days. REFERENCES 1. IR spectra of unirradiated VITON (1). NAFON and VITON fluoropolymers used in tritium recovery facilities from HTO or DTO was analyzed by followed methods: simulation of radiolytic effects by computational methods.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f The gamma irradiated VITON 1.9 6 bands (1783 cm-1 superposed on 0. In authors’ opinion. 48. 450 kGy (3). The backbone 0.5 -1 3 cm present a small modification at 0. VITON fluoroelastomer. 813 cm-1). Cristescu I.4 2 -1 0. 0.2 sample IR spectra (figure 3) show 1. Obtained results suggest significant self-radiolytic processes in PTFE. 1447 0. used at sealed device in tritium facilities. and al.1 In case of samples exposed at 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Wavenumber [cm ] high activity tritiated water.6 4 characteristic twins pick at 1170-1126 0. but simulation obtained G values present low value. The determinant radiolytic process is fragmentation of CF2-CF2 bonds from main chain of polymer.1 similar modification with irradiated 1.0 PTFE.3 4. irradiation of samples immersed in water with a 60-Co gamma source. electrolytic cell membranes and sealed device applied for detritiation of water or heavy water. The fragmentation of every F2C-CF2 bonds was associated with HF emission. Experimental radio-induced changes are evaluated by IR spectroscopy and fluoride release determination. FTIR spectroscopy and fluoride release analyses are in accord with the quantum chemical simulation predictions.

54.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on 2.. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 76. (2005). This work is focused on the presentation of ICIT research activities. P. 4. fax: 0250/732746. Box Raureni 7.. Valcea.Valcea has built an experimental pilot plant having as the main objective the development of a technology for detritiation of heavy water processed in CANDU-type reactors at the nuclear power plant in Cernavoda.. (2007). 688-691 7. Fusion Science and Technology. Carmen Varlam. 76 (2007). and al.ICIT Rm.. 1419-1422 RESEARCH PROGRAM OF ICIT ON TRITIUM FIELD AS SUPPORT FOR FUSION PROGRAM Marius Valentin Zamfirache. Postolache C. Fusion Science and Technology. (2005). Brad S. which enabled ICIT to be part of the detritiation technology group for ITER.O. Matei Lidia. 48. Ionita Gh. Fusion Science and Technology. Evaluation of fundamental processes in macromolecular structures radiolysis using quantum-chemical methods. (2008). 54. Romania. Radiolysis of polytetraflouorethylene and polystyrene catalytic supports in presence of tritiated water. Ioan Stefanescu. Within ICIT were developed laboratories that cover a wide area of investigations in the field of tritium research. Matei Lidia. Ramnicu Valcea. Matei Lidia. Behavior of Nafion perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes in presence of tritiated water. Synthesis of Labeled Compounds using Recovered Tritium from Expired Beta Light Sources. perspectives and its capability related to water detritiation technologies and also to the development of research on issues in the field of nuclear fusion. Nicolae Bidica National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Fusion Science and Technology . Postolache C. Endurance test for SCK-CEN mixed packing. C. 112-115 3. (2011). The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 111 . phone: 0250/732744. and al. C Tuta. 48. Matei Lidia. 475-478 5. Postolache C. 12571262 4. Fusion Science and Technology. Keywords: Tritium. (2008). 60. Romania. fusion. Uzinei Street no. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Behavior of Hydrofobic Isotopic Exchange Catalysts in the Presence of Tritiated Water. heavy water. Matei Lidia. S Brad. There are also a number of support activities and a tritium research program which are presented as an overview of the ICIT new research tasks. Postolache. Cristescu I. Anisia Mihaela Bornea.. E-mail: mariusz@icsi. 1267-1271 6. 643-646 8. detritiation. Ionita Gh. Postolache C.ro ABSTRACT Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies (ICIT) Rm. 240050. proposed for water detritiation system at JET. Facility for Endurance Testing of Hydrophobic Isotope Exchange Catalysts. Matei Lidia.

Germany ABSTRACT A three-dimensional (3D) modeling to simulate the adsorption of deuterium on a cylindrical storage vessel with sponge Titanium bed was developed. Valcea. The problem we have here is cooling the adsorber metal body in a short enough period of about 2-4 hours. which is almost 10 times faster than previous. corresponding to the normal evaporation rate. Christoph Plusczyk2 1 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Phone: 0040 250 736979.gheorghe@icsi. thus increasing the efficiency of the plant purification system. CP 7. e-mail: bogdan.999%.06ppm O2. PWR).5m3/h. The experiment was successful and the adsorber cooling time went to 2 hours for a temperature of 16°C in the warmest point. Romania. One of the technological process phase is the gas (D+T) drying. Sorin Gherghinescu. Final drying is done in two 13x molecular sieve (Na2O Al2O3 2SiO2 nH2O) adsorber which retains molecules with diameters less than 0. The refrigerant used was cold nitrogen coming from the liquid nitrogen storage tank (99. Before reaching the maximum adsorption capacity it must be started the first adsorber regeneration phase and the gas will further pass through the second adsorber. Since at high temperature the thermal conductivity of the sieve is bigger it becomes obvious that it can not be cooled without prior or at least simultaneous metal casing cooling. In respect to that we made a forced cooling system for the adsorber using two coils made of copper tube with inner diameter of 8 mm and a unfolded length of 47m. 112 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .3bar. preferably polar molecules. Uzinei 4. Temperature values were determined using K type thermocouples and infrared thermography was used both for spot measurements of surface temperature and also for the heat transfer uniformity observation.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– fi is ss si io on fu si io on –f COLD NITROGEN RECOVERED USE TO INCREASE PERFORMANCE IN THE CRYOGENIC PILOT PLANT PURIFICATION MODULE Gheorghe Popescu. OP Raureni. cooling system. Marian Vacaru National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . up to 10°C. Str. OP Raureni. resulting from isotopic exchange column (LPCE) in order to separate the tritium in the cryogenic distillation (CD) module. Ionut Spiridon.ICIT Rm.9 nm.ICIT Rm. <3ppmH2O) with a flow rate of 1. CP 7. Uzinei 4. adsorbtion capacity. Roxana Ionete1.ro ABSTRACT Deuterium and Tritium Separation Pilot plant aims to demonstrate and develop the technology of tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water provided from the moderator circuit of CANDU reactors (CANada Deuterium Uranium. 3D SIMULATION OF A DEUTERIUM STORAGE SYSTEM Eusebiu Ionete1. e-mail: popescu. fax:0040 250 732746. mass and momentum) and the ones referring the kinetics of adsorption was numerically implemented. Karlsruhe. Valcea. Tritium Laboratory.monea@icsi. Bogdan Monea1. fax:0040 250 732746. Str. Valcea. Phone: 0040 250 736979. tritium separation. water fits in both requirements and can be removed up to a dew point of -100°C. and a pressure of 1. Valcea. Romania. The reserve of time so created can be used to increase the adsorption capacity by lowering the molecular sieve temperature even further. 1. Keywords: Cold nitrogen. avoiding the risk of an ice cap. code 240050.ro 2 Institute for Technical Physics. code 240050. The mathematical model that describes the absorption process consisting of differential equations for the system (energy. molecular sieve is cooled with a dry deuterium gas flow extracted from the cryogenic distillation module. molecular sieve.

deuterium. Pitesti. This fact is not easy deductible from the experiment because of the relative spatial location of the pressure gauge.and briefly presented . In the bed region. In the paper are presented original concepts and elements related to calculation of accidents risk level and differences between propagandistic (misinformed . The region filled with Titanium sponge was 20 mm height and the free space 30 mm. configuration. to build improved. improved or new. predefined and analysing appropriate reliability data. reliable and safety power plants. propagandistic. Keywords: mathematical model. also the international cooperation. The new industrial technologies and the actual scientific discoveries. ROMANIA.virtual or false) risk level and probabilistic (real) risk level. Keywords: nuclear safety. Commonly these nuclear technologies are reported to be modern. accident risk. Actual development of new materials and efficient technological processes offers the possibilities for adequate implementation and use of them in the NPPs system structures. offers the opportunities to preserve. nuclear power The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 113 . The reactor was modeled by using symmetry properties and the mesh was created using tetrahedrons method containing a number of nodes and cells. gheorghe. protect and strengthen the actual safety barriers in order to cumulate and use advanced energy production processes to efficiently use of the new energy sources. supervised and improved. NPPs safety systems availability is necessary to be continuously monitored. To describe the dynamic process taking place in the reactor. probabilistic. The absorption speed is in close relation with the activation temperature and pressure. between titanium clusters the pressure varies spatially to the bottom of the vessel. titanium sponge PROPAGANDISTIC VERSUS PROBABILISTIC RISK LEVEL OF ACCIDENTS IN NUCLEAR SAFETY ANALYSES Gheorghe Florescu1. The numerical simulation model is based on SIMPLE (semi-implicit method for pressure linked equations) algorithm.significant risk evaluation studies that use: adequate NPP systems models. Ioan-Bogdan Florescu2 1 Institute for Nuclear Research.florescu@nuclear. The paper also presents study elements related to existent latent risk (versus the calculated and real risk level) for accidents taking into account the hidden weaknesses that exist in the new NPPs design and nuclear energy production technologies. in the same time the safety of the nuclear energy production needs surveillance for level preservation and increasing.ro 2 University of Pitesti ABSTRACT The high generation of power production technologies are planned and designated to solve the actual civil and industrial requirements demanding to eliminate the existing problems related to energy delivery price and efficiency. The simulation results indicated that the pressure drop is not uniform during the absorption. In this respect are performed . the flow and heat transfer theory of porous media have been applied. adsorption. also to avoid the environmental disastrous impact of abnormal nuclear events. functioning and operation. progressing.N Nu uc ea ar Po er na an nd df us n cl le rP ow we r– –f fi is ss si io on fu si io on The model was applied to a reactor in the shape of a cylindrical container filled with sponge titanium and having 50 mm height and 30 mm diameter.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells .

Catalin Capris National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . UV-Vis spectroscopy experiments showed incorporation of the inorganic phase in the polymer matrix. Romania. reactor. Box Raureni 7. Ramnicu Valcea. Romania 1 ABSTRACT Nafion/oxide composite membranes were produced by pulsed laser ablation method using UV laser pulses generated by a COMPEXPro 205 KrF* excimer laser source λ = 248 nm and τFWHM ≈ 25 ns.744. methane reforming.ro. 4. L. Ilfov. TGA and DSC methods were used to characterize the thermal stability of the membranes. Constantinescu3 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Romania. compared with Nafion 112 membrane. Magurele. G. Stefanescu1. Ilfov. Magurele. PO Box MG-54. Keywords: heat transfer modeling. 409 Atomistilor Street. fax: 0040 250 732 746. Valcea. 405.ICIT Rm.O.746. 3Bucharest University-Faculty of Physics. Uzinei Street no. M.ICIT Rm. 240050. Mihai Varlam. chemical reaction and temperature.O. 2Lasers Department. Ioan Stefanescu. P. Vasile Tanislav. L. COMPOSITE NAFION/TiO2 MEMBRANES FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS D. Romania. Patularu1. Mariana Iliescu. Atomistilor Street no. E-mail: lili@icsi. Axente2. Ebrasu1. Mihai Culcer.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s HEAT TRANSFER MODELLING OF STEAM METHANE REFORMING Elena Carcadea. Mihailescu2. Keywords: Nafion. Valcea. Schitea1. fax: 0250.ro ABSTRACT In this paper a heat transfer modeling of a membrane reactor for methane steam reforming was developed in order to analyse the importance of temperature for methane conversion and hydrogen yield. D. Dorcioman2. phone: 0250. We selected TiO2 material and distributed it uniformly over the surface of Nafion 112 membrane using 100 and 250 laser pulses and an incident laser fluence set at 5 J cm−2 were applied to improve the water retention property and corresponding proton conductivity under high temperature operating conditions. 240050. P.N. A CFD softwarwe was applied to analyze the steam methane reforming in the chemical reactor investigated. Ramnicu Valcea. Box Raureni 7. and the results demonstrated that there was higher water uptake and an increased proton conductivity at 120 °C temperature. composite membrane. the study was intended to give us an insight regarding the interaction between the flow. Uzinei Street no. RO-77125. PO Box MG-11. Also.ebrasu@icsi. PEMFC The 18h ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 117 . E.732. 4. National Institute for Lasers. I. phone: 0040 250 732 744. Enache Adrian. Plasma and Radiations Physics.732. I. Water uptake and proton conductivity characterizations of the Nafion composite membranes were carried out. Furthermore.M. Varlam1. E-mail: daniela.

fax: 0040250732746. Uzinei Street no. Vasile Tanislav1. mathematical model EXPERIMENTS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF ISOTOPIC SEPARATION IN PEM ELECTROLYSERS Mariana Iliescu. Elena Carcadea1. 71. P. Claudia Cobzaru2.O.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION PROCESS OF GLYCEROL TO PROPYLENE GLYCOL Adriana Marinoiu1. P. Keywords: PEM electrolyzer.O. Mangeron. Keywords: copper chromite catalyst. hydrogenolysis. Mihai Culcer. Box Raureni 7. were used to feed a PEM electrolizer. Four water compositions having deuterium content in the range of natural (144 ppm) to 2%. Catalin Capris1 1 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . 70050 ABSTRACT The conversion of glycerol hydrogenolysis in aqueous solutions on a commercial copper chromite catalyst is evaluated under various conditions of temperature and time. and the deuterium content of the evolving hydrogen was analyzed. These parameters are necessary and sufficient for developing a mathematical model of the hydrogenolysis process. Mihai Varlam. Ramnicu Valcea.ICIT Rm. 240050.4. Rm. Valcea. water electrolysis. D. Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection. Box 7 Râureni. This model shows a good arrangement of the experimental points on the response surfaces and a correlation coefficient closed to unity. isotope separation 118 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Uzinei Street no. phone: 0040250732744. Romania. in order to reveal the isotope separation effect in water electrolysis. Mihai Balan National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies . 2“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iaşi. Roxana Elena Ionete.ICIT Rm. 240050. revealing a slightly depletion. 4. Valcea.Vâlcea. Romania ABSTRACT The paper deals with the first experiments conducted in the National Center for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell.

