SANITATION PERSONNEL

:

CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Final Report of the Sanitation Training And Capacity Study March 2012
Prepared by:

P T. Q i p ra G a l a n g Ku a l i t a

Water Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Facility
Jl. Lembang No. 11A, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat, Tlp./Fax: 021-31907811/021-3915416 http://www.waspola.org Waspola1@cbn.net.id

Intentionally Left Blank

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 5 SCOPE OF THE REPORT ................................................................................................ 5 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................... 5 SANITATION PERSONNEL ................................................................................................ 7 CLASSIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 7 MAIN PERSONNEL ..................................................................................................... 10 QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................ 13 LEVEL OF DEMAND .................................................................................................... 13 LEVEL OF SUPPLY ....................................................................................................... 16 Eligible ................................................................................................................... 17 Potential ................................................................................................................ 19 Prospective ............................................................................................................ 21 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................... 21 Short-Term Demand and Supply ........................................................................... 21 Medium-Term Demand and Supply ...................................................................... 23 Reality Check ......................................................................................................... 23 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 24 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 24 COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT .......................................................................................... 27 DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE..................................................................................... 27 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ..................................... 28 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.................................................. 30 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ........... 31 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ..................................... 32 CURRENT CONDITION................................................................................................ 33 General Performance ............................................................................................ 33 Working Condition................................................................................................. 34 Level of Competence ............................................................................................. 35 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ................................. 35 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation................... 36 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ....... 36 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ................................. 37 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 37 SUPPLY OF COMPETENCE .......................................................................................... 38 Education ............................................................................................................... 38 Capacity ............................................................................................................. 38 Knowledge Offered............................................................................................ 39 Training .................................................................................................................. 41 Orientation Training .......................................................................................... 41 Regular Training................................................................................................. 41 Providers............................................................................................................ 42 i

Networking............................................................................................................ 43 Experiencing .......................................................................................................... 45 Recognition ........................................................................................................... 45 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................... 46 Gaps of Competence ............................................................................................. 46 Education and Training ......................................................................................... 47 Performance.......................................................................................................... 48 Networking, Experiencing, and Recognition ......................................................... 48 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 48 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 49 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 49 STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN....................................................................................... 51 Closing the Gap ......................................................................................................... 51 Shortage of Personnel ........................................................................................... 51 Competence Gap................................................................................................... 52 Strategy to Develop Sanitation Capacity .................................................................. 52 Overall ................................................................................................................... 52 Strategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs ..................................................... 54 Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement ....................................... 54 Strategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs ....................................................... 56 Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange.......................................................... 56 Action Plan ................................................................................................................ 57 Immediate Activities ............................................................................................. 58 Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel ................... 58 Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ....................................................................... 58 Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions ................................... 59 Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation ............................................................... 59 Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ................................ 59 Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel ...................................... 60 Follow-Up Studies ..................................................................................................... 60

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Tables
Table 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities ................................................... 9 Table 2. Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities ..................... 11 Table 3. Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel ....................................................... 14 Table 4. Number of Sanitation Activities & Main Personnel ......................................... 15 Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals ......................................................................... 18 Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only) .......................... 20 Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning ......... 29 Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior ........... 30 Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation ......................................................................................................... 31 Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning ............................................................................................................ 33 Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia ...................................... 39 Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum .................................. 40 Table 13. Orientation Training Programs ...................................................................... 42 Table 14. Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .................................. 53 Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities.............. 54 Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement .............................. 55 Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs .............................................. 56 Table 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange................................................. 57 Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan.................................................................................. 57 Table 20. Action Plan – Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .......................................................................................................... 58 Table 21. Action Plan – Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ............................................. 58 Table 22. Action Plan – Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions.......... 59 Table 23. Action Plan – Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation...................................... 59 Table 24. Action Plan – Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ...... 59 Table 25. Action Plan – Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel............. 60

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Attachments
1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities. 2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 – 2014). 3. Projection of the Next PPSP Program (2015 – 2019). 4. Level of Demand for Sanitation Personnel. 5. Level of Supply of Sanitation Personnel. 6. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning. 7. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change. 8. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Implementation. 9. List of Core Competencies: Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning. 10. List of Universities with Environmental Engineering. 11. References.

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Abbreviations
AMPL BAPELKES BAPPENAS BORDA BTAMS CLTS CSS CWSHP DAK DEWATS EHRA EHS EPCM FORKALIM GoI HAKLI IATPI INDII INTAKINDO IPB ITB KMP LPJK MPPS NGO PAMSIMAS PERPAMSI PMSS Pokja AMPL PPSP PUSARPEDAL PUSBINKPK PUSTEKLIM RDS RPA RPJMN SANIMAS SKKNI SLBM SSK STBM STFL TFL TOT WASPOLA WSLIC WSP : Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan : Badan Pelatihan Kesehatan : Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional : Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association : Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi Wilayah : Community-Led Total Sanitation : City Sanitation Strategy : Community Water Services and Health Project : Dana Anggaran Khusus : Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems : Environmental Health Risk Assessments : Environmental, Health, and Safety : Environmental Pollution Control Manager : Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah Permukiman : Government of Indonesia : Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia : Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan Indonesia : Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative : Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan Indonesia : Institut Pertanian Bogor : Institut Teknik Bandung : Konsultan Manajemen Provinsi : Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi : Memorandum Program of Sanitation Sector : Non-Governmental Organization : Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat : Persatuan PDAM Seluruh Indonesia : Program Memorandum Sektor Sanitasi : Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan : Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman : Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan : Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan Konstruksi : Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair : Real Demand Survey : Rapid Participatory Appraisal : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional : Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat : Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia : Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat : Strategi Sanitasi Kota : Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat : Senior - Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan : Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan : Training Of Trainers : Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning : Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities : Water and Sanitation Program

v

Acknowledgements
The team would like to acknowledge guidance and inputs from the Water and Sanitation Programme - East Asia and the Pacific (Ms. Almud Weitz, Ms. Isabel Blackett, Mr. Martin Albrecht, Mr. Chris Trethewey), as well as the WASPOLA Facility (Mr. Gary Swisher). The team also received invaluable direction and contributions from officials in BAPPENAS, especially Mr. Nugroho Tri Utomo, Ms. Maraita Listyasari and Mr. R. Laisa Wahanudin, as well as officials from Ministry of Public Works, especially Mr. Syukrul Amin, Mr. Handy B. Legowo, and Ms. Rina Agustin Indriani. In addition, more than a hundred people spent their valuable time to share insights and experiences, and provide information, and/or filled out the web-based survey. The team is indebted to all resource persons -- from government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, professional association, universities, consulting firms and donor-funded programs -- who contributed to this challenging task. Team members: Rudy Yuwono, Isna Marifa and Laksmi Wardhani (PT. Qipra Galang Kualita).

