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1. Everything in Linux is a file including the hardware and even the directories. 2.

# : Denotes the super(root) user 3. $ : Denotes the normal user 4. /root: Denotes the super user‘s directory /home: Denotes the normal user‘s directory. 5. Switching between Terminals § Ctrl + Alt + F1-F6: Console login § Ctrl + Alt + F7: GUI login 6. The Magic Tab: Instead of typing the whole filename if the unique pattern for a particular file is given then the remaining characters need not be typed and can be obtained automatically using the Tab button. 7. ~(Tilde): Denotes the current user‘s home directory 8. Ctrl + Z: To stop a command that is working interactively without terminating it. 9. Ctrl + C: To stop a command that is not responding. (Cancellation). 10. Ctrl + D: To send the EOF( End of File) signal to a command normally when you see ‗>‘. 11. Ctrl + W: To erase the text you have entered a word at a time. 12. Up arrow key: To redisplay the last executed command. The Down arrow key can be used to print the next command used after using the Up arrow key previously. 13. The history command can be cleared using a simple option –c (clear). 14. cd : The cd command can be used trickily in the following ways: cd : To switch to the home user

cd * : To change directory to the first file in the directory (only if the first file is a directory) cd .. : To move back a folder cd - : To return to the last directory you were in 15. Files starting with a dot (.) are a hidden file. 16. To view hidden files: ls -a 17. ls: The ls command can be use trickily in the following ways: ls -lR : To view a long list of all the files (which includes directories) and their subdirectories recursively . ls *.* : To view a list of all the files with extensions only. 18. ls -ll: Gives a long list in the following format drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2010-04-29 05:17 bin where drwxr-xr-x : permission where d stands for directory, rwx stands for owner privilege, r-x stands for the group privilege and r-x stands for others permission respectively. Here r stands for read, w for write and x for executable. 2=> link count root=>owner root=>group 4096=> directory size 2010-04-29=>date of creation 05:17=> time of creation bin=>directory file(in blue)

The color code of the files is as follows:

dpkg -l : To get a list of all the installed packages. Use of „ > „ and „ >> „ : The ‗ > ‗ symbol ( input redirector sign) can be used to add content to a file when used with the cat command. e. The „tr‟ command: Used to translate the characters of a file. ( Save the changes to the file using Ctrl +D) $cat >> text Yellow: Device file This is a new text. Also there is no undelete option in Linux. Whereas ‗ >> ‗ can be used to append to a file. of words from a file : cat <filename> |wc -w . Red: Compressed file This is a new text. of lines from a file : cat <filename> |wc -l . Hence it is always advisable to use rm command with the i(which prompts before removal) option. A simple mistake like rm / somedir instead of rm /somedir can cause major chaos and delete the entire content of the /(root) directory. To count the number of users logged in : who |wc –l 25.To count no.g: $ touch text (creates an empty file) 26. If the ‗ >> ‗ symbol is not used and content is added to a file using only the ‗>‘ symbol the previous content of the file is deleted and replaced with the new content. Copying hidden files: cp .Blue: Directory file White: Normal file Green: Executable file $ cat >text This is text‟s text. (Ctrl + D) Magenta: Picture file Output of the file: Cyan: link file This is text‟s text. 23. 27. cat: The cat command can be used to trickly in the following way: 23. To search a term that returns a pattern: cat <filename> |grep [pattern] . File Symbol -(Hyphen) : Normal file d=directory l=link file b=Block device file c=character device file 19.To count no. tr „a-z‟ „A-Z‟ <text >text1 : The command for example is used to translate all the characters from lower case to upper case of the ‗text‘ file and save the changes to a new file ‗text1′.* (copies hidden files only to a new destination) 21. Using the rm command: When used without any option the rm command deletes the file or directory ( option -rf) without any warning. File permission using chmod: ‗chmod‘ can be used directly to change the file permission of files . 20.To count no. of characters from a file : cat <filename> |wc –c 24.