GDE porosity. important issues have to be addressed. The simulations carried out intended to establish the maximum value of temperature in the sweep area of the porous membrane reactor. inlet temperature from the reforming area and velocity of the sweep gas was considered. fax: 0040250732746 ABSTRACT PEM Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. Box Raureni 7. P. Before as PEM fuel-cell technology can gain a significant share of the electrical power market. Ramnicu Valcea.ICIT Rm. Keywords: Design. GDE conductivity. PEMFC. gas distribution electrode (GDE) thickness. Uzinei Street no. 240050. fax: 0040250732746 ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is the parametric investigation of methane steam reforming to synthesis gas in a membrane reactor. 4. because a 450C maximum value of temperature is required for long life and maximum performance of these tubes. an optimum velocity for the sweep gas and an optimum pressure in the reforming area was searched by simulations carried out. close to the inner permeation tubes. The influence of some parameters on mass and heat transfer is analyzed. Also. the influence of pressure. and for conceptual design is take into consideration integrated engineering and the cost and durability is analyzed. Valcea. The factors considered are channel width. In this work. and new materials for simulation stack design. Catalin Capris 1 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . shoulder width. 4. P. Ramnicu Valcea. Valcea. Uzinei Street no. Steam methane reforming in a membrane reactor is investigated in this paper using ANSYS Fluent software. Box Raureni 7. FEM The 18h ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 119 . Adriana Marinoiu. The new stack PEM fuel-cell prototype use innovative alternative materials selected less than 5 years ago. These issues include optimal choice for PEM fuel cell design. 240050.ICIT Rm. and the development of alternative materials in the fuel-cell stack. Two domains were taken into account in our simulation (reforming and permeating areas) while the membrane was considered one dimensional. Ioan Stefanescu. NEW CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR PEM FUEL CELL Anghel Vasile National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Vasile Tanislav. Romania. Romania. Mihai Varlam. Thus.O. phone: 0040250732744.O. a three-dimensional model is used to analyze the important interaction effects solved using a finite element method and adequate simulation software. phone: 0040250732744. reliability.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s PARAMETRICAL STUDY OF STEAM METHANE REFORMING IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR Elena Carcadea.

2. Solid oxide electrolysers operate at temperatures above 800 °C and will not make the object of our further discussion in which we will present a brief overview of PEM and alkaline electrolysers and a comparison between these two. the current energy market is still dominated by fossil fuels which are present on the planet as a limited resource. Valcea. INTRODUCTION Throughout the whole world. Keywords: hydrogen. The current paper presents a brief overview of the potential electrolysers and renewable energy sources have in ensuring the transition towards a “hydrogen economy”. L. Hydrogen plays a major role in the transition towards a modern energy system. a short comparison between PEM and alkaline electrolysers and a small scale renewable energy sources hydrogen production installation that validates the concept. PEM. obtaining hydrogen from electrolysis is a far more expensive process mainly because of the high quantities of energy required. While there are various methods of producing hydrogen. Facing the imminent danger of a major energy crisis. Balan. caused by the depletion of fossil fuel resources and their ever increasing price. 120 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .ICIT Rm. alkaline electrolysers and solid oxide electrolysers. 4 Uzinei St. electrolysis. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers are much more adequate for integration with renewable energy sources. it needs to be linked with renewable energy sources. starting with the methods of obtaining hydrogen.240050 ABSTRACT Water electrolysis is the easiest and most efficient method of obtaining hydrogen.. I. PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE AND ALKALINE ELECTROLYSERS At the moment there are numerous types of electrolysers used for hydrogen production. one of them stands out due to its huge potential of being linked with renewable energy sources: electrolysis. This will of course lead towards an accelerated development of all hydrogen related technologies in the near future. renewable energy sources 1. The advantages of this process consist in obtaining high purity hydrogen with a reduced impact on the environment. Patularu. M. but on the other hand.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s OVERVIEW ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING THE ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS M. Compared to methane reforming. Ciocan National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies. classified depending on the electrolyte they use and their working temperature: proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers. A. the current society had to understand that new methods of producing energy were required in order to smoothen out the transition towards a modern society in which energy will cease being a scarce resource. compared to alkaline and solid oxide electrolysers due to their structural and functional characteristics. Iordache. However. in order to reach a high efficiency. alkaline. it suddenly becomes a much more attractive technology that has a huge potential to evolve hand in hand with the transition towards a new energy economy. as an alternative energy carrier along with electricity. if the electrolysis process is supplied with the surplus energy produced by renewable energy sources. Culcer.

which makes them suitable for special applications where space is a limited resource. represent the common membranes for PEM electrolyser applications and while they can be considered the central element of such systems.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s 2. PEM electrolyser operating principle 2. Figure 1. made by DuPont. also add to the price. making PEM electrolysers an expensive solution. One of the key advantages of alkaline electrolysers in comparison with other types currently available on the market consists in their reliability and their life cycle which can be measured in The 18h ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 121 . Compared to alkaline electrolysers. due to their modular construction. Nafion membranes. The polymeric membrane also has the role of separating the two generated gases at the two electrodes. they are also a weak link due to their high price. medium and large scale. At first. The energy efficiency of alkaline electrolysers is situated between 4 and 6 kWh/ Nm3 H2 and at the moment they have an output range between 10 and 100 Nm3/h H2. Hydrogen purity in alkaline electrolysis installations is situated around 99. This type of electrolysers can work at relatively high pressures.1. PEM electrolysers The evolution of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers is directly linked with the synthesis and usage of proton conducting polymer membranes. The normal operating pressure of a PEM electrolyser is around 15 bar. up to 500 bar and this leads to discovering a new advantage over other electrolysis systems: there is no need for complicated hydrogen compressing systems. PEM electrolysers are relatively easy to build and operate because they are compact and don’t contain corrosive liquids. with the current density exceeding 1 A/cm2. alkaline electrolysers were the first ones developed for producing hydrogen using this process. while the energy efficiency varies between 5 and 7 kWh/ Nm3 H2. this type of electrolyser was used in facilities that had the goal of maximizing the efficiency of hydro power plants and are still used today at small.999% with the help of additional auxiliary purifying facilities.8% and can go up to 99. One of the key features of PEM electrolysers consists in the fact that they are adaptable to small scale applications. used for the catalyst.2. starting with the 1920s. the output capacity can scale up to 70 Nm3/h H2 and even higher in specific applications. capable of providing as low as 0.01 Nm3/h H2. The key characteristic of PEM electrolysers is represented by the use of a solid electrolyte that allows cation transfer due to hydration and acid groups contained in the structure of the polymer. proton exchange membrane electrolysers work at high current densities. Alkaline electrolysers Historically speaking. Note that Platinum and Ruthenium. On the other hand.

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES HYDROGEN PRODUCTION Providing the necessary energy for the electrolysis process from renewable energy sources is the most accessible solution at the moment for overcoming the main disadvantage of this hydrogen producing method: the high production costs due to the high energy demand. In terms of costs and economy. Electric installations. Alkaline electrolyser operating principle Table 1. On the other hand hydrogen and oxygen producing installations that contain an alkaline electrolyser require a considerable amount of auxiliary equipment. water treatment and gas purifying equipment. alkali solution recycling installations. rather than years.4 A/cm2. but it has the potential of helping the future so-called 122 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Another key feature of the alkaline electrolyser consists in the fact that it does not require expensive Pt or Ru catalysts and can work well with Ni based catalysts.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s decades. Alkaline electrolysers imply the use of alkaline solutions. The current density in an alkaline electrolyser varies between 0. Alkaline electrolysers PEM electrolyser Alkaline electrolyser High current density Low current density Can operate at high pressure Lower operating pressure Large range of operating pressure Requires maintenance Produces pure water Lower water quality Fast response time Slower response time Compact structure Less compact structure Accessible mass production due to simple Difficult to obtain small scale systems structure Allows small scale systems More difficult mass production Uses expensive catalysts Cheaper materials. This would not only help achieve a better economic efficiency. while the operating pressure is situated between 1 and 30 bar. compressing and transport utilities. this is a huge advantage of alkaline electrolysers. especially potassium hydroxide 25-30 % as the electrolyte that ensures the anion transfer process. all of these are necessary for an efficient electrolysis process. PEM vs. especially when taking in to consideration large scale applications. Figure 2.2 and 0. but high Cheap installation installation costs Moderate H2 production cost High H2 production cost High reliability Long life cycle Contains corrosive liquids Operation Construction and costs Safety and reliability 3.

Each one of them has a rated power of 5000 W and the interesting part about them is the fact that they are able to support both DC and AC input. The required water input is situated at 0. In order to validate the theory that hydrogen can be obtained from renewable energy sources with the technology and equipment currently present on the market.05 Nm3/h H2. we have set up a “proof of concept” installation at the National Center for Hydrogen and Fue l Cell. 4. which translates in to 2. Figure 3. forcing us to use a more complicated system that includes a stack of batteries and two smart inverters that allow energy input from the grid whenever there is not enough energy in the battery stack to supply the hydrogen generator. With the use of the intelligent control system of the hydrogen generator. The whole system is air cooled. meaning that additional components necessary for a liquid cooled system are not necessary. especially small and middle scale ones. The PEM hydrogen generator is able to deliver gas at a 99. a proton exchange membrane (PEM) on-site hydrogen generator with a net production rate of 1. the whole system is able to function continuously. Another key element of the whole renewable energy sources hydrogen production installation are the two SMA Sunny Island 5048 inverters. each having a rated power of 180 W at standard testing conditions. The PV array consists of 28 SHARP NU-180E1 photovoltaic modules.9995% purity and a nominal pressure of 165 bar. Whether we are talking about PEM. the electrolysis process has to be developed and adjusted in search for the best efficiency and adaptability.94 liters per hour at a pressure between 1. whether or not the energy demand can be covered by the PV array and wind turbine. meaning that they can be supplied with energy from batteries and from the grid.5 and 4 bar. The eddy UGE 600 vertical axis wind turbine has a rated power of 600 W. meaning that there is no need for an additional compressor for transferring H2 in high pressure tanks.5 m/s. stacked in parallel in order to provide the hydrogen generator with the necessary power. but it delivers energy to the system as soon as the wind speed exceeds 3. The 18h ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 123 . The energy demand of the PEM electrolyser is delivered by the renewable energy system that has two major components: a PV array and a vertical axis wind turbine. making it adaptable to almost any type of application.28 kg H2 every 24 hours. Renewable energy sources hydrogen production diagram Summing the rated power of all the renewable energy production sources available still does not cover the energy demand of the hydrogen generator.H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s “hydrogen economy” become eco-friendly by obtaining the necessary hydrogen without unwanted emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels. achievable at a wind speed of 12 m/s. The central piece of our installation is the HOGEN HP 40 Hydrogen Generator built by Proton. CONCLUSIONS In order to sustain the transition towards a “hydrogen economy” that will reduce the impact of fossil fuels over the energy sector and environment. A very important feature of the HOGEN HP 40 Hydrogen Generator consists in the fact that it can be powered from a 220 V outlet.

H Hy dr ge en n a an nd d F Fu ue el el yd ro og l C Ce ll ls s alkaline. character observed in the shape of the voltammograms. M. Ivy (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). 2004 ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAPHENE SUBSTRATES Ana-Maria Ducu. 3Nano-SAE Research Center. 124 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . for example large wind turbine compounds that have recorded a significant expansion in the last several years. Atomistilor 405. being part of the chain that can represent an alternative to traditional energy production systems. the relationship between structure and activity having a major impact in our understanding of the catalytic process.org ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to investigate the electrochemical response of different graphenic substrates. The National Academies Press. Laurentiu Popovici. Stefanescu. Bucharest-Magurele.G. However.0214574838. but will also help balancing the energy distribution grid. a hydrogen vehicle charging station and fuel cells. Costs. National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. Adriana Balan. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production. in order to provide a complete solution for a small to medium residential application. obtained in our laboratory via solvothermal method. Large scale electrolysis installations have the potential of being operated in areas with high density of renewable energy sources. NREL/MP-560-36734. surplus that would otherwise be lost. Faculty of Physics. Editura AGIR. Ioan Stamatin University of Bucharest. We chose perchloric acid as supporting electrolyte and all measurements were conducted in a three electrode Teflon cell. I. Barriers and R&D Need. shifted to more negative potentials. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. with the necessary purity. Iordache. The process discussed above is a small part of a much larger system that can also include other types of renewable energy sources (for example small scale hydro). The cyclic voltammetries indicated a thinner double-charged layer for graphene. J. DOE Hydrogen Program. Electrochemical investigations are important in catalyst chemistry. in an acidic media. 2011 2. it would be wise to power the electrolysers with the surplus energy produced by renewable energy sources. The different methods of exfoliation and preparation of the graphenic substrate induce a specific character in the substrate. Obtinerea hidrogenului – Metode si procedee.38. with low resource consumption and the lowest possible impact on the environment. while the response for platinum decorated graphene showed a broad reduction pick for oxides species. tel. The proton exchange membrane electrolysis process is perfectly suitable for integration with renewable energy sources. in order to achieve the best possible efficiency. 2004 3. e-mail:office@3nanosae. The Hydrogen Economyu – Opportunities. The renewable energy sources hydrogen production installation presented in this article is at the moment nothing more than a “proof of concept” that has been validated inside our laboratory. the goal is to obtain the needed quantity of hydrogen. Stefan-Marian Iordache. Catalin Ceaus. solid oxide or new electrolysis methods. I. This will not only raise the overall efficiency of the whole process.

Environmental and Life Quality .