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A capacity development strategy was developed to close the gap of numbers and competence among personnel in the sanitation sector in Indonesia. The overarching vision that guides the strategy is that all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitation personnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence. The vision is achievable if the following four strategies are implemented, i.e. (1) improve appeal of sanitation jobs, (2) institutionalize competence advancement schemes, (3) revitalize competence development programs, and (4) stimulate knowledge exchange among stakeholders. The strategies are further defined as actions to be taken. The first strategy, improve appeal of sanitation jobs, would address the pressing need to enhance sanitation job profiles, to adjust compensation package in the sector, and to communicate the high level of demand for sanitation personnel. To implement the strategy, actions to be taken involve upward adjustment of compensation and benefits, promoting sanitation jobs to professional associations, to universities and training institutions, to the public, as well as communicating the need to improve capacity in the sanitation sector to decision makers in government institutions, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms. The second strategy, institutionalize a competence advancement scheme, would create a formal framework that guides competence development among sanitation personnel. The most immediate action is to reach consensus among key stakeholders on job titles in the sanitation sector. This is followed by creation of competence advancement options and development of competency standards for key personnel. Finally, institutionalization of the certification mechanism would involve commitment and decision from government agencies and professional associations. The third strategy, revitalize competence development programs for sanitation, complements the second strategy. Once the competency standards are developed and agreed, training and educational programs can be strengthened by way of producing new materials as well as introducing new innovations, such as internship and mentoring programs. Training and education institutions’ engagement is necessary, and it is fully expected once the demand for sanitation personnel (in numbers and competence) is communicated and discussed with them. The fourth strategy, stimulate knowledge exchange among stakeholders, is aimed at enhancing the volume and quality of knowledge sharing in line with competence development needs of each category of sanitation personnel. The most immediate action is to create an Indonesian network of sanitation personnel and strengthening existing knowledge management systems in the sector. The capacity development strategy addresses the competence of individuals and the quantity of individuals in the sector. However, the study recognizes that many other factors affect whether sanitation can become an attractive sector to build one’s career. Two additional recommendations are proposed to complement the four strategies above. The first is to revise policies governing the sanitation sector as a whole, with the aim to modernize the sector and engage private sector, which is expected to create a more professional atmosphere. The second is to revamp the 1

Executive Summary

sector’s image, accordingly, and aim to reintroduce a technologically-appealing sector with modern career opportunities. The sanitation capacity development strategy was developed from findings of a gap analysis conducted over a period of six-months. The study focused only on professionals (covering consultants, facilitators, and operators), and used the PPSP (Accelerated Sanitation Development) program as a basis to estimate the number of activities planned and, subsequently, the number of personnel needed. The main findings of the study from the quantitative side are:  Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM), both in the shortterm and in the medium-term (next five-year development plan cycle); Short-term gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. Environmental/sanitary engineers holding competence certification and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. In the medium-term, shortage of personnel will also emerge for operators to run and maintain the sanitation facilities across the country. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. And graduates are more interested in seeking employment in the vibrant industrial sectors (including mining, oil/gas or environmental management), rather than sanitation sector. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. The potential for growth of the student body still exists. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated.

 

 

In terms of competence, the study identifies the following gaps:  Minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among sanitation personnel relate to: o Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning. o Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants. o Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators. o Writing and communication skills. o Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines). There may be a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understanding gap. Using the

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a person’s work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. There is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way – one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development.

An action plan is prepared for the 2012-2014 period. Some activities are recommended for initiation immediately, i.e. in the second quarter of 2012, due to their urgency. These include: a) Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel; b) Communicate Jobs in Sanitation; c) Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions; d) Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation; e) Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation; f) Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel. Some of the actions above can directly build upon the products created and left behind by this study, namely:      A concept to define job titles in sanitation sector (relates to six sanitation development activities); A list of 20 types of key personnel in sanitation sector, and their required educational background and level of experience; Definition of required competence for four sanitation job titles. This would be used as basis to develop competency requirements for other sanitation job titles. Web-based sanitation professional network, which can be used as means to conduct surveys and develop database of personnel; An analytical framework for sanitation capacity assessment that can be used for further studies covering different types of personnel. 3

Executive Summary

In addition, the study identifies a few follow-up assessments that may be warranted. The first could assess whether changes in the deployment strategies of sanitation personnel would reduce the level of demand for personnel, especially to support the community-based and hygienic behavior programs. Another area that might be studies is the capacity of local government officials (with decision authority in sanitation) and the capacity of personnel involved in the operation of sanitation facilities. This study should be treated as the beginning of a journey to address the issue of capacity in the sanitation sector. The journey may be long and, in some cases, exploratory in nature; however, what is clear is that there are already many stakeholders with common concern and aspirations. The key to a successful journey is ensuring good collaboration and communication among all relevant parties, and consensus on the future direction of the sanitation sector.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

INTRODUCTION
In November 2009, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) launched a high-profile Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman (PPSP) program. The PPSP cites a substantial scaling up of investments in both urban and rural sanitation over the next 5 years. The RPJMN for 2010-2014 includes investments of IDR 15 trillion (USD 1.6 billion), more than seven times the amount allocated in the previous RPMJN. The augmented government focus and funding for sanitation, has dramatically increased the demand for a wide range of staff, consultants and facilitators with skills ranging from community development and sanitation marketing to sanitary engineering and project management. The Ministry of Public Works, BAPPENAS, and consulting firms have recently remarked that they are finding it difficult to find individuals with appropriate experience and qualifications. Anticipating a demand surge for sanitation personnel, GoI plans to prepare a strategy to fill the gap between demand and supply. The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), through the WASPOLA facility, is supporting the Government to develop such strategy through the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study. PT. Qipra Galang Kualita was awarded a contract by WSP to conduct the Study. The Kick-Off Meeting was held on July 19, 2011, and this report is the Final Report which presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the study.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT
This report presents information used in the analysis, and findings obtained from the analysis. Following the Introduction, this report contains four other chapters, namely:  Sanitation Personnel:introduces a definition and classification of sanitation personnel, in order to ensure systematic analysis and common understanding among readers. It also defines key personnel types which are assessed in greater depth.  Quantitative Assessment: presents the key findings of the quantitative assessment of sanitation personnel, from the demand and supply perspectives. A discussion is also presented which highlights where major shortages are likely to be found.  Competence Assessment: presents the key findings of the qualitative assessment. This includes discussion on the competence expected of sanitation personnel, and the types of competence programs available. It also discusses other factors that build competence and that affect performance of personnel.  Strategy and Action Plan: presents the strategy to improve capacity of sanitation human resources in Indonesia, as well as the short-term action plan and details of immediate activities. Suggestion for follow-up studies are presented in the end of this chapter.

OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
The objective of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study, or the Study, is: Developing a human resource capacity development strategy (or plan) to meet the demand for qualified and competent sanitation personnel to support Indonesia’s short-term and medium-term sanitation development activities. The final output is a Sanitation Human Resource Capacity Development Strategy, which will be usedby GoI, particularly BAPPENAS, in planning and creating capacity5

Introduction

building activities with the involvement of various stakeholders. The ultimate aim is to ensure that availability of human resources does not become an impediment to achieving the sanitation development targets already set by the Government. The Study was divided into four stages as follows:

The first stage, the Demand Assessment, assessed the future demand of sanitation personnel with appropriate competences needed to support the scaling up of sanitation investments. The Assessment defined the types of sanitation personnel studied and estimates the number for short- and medium-term demand. For four priority sanitation personnel, lists of required competencieswere developed: a) job (occupational) functions, b) core competencies, and c) need-to-know criteria. The second stage, the Supply Assessment, reviewed competencies developed through existing education (undergraduate) and training programs. Assessment was done only for the priority personnel identified in the Demand Assessment. Curriculum and syllabus of education and training programs were reviewed to determine which knowledge and skills are in fact lacking. Effort was made to estimate the quantitative side of supply, namely the number of individuals from each category with potential to fill the demand. Assessment was done also of existing professional network and associations, and other parties which contribute to the development of competence. A web-based survey was used to understand the profile and competence of active individuals from the four priority personnel types. The third stage, Gap Analysis, compared the results of the Demand Assessment with that of the Supply Assessment. Gaps identified include: adequacy and availability of sanitation personnel, expected and actual competence, gaps in training provisions, as well as observations on underlying factors that affect the interest in working in the sanitation sector. The fourth stage, Capacity Development Strategy, was developed based on results of the gap analysis. The plan includes a short-term strategy to improve the numbers and competence of the prioritized sanitation personnel, and a medium-term to overall enhance and maintain competence for the same group. The final report presents recommendations on further study and analysis to broaden the scope of analysis.