28.feb. that of group to read and executable and that of others to read only of the text file. Setting up alias: Enables a replacement of a word with another string.g.g head -n 4 abc.com | | | . ls -ll |more 29.g. However the succeeding command is executed if and only if the previous one is true.g.c e.mar. cron : Daemon to execute scheduled commands. To extract a no.g.sat * * * * * command to be executed Source of example: Wikipedia 30. Use it with any of the commands after the pipe symbol to increase readability. of lines from a file: e.g: elinks www.hour (0 – 23) | | . user and others in a numeric form where the numeric value are as follows: r(read-only)=>4 w(write)=>2 x(executable)=>1 e. alias cls=‟clear‟ => For buffer alias of clear 33.g. The ps command displays a great more deal of information than the kill command does. fsck: Used for file system checking. 37. More specifically it can be used with the summation option (-s).minute (0 – 59) | . e.g.——. Using it with the option -c displays a progress bar which doesn‘t increase Note that the elinks package has to be installed in the system. To find the path of the command: which command e.tue.wed.———. The du (disk usage) command can be used with the option -h to print the space occupied in human readable form. e. It is mainly used for abbreviating a system command. write and executable.month (1 – 12) OR jan. e.————.google.g.c . or for adding default arguments to a regularly used command e.apr … | | | | . 36.c is used to extract the first 4 lines of the file abc.c is used to extract the last 4 lines of the file abc. e. Surfing the net in text only mode from the terminal: elinks [URL] e.—————. Cron enables users to schedule jobs (commands or shell scripts) to run periodically at certain times or dates. fsck -C 31. 1 * * * * echo “hi” >/dev/tty1 displays the text ―hi‖ after every 1 minute in tty1 . more: It is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time.in a simple way by giving the permission for root. On a nonjournaling file system the fsck command can take a very long time to complete. ls && date lists the contents of the directory first and then gives the system date.g tail -n 4 abc. 34.day of month (1 – 31) the speed but lets you know how long you still have to wait for the process to complete.thu. which clear 32. chmod 754 text will change the ownership of owner to read.mon. du -sh /home summarizes the total disk usage by the home directory in human readable form. 35. Two or more commands can be combined with the && operator.—– day of week (0 – 7) (Sunday=0 or 7) OR sun.fri.

For instance consider a file myfile. To print colouful text echo -e ” \ 033[31m Hello World” Note : There is no space between the \ and 0 Output : Hello World ( in Red ) Set foreground color: echo -e ” \ 033[3xm” ( where x = 0 – 7 ) Note : There is no space between the \ and 0 Set background color : echo -e ” \ 033[4ym” ( where y = 0 – 7 ) Note : There is no space between the \ and 0 4. e. Now a long block of text can be assigned to the variable and brought into use repeatedly by just typing the variable name preceded by a $ sign instead of writing the whole chunk of text again and again.txt Output : IIT2009009 IIT2009010 cut -c4. cat /etc/shells -> To find the available shells in your system /bin/shell-name -> For temporary changing of the shell /bin/sh : To change to the sh shell.g. 40. Therefore it is necessary for us to have a basic idea of all the important commands and a few really important options that come along with them. Any changes to a file might cause loss of important data unknowingly. Hence Linux creates a file with the same name followed by ~ (Tilde) sign without the recent changes. anything and almost everything on Linux can be done via the command line. 1. To find all the files in your home directory modified or created today: e. It‘s freeware shell. It can be used for sorting of both numbers and characters or words. find ~ -type f -mtime 0 For a continuation of this topic refer to our next stone Basic-command-line-tips-tricks-ii echo $HOME 3. To print your home directory location: sort myfile. The sort command can be used to sort lines of text files. The terminal is a really powerful tool when it comes to Linux.g ldir=/home/my/Desktop/abc cp abcd $ldir copies the file abcd to /home/my/Desktop/abc.8 myfile.txt contains the following data : Raju Khanal aayush If you want to sort it the following command gives you the sorted list This article is a continuation of our previous stone – 40 Basic Command Line Tips and Tricks.txt with the following data IIT2009009:Raju:Khanal IIT2009010:Pankaj:Bhansali cut -c1-10 myfile. BASH ( Bourne-Again SHell ) is the most common shell in Linux. To return back to the bash shell : /bin/bash 2.38. 39. A variable can be defined with an ‗=‘ operator.txt Output: 20 20 . This comes in really handy when playing with the configuration files as some sort of a backup is created. The cut command is used for removing sections from each line of files. For example if your file myfile.txt Output : aayush Khanal Raju 5.

