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5.1 5.2 Introduction

Modern Surveying Equipment

Micro-optic and Electronic Theodolites
5.2.1 Micro-optic Theodolites 5.2.2 Electronic Theodolites 5.2.3 Working of Micro-optic and Electronic Theodolites


Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)
5.3.1 Principle of EDM 5.3.2 Working of EDM 5.3.3 Accuracy Considerations


Total Station
5.4.1 Concept of Total Station 5.4.2 Working of Total Station 5.4.3 Accuracy Considerations

5.5 5.6

Automatic Levels Global Positioning System (GPS)
5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.6.5 Navstar GPS GPS Equipment Principle of GPS Surveying with GPS Accuracy Considerations

5.7 5.8

Summary Answers to SAQs

The measurement of angles and distances is the focus of all land surveying jobs. In your earlier courses, you have been introduced to the use of a number of field equipment for a variety of surveying works such as control establishment, route surveying, construction and mapping surveys. Over the years, due to the advancement in electronics and computer technologies, a range of electronic equipment have been developed in the field of surveying and levelling. With the introduction of these equipment, not only the efficiency of the work has increased but the jobs can now be performed with more precision and accuracy within much lesser time than before. Further, with the inclusion of data recording facilities in these equipment, a large amount of data can be stored in proper format which can then be analysed with the computer. Some of the modern equipment are Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) equipment, Optical and Electronic Theodolites, Auto and Digital Levels, Total Stations and Global Positioning System (GPS). These equipment can provide accurate data in no time that can be recorded in suitable media which can then be connected to a computer to generate quality map products. 93

these have been superseded by modern theodolites. through optics) in the micro-optic theodolites and hence the name.Advanced Survey In this unit. namely GPS. The graduations increase clockwise with 90o and 270o marked on the horizontal line and 180o on the vertical line pointing downwards towards the nadir. distance and height measurements in one go. The modern theodolites can be categorised as micro-optic and electronic theodolites. The glass circles are read with the aid of an eyepiece adjacent to the telescope. There is a circular level for approximate levelling and a plate level for precise levelling. The penultimate section provides details on the Total Station that can be used for angle. 94 . an introduction to some important modern surveying equipment and their use has been explained. These can read. or theodolite. the EDM has been discussed. the vernier theodolites have been in practice for conducting surveys of ordinary precision. The observations are read through an optical reading system that consists of a series of prisms. The graduations are marked on horizontal and vertical circles made up of glass. has been provided. The angles can be read to a least count of 1″. The vertical circle is normally graduated such that 0o corresponds to the telescope pointing upwards towards the zenith. an introduction to the latest technology. Many manufacturers have developed a variety of micro-optic theodolites each having a particular optical system such as circle microscope system. the observations are taken through an auxillary eyepiece (i. For very precise surveys. The latter can be measured with a transit. you should be able to • • get an overview of some commonly used modern surveying equipment and their uses. These are generally characterised by a three-foot screw levelling head and an optical plummet.e. display and store horizontal and vertical angles in the electronic recorder attached to them. single reading optical micrometer and double reading optical micrometer etc. record. and understand the working of these new generation equipment for field surveying jobs. Unlike vernier theodolite. 5. You have already studied the use of vernier theodolites that are designed to read angles to the closest minute. the observations are taken from the visual displays. 5. Optical plummet is provided for accurate centering particularly in windy climatic conditions.1 Micro-optic Theodolites The design of these instruments is such that these become compact and light-weight. optical scale system. This is followed by a discussion on electronic and auto levels.2 MICRO-OPTIC AND ELECTRONIC THEODOLITES As you know that the survey field measurements include distances (horizontal and sloping) and angles (horizontal and vertical) measurement. The first section deals with the angle measuring equipment such as micro-optic and electronic theodolites. In the next section. Objectives After studying this unit. Over the years. 20 seconds or 10 seconds. In the last section.2. The plummet consists of a small eyepiece generally built into the tribach. In electronic theodolites.