NOTE
The broad coverage and the short timeframe of the study made it necessary to develop and utilize many assumptions, especially for the quantitative assessments. Furthermore, some extrapolation was necessary to extend survey results with a small sample size. Findings were reconfirmed against comments from various resourcepersons. This study should be considered a beginning of, rather than an end to, a complex and potentially long-term dialog on capacity in the sanitation sector.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

SANITATION PERSONNEL
The Study assesses the capacity of sanitation personnel. A definition and classification of sanitation personnel are introduced, in order to ensure systematic analysis and common understanding among readers. Not all types of sanitation personnel were studied with the same intensity. Therefore, the Study also identifies key personnel types which are assessed in greater depth.

CLASSIFICATIONS
101.

Sanitation personnel are defined as any individual involved in sanitation activities, which may comprise of any sanitation sub-sector (liquid waste management, solid waste management, drainage), any activity cycle (planning, design, implementation, construction, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation), and any proficiency level (advanced, intermediate, basic). The term covers individuals working as civil servants, professionals1, academics, and volunteers. The Study will focus more on professionals, rather than the other three. Types of sanitation personnel are clearly specified to allow a systematic and focused assessment2, and later to generate a sound strategy and an implementable action plan. Generic nomenclature of job titles is created for each type of sanitation personnel3. Three attributes are used in each job title, i.e. (Role) + (Field) + (Scope) Note: - Role: - Field: Role to be performed by an individual in an activity includes one of the following: facilitator, consultant, operator, supervisor, etc. Field of expertise that an individual contributes to. The attribute uses

102.

1

Professionals may refer to individuals who possess specific skills or knowledge to undertake a specialized set of tasks and who receives compensation for his/her services. He/she may work in consulting firm, construction firm, non-governmental organization, training agency, research agency, and others. 2 Discussions with stakeholders and review of literature led to an impression that the term ‘sanitation personnel’ can be interpreted very broadly. It may include individuals involved in the technical aspects of sanitation development, individuals assisting governments with regulatory or policy work, to villagers who volunteer to organize and educate their peers. It became clear that in order to produce meaningful information and recommendations, it was important for this study to define precisely the ‘sanit ation personnel’ that it addresses and analyzes. 3 There are many ways to specify types of sanitation personnel. Nomenclature used seems to vary from one activity to another, or from one organization to another. For example, some activities use the general term of sanitary engineer, while others call it more specifically as wastewater engineer, solid waste engineer, or drainage engineer.

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Sanitation Personnel

- Scope:

terminology closely related to educational background, e.g. policy, regulation, technical, institutional, financial, management, urban planning, communication, administration, social, public health, and development. Scope of the activity that an individual is involved in. The attribute uses terminology related to phases or components of the activity, e.g. sanitation awareness raising, sanitation development planning, communal system implementation, wastewater system planning, solid waste planning, drainage system planning, final disposal site operation, improvement of hygienic behavior implementation, sludge treatment facility construction, and sewerage system operation.

Some examples are facilitator (social) for communal system implementation, consultant (urban planning) for wastewater system planning, and operator (technical) for wastewater treatment plant operation.
103.

A total of 90 types of sanitation personnel are identified from fifteen selected sanitation activities4. Prior to that, a genericclassification of activities is developed to allow systematic identification of types of sanitation personnel involved in each sanitation activity (see the diagram and Table 1).

Generic Classifications of Sanitation Development Activities. This Study acknowledges 9 classes of activities. The classification is a modification of PPSP program sequence, for example, PPSP’s implementation phase is modified into six more-detailed classes of activities. It should be realized that the implementation phase requires the largest number of sanitation personnel compared to the other five PPSP’s phases.

It should be noted that asanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social,
4

The fifteen sanitation activities are assumed as priorities in the current PPSP program cycle and the following years. At least until 2014, most PPSP program interventions are focused at completing City Sanitation Strategy documents, preparing Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector, and preparing plans and design for various sanitation services. In addition, a large number of communal sanitation facilities will be made for urban slum areas through SANIMAS scheme; while for rural communities, the focus is implementing the STBM approach in villages. More attention on operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities will be given in the next PPSP program cycle (2015 – 2019).

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected sanitation activity can be found in Attachment 1. Table 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities
Classification of Activities 1. Improvement of enabling environment Description Activities to improve the readiness of a city/ district, i.e. to a) awareness and commitment of stakeholders, and b) regulatory and institutional framework. Activities which formulate a strategic plan for sanitation development and its implementation plan. Usually conducted by a local working group, and supported by various parties. Activities which empower village communities to adopt healthier and more hygienic behavior, as defined in Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) concept. Activities to empower communities in high-density settlements, usually in urban slums, in developing communal sanitation system. Activities aiming at developing system to manage domestic wastewater. Activities may include planning, design, and 9 implementation of the system Activities Covered in the Study Types of personnel -

2.

Preparation of strategy and implementation plan

1 2

Preparation of City 5 Sanitation Strategy Preparation of Program Memorandum of 6 Sanitation Sector

3 1

3.

Implementation of hygienic behavior improvement Implementation of communal sanitation system Development of domestic wastewater services

3

Implementation of STBM 7 Program

1

4.

4

Implementation of 8 SANIMAS Program

2

5.

5

6

Completion of master plan for wastewater 10 services Engineering design of sewerage system

11

9

5

The City Sanitation Strategy (CSS) is a medium-term strategic plan developed to steer sanitation development activities in a particular city/district. The CSS, locally known as Strategi Sanitasi Kota (SSK), is expected to help create synergy between sanitation development activities and development activities in other sectors. A CSS is generally developed by a water and sanitation working group (often known by its Indonesian acronym Pokja AMPL or Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan)established by the local government, with members consisting of representatives from relevant agencies concerned with water and sanitation development. The PPSP requires cities/districts interested in participating to have a CSS. 6 Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector is a document that contains commitment and plans from various parties to implement sanitation programs and activities that have been outlined in the CSS. The memorandum describes funding strategy of each program and activity, whether it comes from central government, provincial, district / city governments, foreign aids, private sector, or public. 7 The STBM Program uses an approach that focuses on behavior change based on a community’s own initiative and decision process. Communities are triggered to make changes in their daily practices, and adopting the five pillars of STBM, i.e. 1) stop open-defecation, 2) wash hands with soap, 3) safeguarding household water supply, 4) wastewater management, and 5) solid waste management. This program has been launched as a national strategy for sanitation development by the Ministry of Health. In the other hand, CLTS (community-led total sanitation) is basically an approach to change sanitation behavior of community by triggering them to stop practicing open defecation (similar to first STBM pillar). 8 SANIMAS (Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat) Program aims to improve the environmental quality of urban slum areas, through introduction of a community-based wastewater management system. The SANIMAS program has been made into a national program by the Ministry of Public Works. Facilities built under SANIMAS program may include shared sanitation facility (toilet), small- scale sewer system, and communal wastewater treatment facility. Another term often used to refer to efforts to promote community-based wastewater management service is SLBM (Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat). 9 Planning is the stage where general plans or master plans for sanitation services are prepared (based on a strategic plan for sanitation development). Design is the stage where detailed design of a sanitation.