txt. Output : Aayush Khanal uniq -c myfile. 7. The join Command is used for joining lines of two files on a common field. 8. The general forms of the sed command are as follows: Substitution sed: „s/regexp/replacement/g‟ < file > Deletion sed: „< start >..3d‟ myfile.. You can use the man command with the option -k to search by keyword user for relevant commands. uniq command is used to omit the repeated lines.txt Output: Raju Pankaj 6. Pankaj is 60 Kg and Pramod is 55 Kg.txt => To remove lines starting from line number 2 and ending in line number 3 including the third line 13. File1 data IIT2009009 30 IIT2009010 40 File2 data : IIT2009009 40 IIT2009010 50 join File1 File2 Output : IIT2009009 30 40 IIT2009010 40 50 Note : Make sure the files are in sorted order.txt : => To change all occurrences of the word ‗raju‘ to ‗aayush‘ in the myfile. spell : It is a spell checking program which prints each misspelled word on a line of its own. The paste command is used for the merging the lines of files. awk „{ print $1 ” and ” $6 }‟ < filename > Output : Raju and Aayush Pankaj and Pramod awk „{ print “Average of both are ” ( $3 + $8 ) / 2 }‟ < filename > Output : . With the ‗awk‘ command. If you leave off the ―g‖ only the first occurrence on each line is changed sed ‟2.txt data Raju Khanal Raju Khanal Aayush Khanal uniq -u myfile. Say you want to add a user but don‘t know the command to do it. Note : The man -k is equivalent to apropos command which is used to search the short manual page descriptions for keywords and display any matches. Output : 2 Raju Khanal 1 Aayush Khanal 9.txt -> For non-duplicated lines use the -u flag. Don‘t worry with the power of the Linux command line you don‘t have to mug up the commands. Ex : Consider a file with the following data Raju is 57 Kg and Aayush is 60 Kg.txt filewhere ―s‖ means substitute. and the ―g‖ means make a global change.txt gives the line number and the misspelled word in the myfile. When used with the -n option it gives the line numbers before lines. 11. 12. paste < file1 > < file2 > Output shows that the two files are combined lineby-line with tabs separating the two.< end > d‟ < file > sed „s/raju/aayush/g‟ myfile. spell -n myfile. finger command : The finger command displays information about the system users. Myfile.cut -d: -f2 myfile. 10. you can substitute words from an input file‘s lines for words in a template or perform calculations on numbers within a file.txt file.txt -> For counting the number of times each one appears -c flag is used.

5 14.gz => To read the gzipped file myfile. 26. It is an alternative to the find command and can be really useful. dict encumbered gives you the meaning. The tee command reads from standard input and write to standard output and files.txt. whatis is a command that displays the manual page descriptions. For instance if you want to multiply 10 and 3. 25. just use the bc command and then give the expression 10 * 3 to get the desired output. sentence beginnings and so on. For more on the find command visit our stone ‗Mastering the Find Command‗. you will find a lot of programs and you may not know what they do. . Note: The dict package is neccessary for the usage of the dict command. expr is used for evaluating expressions. When used with the -a option it is used for appending ( remember the >> operator ) 18. locate < filename > gives the path of that filename. The cat command provides three useful options -v for displaying non-printing characters . Linux calculator program can be used to perform arithmetic calculation.txt. -t prints ―^I‖ for each Tab in the file and -e prints a ―$‖ at the end of each line to indicate a NULL character. the . When used with the -y option ( side by side ) the output is obtained in two columns differentiating the two files increasing readability. The style command analyses the surface characteristics of a document giving the sentence info. The file command is used to determine the file type. The diff command is used to compare files line by line. 21. Note: For multiplication it is \* and not *. can be identified from the file command. zcat will read gzipped files without needing to uncompress them first. thesarus words and sample sentences of the word encumbered. If you explore your Linux system. file abc Output : abc: directory 20. Note : In this case the multiplication symbol is the traditional ―*‖ instead of ―\*‖ as we used in expr . word usage. ls -l | tee dir_list => For directing the output of ls -l to dir_list file. Note : man -f cat gives the same output. Ex : whatis cat Output : cat (1) – concatenate files and print on the standard output. 15. Ex: expr 10 + 3 gives 13. A directory known as abc if cannot be identified from its color. The locate command can be used to find files by name. The tac command concatenates and prints files in reverse. The dict command can be used to find out the meaning of any word. 24. cat -vet < filename > 22. mkdir used with the -p option creates nested directories.Average of both are 58. bc .5 Average of both are 57. Note : The sign ―|‖ in the output indicates that there is a difference whereas the sign ―>‖ and ―<‖ indicate what is left out or added. 17. 23.gz 19. 16. zcat myfile.