The theodolites have a zero set button for initial setting of the readings.05 0. Switzerland Leica. T2 (Universal) T3 (Precision) T4 (Astronomy) Theo 010 Leica. The direct display of angular readings eliminates the guessing and interpolations associated with the vernier scale and micrometer readings in other theodolites. Figure 5. However.1. 4. it can then be used as a Total Station (to be discussed in Section 5.1 0. Germany 1.1 Modern Surveying Equipment Wild T3 theodolite is used for geodetic triangulation and all other precise surveys whereas Wild T4 theodolite is commonly used for astronomical determination of co-ordinates and azimuth. Name of Instrument Make Least Count Direct (Seconds) 1. Switzerland Zeiss. The electronic theodolites are similar to micro-optic theodolites in their design and operation.0 0. The data can then be processed in a computer for subsequent analyses.A list showing the performance of some of the direction measuring equipment is given in Table 5.5″ to 10″. One of the significant characteristics of these theodolites is that the data can be recorded in a data collector attached with the theodolite. The angles can be measured to a least count of 1″ with precision ranging from 0. Once attached with EDM.0 Estimation (Seconds) 0.1 1.1 : An Electronic Theodolite with Data Collector 95 .2. Here. 3. Wild T2 and Zeiss Theo 010 are commonly used for engineering surveys.4 of this unit).5 0. No. the difference lies in the system of taking reading. Switzerland Leica. A typical electronic theodolite is shown in Figure 5. the observations are taken through digital readouts or displays.1 : Some Micro-optic Theodolites for Angle Measurement Sl. 2. Table 5.2 Electronic Theodolites A major change in the design of theodolites has occurred in recent years with the introduction of electronic circle reading systems to their design.2 0.1. The commonly used displays are Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) and Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD). 5.

Manipulate the levelling screws while simultaneously looking through the optical plummet until its cross hair is exactly over the station mark.1 of this block). many refinements to these equipment have been made. Move in the direction 90o to the original setting and repeat the steps. adjust the location and check again. Level the theodolite with the circular bubble in the usual fashion. 5. prolonging a straight line.3 Working of Micro-optic and Electronic Theodolites The working of these theodolites is more or less similar to that of a vernier theodolite. The tripod clamp is now loosened to slide the instrument on the flat tripod top till the optical plummet cross hair is exactly centered over the station mark. which is through optical plummet instead of the conventional plumb bob centering.3. The EDM was first introduced in the late 1950. The advent of EDM has made this possible. The major difference is in the centering procedure. From a distance of 1 to 2 meter. following steps may be followed : (a) (b) Place the instrument over the point with the tripod plate as horizontal as possible. The infrared system requires a transmitter at one end and a reflector at the other end. it is necessary that the distances be measured as accurately as possible. For an easy and quick set up. The electro-optical systems use either light and laser waves or infrared waves whereas electronic systems use microwaves. If not. simpler and less expensive. The instrument can now be precisely levelled using longitudinal bubble in the usual fashion as we do in vernier theodolite. heavy and expensive. The earlier EDMs were very big. The microwave systems require transmitter/receiver at both ends of the line to be measured. The Instrument The EDMs are generally of two types : electro-optical systems and electronic systems. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) The instrument can be used for various surveying operations such as laying off angles.Advanced Survey 5. Look into the optical plummet to confirm that its cross hair is quite close to the station mark. check if the instrument appears to be set over the station. look the station mark and then firmly push in the tripod legs into the ground. The EDMs come in two parts : the instrument and the reflector. With the advancements in electronic and computer technologies. these have become smaller. The microwave systems are capable of measuring distances up to a limit of 100 kms whereas the infrared EDMs come in three 96 . Start measuring the horizontal and vertical angles. Since then. The circular bubble can now be brought into centre by turning one or more levelling screws. Through the optical plummet.2. intersection of two lines etc. balancing in.3 ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT (EDM) For providing precise horizontal control using trilateration (Section 6.

This means that even if the prism is somewhat misaligned with respect to the EDM. medium range (3-10 km) and short range (0. In these situations. For higher accuracy. the EDMs without reflectors can only be used for the measurement of shorter distances within 1 km and also with reduced accuracy. speed and distance is applied.3 shows a wave of wavelength λ travelling along the x-axis with a velocity v. it can still be effective. . the prisms should be mounted on a tripod. 5. Figure 5. The instrument transmitting the infrared or microwaves is kept at one end whereas the reflector is kept at the other end. a cube corner prism is used that has the characteristic of reflecting light rays precisely back in the same direction as they are received. (5. However. frequency (f ) and velocity (v) can be given as.2 (b) A Set of Reflectors Used with EDM or Total Station Recently.5-3 km) equipment. The relationship between wavelength (λ).2(a).3. A typical EDM is shown in Figure 5. The Reflector The reflector is usually a prism or a set of prisms (Figure 5.2(b)). Generally. Thus. The EDM when mounted on a precise theodolite can be used to determine both slope and vertical distances. These prisms can be mounted on a tripod or a pole held vertical on the point. Modern Surveying Equipment (a) An EDM Fitted on a Digital Theodolite Figure 5. some EDMs have been introduced that can measure the distances without reflectors.1) 97 . λ= v f . long range (10-20 km). the basic relationship between time.different ranges. This arrangement has given rise to another category of surveying instrument known as Total Station or Field Station. the surface itself behaves as a reflector.1 Principle of EDM The EDM systems are based on the principle of distance travelled between the transmitted wave from one end and its reception at the other end. which are reflected by the reflector to be received by the instrument. The height of the prism is normally set equal to the height of the instrument. . The instrument sends the waves.