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Sanitation Personnel

Classification of Activities (service). 6. Development of solid waste services

Description

Activities Covered in the Study 7 8 Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Completion of master plan for solid waste services Engineering design of final disposal facility

Types of personnel 7 12

7.

Development of drainage services

8.

Operation and maintenance of sanitation services

Activities aiming at developing a city-scale system to handle solid waste, which may consist of collection, transportation, recycling, composting, incineration, and final disposal. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service). Activities aiming at developing a city-scale system to handle storm-water in an urban area. Such system may consist of catchment, retention, infiltration, conveyance, pumping, and discharge. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service). Activities to ensure a sustainable operation and maintenance of various types of sanitation services, whether it is by government (or governmentowned authority), by private companies or community groups.

9

11

10 11

Completion of master plan for drainage services Engineering design of drainage system

11 8

12 13 14 15 -

Operation of sewer system Operation of sewage treatment plant Operation of sludge treatment facility Operation of final disposal facility -

4 4 4 4 -

9.

Monitoring and evaluation

Activities to gather feedback information to adjust future sanitation development activities.

104.

A sanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social, business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected activity can be found in Attachment1.

MAIN PERSONNEL
105.

Some team members are considered central to the implementation of an activity. These individuals may have competence that is indispensable to reach the activity’s objectives, or hold a crucial coordinating role for the activity, may have the longest assignment, and/or consolidates the work of other team members. Such individuals are called, in the Study, as Main Personnel. In the 15 selected sanitation activities, there are 20 job titles associated with main personnel; 13 of which require

facility is prepared. Detailed designs are developed based on direction set in the master plans. Implementation is the stage where the sanitation development plans are realized, including construction and commissioning of physical facilities, preparation of management organization (units). 10 Wastewater system, as it is described in the Ministerial Decree of Public Works no. 16/2008, should include areas of (1) technology interventions, (2) community participation, (3) legal and regulatory development, (4) institutional and capacity development, and (v) financing mechanisms. Therefore, a master plan of wastewater services at least should cover those five areas.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

an environmental/sanitary engineering11 background. The following table presents the main personnel in the selected sanitation activities, along with the required educational background and level of experiencewhich classified into entry-level (straight out of tertiary education), junior (1 – 5 years of experience), mid-level (5 – 10 years of experience), senior (over 10 years of experience). Table 2.Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities
Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities 1. Preparation of City Sanitation Strategy Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Development Planning 2.
12

Ri,i

Required Education Background S-1 in urban planning, public health, public administration, engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering.
13

Level of Experience Mid-level

1

1

Mid-level

Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation S-1 in urban planning, public 0.1 Development Planning health, public administration, engineering. Implementation of the STBM program Facilitator (Social) for Community Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation of SANIMAS Program Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation
15 14

Mid-level

3.

1

S-1 in social sciences, public health. D-3 in social sciences, public health. D-3 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering.
16

Mid-level

4.

1 1

Entry-level Entry-level

5.

Completion of master plan for wastewater services Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater 1 System Planning Engineering design of sewerage system
17

S-2 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering.

Senior

6.

11

Sanitary engineering is an engineering field aiming to improve sanitation condition of human communities and prevent disease, mostly by assuring a supply of clean water, removing wastes (liquid and solid) from inhabited areas. Later this engineering field was expanded to cover larger environmental issues, including those of industrial sectors. Therefore, the term sanitary engineering is rarely used these days and most universities use the term environmental engineering. 12 The CSS preparation involves assignment of two facilitators to work with the city/district’s Pokja AMPL to prepare the CSS. One facilitator serves as coordinator, and is expected to have a good knowledge of PPSP process, has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning. The second facilitator is expected to have a stronger technical background related to planning and development of sanitation infrastructure. 13 The preparation of program memorandum requires one facilitator to work with the city/district’s Pokja AMPL. The facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of development planning process, and experience in water and sanitation planning. 14 Implementation of STBM program involves a number of village facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Desa) which are recruited from among the village community. The village facilitators receive support from a senior facilitator, commonly called Sub-District Level Facilitator (Fasilitator Kecamatan). The Study refers the senior facilitator as Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change. 15 Implementation of SANIMAS program requires a community-level facilitation team to organize, mobilize, empower, and advise the community. The standard team composition consists of two community-level field facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan, TFL), i.e. social facilitator and technical facilitator. Both are involved since the awareness raising stage until the commissioning stages of the facility. BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association), which is a major executor of the SANIMAS program, has slightly modified this arrangement. In BORDA-supported areas, only one TFL (social) is assigned to the target community. He/she receives support and guidance from a Senior TFL (STFL) who covers five locations at once. 16 The completion of master plan of sanitation services (wastewater, solid waste, drainage) involves a team of consultants with sound planning and technical knowledge and experience in the various aspects of sanitation services system. A typical team includes personnel with expertise in system planning, engineering, financial analysis and planning, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatory matters. One of the team members, usually the senior technical expert, serves as a team leader. 17 Engineering design of sanitation facilities (sewer network, sewage treatment plant, sludge treatment facility, final disposal site, drainage system) involve a team of consultants with sound technical knowledge

11

Sanitation Personnel

Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage 18 Engineering Design 7.

Ri,i 1

Required Education Background S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering S-2 in environmental/sanitary engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering. S-2 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary eng., mechanical eng. D-3 in management, or administration. S-1 in environmental/sanitary eng., mechanical eng. D-3 in management, or administration. S-1 in environmental/sanitary eng., mechanical eng D-3 in management, or administration.

Level of Experience Senior

Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Consultant (Technical) for Sludge 1 Treatment Engineering Design Completion of master plan for solid waste services Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste 1 System Planning Engineering design of final disposal facility Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design 1

Senior

8.

Senior

9.

Senior

10.

Completion of master plan for drainage services Consultant (Technical) for Drainage 1 System Planning Engineering design of drainage system Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Engineering Design Operation of sewer system Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation
19

Senior

11.

1

Senior

12.

3 1

Mid-level Mid-level

13.

Operation of sewage treatment plant Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operation of sludge treatment facility Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation

3 1

Mid-level Mid-level

14.

3 1

Mid-level Mid-level

15.

Operation of final disposal facility Operator (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level 4 Operation eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sanitary D-3 in management, or 1 Mid-level Landfill Operation administration. Ri,i= Involvement ratio, or ratio of the number of individual(s) involved in an activity per location. Note: For a type of sanitation personnel, some activities require one personnel per location while some require one personnel for more than one location.

and experience in designing the facilities as well as the operational plans. A typical team includes personnel with expertise in technical aspect of each facility, civil works, mechanical works, electrical works, project management, financial, and environmental management. One of the team members, usually the senior engineer related to the type of facility, serves as a team leader. 18 A sewerage system may consist of sewer network and sewage treatment plant(s). The design of each requires individual with specific expertise. 19 The activity involves a team of operators, ranging from management level to field workers. Their duties include operating and maintaining all sewer facilities which may include pumping stations.

12

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT
The Study assesses the level of demand and supply of sanitation personnel associated with 15 activities. The demand is estimated from the projected number of activities. While the supply is estimated from known groups who can immediately be involved or be prepared for sanitation activities. Shortages of personnel in the short- and medium-terms are discussed.