Laura Elena SERBAN2. Atomistilor. Adrian PANAIT1. Romania 1 ABSTRACT The environment and population are subject to slow and fast action events generated by phenomena dependent or independent of human action. Bucharest. George Alexandru CIOCAN1. Bucharest. Str. The new solutions must be designed so that they can be applied to new structures and to increase the degree of resistance to existing structures. Romania. control. Madalina Angela ZAMFIR1. Laura Elena SERBAN2. vibrations and seismic movements in buildings. equipment and pipe networks. no. Among violent actions which affect the environment through loss of property and human lives are earthquakes. Adrian PANAIT1. The new devices. limitation. vibrations and seismic movement. Following this exploitation the share of greenhouse gases has increased having as consequence global warming and devastating weather phenomena. Because violent seismic movements can’t be controlled by man. Liviu Dan POSTOLACHE2. Viorela Maria POSTOLACHE2 Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects. damping. Romania 1 ABSTRACT The main cause of environmental degradation results from intensive and inefficient exploitation of carbonbased energy. 2SC SIGMA PATENT STUDIO SRL. Str. etc) and the overtaking of shocks and vibrations generated by the systems to protect the environment. Keywords: shocks. limit and damp shocks. Marian ANDRONE1. Madalina Angela ZAMFIR1. equipment and pipeline networks to repeated seismic action. imposed by industrial development based on less advanced technologies. 2SC SIGMA PATENT STUDIO SRL. called “SERB-devices” can overtake large static loads over which dynamic loads may overlap and be damped. Liviu Dan POSTOLACHE2. e-mail: serbanv@router. STORAGE AND REUSE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Viorel SERBAN1. 409. The devices allow “cutting-off” the dynamic action in-coming from the environment to the protected systems (building. Magurele. e-mail: serbanv@router. pipe network. Magurele. equipment. The paper presents new types of mechanical devices developed by SITON and SIGMA SS companies in cooperation with other units in Romania. by means of which to control. Marian ANDRONE1.ro. George Alexandru CIOCAN1.citon.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY DEVELOPING NEW INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS. Romania. 409. no. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 127 . SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TO VIOLENT SEISMIC MOVEMENTS (EARTHQUAKES) Viorel SERBAN1.ro. Atomistilor.citon. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY DEVELOPING EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS FOR THE COLLECTION. base isolation systems. protection from such events can only be made by innovative technical solutions to ensure reduction of the dynamic response of constructions. Viorela Maria POSTOLACHE2 Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects.

to achieve the aim of the Set -Plan and RES Directive 20/20/20 and for the implementation of the Smart cities concept. Air currents energy from the horn effect is transformed into electricity by cornice turbines mounted on the parapet of the micro-power plant. Turning primary energy into electricity is accompanied by combustion processes that produce a high environmental pollution and greenhouse gasses. solar. . energy storage. wind. the development of new sources of clean and economically efficient energy is the no. Currently. INTRODUCTION Economic growth generated in particular by the industrialization has the negative effect of consistently increasing the degree of environmental pollution. The quality of the thermal energy can be increased by raising its temperature using the thermal pump effect. The modular renewable power plant with storage and reuse energy can generate. can radiologically infest large areas with long-term negative consequences. do not generate environmental hazards infection or accidents. a process that generates solid and gaseous pollutants as well as nuclear fission reactions of uranium and thorium which produce radioactive waste with very high half-life time and which in case of accidents. In a small size renewable power plant all processes are achieved with maximum efficiency related to random renewable energy collection. bio. 1 priority in the world.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. waves. SERB RPP-01 could be an important component for the efficient use of the renewable energy. Keywords: solar-wind micro power plant. renewable energy. The SERB solar-wind-hydro-wave-ocean stream-bio power plant with storage and reuse energy to increase the efficiency of renewable energy (SERB RPP-01) and the possibility to set the load curve of the electrical power system presented in this paper is an efficient solution to exploit renewable energy potential including sites with low and average energy potential.) combined with storage solutions and reuse of energy. wind. [1] Heat and electricity production. now and in the near future is made by burning fossil fuels. marine currents. solar. etc. based on the potential of renewable energy in the location. leading to the exhaust of traditional fuels. control 1. 128 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k The only solution that can now reduce this effect is efficient exploitation of renewable energy (hydro. From an environmental point of view the new type of renewable power plants no longer have the disadvantages of classical thermal plants in that they are clean. Losses of thermal energy in the environment are recovered by air currents generated by the horn effect on the building façades. Energy demand increases every year with few exceptions in times of crisis. For this reason. Changing the current processes of heat and electricity production cannot be done overnight and will take many years. One of the important consequences of increasing the environmental pollution is that climate change is due to the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. its conversion into electricity. do not consume large amounts of material and energy to achieve them. The plant is constructed of a central module which allows the storage and reuse of energy and of several specialized modules. The power plant can be achieved in different configurations depending on the types of renewable energy that exist in the area and the types of energy required (thermal and/or electric) with or without energy storage. The share of electricity and heat has a maximum contribution in the generation of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Each module can work independently or connected with the central body which stores energy in the form of thermal energy and pressure energy and reuses it upon request or when needed. energy storage and its use when needed. store and deliver thermal energy obtained directly from renewable energy. all over the word. The modular solar solar-wind-hydro-wave-ocean stream-bio power plant with storage and reuse energy has an innovative character opposite to traditional procedures applied so far. the whole world is dependent on fossil fuels in terms of energy.

Renewable energy storage in tanks and for the long term (using as far as possible the same infrastructure ) to allow reuse it when necessary. These tanks are manufactured of reinforced concrete and steel. The tanks are placed in a concrete and metal structure.The collection of two or more types of renewable energy (sun and wind or sun. The work presents several alternatives to build modules that allow efficient collection of renewable energy from an area. 20% reduction in carbon dioxide releases. In some situations a number of modules connect between them to form a plant with posibilities to store renewable energy. [3. . storage of potential energy is made in several tanks of different capacities. SERB solar-wind-hydro-wave-ocean stream-bio power plant with storage and reuse energy to increase the efficiency of renewable energy (SERB RPP-01) The power plant can be achieved in several variants: solar-wind-hydro-plant. which involves the increase by 20% for the use of renewable in electricity production. on which are mounted: solar batteries. hydro and wind) using the same supporting structure for reducing investment on KW installed. [7] The SERB RPP-01 power plant allows the storage of renewable energy as under pressure energy and/or heat and reuse it like heat or to converse it into electricity (using the same storage tank). [2] This paper presents a new type of modular power plant that uses renewable energy for the production and storage of electrical and thermal energy. The power plant is designed so as to allow the collection. and 20% reduction in the intensity of energy use by 2020. 5. Applying the new method may have an important contribution to the European directive "20/20/20". 6] The plant captures green energy that has a random character and stores it in the form of air pressured energy and heat. The power plant is made of several modules which can function independently or interconnected and which achieve: . 4. Some of these tanks can be used to store energy in the form of air under pressure and heat in multi-thermal tanks. solar-wind-hydro-wave-ocean stream plant. . etc. storage and supply of heat at the desired temperature. have large investments on KW installed and create difficulties in operation. The power plant can also be used for adjusting the load curve. waves and wind or sun. The key particularity of efficient storage of the renewable energy as thermal energy in SERB RPP-01 plant is the recovery of a high percentage of the energy losses by chimney effect through the cornice wind turbines installed on the top of building plant and reuse it. cornice and terrace wind turbines batteries and potential energy metal tanks. and for industrial needs along all the year. . 2. To determine the most effective ways to increase plant efficiency. solar-windwave-plant. The possibility of storing renewable energy in the form of pressure energy and/or thermal energy and transform it into electricity when it is needed is a feature that enables the effective use of random renewable energy.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y The new type of renewable power plant is a way to the efficient exploitation of renewable wind and solar energy on an economical level and it is an important step in increasing the share of green energy use on an industrial scale.2 % of renewable energy in the region may collect). The plant can also work in a load curve adjustment system by power consumption in the night and day gaps and power production in the morning and evening peaks of the power system load curve.Meeting the needs of heat and electricity for a relatively large community of persons.Utilization of the storage capability of renewable energy including for following the load curve. Current solutions for the collection of renewable energy within a specific site are inefficient (1 . According to the requirements of the users in some areas there can be built modules that work independently usually collecting three types of renewable energy using the same support structure. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 129 .

Horizontal section and lateral view of a solarwind-hydro. . exploitation.They can be built anywhere due to the fact they are independent of the existence of a water source and a high capacity water accumulation basin. • a relative uniform distribution of power in the electricity grid system which does not generate stability problems associated with a consumer or a high power injection in the electroenergetic system.2. • no loss of energy due to the power transportation on the long distance. . SERB solar-wind-hydro-bio power plant with storage and reuse energy Figure 2. . . .4. environmental protection.wave-ocean stream -bio power plant The advantages of using a SERB-RPP-01 power plant in adjusting the load curve are higher to the use of hydroelectric pumping power plant (CHEP) from the point of view of the initial investment.With an investment and a surface more lower than for a CHEP it is possible to obtain: • greater total power installed in the electro-energetic system achieved by several SERB RPP-01.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n.1.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k Figure 2. SERB solar-windwave-ocean stream-bio power plant with storage and reuse energy with active cost protection Figure 2.They do not affect the ecological balance of the area.The volume and time of construction works as well as the investment cost per MW installed are much lower than for a CHEP.3. for the following reasons: .Fast Start up and close down of the SERB-RPP-01 (about 1 second) allows the instantaneous consumption or injection of power in electro-energetic system for adjusting the load curve. 130 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . SERB solar-wind-wave-bio power plant with storage and reuse energy with active cost protection Figure 2. .Use in parallel of several functions which enable the efficient exploitation of renewable energy as well as adjusting the load curve of the electro-energetic system.

all over the word. the power plant can be constructed on the sea or ocean shore when specialized floating modules collect wave energy from the off-shore as well as solar and wind energy for the area concerned by means of solar panels and wind terrace turbines mounted on specialized floating modules. In the event that there are water currents in the sea or ocean. These floating modules are connected with the plant constructed on the shore for energy transfer. Also to be noted that heat losses from the plant which are higher during cold periods partially recover through the chimney effect. wind and hydro renewable energy and its conversion into electricity or heat. The plant can also be used for adjusting the load curve. transformation of solar energy into electrical energy can be efficiently obtained also during cold periods because its effectiveness depends on the temperature difference between the facade surface and the air temperature. Biogas production can be passed directly to the consumer or can be used to generate electricity or thermal energy in specialized equipment. The renewable energy is stored in the form of thermal energy and pressure energy. Pressure energy is stored in under pressure air volumes which are found in independent tanks and/or in the upper side of the water tanks. to achieve the aim of the Set . The wind energy of the natural air currents and air currents generated from the chimney effect is collected and transformed in electricity by terrace and cornice wind turbines. An important feature of the new generation of solar-wind plants is that solar energy collection is done both directly through photovoltaic and thermal panels and indirectly by air currents due to the chimney effect generated by the temperature difference between the plant’s facades heated by solar radiation and the air temperature. The plant allows the storage of electrical energy in the form of under pressure energy and/or heat and converts it into electricity. The thermal energy is stored in hot water tanks whose temperature increases from bottom to top. Solar energy is collected by panels mounted on the East. SERB RPP-01 could be an important component for the efficient use of the renewable energy. the SERB-RPP-01 plant can be constructed on the shore of the flowing waters (rivers and streams) when specialized floating modules collect the kinetic energy of water currents as well as solar and wind power for the area concerned. If a SERB-RPP-01 renewable power plant central module has a height of 41m and foundation dimensions of 20 x 28m with the overhead of a parallelepiped shape with horizontal section of 17 x 25m and 36m height: The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 131 . These modules are connected with the central module built on the waterfront (bank) for energy transfer.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y If in the area are placed biodegradable materials the plant can contain a few digestion tanks that are located in the central module by the multi-thermal energy tanks. inclusively in areas with low solar-wind-wave-ocean stream energy potential that can be urban areas as well. The plant is constructed of a central module which allows the storage and reuse of energy and of several specialized modules.Plan and RES Directive 20/20/20 and for the implementation of the Smart cities concept. The chimney effect appears in the semi-opened channels formed between the walls of the plant (external plated by black terracotta/ tile) and the solar panels mounted on a support structure at a distance from the plant walls due to the temperature difference between the outside air and the temperature of the plant’s wall (this effect is maximized after sunset). The new type of solar-wind-hydro-bio plant is a simple installation that allows the efficient collection of solar. the collection of their kinetic energy is made with specialized floating modules on which are mounted also wind terrace turbines and solar panels to collect energy from the area. South and West facades of the building and on its terrace and transformed into electricity and heat which is used directly or stored in tanks. In a first version. based on the potential of renewable energy in the location. The central module is a relatively high building of reinforced concrete which contains hot water tanks and pressured air tanks. In another variant. The temperature in semi-opened channels is dependent on the intensity of the solar radiation and heat loss through the walls (thermally insulated) of the power plant. The digesters are located on the vertical axis in the optimal efficiency temperature area of biogas generating bacteria. Through this process.

Achieving such a plant on a water course including those with low flow rate does not require the implementation of water storage dams that might affect the ecosystem both concerning the natural course of the river and the associated area. Also solar and wind renewable energy in the vicinity of rivers is usually of maximal intensity generated by the geo-climate of the riverbeds. The efficient exploitation of renewable energy can be made by means of modular floating solar-wind-hydro micro power plants SERB RPP-02.a quantity of thermal energy between 400.000 to 900. Modular floating solar-wind-hydro micro power plants can collect: • The solar energy through solar panels mounted on the roof. .I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k the amount of heat accumulated in the tank can be between 500.000KWh.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n.000 to 350. wind and hydro) existing in the riverbeds area requires the development of new types of modular micro-plants that enable the efficient collection of these energies and their conversion into electricity using a single support structure.000 kWh. 3. The collection of these energies must be done without affecting the initial ecosystem. The efficient exploitation of the 3 types of renewable energies (solar. the renewable power plant can produce: . Figure 3. Energy losses are practically independent of ambient temperature variation due to their recovery through the chimney effect is high when ambient temperature is low which compensates for the losses increase with decreasing ambient temperature.000 to 700.000 kWh. Efficient energy storage plant ranges from 75-85% for heating and 25-35% for electricity. .2. 132 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .000 – 500.000 kWh. Modular floating solar-wind-hydro micro power plant to increase the efficiency of renewable energy (SERB RPP-02) The renewable energy of large flow running waters of the river has a high potential.Modular floating solar-hydro micro power plants Figure 3. - SERB RPP-01 can produce yearly electric power and heat from renewable sources for 6001000 people if the level of annual renewable energy recharge is 3. wind and kinetic energy of the water flow. The renewable energy is manifested over a relatively long period of time at values with a good foreseeable intensity.1.a quantity of electricity between 250. the amount of energy accumulated inside pressure air volume can be between 800.Modular floating solar-wind-hydro micro power plants The plant collects the solar. At present the renewable energy potential related to river is not effectively exploited. According to necessity.