the appropriate corrections for these must be applied. the velocity of the wave may be affected by temperature.2) The fraction wavelength φ can be determined in the instrument by noting the phase delay required to precisely match the transmitted and reflected waves. 5. if any. a modulated wave transmitted by the instrument and its reflection back to it is shown. the provision for these corrections is made in the instruments themselves by supplying the required values of the prevailing atmospheric quantities on the day of measurement. The zero error (distances between electronic and physical centre). is determined. Thus.3. Corrections Since the wave travels through the atmosphere. 98 . Normally. The instruments are designed to determine the number of wavelengths (n) within seconds and compute the distance in no time. It may. (5. . EDM instruments are calibrated against the known distances.2 Working of EDM Before using EDM in the field. Alternatively.3 : Principle of EDM Measurement (Source : Kavanagh and Bird. . the atmospheric corrections are less significant and may not be required. however. these corrections can be applied manually by looking at the charts and graphs (showing the relationships between the quantities and the corrections) provided by the manufacturers of the instrument. Therefore. these are normally checked for their accuracy and proper adjustment.Advanced Survey E λ 1 2 3 R n φ n-1 L S Station Z Target E Reference plane within the distance meter for phase comparison between transmitted and received wave R Reference plane for the reflection of the wave transmitted by the distance meter λ Modulation wave length φ Fraction to be measured of a whole wave length of modulation (Δλ) Figure 5. L= ( n λ + φ) 2 . be mentioned that the effect of atmosphere is more pronounced in long distances of the order of kilometers. less than a kilometer. For short distances. pressure and water vapour content. 1996) In Figure 5.3. This activity requires several measurements on different known lengths. It can be seen that the double distance 2L can be determined by knowing the total number of wavelengths plus the fraction of wavelength reaching the EDM.

There are horizontal and vertical tangent motion screws for exact bisection of the reflector. the measurements can be taken.3 Accuracy Considerations In general. which is centered exactly over the station mark through optical plummet. No. If there is no display. 1. A list of some EDMs manufactured by Leica Geosystems (earlier Wild) with their salient features is given in Table 5. observing and recording. an accuracy value of ± (5 mm + 5 parts per million (ppm)) signifies that 5 mm is the constant instrument error (independent of the length of the measurement). The observations must be accompanied with all relevant atmospheric and instrumental correction data. 4. Repeated measurements are often made to observe the distances with more precision by pressing the repeat mode key.3. Now-a-days. Table 5. Observing The distances are measured by simply pressing the measurement key and waiting for a few seconds. EDM equipment are being manufactured by various companies throughout the world. some EDM have built-in calculators to compute horizontal and vertical distances if the vertical angles are fed manually through the keypad. bisection. Recording These days.Once zero error is found out. Reflector is set over the other point of the line whose distance is to be measured. 2.00.5 cm. slope to horizontal distance conversion etc. if the distance to be measured is 10 km then the total error in the measurement shall be 5mm + (5 × 10) mm which works out to be 55 mm or 5. The power of the instrument is turned on and certain initial checks are made. This is equivalent to an accuracy of 55 in 1. Modern Surveying Equipment 5. Name DI1001 DI1600 DI2002 DI300S Distance Range 800 m with 1 prism 2500 m with 1 prism 2500 m with 1 prism 19 km Accuracy ± (5 mm + 5 ppm) ± (3 mm + 2 ppm) ± (1 mm + 1 ppm) ± (3 mm + 1 ppm) 99 . Setting Up The EDM instrument is first inserted into the tribrach on the tripod. For example. 3. all the EDMs are supplied with an electronic field book wherein the measurements can be recorded directly or by manual entry. to examine proper working of the battery and the display. The specifications of these vary in terms of the distance range and accuracy. the accuracy of an EDM is expressed in terms of a constant instrumental error and a measuring error proportional to the distance being measured.000 (or 1 in 181818). Thus. whereas the 5 ppm (5 mm/km) represents the distance related error.2. The typical operation of any EDM involves four basic steps of setting up.00. The result appears on the LCD panels. Some of the corrections normally applied on the distances measured by EDM instruments are atmospheric and zero error correction. Bisection The instrument is unclamped to bisect the reflector through the built-in sighting device.2 : Some Models of EDM Sl. Since the measurements obtained are slope distances. the user should check the previous steps. For example.