LEVEL OF DEMAND
201. The level of demand indicates the number of individuals required to fill job opportunities in the 15 selected sanitation activities (see Table 1), for short-term (2012 – 2014) and medium-term (2015 – 2019). It should be noted that the number of jobs opportunities may not be the same with the number of individuals required. There is a big chance that an individual is involved in an activity for more than one period, therefore he/she will fill more than one job opportunity. 202. The number of job opportunities for a particular job title is estimated by factoring the frequency of activity (requiring a particular job title) and the number of individuals needed in an activity. Frequencies of activities are projected using the following basis:  Short-term: Based on the current PPSP program roadmap (see Attachment 2) and other targets mentioned in the national mid-term development plan. It is targeted that by end of 2014, 340 cities/districts complete their CSS, 240 cities/districts complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2014, and 240 cities/districts initiate the implementation phase. SANIMAS programs will be implemented in 2,000 areas per year.  Medium-term: Based on preliminary projections of the next PPSP program cycle (see Attachment 3)20. It is assumed that 500 cities/districts in Indonesia will complete their CSS by end of 2017, complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2018, and initiate the implementation phase by end of 2019. STBM and SANIMAS programs will continue into the next development cycle with the same rate of implementation. The number of individuals required to fill sanitation jobs, or the quantitative demand of sanitation personnel, is a function of the number of job opportunities and a continuity factor, i.e. the proportion of individuals expected to continue working in the same job in the subsequent period.

20

No official data is available for targets beyond 2014.

13

Quantitative Assessment

203. Sanitation development in Indonesia will need sanitation personnel of more than 15,000 individuals in the short-term) and and addition of 18,000 individuals in the medium-term). For the main personnel, it will need almost 11,000 individuals in the short-term and an addition of 12,400 in the medium-term. Most of them are facilitators (for the preparation of CSS, STBM implementation, and SANIMAS implementation). A significant number of individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background will be needed. The estimates also show that more than 60% of the individuals will be those with entry-level and junior experience (see Table 3 for summary of the estimates and Attachment 4 for the complete estimates). Table 3.Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel
Category Total Role All Personnel Main Personnel All Personnel Facilitator Consultant Operator Main Personnel Facilitator Consultant Operator Field Education / All Personnel Technical
21

Short Term Amount 15,140 10,845 9,780 4,310 1,050 9,710 500 630 5,240 3,950 870 420 9,900 4,870 3,950 500 420 5,975 500 5,020 5,870 3,750 500 1,145 5,450 3,750 72 65 28 7 89 5 6 35 26 6 3 65 45 36 5 4 55 3 33 39 25 5 11 50 35 %

Medium-Term Amount 18,290 12,400 9,950 5,140 3,200 9,890 590 1,920 6,190 3,960 950 1,280 12,100 5,830 3,960 590 1,289 6,570 590 7,175 6,780 3,750 590 2,560 5,500 3,750 68 54 28 17 80 5 15 34 22 5 7 66 47 32 5 10 55 3 39 37 21 5 21 44 30 %

Facilitator Consultant Operator Non-Technical Main Personnel Technical Facilitator Consultant Operator Non-Technical Experience All Personnel Senior Mid-Level Junior Entry-Level Main Personnel Senior Mid-Level Junior Entry-Level Note:

Percentages of categories under the all personnel are proportional to the total number of all personnel. While, percentages of categories under the main personnel are proportional to the total number of main personnel.

The following table presents a more detail estimates of the demand for main personnel.
21

Technical personnel, in this Study, represent those with knowledge considered central to the main subjects of the activity, e.g. wastewater management, solid waste management, and drainage. Such knowledge are usually possessed by individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background.

14

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Table 4.Number of Sanitation Activities &Main Personnel
Activity Number of Activities
ShortTerm MediumTerm

Main Personnel22

Number of Job Opportunities
ShortTerm MediumTerm

Number of Individuals Required
Fc,i ShortTerm MediumTerm

1

Preparation of City Sanitation Strategies Preparation of PMSS Implementation of STBM program Implementation of SANIMAS program

210

500

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning

270 290 190 2,000 4,500 4,500

715 665 550 3,500 7,500 7,500

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5

210 200 110 1,700 3,750 3,750

275 210 160 1,750 3,750 3,750

2 3 4

190 20,000 4,500

550 35,000 7,500

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation

5

Completion of master plans for wastewater services Engineering design of sewerage system Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Completion of master plan for solid waste services Engineering design of final disposal facility Completion of master plan for drainage system Engineering design of drainage system Operation of sewer system

140

340

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning

140

340

0.8

110

110

6

15

50

15

50

0.8

10

15

7

80

400

80

400

0.8

50

115

8

140

340

140

340

0.8

110

110

9

150

250

Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation

150

250

0.8

70

50

10

140

340

140

340

0.8

110

110

11

90

320

90

320

0.8

50

90

12

10

45

20 10

90 45

1.0 1.0

30 10

135 45

13

Operation of sewage treatment plant

10

80

Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation

20

90

1.0

30

135

10

45

1.0

10

45

14

Operation of sludge treatment facility

40

300

Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation

80

600

1.0

120

900

40

300

1.0

40

300

15

Operation of final disposal facility

150

250

Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation

300 150

500 250

1.0 1.0

600 150

1,000 250

Total Number Proportion to all personnel (%)

13,135 63

24,390 56

-

10,845 72

12,400 68

22

Names of some job titles are shortened for practicality.

15

Quantitative Assessment

204. Types of main personnel mostly needed to support the current and next PPSP program cycles are (ranked based on the highest number of individuals required in both terms): Facilitators & Consultants 1. Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 2. Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation 3. Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior 4. Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning 5. Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 6. Consultant (Technical) Wastewater Planning Operators 1. Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation 2. Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation 3. Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation 4. Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation 7,500 7,500 3,450 745 410 215 800 680 400 110

LEVEL OF SUPPLY
205. The supply of sanitation personnel consists of individuals from the following three groups (see diagram):

Eligible:

Individuals who have the right qualifications (education and experience) for a particular sanitation job title. These individuals have worked in sanitation, and have received relevant training, therefore they can be immediately employed for a particular sanitation job. The eligible group is divided into a) active personnel, or eligible individuals currently involved in sanitation activities, and b) inactive personnel, or eligible individuals currently not involved in a sanitation activity. Individuals who have partial qualifications (education or experience), but still require additional preparation before they are ready to fill a particular sanitation job. The preparation can be as minimal as orientation training to introduce individuals to the specifics of a program23; or as elaborate as a technical training to introduce a technology or technical approach used by a program. This category includes individuals with a relevant educational degree, but has not pursued career in sanitation24, or individuals who have recently graduated.

Potentials:

Prospective: Individuals who may have the interest and potential to be prepared for sanitation jobs. These individuals are currently still students in a relevant educational program, i.e. environmental engineering, public health, social science, etc. Interventions may be needed to enhance or create the individuals’ interest in pursuing sanitation jobs.

23

For example, training on basic facilitation for CSS/PMSS preparation, and training on basic facilitation for developing SANIMAS system in urban areas. 24 Example would be alumni of environmental/ sanitary engineering who works as Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) staff in oil/gas companies, or has built his/her career as an EIA consultant or environmental auditor. Also, alumni of social sciences who have not been involved in any sanitation work.

16

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

The three categories combined are expected to play a role in satisfying the demand for sanitation personnel in the short-term and medium-term of sanitation development in Indonesia.

Groupings of Individuals for Supply Assessment. Demand for sanitation personnel will be fulfilled by the Eligible and the Potential groups. After graduating, the Prospective will become part of the Potential group.