1. surface and volume occupied by the equipment and because this energy practically covers a full range of a day.85% (function of the type of equipments). SERB RPP-03 can achieve high active protection against erosion of the banks by taking over the waves’ energy.3 m. solar and wind energy in electricity (SERB RPP-03) With respect to wave energy. The cost of the electric power produced by SERB RPP-03 is comparable with the cost of electric power produced in thermal plants. Installation plant requires no hydro works construction and does not affect the flora and fauna of the watercourse. Figure 4. stainless steel and other materials resistant to sea/ocean water aggressiveness. Depending on the waves’ energy and their type. Equipment is made of high intensity polyethylene pipes. The equipment efficiency varies between 30% . Some equipments operate efficiently also with low amplitude waves. in time there will be large sand deposits which will allow the formation of beaches.SERB solutions for the efficient conversion of wave. solar and wind energy in electricity and active cost protection The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 133 . fiberglass. wind and wave renewable energy using the same support structure and its transformation into electric energy is an efficient solution both in terms of low investment. Hydraulic fall is used to drive cylindrical turbine.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y • The wind energy using terrace wind turbines mounted on the ridge roof of floating hydro module. equipment can be floating or fix. SERB solutions for the efficient conversion of wave. under 0. By using this equipment along the shores. we are working on the development of specialized equipment that can efficiently collect wave energy. reinforced concrete. For the collection of wind energy at the top the terrace wind turbines are installed. Kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy by two floating crosspieces mounted in the front and rear sides of the plant which makes a hydraulic fall of a potential nearly double the potential for kinetic energy. in parallel with wave energy. 4. • The kinetic energy of water currents by a cylindrical turbine and equipment that converts mechanical energy of rotation into electrical energy. This equipment can also collect solar and wind power for that area. The investment for a wave turbine is under 50% of the investment for a wind turbines micro-farm of the same power. To collect solar energy on the lateral sides of the equipment and at the top solar panels are installed. Equipment power is 0.1 up to 5 MW for waves of low and medium amplitude and 5 15MW for high amplitude waves. Collecting the solar.

For the collection of wind energy at the top terrace wind turbines are installed. wind energy and solar energy in electricity (SERB RPP-04) Marine currents energy (global as well as those generated by tides) is very high. to take into account the current speed variation with depth for obtaining maximum efficiency. have a modular structure.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k 5. do not endanger the parts. They can be manually lifted on the terrace of an existing building by 2 people. The housing is self oriented to the direction of water currents. Depending on the water currents speed it is anchored only at the top for relatively low speeds and both top and bottom for relatively high speeds. SERB solutions for the efficient conversion of wind energy from urban area in electricity (SERB RPP-05) In wind energy field we developing a new generation of wind turbines (2nd generation) that do not exhibit exterior rotating parts. The current marine turbines for small and medium speeds To collect solar energy on the lateral sides of the equipment and at the top solar batteries are installed. The components of a module have sizes and weight that can be easily handled by 2 people.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. The electrical part is classical one. If there are high or medium amplitude waves in the area were the SERB RPP-04 turbines are installed. require low investment and have an attractive architecture. 6. SERB solutions for the efficient conversion of ocean stream energy. do not generate annoying sounds. panels may be mounted to collect solar energy. 134 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . On the support structure of the wind turbines. high efficiency. Installing these turbines on existing buildings is performed on the spatial light structures which don't affect the cover of the building. To collect kinetic energy of water currents on a surface greater than the longitudinal section of the rotor at exterior of this is mounted a special housing that allows an energy concentration of water currents on active blades of the rotors. . they are not negatively influenced by the wind variation in height. Module rotor diameter mounted on the same shaft may differ with depth.1. Blades are specially shaped to obtain maximum efficiency even at low speeds. Figure 5. To collect kinetic energy of marine currents it has been conceived a new cylindrical modular floating turbine type. The new urban wind turbines have no exterior rotating parts and have a modular structure made of removable components. Modular turbine diameter is small to get a rotation speed that does not require mechanical amplification systems. [8] The new wind turbines can be achieved for the urban environment also (terrace. cornice and street wind turbines). the turbines can be connected to the SERB RPP-03 equipment.

concentration and redirection of air currents.1.the losses of thermal energy on the inside of the building are recovered through the chimney effect by the cornice wind turbine.a string of modules can be connected (micro-farm) to electric generators placed at either one or both ends.1. . . . SERB urban terrace wind power turbine Terrace wind-turbines are installed on the buildings’ terrace or buildings’ roof. . SERB urban cornice wind power turbine Cornice wind-turbines are installed at the perimeter of a buildings’ terrace or roof ridge. tower-shaped and enclosed in a self-orienting carcass that facilitates collection. Figure 6. the terrace wind turbines are installed by the simple placement and ballasting on the terrace of the block without affecting the protection layers of a building.simple installation procedure on a building’s cornice without affecting existing layers. Cornice module and string of cornice modules installed on building The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 135 .has a special horizontal structure and deflectors that direct air currents and help generate vortices with suction effects. .2.farm placed on top of the buildings The rotation housing (stator) of urban terrace wind turbines focuses and directs the air currents only on the active part of the rotor.cornice wind turbines can fully capture energy of ascending wind current generated by solar radiation (chimney effect) and super pressure on the facades as well as the energy of the horizontal air currents on the top sides of a building. Urban terrace wind power turbine module and micro. Figure 6. .1. turbines can be grouped in micro-farms with a rigid position by ballasting and use of stiff cables to connect towers together and link the entire structure to a lightweight strong base.2.1.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y 6. 6.storage of the renewable energy can be made in pressure air tanks and this air can produce electrical energy by discharging in the cornice wind turbine.

micro-farm wind turbines on the street can ensure safety by physical separation of the traffic ways (replacing the current separation items) and role of protecting from the headlights of cars that run in reverse direction. On-shore wind turbines are mounted on fixed platforms or mobile platforms in rotation which can rotate in the direction of propagation of wind. If the vehicle flow is high air currents can be used to produce power with street turbines mounted on the edge of the transport corridors.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. do not endanger the parts. Energy obtained from these turbines can be used to supply services necessary for the operation of the transport artery (highways and trains on railways and subway) or it can be delivered to a power system. trains. . .the movement of speed vehicles (cars. The new wind turbines have no exterior rotating parts and have a fix position on the mobile platform. they are not negatively influenced by the wind variation in height.if in the middle of the street (highways) and on the sides (in some areas) street wind turbines are assembled. SERB on-shore wind power turbine micro-farm for the efficient conversion of wind energy in electricity (SERB RPP-07) In wind energy field we developing a new generation of wind turbines (2nd generation) that do not exhibit exterior rotating parts. 136 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . In certain areas these turbines can also use natural air currents generated by the differential heating of the earth's crust. subways) generates air currents (wind locally) to a distance depending on vehicle size and shape. trucks. require low investment and have an attractive architecture.the street wind turbine can also collect natural wind energy. SERB urban street wind power turbine Circulation of vehicles on highways and trains on railways and subway generates high speed air currents. The new wind turbines can be achieved and for the on-shore. On the support structure of the street wind turbines. do not generate annoying sounds.micro-farm wind turbines can be manufactured so that they also serve as sound-absorbing panels making a significant reduction of noise generated by moving vehicles (the solution has maximum efficiency for railway).I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k 6.3. which leads to the efficient collection of renewable energy (solar and wind) in the site. have a modular structure. panels can be mounted to collect solar energy. Figure 6. . . . Urban street wind power turbines modules and micro-farm placed on the central and side strip of a highway 7.3. This project refers to the development of a new type of on-shore wind turbines.1. This new concept allows the installation of solar panels on the wind turbines and on the mobile platform. high efficiency. these can capture up to 45% of the energy of air currents generated by the movement of vehicles. .

Alternative 2. require low investment and have an attractive architecture.1. Figure 7. The new wind turbines have no exterior rotating parts and have a fix position on the floating platform. Grid layout of turbine towers in on-shore. Off . This new concept allows the installation of solar panels on the wind turbines and on the platform.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y The total power of the new turbines installed on a platform equal in size to that used for a classical 2 MW wind turbine is of 50-60 MW. do not endanger the parts. 8. the proposed solution has higher efficiency than the classical solutions. Taking into account that this new concept allows the collection of solar energy in the site. high efficiency. Electricity generated by a on – shore “SERB” wind turbines micro-farm can produce up to 100 times more energy than a on-shore classical wind turbine micro-farm using an equivalent area. SERB off-shore wind power micro-farm for the efficient conversion of wind energy in electricity (SERB RPP-06) In wind energy field we developing a new generation of wind turbines (2nd generation) that do not exhibit exterior rotating parts. The new wind turbines can be achieved and for the off-shore. The total power of the new turbines installed on a platform equal in size to that used for a classical 2 MW wind turbine is of 50-60 MW. have a modular structure. do not generate annoying sounds. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 137 .1. Figure 8. Taking into account that this new concept allows and the collection of solar energy in the site. Mobile platform.shore wind turbines. This project refers to the development of a new type of off . Off-shore wind turbine micro-farm installed on self – orienting floating platform. they are not negatively influenced by the wind variation in height. the proposed solution has higher efficiency than the classical solutions. A new off-shore wind turbine farm can produce up to 100 times more electric energy than a classical turbine wind farm using an equivalent area. which leads to the efficient collection of renewable energy (solar and wind) in the site.shore wind turbines are mounted on floating platforms of high stability which can rotate (self – orienting) by the direction of propagation of the wind.

1. CONCLUSIONS The new type of renewable power plant with energy storage and reuse allows the efficient collection of solar and wind renewable energy and its conversion into electrical and thermal energy. The renewable plant allows the storage of electricity in the form of under pressure energy and/or heat and converts it into electricity. An important feature of the new generation of renewable power plant is that solar energy collection is done both directly through photovoltaic and thermal panels and indirectly by air currents due to the chimney effect generated by the temperature difference between the building plant’s facades heated by solar radiation and the air temperature. inclusively in areas with low energy potential that can be urban areas as well. steel or composite materials. Tidal waves turbines must be located near shores where tide amplitude is maximal and they have a fixed position. Through this process. the inlet and outlet rooms can have a compartment structure at the top in order to achieve constructions specific to the respective activity. tourism. Figure 9. but has a smaller dynamic flow because filling and emptying the chamber is done in 6 hours and 12 minutes. but it is much larger in rooms’ dimensions and has a fixed position.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k 9. 10. For the collection of wind energy on the compartment structure the terrace wind turbines are installed. The collection of renewable energy from one area is made by means of modules which may collect simultaneously or alternately three types of renewable energy: sun-wind-hydro or sun-windwaves or sun-wind-marine currents. SERB Tidal wave turbine SERB RPP-08 can be successfully used for aquaculture. In the tidal wave turbine. The plant may contain high efficiency modules for generating 138 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . advanced textiles. . SERB solutions for the efficient conversion of tidal energy. Tidal wave turbines may also collect wind wave energy that overlaps the tidal waves as both act the rotor blades in the same direction so that the effects of the two waves (wind and tidal waves) overlap and amplify one another. With this respect. The plant can also be used for adjusting the load curve. etc. wind energy and solar energy in electricity (SERB RPP-08) The tidal wave turbine is structurally and functionally similar to the new wind turbine (SERB RPP-03-W3).E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. transformation of solar energy into electrical energy can be efficiently obtained also during cold periods because its effectiveness depends on the temperature difference between the building facade surface and the air temperature. Also to be noted that heat losses from the micro-plant building which are higher during cold periods partially recover through the chimney effect. To collect solar energy on the compartment structure the solar panels are installed. Tidal wave turbines may be built out of concrete. and using the new type of highly resistant. a much larger volume of water enters and exits each chamber.

. . when the electricity demand is maximum).it is a plausible alternative to achieve in power independent areas (residential areas) because they allow the collection of random renewable energy and its use when needed. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 139 . .off-shore wind turbine towers are mounted on circular. trams.it can be a solution for efficiently adjusting the load curve. .it can produce electricity and heat in large quantities over long periods (summer till winter). .installing off-shore turbines and modular floating platforms can be achieved with conventional machines. which ensures the efficient collection of its energy (this allows the establishment of a space structure of wind turbines that are independent of the direction of propagation of the wind).the chimney effect (another way to collect and store solar power – the chimney effect depends on the temperature difference between the facade of the building and surrounding environment and is maximal after sunset. .off-shore wind turbines are vertical axis turbines. . including in the urban areas where the need for electricity and heat is higher.the platforms on which wind turbines are mounted have a high stability due to both their pyramid shape oriented downwards.the renewable power plant SERB-RPP-01 is easily to construct. .they have a modular structure with components whose dimensions and light weight allow easy handling without specialized equipment and can be fitted including on existing buildings. .variable speed of airflow by height does not influence negatively the efficiency of vertical turbines because there has been a change in the turbine impeller (rotor) diameter at a certain height proportional to the speed of air currents at a certain height.they are also efficient in low temperature areas. . the turbine collects the direct and as well as indirect (through suction) wind energy from a large rectangular surface.) as well as natural air currents energy.it requires small investments. The new solutions for the efficient collection of renewable energy and its conversion into electricity and/or heat presented have a great development potential for the following reasons: . fitted and operated. without affecting the environment.they are easily accomplished. .off-shore turbines and modular floating platforms have a modular structure with components whose size and weight allow their transportation by traditional means of transport.it can take over large variations of power specific to small communities and may act as an installation by adjusting the load curve with high efficiency. .the building of renewable power plants in a site requires relatively small consumption of materials and energy and could be done in a short time without the need of special high power machines. floating.they do not have exterior rotating parts.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y biogas. . . . self-rotating platforms that can move in a circular motion. .street wind turbines efficiently collect the energy of currents generated by motor vehicles movement (trains. taking into consideration the possibility of maintaining the optimal temperature for the digestion area throughout the year. buses. their ballasting to the bottom and because between the components of the platform modules have a water layer which generates friction forces to any deviations from the vertically equilibrium position.cornice and terrace wind turbines efficiently collect the energy of natural airflow (including slow speed ones) as well as the artificial air flow . .it is effective also in areas with low temperature.they efficiently collect the energy of natural airflow as a micro-farm module is orienting itself on the direction of airflow.it remove nearly all the disadvantages of classical urban wind turbines. . . . etc. are silent and do not present any danger to birds. The wind turbines for collection wind energy installed in the renewable power have a great development potential for the following reasons: .