The point number and its description may also be recorded. The data are recorded by the instrument in internal memory or in external memory cards. Ltd. the data for many days and months can be recorded. whereas in the modular design these act as separate units.e. For civil engineering works. computations of coordinates from a bearing and distance etc. these cards come in different memory sizes and. It can record all the measurements in suitable format and can perform some basic computations such as figure closures and adjustments. New Delhi) 100 . and modular design. these give rise to another category of surveying instruments known as Electronic Tacheometers.4. short range EDM with 5 ppm error can be used. Often. In integrated design (Figure 5. 5. There are two basic designs of a Total Station : integrated design. One important feature of any total station is the provision of data recorder or collector in it. A data recorder is basically a hand-held computer.4 : A Total Station (Courtesy : Elcome Technologies Pvt. Figure 5. Also.4 TOTAL STATION In the previous sections. These are also referred to with other names such as Total Stations and Field Stations. slope distance. The instrument capable of taking measurements to an error of 1 to 2 ppm is the best suited for geodetic control establishment. you have been introduced to electronic theodolites and EDMs. When these instruments are combined into one assembly. where accuracy requirement may not be high. The advantage with these cards is that these can be directly inserted into the computer for easy data transfer. since the theodolites and EDM units with varying precision can be combined to form a suitable design as per the requirement of the project. thus.. Moreover. Thus.1 Concept of Total Station The basic idea behind the development of Total Station is the fact that the equipment can be used to perform all surveying operations in one go from a station (or point) and hence the name. a total station is an equipment that can electronically measure both angles and distances and perform limited computational tasks using an internal micro-processor such as reduction of slope to horizontal distance. horizontal and vertical angles) of a point by just pressing a button. many total stations can record all measurements (i.. these are provided with built-in facility for atmospheric and instrumental corrections. both the electronic theodolite and the EDM are assembled in a single unit.Advanced Survey The criterion for the selection of an EDM depends upon the range and accuracy achievable.4). The latter arrangement is more flexible. 5.

point name and number etc. These include preliminary control and construction surveys etc. sea level.5 : Sketch Showing Intermediate Road Ties to a Control Traverse 101 . curvature and refraction corrections.4. azimuth of reference line etc. besides its code. Entry of Initial Data After switching on the equipment. date and survey team. prism constant. The coding system varies from one model of Total Station to the other. Road Modern Surveying Equipment (IS) 104 14 (BS) (IS) 103 Control Traverse (IS) 102 (IS) 101 13 11 Instrument Station 12 (FS) Stations 101 to 104 are Control Monuments Figure 5. choice of measurement units etc. It is likely that you may bypass feeding of certain data as the default values may themselves be sufficient. an observer may start taking measurements using the following steps (refer Figure 5. station name and number. for the sighted point. in addition to the station codes. However. These codes may be entered through the keypad on most of the equipment. atmospheric pressure and temperature values. Measurement of Angles and Distances After entering the required data. Some models now have the provision of bar codes to enter the codes. these have mostly been used for topographic surveys where the three coordinates of a point (i.e. at first instance. Northings. may also be entered. the data such as height of instrument. Sight at station 14.2 Working of Total Station There are many surveying tasks where Total Station can be used effectively. coordinates of traverse station (forward and backward).5) : (a) (b) Centre the Total Station over the traverse station 11. For the traverse station. These data include the description of the project. Similarly. some initial data are fed to it through the controller.. Entry of Traverse Station (Occupied Point) and Feature (Sighted Point) Code All the traverse stations and features to be plotted must be given a suitable coding system for their recognition. Eastings and Heights above msl) are required. zero the horizontal circle. Typical steps in the operation of a Total Station for a traverse computation can be listed as below.5. the other data to be supplied are height of prism or reflector.

Measure and enter the height of prism/reflector. the data required for plotting may be assembled and the survey can be quickly plotted at any scale on a printer or a plotter. any number of points signifying the topographical features such as 101. However. the software LISCAD may be used. to process the data from Leica models..e. The processing may require operations such as preliminary analysis. For example.g. Plotting of Details After processing the field data in the desired form (i.e. From this traverse station. It is possible to connect the field book directly to the computer through a cable. 5. Similarly.. Once measurement and recording of all the points is completed. horizontal and vertical distances etc. the Total Station is moved to the next traverse station (i. the software supplied with other model may also be used to process the data captured by Leica model through some manipulations. For doing this.Advanced Survey (c) (d) (e) Enter code of sighted station 14. Since the distance measurement is through EDM. all the accuracy standards of EDMs apply to Total Station. first the data have to be downloaded from the electronic field book to computer where the software is installed. 102. A number of Total Stations are available in the market these days. Some of them (e. the data stored in the memory card of the field book can be inserted into appropriate slot in the computer for its transfer. 103 are sighted and their measurements recorded.. The symbols necessary for plotting different topographical features can be extracted from the symbol library provided in the software. if these are not available in the software.3. Press record button. manufactured by Nikon and Leica) along with their accuracy standards are mentioned in Table 5. 12) and the procedure is repeated till all the stations are covered.3 Accuracy Considerations The accuracy of a Total Station is generally referred in terms of distance measuring accuracy and angle measurement accuracy. Some software have the provision of generating your own symbols. For any data processing. adjustments and coordinate computations. (f) (g) (h) Transfer of Data and Its Processing All the models of the Total Station are supplied with software for processing the data stored in the data collector or electronic field book. the prism mounted on a pole has to be moved to the respective points.4. The data transfer is followed by desired processing operation for the computation of coordinates of points and features. all the accuracy standards of digital theodolites apply to the angle measurement accuracy of the Total Station. the coordinates). Press appropriate measure key as there may be different keys for different measurements such as horizontal and vertical angles. Otherwise. 102 .