Remove one or more new lines with a single new line and save the result to a file # tr -s „\n‟ < test.txt Similarly. # du -s * | sort -nr | head -1 or # ls -al | sort -nr -k5 | head -1 ( to display top 5 largest files in size. to all lower-case # tr „[:upper:]„ „[:lower:]„ < test.txt 10. Extract specific field from a colon delimited file and save it to another file # cut -d: -f 2. select the files and finally delete them. “”)}1′ filename 7. you have to go through the search options.txt 9. Sort a file in ascending order removing duplicate entries and save the result to a file # sort -u -o target. 2. Display the largest file (in size) of the current directory.txt file2.It is often said that there is never any justification for things being complex when they could be simple. Whilst if you working on a terminal the same task can be done via a single command. Change the contents of a file to all UPPERCASE # tr „[:lower:]„ „[:upper:]„ < test.txt > result.5 sourcefile.txt > target. Create a list of words from a file # tr -cs “[:alpha:]” “\n” < test > targetfile 13. So. Sort specific field from a colon delimited file removing duplicate entries and save the result to a file # sort -t: -u -k 2 -o target. Display the difference between two files # diff -w file1. All I am saying is that.txt 8. 1. Generally when we talk about command line.txt > result. Combine two files and save the result in a file # join file1.txt 11.txt ( to sort in descending order use -r option ) 4. it is worth trying to learn a few commands if it saves your time and reduces complexities.txt > result. Remove all non-printable characters from a file # tr -cd “[:print:]” < test 12. to remove all the empty files in a graphical environment. you will eventually appreciate the wonders of the shell commands. . Most of the time we spend a lot of effort trying to a complete a task which in fact can be accomplished by a single stroke in the command line.txt 6. Remove all HTML tags from a file # awk „{gsub(“<[^>]*>”.txt 3.txt This is really useful when the source file has hundreds of lines. Delete all the empty files from your home folder # find /home -empty -exec rm {} \.txt file2.txt > targetfile. For instance. if you go through this article.txt sourcefile. Remove one or more blank space with a single space and save the result to a file # tr -s „[:space:]„ „\ „ < test > result. use: head -5 ) 5.txt sourcefile. we start relating command-line stuff with geek stuffs which is not true.

Going through each and every one of these commands will be a very tedious task.com 24. Download an entire website # wget -r http://site-name.gz 17.txt Linux has more than 650 commands and every command has its own set of options all performing different operations.doc 20.    Basic Commands Editor User Account .doc” -print | xargs tar -cvzf /tmp/documents. The trick here to learning all these commands.html 25. we use -size +100M # find /home -type f -name “aaa” -size +100M mtime -10 18.txt 15. Download a given HTML page with inlined images. find all the pdf files and archive it # find /home -type f -name “*.pdf –no-parent http://url-towebpage-with-pdfs/ ( -A option to accept the specified format ie . sounds. # wget -p http://<site>/1. List all the URLs in a file and download the contents of the URLs with a single command # wget -i files_with_URLs.tar.gz” -print | xargs tar -xvzf 16. and referenced stylesheets to properly display the HTML page. is to categorise them according to their function. you will know atleast the basic commands and have some measure of control over the Linux command line. To download all files of a particular format.14. like all pdfs # wget -r -l1 -A. By doing this. find all the archive files and extract them # find /home -type f -name “*. find files owned by a. When you go through these commands. you will be able to perform different function as per your need in the Linux command line. find files that was accessed x days after its status was last changed # find -used 2 21. user # find /home -user rabi to find files that do not belong to any user # find /home -nouser b. Pick a random line from a file # shuf -n1 filename. However limiting yourself to only a few of them is never an option. group # find /home -group fortystones to find files that do not belong to any group # find /home -nogroup 22. find files newer than a specified file # find -newer mydoc. find files that were last accessed 2 to 10 minutes ago # find /home -atime +2 -atime -10 19.pdf) 23.tar. find files that are not modified in last x time # find /home -type f -name “aaa” -mtime -10 Here if we want files to be more than 100 Mb.