fax +40214574431.Wec Regional Energy Forum – FOREN 2010 Neptun.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k are easily accomplished. - For further information please contact Mr. the forecast regarding classical energy resources depletion.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. Adrian Panait. 13-17 June 2010. Sobor. Solar-Wind Micro Power Plant With Possibilities to Store Power and to Follow Up the Load Curve . Serban Laura Elena. Installation and Procedure for Entrapping Wind Kinetic Energy and Transforming it Into Mechanical Rotation. 6. Marian Androne. A/00516 Bucharest OSIM 10. Pordea Viorel. Romania. viorelserban49@yahoo.sigmass@gmail. +40722615672 or +40214046006. Authors: Serban Viorel. George Alexandru Ciocan. Romania. Viorela Maria Postolache. Laura Elena Serban. 140 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Madalina Angela Zamfir. .06. 7. George Alexandru Ciocan. the solution to this critical situation is the efficient exploitation of renewable energy resources. Serban Laura Elena. Pordea Viorel. Postolache Viorela Maria.Invention patent application no. Installation and Procedure to Build a High Capacity Floating Platform . Pordea Viorel. A. Neptun . 2. 3. Madalina Angela Zamfir. Viorela Maria Postolache.citon.Invention patent application no.2010. Taking into account the rapid evolution of climate change occurring lately.11.INFO” Chisinau. A/01131 Bucharest OSIM 18. 4. Serban Laura Elena. e-mail: office.com REFERENCES 1. 17-21 June 2012 .Viorel Serban. V. High Power Reactive Wind Turbines . Editura “ Tehnica. A/00473 Bucharest OSIM 16. Dulgheru.WEC CENTRAL & EASTERN EUROPE ENERGY FORUM – FOREN 2012. Laura Elena Serban.ro. Postolache Viorela Maria. 8. Sochireanu.Olimp.2010. Adrian Panait.Invention patent application no.Olimp. Neptun . I. storing and reusing it. mounted and operated. Sisteme de conversie a energiilor regenerabile .2009.05.WEC CENTRAL & EASTERN EUROPE ENERGY FORUM – FOREN 2012. The solutions proposed in this paper are an alternative which if implemented would allow solving this problem in very short time. Authors: Serban Viorel. the existing technical solutions currently producing energy for life and necessary activities. V. Respectively Electric.Viorel Serban.com. Marian Androne. tel. Boston.Boston. Europe’s onshore and offshore wind energy potential – An assessment of environmental and economic constraints European Environment Agency . SERBAN VIOREL. 2007. serbanv@router. . Installation and Procedure for Generation of Air Flow to Act on a Turbine in Order to Produce Electricity . 17-21 June 2012 . New Solutions for Converting Wind Energy Into Electricity . Energy .2011 Authors: Serban Viorel. Liviu Dan Postolache. 5. Postolache Viorela Maria. Liviu Dan Postolache.

Valcea Code 240050 . perchlorethylene. and soil samples was collected in May and October 2011. in May and August 2011. Concentrations of priority hazardous substances in water. Fe) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy (P). P. Because the pace of releasing the nutrients is rather slow. bits of waste meat and other refuse. Mg.ro ABSTRACT Fertilizers are largely made from the waste products of slaughter houses.4 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 141 . Valcea. such as blood. 1. Sector1. 1. 1-7. Nickel. fax: 0040 250 732 746. hoofs. horns. phone: 0040 250 732 744. using Mars 5 Microwave System. The present study is intended to provide data on the macromineral composition of two bone meal samples that will aid in the development of the applications described above. Box Raureni 7. trichlorethylene. generally fall within the limits imposed in National Legislation. Major minerals leves in bone meal samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (Ca. and hair. Georgeta Totea2 1 National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology – Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary.ioan@icsi.ro 2 Polytehnica University of Bucharest. 011061. cadmium. bones. Keywords: fertilizer. VALCEA Mihaela Iordache1. Romania. This organic residue contains substantial amounts of organic matter and nutritive elements such as N. macrominerals THE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF RM. 4. Bucharest. The use of MBM as a fertiliser is comparable to the effect of soft rock phosphates and this.2 dichloroethane. P and Ca. Na. 1. Uzinei Street no. E-mail: iordache. It also observed that in all three points. at the levels mg/kg. Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science. water and sediment in the industrial platform Ramnicu Valcea.2. K. Felicia Bucura. bone meal. Ramnicu Valcea. Ioan Iordache3. 240050. upstream and downstream of the industrial area showed lower limits than those indicated in the National Legislation. Total concentrations of macrominerals in the bone meal were analyzed according the microwave aqua regia digestion. is hardly available for plants. CP 7 Raureni.4 trichlorobenzene and perchlorethylene were analyzed from water.240050.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y EVALUATING MACROMINERALS CONTENT OF BONE MEAL POWDER Claudia Sandru. copper. The results show that heavy metals in sediments collected from the Olt River.ICIT Rm. 1 Uzinei Rm Valcea. Valcea.2 dichloroethane.O. bone meal powder makes an excellent natural time-release fertilizer classically employed to prepare the soil for planting.Rm. soil and sediment. 1. Mn. Marius Constantinescu National R&D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT Rm. Nicoleta Georgeta Dobre2. 1.2.1. Ioan Viorel Branzoi2. e-mail: sandru@icsi. 3National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . on normal agricultural soils. It is more brittle and can be ground into a powder form. (Priza Olt and Cremenari). Uzinei 4. Water and sediment samples were collected in two campaigns. Romania. Romania ABSTRACT This study aims to establish the environmental impact on the degree of accumulation of priority hazardous substances soil. Polizu Street. Zn.2. Valcea.2 trichlorethylene. Bone meal is used as a phosphate fertilizer type and is available in two types: raw and steamed.

The energy consumption chart by sectors (in the USA.2 dichloroethane. in addition to being a human right is a mandatory requirement for achieving sustainable development. Sustainable development is found at the crossroads of environment.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. 2009. conserving and enhancing resource base and reorienting technology were two of the critical objectives stated in the Brundtland Report [1]. Phone number: +4 021-242.com.08.com. sediments. . Bucharest.2 trichlorethylene. cadmium) and the organochlorine substances (1. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? At a global level.4 trichlorobenzene).com ABSTRACT Sustainable development is best defined in The Report of the Brundtland Commission. neculoiu_giorgian@yahoo. The aim of this paper is to show some possibilities of integrating education for sustainable development in universities. environmental objectives and present needs when making decisions. Keywords: organochlorine substances. perchlorethylene. 124. „Our Common Future” as the development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. s_virg@yahoo. Education for sustainable development strengthens the capacity of individual. The term was defined in the same report as the development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. 1.1. The term eco-development was used then.viorel. Olt River” EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Oana Ramona Grigoriu. surface water.81 E-mail: alexandru. economic.com. Among others. social-sciences and humanities to understand the principles of sustainable development. copper. how can it be implemented.12. It can provide critical reflection and greater awareness and empowerment so that new visions and concepts can be explored and new methods and tools can be developed. the concern about sustainable development began in 1972 at a ONU Conference held in Stockholm.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k trichlorobenzene taking values below the detection method. Virginia Cristiana Săndulescu. Mariana Marinescu Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. 2. As a result there is a need for a knowledge base from the natural-sciences. Giorgian Neculoiu. Ionela Halcu. economics and society. Faculty of Hydrotechnics. Fax: +4 021-242.07. 1. Automatics and Applied Informatics Collective. heavy metals. according to Energy Information Administration) shows that the energy consumption is divided as follows: 142 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .com. “Our Common Future”. especially in the system engineering field and the benefits than can arise from doing this. the values it involves and the ramifications of their implementations. [1] The main concern about sustainable development suggests that meeting the needs of the future depends on how well we balance social.grigoriu@yahoo. The term sustainable development started being used in the early eighties and was officially launched in 1987 in the Brundtland Report. Lacul Tei Boulevard. communities. Alexandru Viorel Marinescu. No. organizations and countries to make judgments and choices in favor of sustainable development. oana. 1. halcuionela@yahoo. From soil samples analyzed is found insignificant soil pollution with heavy metals (nickel. Education.marinescu@gmail.com. Sector 2. mmarinescu54@gmail.

E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y . so that they will perceive sustainability as a moral duty that we all have that leads to a good quality of life. like: . sanitation and waste management. recommending the appropriate and innovative use of technology [7]. miscellaneous 2%. energy and materials efficiency. that promote living a sustainable life to children. children should be taught by example.for the residential sector. the consumption is divided like this: space heating 60%. Human impact on the environment is or is becoming a priority concern for governments and businesses world-wide. . Environmental education of children is imperative in order for the next generation to develop an earth-healthy lifestyle. go car-free one day a week. . ducts. Here. radical thinking to develop new engineering thinking and solutions in respect of product design. 2. we need to provide engineering students with the knowledge and skills to help industry and commerce reduce their negative environmental impacts and support the objectives of sustainable development. improving industrial processes to eliminate waste and reduce consumption. 3. commute by bus. product recovery and recycling.use more efficient. to learn to reduce their consumptions. bike. food production. improve insulation of walls.weather seal your home’s windows doors.for transportation. At early ages they should learn about the environment factors.turn off and unplug electronic equipment and lights when not in use. lakes and streams. . worldwide. EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Education for sustainable development should begin for children at early ages. The main purpose of teaching sustainability is to make everybody conscious about their moral duty to preserve the environment and to see the linkage between their actions and their quality of life.32% . cold appliances 3%. There are a few things that any person could do for living a sustainable life. car sharing or walking. cleaning up polluted waste sites. so they will overcome the consumerism behavior that present generation has.21% . reuse what they can. cooking 3%. development of natural resources. Children should be taught to make conscious decisions about one’s action’s impacts on the community and the environment.the industrial sector. hot water 24%. . restoring natural environments such as forests. less polluting vehicles. waste minimization. lighting 3%.turning down the thermostat and the water heater. . learn to respect nature and as they grow up to learn about the social and economic impacts their way of living can have. transportation.18% for the commercial sector. Sustainable engineers can interfere with all the major fields like: water supply. There are already programs. but most important. . This means we need to teach sustainable engineering.recycle. wet appliances 2%. housing and shelter.29% . planning projects to reduce environmental and social impacts. . plumbing. energy development. and also recycle what they can. Because of the fact that engineering has such an impact on human living and on the planet. consumer electronics 3%. By comparing traditional engineering with sustainable engineering the following major differences between them can be seen [6]: The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 143 . WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING? We live in an “engineered world” and every aspect of the human life is underpinned by at least one engineering ramification. This can be done all the way from kindergarten to high school.

traditional engineering considers the local context (the users). Sustainable Development is their major. the most appropriate solution seems to be to incorporate sustainability case studies in existing subjects. whereas sustainable engineering considers the global context.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k traditional engineering considers the object to be designed. we will give an example. Faculty of Hydrotechnics there is a Bachelor Degree program called “Environment Engineering”. A question that arises when trying to teach sustainable engineering is whether to create new subjects or embed the study in existing subjects. leaving little or no room for adding new subjects.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. creates products and processes that are environmentally beneficial or neutral (better for us and for nature. to include recent research and alternative solutions. That is why they need to be aware of the impact their work will have on the environment and that is way they need to learn about the principles of sustainable development and how to apply them in their work as engineers. To make things more clear. . preferably as near to the source as possible. whereas sustainable engineering is keen to solve the problem for the indefinite future. housing and shelter. traditional engineering focuses most on the technical issues. during production). improves process efficiency (more with less materials and less energy). an engineer that considers sustainable development in his work should study the implications of his work not only in the immediate future. whereas sustainable engineering considers the whole system in which the system will be used. traditional engineering solves the problem thinking about the present and the immediate future. “Environment Engineering” and the Master Degree Program called “Sustainable Development”. whereas sustainable engineering integrates technical and non-technical issues. What are the main principles of sustainable engineering and how can they be applied to solve technical problems? 2. there are two main aspects that need to be considered [6]: 1. Faculty of Hydrotechnics of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest prepares students that can interfere in their future work as engineers with all of the major fields presented in Chapter III of this paper (water supply. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING Sustainable engineering comprises environmental technology which can be defined as a technology that reduces human and ecological risks (better for us and nature. during use and at disposal). …). enhances cost effectiveness. For the graduates of these programs. to minimize the use of non-renewable resources and maximize the use of renewable resources and minimize waste production. Civil Engineering and so on and education for Sustainable Development Engineering. The main purposes of sustainable engineering that must be considered are to maintain the integrity of global and local ecological systems. we will be presenting what we think is necessary for the students in different types of engineering. It is recommended to add a new discipline that presents the basic concepts of sustainable engineering 144 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . so that the student can become familiar to new and alternative solutions for traditional projects. How can sustainable engineering be taught to the next generation of engineers? Integrating the study into existing courses or by creating new courses or even new curricula? During product design. in the field called the same way. to think innovative and creative. There is one clarification that needs to be made: there is education for sustainable development for all kinds of engineering fields like System Engineering. to ensure that the cost of resource depletion is included. Automation and Applied Informatics Specialization. The Department of System Engineering. Considering the fact that the engineering curriculum is already completely full. but not the ones that major in Sustainable Development Engineering. When it comes to talking about teaching sustainable engineering. but also in an indefinite future. 4. In the following part of the paper. In the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest.