In indirect levelling. The focus here will be on the understanding of a new generation of levels known as Automatic levels. In direct method. ppm. Name DTM850 (Nikon) DTM550 (Nikon) DTM310 (Nikon) TCA1101 (Leica) TC303 (Leica) TC905 (Leica) TCA2003 (Leica) Distance Range with 1 Prism 2400 m 2400 m 1000 m 1000 m 3000 m 2500 m 2500 m Distance Accuracy ± (2 mm + 2 ppm) ± (4 mm + 2 ppm) ± (5 mm + 5 ppm) ± (3 mm + 1 ppm) ± (2 mm + 2 ppm) ± (2 mm + 2 ppm) ± (1 mm + 1 ppm) Angular Accuracy 1′′ 1′′ 5′′ 1.5′′ SAQ 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) Give the full form of abbreviations.5′′ 3′′ 2′′ 0. What are two different types of EDM? What is a reflector? On what principle the working of an EDM is based? Write four basic steps of working with an EDM.3 : A List of Some Total Stations Sl. What are the two basic designs of a total station? Explain the difference. (m) Describe the steps for the operation of an EDM.5 AUTOMATIC LEVELS Levelling is the process of determining the vertical position of different features below. LED. LCD. How will you signify the accuracy of an EDM? Define Total Station. No.Modern Surveying Equipment Table 5. the elevations are determined by direct observations to measuring rods or staffs using an equipment called level. 3. EDM. You have already studied spirit levels (Dumpy and Tilting levels) in your earlier courses. Write down the steps required for setting up of an eletronic or micro-optic theodolite. 5. the 103 . 4. on or above the surface of the earth. The elevations can be determined by direct and indirect means. The vertical position is normally referred to as elevation (or height) above mean sea level (msl). 7. 2. What is the function of an optical plummet? Describe the reading system of a typical micro-optic theodolite. 6. 5. Differentiate between micro-optic and electronic theodolites. 1.

New Delhi) These days. auto levels have arrangements for digital displays and data collectors and are thus named as “Digital levels”. The trigonometric levelling and tacheometric surveying are the examples of indirect levelling. These bar coded staves can read to a least count of 0. such as the requirement of intervisibility of survey stations.6 : An Auto Level (Courtesy : Elcome Technologies Pvt.1 Navstar GPS The NAVSTAR (Navigational Satellite Timing and Ranging) GPS. 5. 5. the readings are automatically recorded in the data collector that can then be connected with a computer for data reduction and analysis.6 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) The GPS is an emerging technology in the field of geodesy. Ltd. These two procedures are described in detail in Units 1 and 2 of this Block. Advantages over the conventional techniques. This increases the efficiency of the levelling work. In particular. In fact.6. automatic levels have become very popular these days and are available from most of the surveying manufacturers. economy in operation and time makes the GPS most promising surveying technique of the future.001 mm. The instrument is quickly levelled using the circular bubble and these screws. geography.. They are quick to set up and easy to use.Advanced Survey elevations are determined indirectly by taking measurements of horizontal and vertical angles. same levelling operations can be performed as with any other level used in spirit levelling.6). the technology overcomes the limitations of the conventional field surveying methods. These are supplied with a bar coded staff. surveying and spatial analysis. The system can be successfully used for many civil engineering and other applications such as 104 . developed by United States Department of Defense. dependability on weather. Figure 5. After this. As soon as the staff is bisected. Once the line of slight is horizontal. These levels are similar in design to any other level as these also have a three levelling screws and a circular bubble. the compensator takes over and automatically makes the line of sight horizontal even if the telescope is slightly tilted. difficulties in night observations etc. The automatic levels differ from other forms of spirit levels in the sense that these have a compensating device that maintains the horizontal line of sight when the instrument is approximately levelled (Figure 5. is a satellite-based radio navigation system that can provide three-dimensional position and time information in one go.