. Given a scenario. you can say that using the „root‟ account is like having the powers of God. I use ‗Vim‘ frequently. mv : Move file to different targets. let‘s say vsftpd. these commands are essential for the task. technical and account departments so that the employees of each group will be able to view his/her own department file. grep –i topic notes.e. On debian. You will have access to almost each and every file(configuration files. if you know how to manage these accounts. vim rabi. your focus will be modifying its configuration file . managing user accounts and groups is an essential part of a system administrator. Technical and Account. vi.  passwd : for changing user password.txt (topic is the pattern) sort: Sort lines of text files useradd : for creating user account. For other options like adding expiry date. find: Search for files in directory hierarchy. kate. If not. gedit (graphical user interface). wc: Print the number of new lines. words. cat : Read one or more files and print them to standard output. (KDE Advanced Text Editor). an organization ABC has three departments: Marketing. cat is recommended. each department having 3-4 employees.     Network Commands Archive Commands Help Commands Package Management Utilities Process Commands Editor Every Linux program is an executable file. and bytes in files.  File Commands  o o o o o ls : List directory contents rm : Remove files cp : Copy files from a source to the same or different target(s). I have distributed the commands into two sub categories: Directory commands and File commands.g. The other text editors are: nano. e.g. vsftpd. du : Estimate disk usage of each file and recursively for directories. For instance. Directory Commands  o o o o pwd : Print working directory mkdir : Create directories cd : Change the current directory rmdir : Remove directories User Account In linux. This command can be executed by administrators only. the cp command is provided by the file in /bin/sh which holds the list of machine instructions. It‘s an advanced text editor that comes with a more complete feature than the ‗Vi‘ text editor. system . you can easily set permissions for the users mentioned above.conf present in /etc directory. Basic Commands The ‗must‘ know commands fall in this category. home directory etc refer man useradd. Similarly. Therefore.g.  o o o o o o cmp: Compare two files byte by byte. If you need to view contents of a short file. e. you should use adduser.txt grep: Print lines matching a pattern. if you are installing a package . You need to be very careful while doing work as the root (super user). The organization demands you to verify the users of marketing.c ( vim filename ). find notes. text files etc) with no interruption and restriction. For example. This is where you will be using editors.

Network Commands Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers. It is also useful to get the information about IP address. $ wget url-for-file ping : send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts. Options : -c : create a new archive -r : append files to the end of an archive -t : list the contents of an archive -u : only append files that are newer than copy in archive -x : extract files from an archive -C : change to directory Dir -j : filter archive through bzip2. use to decompress . One should know the commands to check the ip address. download files from the net. which ports are open. wget : a non-interactive network downloader Even if a download fails due to a network problem. ifup : bring a network interface up usermod : modify user accoun.bz2 files. Subnet Mask.set remote IP address .org/wiki/Password_strength   dnsdomainname : show the system‘s DNS domain name netstat : displays the status of ports ie.If the user has set password before.       ifdown : take a network interface down groupadd : create a new group groupdel : delete the group and entries referring to the group groupmod : modify a group definition on the system chmod : modify properties for users chown : change file owner and group chgrp : change group ownership Archive Commands You want to install a package from its source code. $ ping IP or host name hostname : show or set the system‘s host name .tar. In this situation. ifconfig : configure a network interface. the command-line utility „tar‟ proves to be a vital resource for you. The server will instruct to continue to download from where it it left off. Netmask etc.wikipedia. userdel : delete a user account and related files This command can be executed by administrators only. You find out that the source code of the package is archived in a file xxx. If the „tar‟ file is compressed with the compression utility like ‗bzip‟ or ‗gzip‟. he/she will be prompted for the first password whereas superuser is permitted to bypass the step so that forgotten passwords may be changed. tar : an archiving program designed to store and extract files from an archive known as a tarfile. etc. it will keep retrying until the whole file has been retrieved. You can find advices on how to choose a strong password on http://en. The ‗tar‘ is probably the most popular Linux backup utility. waiting for connections. In 2009 it held a server market share ranging between 20–40%(source : wikipedia). closed. or to display their current configuration. you will get back ICMP packet if the host responds. This command is useful when you are in a doubt whether your computer is connected or not. get DNS. It displays the contents of /proc/net file. the resulting file is the famous ‗tarballs‟ which is a common method to deliver software installation archives.