Eligible
206. There are about 9,000 eligible individuals that can be immediately involved in the short-term period (see Table 5). Some of them are active personnel, while others are inactive for various reasons25. Estimates of the eligible (the main personnel) are described as follows.  Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning: There are about 320 individuals who have served as facilitators for preparation of CSS/PMSS, or have been trained for these functions by BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their development partners26. Some of the individuals are currently active, but some appear not to be employed due to changes in the employing institution (provincial level, instead of national level). In addition to the policy facilitators, there are also 130 technical facilitators available.  Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior: The eligible supply is around 1300 individuals27. These people are individuals who have participated in CLTS or STBM related programs and/or have been trained as facilitators by the Ministry of Health or its development partners.  Facilitators (Technical) for Communal System: There are 3,000 technical individuals who have been prepared and involved in previous or on-going SANIMAS programs, or been trained by Ministry of Public Works or their development partners28. In addition to the technical facilitators, there are also 3,000 individuals who have served as social facilitators.
25

There is no database available to assess the number of personnel currently active or inactive in the sanitation activities. Moreover, the Study was unable to find any reasonable assumption to assess the proportion of active personnel and inactive personnel among the eligible. Therefore, the supply assessment does not quantitatively differentiate the two categories. 26 BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their partners have conducted training of basic facilitation for CSS or PMSS preparation since 2010, with the latest done in December 2010. A total of 220 individuals have been trained for CSS policy facilitators (provincial, city/district level) and 100 individuals for PMSS facilitators. In addition, almost 130 individuals have been trained as CSS technical facilitators, and about 30 individuals as CSS financial facilitators. 27 Various programs have trained and prepared CLTS/STBM facilitators. The most significant one is the program of PAMSIMAS (Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat, or Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities or WSLIC 3, 2008 – 2013) which has prepared more than 1250 facilitators. Another program, the CWSHP (Community Water Services and Health Project) has prepared about 80 STBM facilitators. An NGO, Plan Indonesia, has prepared almost 50 facilitators to support its CLTS programs in Central Java. 28 It is assumed that the implementation of SANIMAS in 2010 and 2011 have prepared at least one technical facilitator for each SANIMAS location. The Ministry of Public Works claims that SANIMAS have

17

Quantitative Assessment

 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: More than 140 individuals are eligible to be wastewater system technical consultants. They are basically the number of senior and some mid-level certified engineers29 with strong wastewater experience30. Eligible individuals are also available for solid waste and drainage system planning, as well as for the engineering design of various sanitation facilities31. Among the three sub-sectors, qualifications in drainage appear to be weakest (compared to wastewater and solid waste)32.  Operators of various sanitation facilities: The number of eligible individuals for various operator functions is assumed from the number of facilities currently operating in Indonesia. With 11 sewerage systems operating in the country, it is assumed there is at least one qualified person for each position. Similarly, it is assumed that for final disposal site operators, there are at least 200 technical operators and 200 managerial operators handling existing disposal sites. Individuals eligible as sludge treatment operators comprise of 100 operators (each) handling existing facilities33. Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals
Main Personnel FACILITATORS Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation CONSULTANTS Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design OPERATORS Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation 10 10 Insufficient Sufficient 130 105 65 55 Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Sufficient 140 115 Sufficient Sufficient 320 130 1,380 3,000 3,000 Sufficient Insufficient Insufficient Insufficient Insufficient Number of Individuals Relative to Short-Term Demand

been conducted using the Specific-Allocated Fund (DAK, or Dana Anggaran Khusus) in 2,700 locations for the last two years. In addition, the Ministry of Public Works has also implemented SANIMAS in 300 other locations using direct central government funding. Therefore, it can be assumed that there is about 3,000 individuals eligible to be technical facilitators. 29 The Agency for Construction Services Development (or, LPJK) has awarded certificates to more than 7,400 individuals who are considered to be qualified as experts in environmental engineering field. Among the awarded certificates, 2% are for the senior experts (ahli utama), 18% are for mid-level experts (ahli madya), and 76% are for junior experts (ahli muda). 30 Review of data on 200 certified environmental engineers indicate that 17% have strong wastewater experience. The others have strong experience on solid waste (16%), drainage (8%), and water supply (59%). 31 Eligible individuals are available for sewerage system and sludge treatment facility design, despite recruitment difficulties encountered by a major program such as the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (INDII) program. 32 Some of the certified civil engineers are equally qualified to design drainage systems. However, certified civil engineers were not reviewed in the Study. 33 The issue of individual competence, related to poor performance of existing sanitary landfills and sludge treatment facilities, will be discussed in the Gap Analysis chapter.

18

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Main Personnel Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation Note:

Number of Individuals 10 10 100 100 200 200

Relative to Short-Term Demand Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Sufficient

 Comparison is made to the short-term demand of main personnel as shown in Table 4.  Sufficient means the number of eligible individuals will be enough to satisfy the shortterm demand. Insufficient means the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to satisfy the short-term demand.  Not enough information was obtained to completely separate consultant (technical) for sewerage design and for sludge treatment.

Attachment 5 presents a more complete estimate of individuals in the eligible group. 207. Asuming all active and inactive personnel will join the sector, the number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of consultants, except that for drainage planning (see Table 5). However, there are not enough eligible individuals to satisfy the demand for social and technical facilitators. Likewise, for the technical operator category, eligible individuals cannot meet the demand.

Potential
208. There are a high number of individuals in the second layer, who can be upgraded and recruited to fill shortage of eligible individuals (see Table 6). Estimation was made for technical personnel only, by exploring individuals holding the LPJK professional certification for environmental engineering and individuals with environmental engineering degrees. Some of these individuals may have appropriate qualifications, but may have never been employed in the sanitation sector. Estimates are made based on the level of qualification (education and experience), and matched to the most suitable job titles. The description is as follows.  Technical with senior experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from senior certified experts (Ahli Utama) with strong water supply background. The number can reach up to 100 individuals. They are expected to fill the mediumterm demand for technical consultant for master plan of sanitation services. Shifting from water supply to managing master plan development for sanitation services would not require too much capacity building.  Technical with mid-level experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources. The first from mid-level certified experts (Ahli Madya) with a strong water supply background, i.e. 500 individuals. A shift to sanitation sectors would relatively easy since most of them have environmental/sanitary engineer background. The second is environmental engineering alumni with 5 – 10 years of experience, i.e. 600 individuals. Some of them are not yet engaged in the water and sanitation sector. They are expected to fill the demand of technical facilitators for sanitation planning or technical operators for various sanitation facilities.  Technical with junior experience: Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources, i.e. junior-level certified environmental engineers (Ahli Muda) and environmental engineering alumni with 2 – 4 years of experience. They are 19

Quantitative Assessment

expected to fill the short-term demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. A total amount of 2,600 individuals can be tapped from this group.  Technical with entry-level experience: Environmental engineers with less than 2 years of experience can fill the demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. The number of this group may reach to 250 individuals. More than 4,000 technical individuals from the potential group can be expected to get involved in the short-term sanitation activities. Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only)
Groups & Main Personnel Senior Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Mid-Level Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Junior Entry-Level Note:  Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 2,600 250 620 400 Number of Individuals 100 Relative to Short-Term Demand Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient

Comparison is made to the number of personnel needed after inclusion of the eligible group.  Sufficient means that the number of potential individuals will be enough to fill the shortterm shortage of eligible individuals. Insufficient means that the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to fill the short-term shortage of eligible inidividuals.