CAM). Automation (e. probably. we all need to be conscious about the social. Computer Numerical Control). IChemE – a set of indicators that can be used to measure the sustainability performance of an operating unit in the process industries. Engineers have the moral obligation to consider all the aspects of the impact their work have. provides an understanding of the tools and techniques available to facilitate sustainable product design and provide knowledge of the product design processes that can reduce environmental impacts and promote sustainable practices. As a synthesis.g.. we have made the poster presentation attached. use product lifecycle management tools. methods and tools are not fully defined. Control systems to monitor processes (e. For example. “Sustainability & Engineering Practices Overview”. gives the students an understanding of what product lifecycle means. more are to be developed. For that. Advanced robotics and other intelligent production systems.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y and the available tools that might help engineers design in a sustainable way. Considering the fact that principles of and tools for sustainable engineering are not fully developed. Teaching sustainable engineering is still a developing field. which contains all the relevant information of the paper in a structured way. Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency. Nevertheless. [5] There are sustainability tools that come to help engineers in most of the existing fields and. economic and environmental impacts our actions have. so that the next generation of engineers will have the necessary knowledge. Oxford University Press. we have to continue our efforts until designing in a way that integrates social. enables students to select and utilize appropriate design methods and techniques to improve the quality and management of product innovation. 2003 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 145 . this will probably happen slowly.g. Distributed Control Systems). [4]. but. As a means for that sustainable engineering should be taught in technical universities. modules comprising relevant sustainability case studies can and should be inserted. nevertheless. World Commission on Environment and Development. Information technologies. efforts must be made towards the right direction. New industrial platform technologies. In the relevant subjects that already exist in the engineering curricula like Computer technologies (e. However. in civil engineering the following tools are available: Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method.g.g. 1987 2. 5. SCADA. High Precision technologies (e. innovative and ethical design that consider all the aspects of an engineering project with all the implication at a global level and in an indefinite future. Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine SPeAR). for “green buildings” – Building Management Systems). environmental and economic considerations will be the only way to design. CAE. Ipenz Publication. inserting a new discipline in an engineering curriculum that is already full of needed fundamental subjects might be a difficult task. All these disciplines should be taught in a manner that gives the students an understanding of the principles and practices of sustainable development. “Our Common Future”. We need to be aware of the necessity to build an engineering education system that produces engineers capable of rational. REFERENCES 1. not only the technological aspects. in manufacturing there is CCalc – a carbon footprinting tool that enables easy estimation of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Gerry Te Kapa Coates. that doesn’t just satisfy the present needs. CAD. there is a need to teach sustainability to students all ages so that all members of the society gain the moral values needed to live a sustainable life. CONCLUSIONS In order to reach sustainable development.

A log-normal distribution is proved to best fit the experimental curve. showing that in most cases a low value of the wind speed leads to a high value of the pollutant’s concentration. Benoit Cushman-Roisin. Volume 11. (+40)251. pp. Chemistry Department. wikipedia. Adisa Azapagic. PM10. Number 1. 2011 4. statistical distribution.utexas. The concentration values were gathered from one of the five automatic stations situated in Dolj County continuously monitoring air quality during a period of one years (between July 1st.org/wiki/Sustainable_engineering LOG-NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (PM10) – APPLICATION IN CRAIOVA. 2Saint Stephen” Ecological School. Keywords: monitoring air quality. “Sustainable Engineering” available at http://www. “Teaching Sustainable Engineering”. David Shonnard. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education.(+40)745. David T. . Slobodan Perdan. available at http://en.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. “Sustainable Engineering: Concepts.ro) ABSTRACT The present paper reports the results of a statistical analysis of particulate matter (PM10). Craiova. 15Constantin Brancusi Street. Craiova. 3National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Braden R. Craiova 146 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . Sebastian Sbirna2 1 University of Craiova. 1 Iss: 3.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k 3.61398. 2012). The distribution is also related to the wind velocity. 267 . ROMANIA (2012) Liana Simona Sbirna1. The Free Encyclopedia. Prentice Hall. Faculty of Exact Sciences. Allenby. Allen. 2007 5.ce. 4 Uzinei Street. Design and Case Studies”.597048. Valcea. Teclu Codresi2. wind velocity. "Teaching sustainable development to engineering students".ICIT Rm. edu/prof/hart/333T/documents/SustainableEngineering.420534. 2000. (+40)251. 2011 and June 30th. Ramnicu Valcea. Vol. 107I Calea Bucuresti. Wikipedia. (e-mail: anisoara@icsi. Roland Clift. “Sustainable Engineering”. Journal of Industrial Ecology.279 6. Cliff I. David Allen. Davidson. Anisoara Oubraham3*.pdf 7.

2 dichloromethane was under limit of 10. 2University of Craiova. Valcea.ro. This study was realized in order to determine the degree of the water pollution in the industrial platform Ramnicu Valcea.ro). Romania.2 . Ramnicu Valcea. 4 Uzinei St. surface water. Bucharest. Valcea. In all section. Iordache Ioan2. 107I Calea Bucuresti. to predict the impact of an atmospheric release of air pollutant. the quantity of precipitation and the other pollutant accidents. whereas the second is suitable to be treated in the normal one. in the last four years there was no heavy metals pollution: mercury. one at the time.0 µg/l imposed by National Legislation. 4 Uzinei Street. (+40)251. Maria Taralunga1 National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology. Romania. The main factors which affect the Olt River water quality in the Ramnicu Valcea are: industrial activities.ioan@icsi.02 µg/l. The study shows that the first one is better described by the log-normal model. According with our results. Romania.. Liana Simona Sbirna2*. the other organochlorine chemicals (hexachlorobenzene and 1. 011061.240050. Keywords: air pollutants.2. 2Polytehnica University of Bucharest. fax:0040 250 732746 1 ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to present evolution of the Olt River water quality in the Ramnicu Valcea industrial aria in the last four years (2008-2011). phone:0040 250 736979. Rm. PM10. inorganic compounds The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 147 .4 trichlorobenzene) taking values below the detection method. ABSTRACT In this paper. Chemistry Department. during half a year (between October 2011 and Mars 2012). (e-mail: anisoara@icsi. Craiova. 1-7.ICIT Rm. was situated under limit of 0.420534. Anisoara Oubraham3 1” Saint Stephen” Ecological School.61398. Craiova. Rm. e-mail: iordache. 15 Constantin Brancusi Street. 1 Uzinei. Polizu Street. a log-normal model and a normal model are applied.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y MATHEMATICAL MODELS USED IN DESCRIBING AIR POLLUTANTS’ DISPERSION – APPLICATION IN CRAIOVA. 3. Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary. (+40)251. namely PM10 and SO2.ICIT. 3National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . γ-HCH isomer. the hydro-electric plant programs.240050. Popescu Luisa Roxana1. 1. normal distribution. Valcea. the results being than compared with the real data recorded for two air pollutants. Romania.2. Sebastian Sbirna1.597048. log-normal distribution. Branzoi Ioan Viorel2. Keywords: heavy metals. Faculty of Exact Sciences. chromium and cobalt. SO2. in all three sections of this study. Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science. organochlorine substances. Sector1. 3National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . (+40)745. Craiova VARIATION OF THE OLT RIVER QUALITY INTO THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX AREA OF RAMNICU VALCEA Iordache Mihaela1. ROMANIA (2012) Teclu Codresi1. nickel.

240050 Rm. Constantinescu1. These automatic analyzers can monitored a wide range of pollutants as CO2. Armeanu1. Donath. Marius Constantinescu. Landfill Gas Emission model (LandGEM). Surveys on the disposal sites revealed the presence of numerous landfills . C. Gili Saros National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies . Greenhouse gas emission potential at these sites can be estimated by different methods. ambient air.Box 7.4. predasilvia@yahoo. For the facilities analyzed . Roxana Ionete.Vâlcea. Mocanu1 National Research Institute of Cryogenics & Isotope Technologies. health risk. Rm. The purpose of this paper is to establish a more robust technique for determining the potential of gas emissions from municipal solid waste and to use those results in a life cycle assessments that determines the GHG impacts of modern MWCs and landfills. the results have shown a quite low level of pollution in the studied area.ro ABSTRACT In general. The carbon monoxide. THC. Preda3. nitrogen dioxide. Bucura1. H2S. Keywords: environment. david@icsi. David1. we also monitories special parameters like NH3. METHODS USED TO ESTIMATE THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL E.Calea lui Traian. landfilling and modern waste combustors (MWCs) are the prevalent solid waste disposal practices in many countries. 65-103. SO2. Valcea.Open dumping. Sandru1. 240050. A.Vâlcea. Felicia Bucura. were used. S. 464.1993. Romania. CO. no. wind direction. sulfur dioxide.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k DETAILED CHARACTERIZATION AND PROFILES OF AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE MONITORING USING AUTOMATIC TECHNIQUES FROM IN SITU COLLECTED SAMPLES Diana Florescu.open dumps and waste combustors. Uzinei Street no. ozone and particulate matter in the outdoor atmosphere concentrations were measured and recorded according with the Romanian legislation no. Results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method. besides meteorological parameters like wind speed.4.O. In addition to these three conventional parameters. O3. 240263. F. in situ monitoring. air quality monitoring has an essential role in the environment monitoring system. P. Aldea2. Romania. and no 462/01. Cluj-Napoca. With the exception of particulate matter concentrations. the methane emission potential of 18. PM10. No. e-mail: diana. .Valcea. temperature and humidity.94 Gg/yr using the IPCC method was higher than the estimations of the 148 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .florescu@icsi. For on-site analysis portable analyzers. Street Uzinei no. Box 7 Râureni. 592/25. NO.com 1 ABSTRACT Environmental policy in waste management leads to increasing interest in developing methods for waste disposal with minimum emissions of greenhouse gases and minimum environmental impacts. near Calarasi.ICIT Rm.ro. This monitoring starts with May 2009 and continues with seasonal collecting data for year 2009 and 2010. Valcea mobile laboratory. NO2.Str. The atmosphere is a proper medium for pollutants to spread in the environment reason for an on-site monitoring of an industrial area in the southern-east of Romania. Romania. 2National Research Institute for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies.P Râureni. 3Research Station for Fruit Growing Valcea. Rm. part from a complex system of ICIT Rm. P. D. N. and closed flux chamber technique were compared. O. M.05.O. CH4. Methane emission potential at these sites was estimated by three methods. Romania.2002. 400293.07.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n.

84. felicia. available at http://www. B. User’s Manual: Landfill gas emission model: Version 2.1(1998). lead 1.sandru@icsi.95 Gg/yr and 5.. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The catalysts used in SCR based facilities are among others Fe-zeolite and V2O2.207-222. textile industry..): temperature of incineration over 900OC and using of modern incinerators with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) deNOx facilities.g. This study is focused on investigating the characteristic of effluent from textile industry. Ranjithan.3 µg/l. zinc 0. D. the effluent is highly-colored and is alkaline in nature. CH4 .S. alkalis.4-756. J. open dump. and Brill.L.iges. total dissolved solids (TDS) 601-2450 mg/l. Uzinei Str. cadmium 0.or. incineration.constantinescu@icsi. S.13-17. 2.436. ammonia 0. The ranges of the physico-chemical parameters studied were as follows: pH 6.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y LandGEM and closed flux chamber method of 5. copper 4. J.4 mg/l.Climate Change 2001: The Science of Basis. D. Marius Constantinescu National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies ICIT Rm. containing a wide and varied range of dyes and other products such as dispersants. Valcea. nickel 2. 6.. Walker. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001). 4.2-352.2 mg/l-21. Two factors are important for attaining low NOx emissions from waste combustion . salts and sometimes heavy metals.(2003)The environmental performance of alternative solid waste management options – a life cycle assessment study. U.37-11. From the point of view of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Vol. Assoc.ro. Cooper.2-214. selective catalytic reduction 1. NOx emission. D. Romania.(2002) Lifecycle-based solid waste management I: Model development.3 mg/l.5 µg/l..R. acids.C..This catalysts have high N2O decomposition (and SCR) activity with good hydrothermal stability. etc..jp/ public/gl/invs5.htm (accessed from June 2005) 5.This data are essential to assess the potential need of abatement measures to limit N2O emissions in future operation of waste incineration plants.(1992) Flux chamber design and operation for the measurement of municipal solid waste landfill gas. RO-240050. Perugini F.46-986. leather.10671070 STUDIES ON THE IMPORTANT POLLUANTS OF WASTEWATER FROM TEXTILE INDUSTRY Claudia Sandru. E. leveling agents.80-183. Barlaz..ipcc-nggip. dyes and heavy metals. Dye house effluents are complex. Arena U. 42. respectively.4 µg/l. Office of Research and Development: Washington D. M. sewage sludge. Rm. Valcea.(1996) IPCC Guideline for National Green House Gas Inventories Workbook [Online]. 10.bucura@icsi. A.Eng. dissolved inorganic salts. Chemical Engineering Journal. Reinhart. 96. suspended solids (SS) 1. Environ.C.5 µg/l. chromium 0.ro.69.. Felicia Bucura. Air & Waste Manage. Environmental Protection Agency. particularly for waste with higher nitrogen content (e. polluant The 18 ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” th 149 . E. Keywords: wastewater.. 981–992 3. 4. landfill. Mastellone M.7 µg/l. Elena David.ro ABSTRACT The specific water intake for the textile industry varies depending on the type of processes used and water efficiency. e-mail: claudia.77 µg/l and their analysis highlighted the degree of pollution of wastewater resulted from textile industry. waste incineration and waste co-combustion are acceptable methods of waste disposal.. Keywords: MSW.. characterization. elena. Technical Summary.33 Gg/yr. marius. Solano.david@icsi.ro. Cambridge University: New York. The wastewater contains natural impurities extracted from the fibres and a mixture of the process chemicals such as organic compounds. In general.