rpm options rpm-package-name (use man rpm for further more information) The -q option tells you if a package is already installed. apt. e. You need to install yum in your Linux system.tar. Similarly. For Debian packages.tar. There are sources. You can access the manual pages using man command. that memorizing all the commands in Linux along with all its options is a very difficult job. Remember. Package Management Utilities On RED HAT.gz ) tar -cvf test.gz ( extract gzipped test. Ubuntu and Debian. synopsis. and many similar Linux distributions. To install . type $dpkg -i xxxx. and the -qa option displays a list of all installed packages. If you type: $ man ls You will be seeing the manual page of ls with its name. With no package specified. however.g.deb. I have categorised it into two. The man command offers documentation of the command. dpkg(Debian package tool) is another method to install a binary file with the format . Therefore. If you desire to have a brief reference of the command. copyright etc. . author. So memorise the command and options which has frequent usage and leave the rest to the HELP commands. -qpl : Lists files in the RPM package Yum (Yellowdog Update modifier) -yum is an automatic updater and package installer/remover for rpm systems. or CD.g. there is a manual page for the man command itself. For e. $dpkg -r xxxx. $yum install package-name Its configuration file is /etc/yum. yum command package-name Help commands There are manual pages for almost all the commands of Linux. uses the Debian Pacakge (DEB) format. apt command package-name use apt-get install package-name to install a package. one for RPM and the other for Debian.tar to the current location) tar -xvzf test. the rpm and yum is prefered.list. use -help option with the command.tar ( extract foo. Advanced Package Tool (APT) and Debian Package Tool (dpkg) is preferred.conf files to look for.deb To remove. $ info ls Remember.deb.-v : verbosely list files processed -f : use archive file -z : filter the archive through gzip Examples: tar -xvf test. gives information about specific package. -qa : List all installed RPM applications -qf : Lists applications that own filename -qR : Lists applications on which this application depends -qi : Displays all application information -qd : Lists only documentation files in the application -qc : Lists only configuration files in the application If you add p qualifier to the above options. It automatically computes dependencies and figures out what things should occur to install packages. SUSE. the RPM Package Manager (RPM) format is used.tar ) For RPM format. You can find configuration files in /etc/apt. apt-get with the upgrade command will upgrade your entire system for FTP site. description. if you want to upgrade a package use apt-get upgrade package-name. $ ls -help You can even use info command to have a quick overview of the command.tar foo/ ( compress the contents of foo folder to foo.

This will display the message in tty1 at 8′o clock.dat >>mytext $kill %2  Type $which ls.c > mytext [2] . e.Running sudo cp -rf * ~/ss & [2]+ Running sudo cp -rf * ~/yy &   The ‘+‘ sign indicates the job currently being processed . whoami : displays the login name of the current effective user. you must be aware of the terminologies related to it. o -c Cancels a running shutdown. place an ampersand(&) on the command line at the end of the command. A user job number(placed in brackets) and a system process number are displayed.cpp > mytext ^Z $bg ( Ctrl + Z will suspend the process running at the moment )    ps : reports a snapshot of the current processes top : displays Linux tasks at : executes commands at a specified time. e.Process commands In order to execute a command in the background.)     $jobs [1]. ‘-’ sign indicates the upcoming jobs to be executed.g. The ‘% ‘ used with the job number refrences a job. Used in fg. you will get /bin/ls. shutdown : bring the system down o -r Requests that the system be rebooted after it has been brought down.g $ quota -v su : switch to super user or change user ID which : returns the pathnames of the files which would be executed in the current environment. Therefore. $ sudo cp -rf * ~/ss & [1] 9144 $  $ cat *.Running cp *. it takes argument either the user job number or the system process number. Other commands      $ fg % 2 cat *. with an . bg: places a suspended job in the background If you have been using any of the Linux distributions or intend to. $jobs [1] + Running cp *. $ at 8:00 at > echo ―HI‖ > /dev/tty1 jobs : lists the jobs being run at the background (Press ‗ctrl + d‘ to return to the command line. logname : print user´s login name quota : display disk usage and limits. A system process number is the number by which the system identifies the job whereas a user job number is the number by which the user identifies the job. fg : a process running in the background will be processed in the foreground To view the schedule : $ atq To cancel a job : $atrm 5 [job ID] crontab :crontab is a file which contains the schedule of entries to run at specified times.cpp > mytext $  kill : cancels a job running in the background.