Supply of social and policy facilitators, as well as for non-technical operators, are open to individuals from diverse educational backgrounds. The pool is very large, since it crosses social sciences, public policy, public health and other technical disciplines. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply for the demand of these types of personnel is enormous. 209. The number of technical potential individuals is more than enough to cover the lack of personnel in the short-term period. However, further estimate shows that there will not be enough potential individuals to satisfy the medium-term demand34. Around 6.200 technical individuals are still required to meet the medium-term demand (see Table 4).This medium-term deficiency will likely be covered by those who are grouped as the prospective, or by inviting more individuals from other technical backgrounds.

34

With additional experience, some potential individuals will have gained higher qualification, making them prepared to fill sanitation position with higher competence level, say a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.

20

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Prospective
210. There is a significant number of university students who can be expected to become sanitation personnel in the near future35. For the supply of technical personnel, the pool of prospective individuals is estimated from the number of students majoring in environment/sanitary engineering in 47 universities across the country. For the supply of non-technical professions, the size of prospective individuals is not calculated, since it involves a large number of faculties and universities. There should be no difficulty in tapping into the supply for nontechnical professionals as long as sanitation jobs can compete with other jobs in the market. 211. Annually, 800 to 1,000 individuals graduate from environmental engineering schools with an S-1 degree36 (see section on Capacity of Suppliers). Assuming that 25% of the graduates end up as sanitation professionals37, the prospective individuals to become technical personnel are estimated at 250 individuals a year. In time, they become part of the potential group; in fact, a portion of them can directly join the eligible group to fill entry-level sanitation positions, such as technical SANIMAS facilitator.

DISCUSSION
Short-Term Demand and Supply
212. Overall;The final years of the current cycle of PPSP implementation (2012 – 2014) will need more than 15,000 individuals(see Table 3). Assuming inactive personnel can be attracted back,the supply of eligible individuals for the remaining years of the current PPSP cycle (2012-2014) may reach 9,000 individuals(see Table 5). The remaining shortage can further be covered by potential individuals invited to join the sanitation sector. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply of individuals from the eligible and potential groups will be sufficient to meet the short-term demand for sanitation personnel. 213. Facilitators;The largest portion of the short-term demand for sanitation personnel, 65% or almost 9,800 individuals (see chart), consists of facilitators for CSS and PMSS preparation, as well as SANIMAS and STBM implementation. This high demand for facilitators is commensurate with the accelerated pace of the four activities throughout Indonesia38. Assuming all inactive facilitators can be mobilized, the number of eligible is sufficient only to satisfy the demand for CSS policy facilitators, but not for CSS
35

Composition of the Short-Term Demand

A web-based survey targeting environmental engineering students was conducted in the Study. A questionnaire is made to check their current status, possession of knowledge, attractiveness to the sanitation sector, and issues of joining the sanitation sector. Survey results indicate that there is still high interests for the students to join the sanitation sector. 36 Source: Ministry of Education, as shown in www.evaluasi.or.id where all data of Indonesian universities are completely presented, including those having environmental engineering department. 37 Based on records of the environmental engineering alumni of the University of Trisakti which identifies about 25 percent of the alumni works as consultant/contractor. If 60 percent among them are engaged in sanitation, then it is safe to assume that 15 percent of graduates are available for sanitation positions. 38 For example, SANIMAS program is implemented with an annual rate of 1,500 locations, while STBM program has an annual rate of 7,000 locations.

21

Quantitative Assessment

technical facilitators or SANIMAS and STBM facilitators, where demand is very high. Supply of individuals from the potential groupmay be sufficient to fix the facilitator shortage. 214. Consultants;The number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of main consultants involved in the planning and design stages of urban sanitation services.There will be more than 600 main consultants(see Table 5), with sanitary/environmental engineering background, available to satisfy the short-term demand for 500 main consultants (see Table 3). Minor shortage for drainage planning consultants will be easily covered by those with civil engineering background. 215. Operators;There will be enough individuals from the eligible group to be involved in the operation of most sanitation facilities. Minor shortage of operators for sewer, sewage treatment, and solid waste final disposal facilities can easily be covered by individuals from the potential group. 216. Technical personnel;Of all the main personnel needed in the remaining PPSP years, 45% or about 4,900 individuals require technical qualifications in environmental/sanitary engineering39(see Table 3). The rest requires various backgrounds, ranging from other engineering, social science, urban planning, and others. Assuming all of those individuals are interested in joining the sanitation sector, there will be more than 4,000 potential individuals available to fill the shortterm demand for technical personnel(see Table 6).In addition to those from the eligible group, the short-term demand for technical personnel can be satistified. 217. Inactive Personnel;The eligible group consists of active and inactive personnel. Mathematically, the individuals from this group will be able to satisfy the short-term demand for various types of sanitation personnel. However, that supply will not be sufficient if inactive personnel are reluctant to return to the sanitation sector. This situation is made worse if active personnel decide to stop working in the sanitation sector, which may occur if (a) other sectors offer more attractive benefits, (b) work opportunities are limited, (c) information on work opportunities do not reach the eligible individuals, and (d) challenges and opportunities for competence advancement are limited.If the eligible group cannot be fully mobilized, more individuals from the potential group must be recuitted to fill in the gaps. 218. Young Personnel;The final two years of PPSP will require, mainly, individuals with entry-level and junior level experience. About 3,750 entry-level individuals (or 25% of the total) are needed to serve as technical SANIMAS facilitators (see Table 3). Another 40% of the total required will be junior level individuals to serve as facilitators or operators of sanitation facilities. These numbers are high compared to 500 senior individuals needed to serve as team leaders for various planning and design activities. Individuals with junior-level certificate of environmental engineering and new Composition of the Short-Term Demand for Main Personnel graduates may be sufficient to satisfy the demand for technical personnel with entry-level and junior-level experience.

39

The high demand of environmental/ sanitary engineers is understandable considering the types of services (or facilities) to be developed are those closely related to the knowledge offered in the school of environmental/ sanitary engineering.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Medium-Term Demand and Supply
219. Overall;The next PPSP program cycle of 2015 – 2019, if any, will need an addition of over 18,000 individuals (see Table 3). The highest demand in the medium-term is still facilitators, since the implementation rate of SANIMAS and STBM programs are expected to be the same (see chart). An additional 9,950 facilitators must be available in that period, of which 7,500 facilitators would be SANIMAS-related. The demand for operators of sanitation facilities will see a significant increase. Over 3,200 additional operators will have to be available in that period, compared to 1,050 operators in the current PPSP cycle. 220. The Prospective;Major shortages of sanitation personnel will be experienced in the next PPSP cycle (2015 – 2019). At least, 10,000 entry-level and junior personnel will be required. Estimates indicate that even by utilizing all technical individuals from the potential group, the shortage still can reach more than 2,000 individuals. This medium-term deficiency may be covered partly by a group of new university graduates from environmental engineering schools. Almost fifty universities throughout Indonesia offer D-3, S-1 and S-2 degrees in environmental engineering. These universities combined generate almost 1,000 new S-1 graduates a year. With the low interest in employment in the sanitation sector (15%), the supply of new graduates will not meet the medium-term demand of 3,750 levelentry individuals. Inviting more new graduates with other technical backgrounds may quickly solve this shortage. Those with civil engineering backgrounds can qualify to fill the shortage. 221. Conditions;Current environmental engineering students are generally still interested in becoming professionals in the sanitation sector. However, the appeal of other sectors is very high, such as from the manufacturing and oil/ gas industries. Several issues that seem to work against the sanitation sector are40 a) unclear career path, b) lack of prestige, c) limited work opportunities, d) limited technological breakthroughs and progress, and e) low compensation and benefits.