Research Center Rm. 2011.. Determination of environmental tritium concentration was carried out using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Galeriu. Valcea. **Academy of Agricultural and Forestry 1 ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out in lab conditions [germination and embryogenesis]. with ultra-low liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus 1220. and in field in 2011 and 2012. Gheorghe Titescu2. COG-RD-PRO-002 2..G. 4 Uzinei Street 2 OLTCHIM S. potatoes.. Faurescu. 1999. REFERENCES 1. Valcea. Vagner. Establishing routine procedure for environmental tritium concentration at ICIT.A. Faurescu. D.B. Kotzer. Bogdan. TFWT. J. 2003. methods such as lyophilization (freezedrying)1 and azeotropic distillation2 were used...E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. apple. OBT) in Environmental Samples at Varying Distances from a Nuclear Generating Station. Valcea * Academy of Romanian Scientists. D. AECL-12029 4. In controlled lab conditions. D.. N. root and coleoptile & 150 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . W. Irina Vagner1.. Report WP3 IDRANAP 44-03/ 2003 EVALUATION OF THE DEUTERIUM MODULATION POTENTIAL OF LEAD STATUS ON Zea mays ORGANOGENESIS AND GROWTH Gallia Butnaru1*. For establishment of the base level of tritium concentration in the environment around PPTDS we elaborate some methods for preparation and measurement of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bond tritium (OBT) in different types of environmental samples (grass. Romanian Journal of Physics 56 (1-2). 1 Uzinei Street ABSTRACT The ways in which the Experimental Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation (PPTDS – research unit with tasks in developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation from heavy water using cryogenic distillation). 2012.3. I. Roche. T.G. . I. Diana Bogdan1 1 National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies. Measurements of Tritium (HTO. can interact with the environment are: by atmospheric release and through the sewage system. Some methods for purification of combustion water were investigated1. Ionut Faurescu1. Rm. For the measurement of TFWT in environmental samples.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k PREPARATION METHODS FOR TRITIUM LIQUID SCINTILLATION ANALYSIS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES Carmen Varlam1. Organically bound tritium (OBT) measurement method to suit the COG members. Ioan Sarac1. Denisa Faurescu1. Workman. The change in deuterium concentration associated with lead affected germination. Varlam.4. the results pointed out the interaction among genotypes.. Kim S... milk). 233-239 3. Daniela Marinescu2..J.. For OBT measurement dried samples were combusted in a Parr combustion bomb (Model 1121)1. Paunescu. Stefanescu. D concentration associated with lead. Horia Butnariu1** 2 Banat University of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara National Institute for R&D for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT RM. I. tritium exists as either tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) or organically bound tritium (OBT). C. Within plants and animals.

We consider that D content is “working” as a modulator in different synthesis pathways. organogenesis.5]. 522] was significantly different.01].31.23 > 0. the oil and starch synthesis were repressed. By knowing the aerosol optical depth we can estimate the size of suspended particles. The coleoptiles’ growth was not influenced by D&Pb.com. The low content of D revealed a favorable modulation effect. The root growth was significantly repressed by the low amount of D [d= . More than 60% of them could not survive.01]. Romania.Rm.17 > 0. e-mail: sabina_stefan@yahoo.com 1 ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to present the results of the sunphotometer . The plantlets’ adaptation in field conditions was dramatically reduced. as well as the wavelength of radiation. The comparison between 2011 and 2012 of the plant’s growth and their traits emphasized the capacity of restoring their repressed status. Faculty of Physics. Keywords: amount of D & lead concentration. The protein content was higher when the seeds were germinated in low amount of D. The embryonic organogenesis was slow. On the other hand. plant growth. It was significantly reduced in comparison to 521 and 522 [d= . size of particles.measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) on the Black Sea shore which were done in the autumn of 2009 for two months. The relationship between AOD and relative humidity and variations in AOD and the Angstrom exponent with respect to the prevailing wind conditions has been presented.the germination was significantly stimulated [d=20 and d=16. In comparison to D 145 ppm the D30 the plant’s characteristic elements were superior developed. Generally the germination was significantly repressed by lead amount [50. 100 and 200 ppm]. The yield quality was differently influenced by D&Pb amount.7 > 0.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y embryo-leaves formation. Gabriela Raducan2 University of Bucharest. The 1000 kernel weight was higher on D-30 plants [241>239 g]. Department of Earth Sciences. The germination on three maize lines [521. The most sensitive was the genotype 555. The association between deuterium depleted water [30 ppm] and a high amount of lead [200 ppm] was an exception . e-mail: gabi_raducan@yahoo. plant’s trait AEROSOLS ON THE BLACK SEA SHORE: A STUDY USING SUNPHOTOMETER MEASUREMENTS Sabina Stefan1. The weak particularity continued along the entire life cycle. 555. germination.18 and d=34. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 151 . The interaction (scattering as well as absorption) of solar radiation by atmospheric constituents is strongly dependent on the nature of particles. Valcea. pointing out the genotypes’ different strong response. The sunphotometers offer an inexpensive as well as convenient way of measuring aerosol optical depth.0. spectral and spatial variations of AOD are investigated. 2National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT. The temporal.

Romanian Academy. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGHLY ORDERED SBA-15 FOR RETENTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM RED WINE Violeta Niculescu1. located in different heights from the ground. Together with monitoring. 152 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . for the period January to March 2005.Rm. 4 Uzinei St. Andrea Iordache1. practical and methodological concepts.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. modeling air pollution is a very important tool in the management of air quality. To improve the model performance a simple empirical relationship for parameterization of hourly background concentrations was established.. taking into account the impact of pollution on environment and human health. Air quality study involves researchers of several scientific disciplines and requires the development of theoretical. . The Danish Operational Street Pollution Model was applied in a street canyon from Leicester. in 7 points of the street. Romania. The correlations between the modeled and the measured data were improved. violeta. Valcea. as a consequence of the presence of silanol groups that are active sites for adsorption. Romania. Valcea. Viorica Parvulescu2 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies. 060021. The adsorption properties of the calcined mesoporous silica SBA-15 material. always new. the selectivity and stabilization for some compounds (phenolic acids. considerable attention has been focused on tailoring the chemical composition of these materials via the surfactant templated hydrothermal synthesis [1. Romania. Bucharest.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k PARAMETERIZATION OF THE BACKGROUND CONCENTRATION TO IMPROVE THE OSPM PERFORMANCE Gabriela Raducan National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT. It enables efficient verification in order to reduce emissions and make predictions of pollution levels associated with changes in urban infrastructure. e-mail: gabi_raducan@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Air quality in urban areas continues to represent a major concern. Roxana Ionete1.ro. vpirvulescu@icf.niculescu@icsi. The aim of this research is to improve the OSPM performance using a parameterization relationship. 2].ro 1 ABSTRACT Since the discovery of highly ordered M41S family mesoporous molecular sieves in 1992. Nadia Paun1. controlling and combating urban air pollution. This mesoporous material exhibits a type IV nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and has a specific surface area of 1108 m2/g. Highly ordered large pore SBA-15 was synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using an amphiphilic block copolymer as the structure-directing agent. were evaluated in the clarification process of two types of red wines. Valcea.ICIT Rm. catechin) and the chromatic characteristics of wine. 2”Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry. 240050 Rm. for understanding. epicatechin. Splaiul Independentei 202. so parameterization has been validated for this set of data. The purpose of this study was the investigation of the total polyphenols content (reduction).

4 Uzinei St. tel. ID 76813. Stucky./fax: +40 250 73 75 43. Silvestre-Albero. trichlorethylene.240050. F. Project cofinanced by European Social Fund Operational Programme Human Resources Development 20072013.ro. analyzes were compared with the Order no. 1. M. SepulvedaEscribano.4 trichlorobenzene. O. Soil pollution research priority hazardous substances in the industrial area of platform Rm. 756/1997.C. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF PRIORITY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACCUMULATING IN SOIL.A. an increase of concentration for 1. 548 (1998). nickel. N.ICIT. J. 2Polytehnica University of Bucharest. Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science. Meynen.161/2006 . A. *corresponding author: iordache. copper. cadmium. Jardim. Sector1. 1.ioan@icsi. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 153 . organochlorine substances. 939 (2009). 1-7.2 dichloroethane. Zhao. Valcea were soil samples collected inside S.V. Bruijn. Băbeni Marcea and comparing results with requirements Order No. The concentrations of nickel. Chmelka and G.2. Rm Valcea. Rodrguez-Reinoso.4 trichlorobenzene and perchlorethylene in soil samples respect the limits by the Environmental Legislation. Oltchim S. Bucharest.4 trichlorobenzene and perchlorethylene taking values below the detection method. Silvestre-Albero. and quality indicators studied were: pH.E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y REFERENCE [1] D. G. Melosh. B. Concentrations of heavy metals in water were lower than the limits imposed by National Legislation. For organochlorine substances analyzed in three points. Olt River assessing water quality in upstream and downstream of discharges Valcea chemical platform. [2] A. 1. e-mail: ecoind@vl. Also notice that in all three points.2 dichloroethane.. E. 25.A. Q. KEYWORDS: priority hazardous substances. had higher concentrations than in National Legislation. 279. Ioan Viorel Branzoi2. Huo. The results show that heavy metals in sediments collected from the Olt River. perchlorethylene. heavy metals. F.ro ABSTRACT The main pollution source may generate hazardous substances in the industrial platform area is S. 1. Feng. (Priza Olt and Cremenari). WATER AND SEDIMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF RAMNICU VALCEA Mihaela Iordache1.C. Cool. copper. Ioan Iordache3*.2 dichloroethane.2 dichloroethane. Cremenari. Langmuir. H. cadmium. 1. Oltchim S. J. Georgeta Totea2. 3 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies. trichloroethylene. 011061. Romania. Science. 1 Uzinei St. water surface ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors acknowledge the support provided by Project: Doctoral Scholarships: Investment in research and innovation and development for the future (DocInvest). trichloroethylene and perchlorethylene in sections downstream of the chemical platform of Ramnicu Valcea (Cremenari and Babeni Marcea) to the Priza Olt upstream section of the platform. samples were harvested water / sediment from sections Priza Olt.2. Polizu Street. Frederichson. trichlorethylene.2.2. P. D. Nicoleta Georgeta Dobre2 1 National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology – Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary.. 1. E.

882. 240050. to analyze some tropical convection parameterizations.E nv nm en nt al Pr ec n. The size of the simulated tropical cyclone exhibited considerable variation with environmental humidity. A. thermovision. e-mail: adrosca2003@yahoo. Ioan Stefanescu National Institute for R&D for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT Rm. Valcea. e-mail: gabi_raducan@yahoo. There are presented original data by using thermovision to determine correlations between B20 biodiesel blend fuel used in buses’ engine and. Gabriel Vlăduţ3 University of Craiova. Romania. Phone / Fax: 0251. Daniela Roşca2. which is the heat engine of the tropics. I. Cuza Street. a monotonic variation between the SST (sea surface temperature) and the tropical cyclone size could not be established and the changes in convection schemes have little impacts on the tropical cyclone size. 4 Uzinei Street. to model the tropical phenomena. the engine’s temperature. biodiesel incompatibilities. Keywords: B 20 biodiesel blend. Also.I nd du us al Ri En vi ir ro on me ta lP ro ot te ct ti io on In st tr ri ia lR is sk k CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF B20 BIODIESEL BLEND ON URBAN BUSES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Adrian Roşca1. Craiova. Stefan cel Mare Street. Faculty of Electrical Engineering. wear friction. There are presented potential incompatibilities between B20 biodiesel and common elastomers used in seals and hoses. Craiova. e-mail: office@ipacv. ANALYSIS OF IDEALIZED TROPICAL CYCLONE SIMULATIONS USING THE WEATHER RESEARCH AND FORECASTING MODEL Gabriela Raducan.541. Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture.com ABSTRACT In this study simulations of WRF-ARW (Advanced Research WRF) model. version 3. .com. 3) Research -Design Institute for Automation – IPA Craiova. 154 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . WRF reasonably captures various tropical modes including the eastward traveling Kelvin waves which play an important role in the dynamics of El Nino-Southern Oscillation and are often associated with anomalies in surface wind stress. Valcea.ro 1 ABSTRACT The paper presents experimental research results concerning the influence of B20 biodiesel blend on urban buses operation and maintenance in Craiova city.418. 13. more moist environments being associated with larger storms. 12. 2)University of Craiova. A cloud resolving nest at 4 km resolution was used over the Pacific warm pool. Phone/Fax: 0251.414. The resolution of all simulations was of 36 km.4 were done to analyze the sensitivity of tropical cyclone size to the environmental humidity and pressure. Roxana Elena Ionete. Rm.

This print illustrates the amount of biomass grown. I. the benefits of replacing mineral oil with biodiesel and the advantages of using microalgae vs land crops are shown. subsequently a tubular bioreactor with water pump was designed and built. quantity of biodiesel obtained. Stamatin University of Bucharest. and treatment of obtained cultures for the production of biodiesel. A. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 155 .E nv nm en nt al an nd dL eQ ua al En vi ir ro on me ta la Li if fe Qu li it ty y BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING MICROALGAE T. Faculty of Physics. Initially the microalgae were grown in flasks under aeration and illumination. Following transesterification with sodium methoxide biodiesel was obtained. and a comparison between the productivities of the two cultivation methods: aerated flasks vs tubular bioreactor. Popovici. 3NanoSAE research center ABSTRACT The poster shows the results obtained by cultivating collected samples of different types of water – river and marine – for the development of microalgae. Costache. and the lipid content of the cells was extracted with an appropriate solvent. Also. The obtained biomass was dried. L.

Laboratory Analysis Methods .