TPF. APT was originally designed as a front-end for dpkg to work with Debian‘s . Apache HTTP Server The Apache HTTP Server commonly referred to as Apache is an open-source HTTP server for modern operating systems including Linux and Windows NT. This term was coined by the programmers of MIT‟s Project MAC. APT automates the retrieval. there are basically two major software packaging.pkg) and Slackware (. such as a text terminal ot the command line interface of some operating systems (Unix etc). configuration and installation of software packages.slp). like RPM does.deb packages. They come in handy while installing packages.deb (test.rpm) A console is a computer program which acts as a medium to communicate with the computer via a text-only computer interface. or APT.deb extension. installing any other needed packages instead of simply reporting their absence. OS/2. A Debian package will automatically resolve dependencies. the version number. FreeBSD. Daemon A daemon is basically a computer program that runs in a background and is normally initiated as background processes. deb. ftpd etc. chttpd.objective to familiarize you with the new terms or the terms that you have heard of. RPM and DEB. configure hardware. For example. Dependencies When referring to packages. and run scheduled tasks. cron. httpd.deb converted to test. Debian Among most Linux distributions. e. In the process of managing . such as Microsoft Windows. Solaris (. # alien --to-rpm --scripts . Now the application is available for a wide variety of OS. but it has since been modified to also work with the RPM Package Manager system via apt-rpm. Stampede (. it helps conversion between Linux Standard Base. For example. In some GUI operating systems. Alien Alien is a computer program that supports conversion between different Linux package formats. Console . RPM. I have tried my best to compile these 40 basic terminologies related to Linux./test. it is included as text-based interface. and eComStation. Daemons are normally executed at boot time. Debian Packages are named with the software name.g. if you are installing a package. it may require files that are installed by another package. Microsoft Windows. dependencies are requirements that exist between packages. Therefore the other package must be installed or else the previous package will have unresolved dependencies. Novell NetWare. and the . It is also notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. Solaris. GNU. It is also capable of automatically installing the generated packages. is a free user interface that works with core libraries to handle the installation and removal of software on the Debian GNU/Linux distribution and its variants. APT The Advanced Packaging Tool. including UNIX. Mac OS X.tgz) packages. either from binary files or by compiling source code. and can try to convert the installation scripts included in the archive as well. They often serve the function of responding to network requests. The DEB format is much more capable than its RPM counterpart.

chgrp. GNU is a Unix-like computer operating system developed by the GNU project. mkdir . DHCP It can be used with GNU/Linux GNU The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an auto-configuration protocol used on IP networks. rmdir etc. and provide information about . This prevents two computers from accidentally being configured with the same IP address. Program include in core utensils : chcon. usually on the basis of a set of rules to allow only certain traffic through GCC The GNU Compiler Collection is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages. GNOME GNU Network Object Model Environment is a desktop environment—a graphical user interface that runs on top of a computer operating system— composed entirely of free and opens source software. GNU Compiler Collection (GCC).deb packages. the bash shell. mv . and GNU Core Utilities (coreutils) are included in this OS. or binutils. AMCC and Freescale Power Architecture-based chips. chown. HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a combination of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the SSL/TLS protocol to provide encryption and secure (website security testing) identification of the server. GNU GRUB (Grand Unified Boot Loader) GNU GRUB is a boot loader which enables a user to have multiple operating systems. It is free software and contains no UNIX code. The compiler handles C programming language and now extended to compile C++. GNU Core Utilities The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing many of the basic tools. It uses port 443 whereas HTTP uses port 80. the GNU Binary Utilities (binutils).ls. GNU Binutils The GNU Binary Utilities. Firewall Firewall is a device or set of devices and protocols that separates network traffic. . GCC has been adopted as the standard compiler by GNU/Linux.RPM will not normally allow packages with unresolved dependencies to be installed. It also provides a central database for keeping track of computers that have been connected to the network. dpkg Debian Package Tool (dpkg) is the software which is used to install. eliminating the need for intervention by a network administrator. remove. and rm. Auto-configuration in a sense that DHCP allows a computer to be configured automatically. GNOME is part of the GNU Project. GCC is also available for most embedded platforms. for example Symbian. such as cat. The GNU operating system uses GNU GRUB as its boot loader. the BSD family and Mac OS X. the GNU C library (glibc). The user can choose which OS to run when the computer starts.cp . ls. chmod . is a collection of programming tools for the manipulation of object code in various object file formats. needed for Unix-like operating systems.