The antenna is of two types – Chock Ring and Microstrip antenna. satellite ephemeris and the behaviour of the satellite clocks are computed which are then transmitted in the form of navigation (message) data to the ground antennas. derived from fundamental frequency 10. From these data. Control Segment There are five control stations around the globe that continuously track the satellites and feed the information to the Master Control station at Colorado. User Segment A user segment consists of a GPS receiver with antenna and power supply unit.(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Provision of geodetic control.23 MHz. This information. Large Scale Mapping. This provides a repeat satellite configuration every day four minutes earlier in respect to universal time. Alignment surveys. These satellites are placed in six orbital plane at a height of 26. the pseudoranges (to be explained later) are determined to all the visible satellites. All these satellites carry very precise atomic clock with an accuracy ranging from 1 × 10− 12 to 1 × 10− 13 seconds. USA.200 km semi major axis. A GPS receiver must have enough channels with low noise level to collect data from all the available satellites.23 MHz = 1575. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Modern Surveying Equipment GPS has three segments (a) (b) (c) Space segment Control segment User segment Space Segment The space segment consists of 24 satellites and 5 additional satellites. At control stations.45 cm) The GPS signals must provide some means to determine the position on real time basis. L1 = 154 × 10. 105 . Navigation of ships and aircrafts. L1 and L2.23 MHz = 1227. is sent to Master Control station.42 MHz (= 19. To achieve this. Crustal movement studies. Each satellite transmits signals on two carrier wave frequencies. There are two types of codes in use. Each orbit is inclined at 55 degrees to the equator and each satellite completes one rotation in 12 hours of sidereal time. A minimum of eight channels is recommended for the determination of accurate position.05 cm) L2 = 120 × 10. the P-code (Precision or Protected code) and the C/A code (Clear/Acquisition code). the carrier phase is modulated with Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) codes.60 MHz (= 24. along with local meteorological data.

) (d) (e) To determine Geoid heights. Some of the instrument specific software are Ski. The distances are computed by observing the travel time of the signals from the satellite to the point. For civilian uses. These include (a) (b) (c) (d) Tripod and Tribrach Antenna Cable Field computer Spare batteries 5.6. The satellite has atomic clock whereas the 106 . There are generally two software that are obtained with a GPS. it is necessary to consider all kinds of errors (to be discussed later) for obtaining high precision results. Network adjustments. The determination of position is based on measurement of distances from the point of observations to the GPS satellite. The satellite message contains the broadcast ephemeris. In addition to the standard GPS equipment. Besides performing the above mentioned jobs. To provide baseline solutions. clock correction coefficients. these software are expected to carry out all sorts of error modelling tasks and their adjustment. To perform datum transformation from WGS 84* to the desired projection. (*World Geodetic System of 1984 is a 3-D. many scientific software have been developed. most GPS receivers are single frequency. For processing of larger baselines of several hundred kilometers. The travel time has a systematic bias because the satellite and the receiver clocks are of different precisions. The design of both receiver and antenna varies from one manufacturer to other. This requires complex mathematical algorithms. GPS Survey etc. These are instrument specific software and scientific software. some auxiliary equipment are also necessary.6. Some of them are BERNESE. It also provides information about the health status of the satellites. The instrument specific software are generally suitable for processing short baselines of the order of 10 to 20 km. C/A code receivers. Earth-centered official GPS reference system developed by US Defense Mapping agency.2 GPS Equipment A complete GPS set has three major parts as given below : (a) (b) (c) Hardware Software Accessories The hardware part of a GPS unit consists of two components which are the receiver and the antenna. The former is supplied with the GPS unit and is expected to perform the following jobs (a) (b) (c) To transfer data from GPS hardware to the computer. GAMIT etc.Advanced Survey 5.3 Principle of GPS The basic principle of GPS is to determine the position of points in threedimensional space. Therefore. and the age of ephemeris data. These receivers have access to both code and satellite message.