Jud. This paper will give a brief overview of each method and will introduce several IR cameras suggested to be used in AT systems. thermal stress analysis COMPOUND-SPECIFIC CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COMBUSTION ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY GC-C-IRMS Diana Costinel. Ilfov Tel. 2. 021 314081. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry GC/C-IRMS The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 159 . is an important part of the conception of a sustainable development in the world. e-mail: diana@icsi. useful to identify the sources of pollution as a result of environmental accidents or their biodegradation rates in the environment. 240050. Currently. from analytical developments to the modeling and understanding of both natural and industrial processes.4.ICIT Rm. 075100. Keywords: active thermography.ro ABSTRACT Active Thermography (AT) is a package of methods who use thermal cameras to make visible internal defects. Dinca Oana National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies . they are several techniques based on active thermography: lock-in. P. Depending on the inspection task.Vâlcea. Ionete Roxana. This paper intend to give a brief view on gas chromatography GC coupled with stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry IRMS as an important analytical technique to investigate the carbon isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Geana Irina. Romania. Valcea. followed by combustion of each separate organic compound to carbon dioxide and then determination of the isotopes ratio in the carbon dioxide. Str.L ab at An na al Me et ho ds La bo or ra to or ry y A ly ys si is s M th od s ACTIVE THERMOGRAPHY – NON-DESTRUCTIVE & NON-CONTACT MATERIAL TESTING Marius Popovici Micronix Plus SRL. Otopeni.O.ro ABSTRACT Mastering the isotopic tool in Environmental science. 1 Mai nr. 82 Fax 021 3124083 Email: mpopovici@micronix. vibro and thermal stress analysis. thermovision. pulse. Uzinei Street no. lock-in. one or more methods are used. to determine the origin of these components. By joining the mass spectrometry with gas chromatography. Rm. Keywords: stable carbon isotopes. thermal camera. the separation of individual organic compounds in a mixture is allowed. surface cracks and material stress. transient. Box 7 Râureni.

se.2 1 Department of Chemistry. The linearity of the α-HCH ESIA method shows that carbon isotope ratios can be obtained for a signal size above 100 mV.ro ABSTRACT Due to the major development of crude oil industry it is very important to identify the source of the natural petroleum in order to improve the quality of products and to ensure the large variety of consumers of its authenticity. Sweden. Box 7 Râureni. The data set obtained from biodegradation experiment with α-HCH with Clostridium pasteurianum did not allow quantifying the individual isotope fractionation factors for the enantiomers within an uncertainty needed for 160 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . link them to the known sources. Bucharest-Magurele. In order to test the chiral GC-C-IRMS method the isotope composition of individual enantiomers in biodegradation experiment of α-HCH with Clostridium pasteurianum and samples from a contaminated field site were examined. Umeå. the isotope ratio of bulk α-HCH was estimated with 32.badea@chem. Rm.5 ‰ for (-) α-HCH and (+) αHCH. Phone: +46-90-786 9323. terrestrial life and natural resources. Literature provides other aspect of this type of analysis that is based on extensively damages caused by the oil spills upon the human health.1 ‰).Vâlcea.O. Romania ABSTRACT The carbon isotope ratios of the α-HCH-enantiomers were determined for a commercially available α-HCH using a gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS) equipped with a chiral column [1]. ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF α-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE USING COMPOUND-SPECIFIC STABLE ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION ANALYSIS (CSIA) AND ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS (ESIA) Silviu-Laurentiu Badea1. Roxana Elena Ionete National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies .5± 0.7 ±0.geana@icsi.2 ±0. 2"Horia Hulubei" National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE). Diana Costinel. analytical approaches and data interpretation strategies. Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons. Fax: +46-90-7867655. oil. The δ-values of (-) α-HCH and (+) α-HCH.8 ‰ and of -32. The GC-C-IRMS measurements revealed δ-values of -32. Gas chromatography technique coupled with mass spectrometry was used because of the highly complex hydrocarbon compound and this method led to a better knowledge of the hydrocarbon composition type of petroleum.4.ICIT Rm.umu. respectively. fingerprinting.4 ±0. Uzinei Street no. P. appropriate sampling.3 ± 0. Valcea. The reproducibility of ESIA exhibited standard deviations (2σ) mostly < ± 0. 240050. accurate and successful oil fingerprinting results from petroleum analysis it is very important to characterized.6 ‰ which was in accordance with δ-values obtained by GC-C-IRMS (-32.5 ‰. e-mail: irina.L ab at An na al Me et ho ds La bo or ra to or ry yA ly ys si is sM th od s AN OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CHEMICAL FINGERPRINTING Irina Geana. gas chromatography. The similarity of isotope ratio of bulk analysis α-HCH by EA-IRMS and GC-C-IRMS indicates the accuracy of the chiral GC-C-IRMS method. SE-90187. This article highlights the most recent development and advances of chemical analysis methodologies which are most frequently used in oil spill characterization and identification studies. e-mail: silviu. Umeå University. Romania. marine life. In order to obtain specific.2 ‰) and elemental analyzerisotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) of the bulk α-HCH (-32. Raluca Popescu.

8514-8518. Rapid Commun. H. 2012. Enantioselective transformation of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane by the dehydrochlorinases LinA1 and LinA2 from the soil bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis B90A. H.. A... 2-7 September 2012 Leipzig. T. M. Vogt. Appl. Buser. GC-MS. A. Isomer and enantioselective carbon stable isotope fractionation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) during aerobic biodegradation by Sphingobium spp.8‰). In Joint European Stable Isotope Users group Meeting JESIUM 2012. S.. Holliger. Raina. E.. Lal. (12). They found a higher enrichment factor for (-) α-HCH (εC = -2 ±0. 1363-1372. H. Mass Spectrom. 71.. Dogra. Environ. Fischer.. in comparison to (+) α-HCH (εC = -0. I. Badea. van der Meer.. 2011... 25. R. Development of an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for assessing the fate of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the environment. Germany. More recently Bashir et al. The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 161 ...8‰ to 1‰). M. C. Suar. Fischer.8 ‰ to -3. C. M. Richnow. This variability in enantiomeric isotope fractionation may be due to different variants of HCH degrading enzymes (LinA1 and LinA2) [3] and/or varying rate-limiting effects.. The isotopic composition of α-HCH enantiomers show a range of enantiomeric and isotope pattern suggesting that enantiomeric and isotope fractioantion can serve as an indicator for biodegradation and source characterization of α-HCH in the environment. Nijenhuis. Keywords: GC-C-IRMS. Danet. C. R.L ab at An na al Me et ho ds La bo or ra to or ry y A ly ys si is s M th od s interpreting the specific mechanism of the carbon chlorine bond cleavage. EA-IRMS REFERENCES 1. J. L. 2. (10). C.. A. enantiomers.. H.. P. V. A. Kohler. F.3 ± 0... H. chiral column. Bashir. 2005. Microbiol... Richnow. Muller. Vogt.. S. 3. (2012) [2] determinated the individual isotope fractionation factors for the α-HCH enantiomers during aerobic biodegradation of α-HCH by Sphingobium indicum B90A and Sphingobium japonicum UT26. D. Hauser. Poiger.. R. Gehre. H.

Agriculture and food safety .

quality and quantity aspects. From the microbiological point of view the total number of mezofili germs which develop at 22ºC respectively 37ºC was pursued. organic load and the concentration of mineral substances. phone: 0040 250 732 744 (int 188). P. Box Raureni 7. Letitia Oprean1. The analyzed wines. E-mail: Ovidiu. fax: 0040 250 732 746. years with very rich crops from the climatic. Valcea. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. E-mail: diana. organic acids. Valcea.O. 550012 Sibiu. Ramona Iancu1. Kettney Otto1. Gura Minei and Ocnita. The results led to a physico165 The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” .ICIT Rm. Ovidiu Tita1 “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu. The results that have been obtained led to situating the wines in the geographical indication”Viile Timişului”.A Ag gr ul ur ea an nd d f ds af et ri ic cu lt tu re fo oo od sa fe ty y PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FLAVORED AND DEMY FLAVORED WINES FROM RECAS VINEYARD Ecaterina Lengyel1. 2"Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu. GURA MINEI AND OCNITA LAKES. was done from May till October 2011 after the rehabilitation of the infrastructure and the arrangement of the lakes from Ocna Sibiului resort requested by the Local Council of Ocna Sibiului from the Central Agency of Regional Development. semi-flavored wines. ethylic alcohol. the following breeds being selected: Muscat Ottonel.bociu@icsi. Raţiu 7-9. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. vitamins. mineral salts and others. aldehyde. As a wine analysis selection criterion. Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonney. AS REPRE-SENTATIVE FOR THE LACUSTRINE COMPLEX FROM OCNA SIBIULUI Diana Bociu1.O. 550012 Sibiu. esters. glycerin.ICIT Rm. Uzinei Street no. All these elements award the wine with organoleptic qualities.ro. I. 4. Brancoveanu. tannin. semi sweet and demi-sec have been obtained through the vineyards’ technology that has been applied during the year of processing. Romania 1 ABSTRACT Wine. Str. Romania. sweet. Uzinei Street no. proteins. Roxana Ionete1 National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Str. the wonderful liquor resulted by means of complete or partial fermentation of the technologically processed grapes or of fresh must. 2National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies . Food Industry and Environmental Protection.tita@ulbsibiu. Bociu Diana2. P. 4. Sampling was done twice a month (at every two weeks) at an approximate depth of 40 cm. The water monitoring campaign of the three investigated lakes. Romania. 240050. 240050. Keywords: flavored wines. It contains easy to assimilate substances like: sugars. physical and chemical properties PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BRANCOVEANU. I. Ecaterina Lengyel2. amino acids. years 2010 and 2011 have been taken into consideration. Raţiu 7-9. Box Raureni 7.ro. Measurements were performed to emphasize the level of mineralization. Ramnicu Valcea. aroma and savor. Romania 1 ABSTRACT This study evaluates the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the saline waters of three representative lakes from Ocna Sibiului in order to promote their therapeutic purpose. Food Industry and Environmental Protection. Ramnicu Valcea. The present essay studies the physical and chemical aspects of the flavored and demy flavored wines in “Recas” vineyard.

A Ag gr ul ur ea an nd d f ds af et ri ic cu lt tu re fo oo od sa fe ty y chemical and microbiological specific profile for these lakes which are recommended to be used for bathing, therapy and leisure. Keywords: hypersaline waters, pH, mineral substances, temperature, conductivity

WINE QUALITY ASSURANCE USING MASS SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUES Oana Romina Dinca, Roxana Elena Ionete, Diana Costinel
National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT Rm. Valcea, Uzinei Street no. 4, P.O. Box Raureni 7, 240050, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania, phone: 0250/732744; fax: 0250/732746; E-mail: oana.dinca@icsi.ro

ABSTRACT
Wines produced in different geographical regions will each have their specific character dictated by the climate, latitude and altitude. In wine authentication a key issue is to find suitable markers such as oxygen, carbon and strontium stable isotopes which record the isotopic composition of the vine source of water and the climatic condition experienced by the grape vine. These stable isotopes have been explored extensively to detect wine adulteration or for proving the claimed origin. Also, wine aroma is a very important parameter in terms of rigorous quality requirements. This work gives an overview on the most sensitive techniques applied for wine fingerprinting, considering information about environmental and technological aspects of wine geographical authentication. Keywords: wine, stable isotopes, fraud detection, ICP-MS, IRMS, GC-MS.

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The 18th ICIT National Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation”

Addendum

A Ad dd de en nd du um m

HYDROGEN - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE Ioan Stamatin
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest, Romania

USE GIS TEHNIQUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN AN INDUSTRIAL ZONE AND A GREEN AREA Gili Saros, Diana Florescu, Irina Geana, Raluca Popescu, Andreea Maria Iordache, Roxana Ionete
National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies – ICIT Ramnicu Valcea,Uzinei Street, No. 4, PO Box 7 Raureni, 240050, Rm. Valcea, Romania E-mail: gili@icsi.ro, andreea.iordache@icsi.ro, vraluca@icsi.ro ABSTRACT
Analysis of the data and modeling them through the system GIS represents one of the steps in the future for environmental monitoring. The purpose of this study is to achieve a comprehensive system of monitoring the quality of the environment through investigations of pollutants in the air, water, soil, from an Industrial Area and compare it to a Green Area. We have used GIS technique to make maps of impact and for the distribution of certain concentrations of important environment pollutants, registered as and the points of harvesting, and default ability to represent their evolution in time for the purpose of establishing quality of the environment. Keywords: environmental monitoring, GIS, maps

INSTALATIE PILOT PENTRU PRELUCRAREA PRIN DISTILARE IN VID A ULEIURILOR MINERALE UZATE. TESTE PRELIMINARE PILOT PLANT FOR PROCESSING USED MINERAL OILS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION Floarea Pop, Cornelia Croitoru, Emil Zaharia1, Dorin Bomboş2, Elisabeta Pop1
2

Atica Chemicals SRL, 202 Cazanesti Str., Rm. Valcea, Romania Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti, 39 Calea Bucuresti,100520, Ploiesti, Romania e-mail: cica_pop_romania@yahoo.com

1

ABSTRACT
In accordance with settlements in force, recovery of used oils can be performed only by methods that generates not pollutants above maximum rated value. Vacuum distillation is a non-pollutant technology for recovery used oils. It obtains products (distillate, residue) that are used to prepare storable hydrocarbon pavement mixture and bituminous emulsions, respectively. The 18th ICIT International Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 169

obtained at laboratory scale. at pressures in range of 30-38 mmHg. 170 The 18th ICIT International Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” . The paper presents laboratory experimental data. First experimental data. flow diagram of the pilot plant. as batch distillation. were used for design a pilot plant. Preliminary tests were performed on this plant. whose distillation column has a diameter of 311 mm and is equipped with ring packing. in a glass column. design data of distillation column and preliminary tests on pilot plant. During experiments temperature at column top increased from 240 to 290oC. The quality of products extracted at top and bottom of distillation column satisfy indicated usage domain.A Ad dd de en nd du um m At ATICA CHEMICAL SRL it was experimented separation of light components from used mineral oils by vacuum distillation.

Cernavoda 905200.ro ABSTRACT At Cernavoda NPP U2. The purpose of the Radiation Monitoring System is to interface the radiation monitoring equipment to a computerized system that allows remote monitoring. Fixed Contamination Monitoring. Also. fax: 4-0241-239-929.Improving station dose performance indicator.Chitu@cne. Ion. By implementing this system the collective dose of the operating personnel is expected to be reduced by minimizing the need to enter into high radiation areas. as real time radiation hazard information are available. with commercial operation in the fall of 2007. The 18th ICIT International Conference “Progress in Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation” 171 . Fixed Tritium in Air Monitoring. was implemented the Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). Romania phone: 4-0241-239-340.ro.ro.savings of the tritium surveys costs (lab consumables and manpower). No. a better radiation hazard control is provided for the normal operation of the plant. Ioan. . Information is transferred in real time using standard communication protocols and commercial computers. By detecting tritiated vapour. Gaseous Effluent Monitor and Post Accident Air Sampling. the Fixed Tritium in Air Monitoring system serves the following purposes: fast detection of D2O leaks in the monitored areas. Tritiated water vapor is a health hazard and its early detection in nuclear plants is important because it has all the characteristics of water vapour in atmosphere. RMS interface with the following systems: Fixed Gamma Area Monitoring. Portable Radiation Monitors. 2.Plaesu@cne. Ion Popescu “CNE Cernavoda” NPP. limited remote control capability and maintain integrated short and long-term database.A Ad dd de en nd du um m CERNAVODA NPP – SOURCE TERM AND DOSE REDUCTION Catalina Chitu. Liquid Effluent Monitor. e-mail: Catalina. Medgidiei Str.Popescu@cne. Ioan Plaesu. .