Kernel Kernel is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. free software instant messaging client. Mandriva Linux. Package A software package refers to computer software packaged in an archive format to be installed by a package management system or a self-sufficient installer. Openmoko. evoking the shell of a nautilus to represent an operating system shell. In computing. ranging from mobile phones. Synology NASes and elsewhere. Kubuntu. A kernel can provide the lowest-level abstraction layer for the resources (especially processors and I/O devices). the kernel is the central component of most computer operating systems. Each package contains a specific application or service. The core library (written in the C programming language) implements the basic cryptographic functions and provides various utility functions. Although it can run in numerous environments. QNAP NASes. OpenSSL is based on SSLeay. Solaris and Mac OS X systems. ipkg ipkg. Linux Kernel (released under the GNU General Public License version 2 ) The Linux kernel is an operating system kernel used by the Linux family. FreeBSD. such as openSUSE. it was designed for and integrates with the KDE desktop environment. is a package management system designed for embedded devices that tries to resemble Debian‘s dpkg. in OpenWRT. Linux. Kopete Kopete is a multi-protocol. OpenSSL OpenSSL is an open source implementation of the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols. or the Itsy Package Management System. Mac OS X . and Pardus. Many Linux distributions have been released based upon the Linux kernel. Linux distributions are normally segmented into packages. OpenVMS and Microsoft Windows. It is best known for desktop environment provided as the default working environment on many Linux distributions. Nautilus Nautilus is the official file manager for the GNOME desktop. KDE KDE is an international free software community producing an integrated set of cross-platform applications designed to run on Linux. Red Flag Linux. It is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software. . the iPAQ. Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware. tablet computers and video game consoles. Gumstix. It is used in the operating system for the Linksys NSLU2 (Optware). WebOS. Windows. to mainframes and supercomputers. Linux Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel.HTTPS connections are often used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web and for sensitive transactions in corporate information systems. The Linux kernel was initially conceived and created by Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds in 1991. Versions are available for most operating systems including Solaris. The name is a play on words.

Repository A repository is a central place where multiple databases or files are located for distribution over a network. A central area for users to collect RPMs/DEBs/etc from. while graphical shells provide a graphical user interface (GUI). Department of Defense style mandatory access controls. including U. or a repository can be a location that is directly accessible to the user without having to travel across a network. RPM has been criticized for a lack of consistency in package names and content which can make automatic dependency handling difficult. Minix Smart Package Manager. which is used by Fedora. dpkg. through the use of Linux Security Modules (LSM) in the Linux kernel. . Frugalware and Lunar Linux. uses the . The name RPM refers to two things: software packaged in the . or a web browser. Synaptic Packet Manager Synaptic Packet Manager is a computer program which is a GTK+ graphical user interface and frontend to the Advanced Packaging Tool for the Debian packages which is used to install. Desktop environments such as KDE and GNOME have programs that pop up a password query box before allowing a user to run commands that would typically require such access. Command-line shells provide a command-line interface (CLI) to the operating system.Examples of packages: a collection of fonts. used originally by Debian and now by other systems. Operating system shells generally fall into one of two categories: command-line and graphical. Package Management System A package management system is a collection of tools to automate the process of installing. configuring. such as Linux. One such memory management scheme is referred to as paging. upgrading. su ( switch user or substitute user) su is a Linux command used to run the shell of another user without logging out. and removing software packages from a computer . SELinux Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is a Linux feature that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies.deb format .rpm file format. used by CCux Linux PETget. the RPM Package Manager for Red Hat.g. RPM was intended primarily for GNU/Linux distributions. Shell A shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users to an operating system which provides access to the services of a kernel. the file format RPM is the baseline package format of the Linux Standard Base. It is not a Linux distribution. but rather a set of modifications that can be applied to Unix-like operating system kernels. rpm RPM Package Manager is a package management system. remove and upgrade software packages. and Yellow Dog Linux Pacman for Arch Linux. YUM. and the package manager itself.S. e.IT is sometimes incorrectly referred to as an installer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. In Linux terms. used by Puppy Linux Paging In computer operating systems there are various ways in which the operating system can store and retrieve data from secondary storage for use in main memory.

Swap Linux and other Unix-like operating systems use the term ―swap‖ to describe both the act of moving memory pages between RAM and disk.It is commonly used to change to root user permissions for administrative work without logging off. and the region of a disk where the pages are stored on. On Unix-like operating systems it is common to have one or more terminal windows connected to the local machine. and Linux that allows users to run programs with the security privileges of another user (normally the system‘s superuser) in a secure manner. There are several other tools which provide graphical user interfaces to yum functionality. YUM sudo (super user do) is a program for Unix-like operating systems such as BSD. Mac OS X. sudo reuse of programs on any computer that implements X. such as web pages. . Web Server A web server is a computer program that delivers content. X originated at MIT in 1984. Modified (YUM) is an open-source command-line package-management utility for RPM-compatible Linux operating systems and has been released under the GNU General Public License. using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is common to use a whole partition of a hard disk for swapping. These partitions are called swap partitions. Terminal Emulator (tty) A terminal emulator is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture. over the World Wide Web. It creates a hardware abstraction layer where software is written to use a generalized set of commands. A terminal emulator inside a graphical user interface is often called a terminal window. allowing for device independence and The Yellowdog Updater. The term web server can also refer to the computer or virtual machine running the program X Window System (commonly X or X11) The X Window System is a computer software system and network protocol that provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for networked computers.