the coordinates obtained from GPS need to be appropriately transformed to polyconic map projection system. then Range = N + τ (5. The initial ambiguity has to be determined with appropriate techniques to exploit the full accuracy potential of GPS carrier phase measurements. .5) where N is the number of full cycle of wave length and τ is the length of part wave. This can be achieved by finding out transformation parameters from known position of at least three points in both WGS-84 and polyconic projection system.receiver has quartz clock.4).3) where X. one receiver is kept at a point whose ellipsoidal height is known very accurately. (5. Many ambiguity resolution algorithms are available that are implemented in the software component of the GPS unit. For using GPS for determining heights. assuming that Everest and WGS-84 ellipsoids are parallel within a small region the heights of desired points can be determined by adding/subtracting the observed difference between the two ellipsoids. the full number of cycles elapsed between signal travelling from satellite antenna to receiver antenna and the length of part wavelength are known. a Geoidal separation correction is added at each point. on the ground and Xs. in India. The range can be determined from R= ( Xs − X )2 + (Ys − Y )2 + ( Zs − Z ) 2 Modern Surveying Equipment . The integer. therefore. .e. number of cycles between the antenna and the satellite at the first phase measurement is called ambiguity.. Thus. However. The position obtained by GPS is in the form of geographical coordinates (latitudes and longitudes) and in WGS 84 (World Geodetic System 84) coordinates. Moreover. Z and t). . (5. Now. Y and Z are the co-ordinates of the point. the error due to time bias has to be corrected. (5. the time bias t has also to be considered. An alternative way to determine the pseudorange is the phase measurement technique. heights or elevations of points obtained from WGS-84 are ellipsoid heights. these are called pseudoranges. The technique is based on a simple principle that if the wave length. It is because of this reason that time is also taken as unknown and determined before deriving the true range. the polyconic projection system on Everest spheroid is used for all the geodetic computations. However. The height measured in point positioning mode can have errors up to 150 m. Ys and Zs denote the position of the satellite broadcast by the Master Control station. R= ( Xs − X ) 2 + (Ys − Y ) 2 + ( Zs − Z ) 2 + t c . the data from at least 4 satellites have to be collected for the solution of this equation.. Therefore. Ambiguity determination is one of the most demanding problems.. X.4) where c is the velocity of light. Therefore. To find the true range. the computed distances (also referred to as range) shall be biased and. From Eq. . . Y. the ellipsoidal height difference can be measured with very high precision. To compute the position based on this pseudorange. Thus. it can be seen that there are four unknowns (i. 107 . To get the orthometric height.

(b) Rapid Static. at least two receivers placed at two points collect carrier-phase observations in static mode for a longer period of time. The position of the unknown point is determined relative to the reference point by computing the length of the line joining the two points by processing the observations in baseline mode. this technique is generally used in surveying operations. The observations by both the receivers are collected for a common period of time but for a drastically shorter period than that required in point positioning. Observation sessions of several hours may be required to achieve high accuracy over such long distances. The accuracy achieved in point positioning mode is low (i. thus. the accuracy of the coordinates is within 100 m.4 Surveying with GPS There are two main ways in which position of a point can be determined using GPS. Since the long observation sessions allow a careful treatment of systematic errors. One receiver (called the reference receiver) is kept at the reference point whose coordinates are known to a high accuracy from other surveys. In point positioning.Advanced Survey 5. and (c) Kinematic. minimum of two GPS receivers are required. The software analyzes all data simultaneously to obtain the differential position between two receivers. Rapid Static Positioning It is essentially similar to conventional static surveying but features a vastly shortened point occupation time. this procedure is used extensively for a variety of high precision surveys such as establishment of control networks and monitoring of earth’s crustal deformations. Differential positioning have no effect of Selective Availability (SA) (explained later) and coordinates of the station can be calculated on the basis of fixed station’s coordinate system or any arbitrary system. static differential positioning yields more accurate results than any other technique. Static Positioning In this technique. Typical distances between the receivers range from several tens of kilometers to thousands of kilometers. which are 3-4 times better than the results obtained through other surveying methods. Thus. three differential positioning techniques are used when observing GPS. of the order of meters) unless the data are post processed with a scientific software such as Bernese. 108 Kinematic Positioning . The reduction in observation time primarily results from faster ambiguity resolution which is achieved either by combining pseudorange measurement technology with carrier phase measurements or by making use of redundant carrier phase measurements. Thus. The other receiver (called the rover receiver) is kept at the unknown point whose coordinates are to be determined.e. It is also true that GPS is more economical and at least 3 times faster than the other methods. These observations are then processed as single-point mode using appropriate GPS software. in point positioning. Therefore.6. achieved is of the order of centimeters and millimeters. These are point positioning and differential positioning. The accuracy. Normally. Therefore. a single GPS receiver is kept at the point whose coordinates are to be determined. The receiver records the observations for many hours.. The results of the observations taken in static mode are found to be accurate within 5 ppm or better. accurate positioning is possible after post processing the observed GPS data. In differential positioning. These are (a) Static.

built areas. For large-scale surveying. The data collected in the first and second occupancy are combined in a processing scheme similar to the one used in static surveying. The truly kinematic positioning outputs the results in a preset time interval. Table 5.10 ppm (iii) 0. But in open areas. all baseline lengths are within several kilometers. Kinematic positioning can be carried out in two ways such as (a) (b) Pseudo Kinematic Surveying. The procedure is useful when there are a large number of points so that waiting time between point reoccupations may be avoided. At each point. On comparison. tall buildings and obstructions. Accuracy at sub-centimeter level can be achieved with this method. In Stop and Go surveying (also referred as semi-kinematic surveying). the carrier phase ambiguities are resolved before the actual survey begins. In this method. A very reduced length of point occupancy is the main advantage of this technique.01 ppm (i) < 10m (ii) 10 cm Remarks ----------------SA and AS on Observations < 15 minutes Routinely obtained Achievable in special cases Moving land vehicles Aircraft positioning Static Kinematic 5. the whole procedure is repeated and all remote points are reoccupied. Therefore. as there is no requirement for the receiver to maintain its lock to the satellite during the movement of rover receiver.20 m (ii) 100 . Pseudo kinematic can be used advantageously in areas where there is fear of signal shading due to vegetation. After at least one hour. thus. In that case. Once the ambiguities are resolved. resulting in greater turnouts and accurate positioning but not at the required ground points.200m (i) 1. The relative performance of different observation techniques is given in Table 5. it can be stated that static positioning demands more observation time resulting in fewer base line measurements.6.5 Accuracy Considerations 109 . it must maintain phase lock to at least four satellites for a successful survey. we need a technique that is in-between the static and kinematic. then some of the systematic errors in carrier phase measurements will be negligible and will have no effect on the differential positioning result. pseudo-kinematic and Stop and Go techniques can be considered ideal for large scale surveying purposes.4. Modern Surveying Equipment The pseudo-kinematic method calls for one receiver to remain static at the reference point while other receiver occupies all remote points in sequence.00 ppm (ii) 0. surveyors can accurately determine the differential position of remote points with observation periods as small as few seconds.When surveying is conducted for a local area and. The limitation with this method is that when roving receiver is moving between the remote points. and Stop and Go Surveying. one may resort to kinematic positioning.4 : Relative Performance of GPS Surveying Methods Method Navigational Solution Accuracy (i) 10 . surveyor moves one of the receivers through all the remote points in sequence. the roving receiver collects measurements for a few minutes. Stop and Go technique may prove useful. although with greater accuracy.

This has been introduced by USA to deny accurate positioning on real time basis. A precision term commonly used while collecting GPS observations is called the Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). Thus. However. the equipment can be used for first order survey. GPS. SAQ 2 (a) Give the full form of following abbreviations NAVSTAR. from Table 5. It is a measure of ‘strength of figure’ of the satellites being observed for finding out the position. WGS-84.1. varying levels of accuracy are associated with different survey and position techniques. Therefore. GDOP. Define pseudo-range. In Section 5. greater are the chances of achieving accurate position.Advanced Survey In GPS solutions. it can be reckoned that the GPS can provide an accuracy of 10 to 20 meter in point positioning mode provided neither SA nor AS is ‘on’. C/A code and P-code (precision code).e. it was mentioned that there are two codes. the AS will remain ‘on’ till the satellite constellation is complete. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) 110 What do you mean by levelling? How do automatic levels differ from conventional spirit levels? Enumerate some applications of GPS. What are three segments of a GPS? What do you mean by a P-code and C/A code? What is the purpose of control segment? Describe major parts of a GPS equipment. Intentional degradation of quality of broadcast information is called Selective Availability. AS. the surveyors use the system in differential mode where most of the errors due to SA. As per the announcement by Department of Defence. such accuracy is not sufficient for geodetic purpose. higher levels of accuracy can be expected from GPS. i. Thus. In May 2000. USA.6. been removed and. The position is also effected by a system error known as Selective Availability (SA). the SA has.4. SA. however. The P-code is available to certain selected group of users and is not available to all. Differentiate between (i) pseudo-range and carrier phase measurements . What should be the requirements of a GPS software? Give basic principle of a GPS. Tropospheric and Ionospheric get cancelled out and the distance between two points with very high accuracy can be obtained instead of position. transmitted by satellites. The denial of P-code by USA is known as AntiSpoofing (AS). The tracked satellites clustered at one place shall have large GDOP whereas well-distributed satellites shall have small. This can be done by deliberately degrading the stability of the satellite clock or by degrading the navigation message. Smaller the GDOP. therefore.

(n) Define selective availability. 5. the working principles of a given type of equipment remain the same. anti-spoofing. you were exposed to some modern surveying equipment and their operation in the field. 111 .8 ANSWERS TO SAQs Refer the relevant preceding text in the unit or other useful books on the topic listed in “Further Reading” given at the end to get the answers of SAQs. In this unit.(ii) point and differential positioning Modern Surveying Equipment (iii) static and kinematic positioning (m) Describe two methods of kinematic positioning. geometric dillution of precision.7 SUMMARY Although a range of new surveying equipment has been developed by several manufacturers. you shall be able to handle electronic surveying instruments of different makes supplemented with their operation manual. 5. After reading this unit.