Reality Check
222. The estimate indicates that there are a large number of qualified individuals available to fill the job opportunities in the sanitation sector41. However, the fact seems to show otherwise. Many program managers experience difficulty in finding and recruiting qualified individuals, while many qualified individuals experience difficulty in finding work in sanitation. This gap between reality and the estimates may be caused by the following:  Sanitation jobs are less attractive. Not all inactive and qualified personnel, as well as students, are attracted to sanitation jobs. Compared to other sectors, sanitation sector offers lower compensation and benefits. The jobs rarely offer
40 41

Based on results of the student’s web-based survey. The estimate should be considered as an approximation, since many assumptions were used in the calculations. One of the assumptions implies that most individuals will join the sanitation sector, meaning all fully and partly qualified individuals, as well as students, will somehow get involved in the sector. This might be a very optimistic view.

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Quantitative Assessment

long-term security and clear professional advancement path. Furthermore, the unpopular and unexciting image of work in sanitation sector makes many individuals reluctant to join the sector.  Sanitation jobs are ‘invisible’. Not all qualified individuals know how and where to access job opportunities.While jobs in other sectors are advertised quiet extensively, opportunities on sanitation jobs are not well exposed. There are very few employers in the sanitation sector, besides government and international agencies. The sanitation sector does not yet have an ‘industry’, where private (or semi-private) firms offer full-time employment and professional advancement opportunities. Sanitation jobs are not well-defined. Competence requirements for most sanitation work have not been well-defined, making it difficult for employers to articulate the precise type of person they need, and the qualification and competence requirements. Consequently, employers also have difficulty in finding the right group(s) of professions to approach when looking for candidates.

Individuals will only consider employment opportunities in the sanitation sector if the sector becomes more appealing and competitive. Otherwise, the lure of better paying jobs, more exciting careers, and a clearer career path will always be too powerful for most individuals to resist.

Notes
223. Assumptions; The level of demand of sanitation personnel is estimated by using various assumptions. The demand may change if deployment strategies are modified, as represented by the involvement ratio. The experience with changes in SANIMAS deployment strategy provides a clear example of how the number of personnel needed may change very quickly. Moreover, the level of demand may also change if the number of individuals who stay in their positions change, as represented by the continuity factor. 224. The level of demand estimated in the Study does not cover all types of personnel related to PPSP program activities42. If extrapolated to include all possible job titles, the numbers may increase by 25%. Additional positions may relate to PPSP activities under improvement of enabling environment, and monitoring and evaluation (see Table 1). There may also be other types of activities that will create additional demand of personnel, e.g. preparation of feasibility studies for different sanitation facilities, and engineering design of other auxiliary facilities.

CONCLUSION
225. Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM). The existing facilitators will not be enough to satisfy the demand for SANIMAS and STBM activities in the remaining years of the current PPSP cycle. However, these shortterm gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. LPJK-certified environmental/sanitary engineers and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. Reserves from the same groups can also be used to satisfy the demand for other technical personnel, i.e. technical personnel
42

This demand assessment is also still deficient regarding geographic spread of the demand. Geography adds another level of complexity to the analysis, and was not attempted in the Study. Furthermore, since the supply assessment cannot cover geographic location of available individuals or students, it was decided that the demand assessment would also not pursue this line of analysis.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

for facilitating CSS formulation, planning drainage, and operating facilities. On the other hand, gaps of non-technical personnel will have to be filled by attracting individuals from other disciplines and providing sufficient orientation training. 226. In the medium-term (2015-2019), assuming the accelerated pace of sanitation development continues, gaps of sanitation personnel will be quite serious. Personnel recruited before 2014 are assumed to continue employment in sanitation activities. Additional personnel will have to be recruited and trained to meet the medium-term demand. The highest deficiencies will be for SANIMAS and STBM facilitators, followed by operators for the various sanitation facilities constructed. A group of new university graduates can be expected to cover this deficiency. 227. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. Furthermore, the percentage of graduates who enter the sanitation field is small, and the numbers are much lower than the annual demand for technical personnel. The sanitation field lacks the appeal of other sectors, such as mining, oil/gas or environmental management. Projected into the future, the shortage of technical individuals to sanitation will continue unless the sector is made more attractive. 228. Any scenario to close the gap can succeed only if the sanitation sector is made more appealing for professionals, especially those who are already pursuing work in other sectors. This requires some policy and institutional changes in the sector, as well as proactive image-building. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated. 229. Alternatively, the gaps can also be reduced by ensuring that deployment strategies for sanitation programs utilize available personnel in the most efficient and effective manner. For example, a pair of SANIMAS facilitators might be able to work for three locations instead of one, as currently applied.

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Quantitative Assessment

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

COMPETENCEASSESSMENT
The Study assesses the competence of sanitation personnelby using four key personnel as samples. The required competenceis used as reference to evaluate their level of competence and knowledge, and to assess availablecompetence development programs. The study also discusses other factors that affect a person’s competence outside of education and training. Gaps in competence development are identified.

DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE
301. The demand for competence describes sets of competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes)requiredfor sanitation personnel to perform their respective occupational functions properly. From the level of personnel demand (par. 204), four types of sanitation personnel with the highest demand are selected for the competence demand assessment43, namely:     Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning, Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change, Facilitator (Technical) for CommunalSanitation System Implementation, and Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.

302. Assessment of competence demand starts with the evaluation of occupational functions of existing personnel (see the diagram). It involves gathering and analyzing information about the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of each type of personnel44. List of Core Competencies45 then is developed for each type of personnel. Following

43

The short duration of the Study pushed for a prioritization effort, i.e. analyzing a handful of key sanitation personnel where a shortage is already being felt by practitioners and stakeholders active in sanitation in Indonesia. The prioritized sanitation personnel would be the object of analysis in the demand and supply assessments. After careful consideration of various inputs from resource persons and discussions at the Sanitation Donor Group, the four types of sanitation personnel were chosen for qualitative analysis in this study. Consequently, this study should be treated as an effort to create and test an analytical framework to assess the demand and supply of certain professions. This framework can be utilized to expand the study to a broader spectrum of sanitation personnel. 44 A number of interviews were conducted to users of the personnel, program managers, and active personnel, in addition to desk studies using local and international references. Direct observations were also conducted to a number of individuals in their day-to-day activities. 45 Core competencies are defined as group of fundamental knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area in sanitation-related fields. One type of sanitation personnel possesses a unique set of core competencies, which makes them differs from other type of personnel. Another group of competencies, called key competencies, consists of generic knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed by all types of personnel. These competencies are considered transferable and adaptive to different types of personnel. Following the Meyer scheme, the Key Competencies are a) collecting, analyzing and organizing information, b) communicating ideas and information, c) planning and organizing activities, d) working

27

Competence Assessment

the Indonesian National Competency Standard’s format46, the list consists of a number of Units of Competency47, which are further elaborated into Elements of Competency and required knowledge (or, need-to-know criteria).

The Lists later will be used as the basis for evaluating performance of existing personnel, assessing sufficiency of knowledge, and analyzing gaps between the demand and supply of competence. It is also expected that the Lists of Core Competency produced in this Study will be further developed as the draft for Indonesian National Competency Standard in the near future.

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning
303. A Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning is an individual assigned to facilitate a city/district’s Pokja AMPL in preparing the City Sanitation Strategies (CSS or, Strategi Sanitasi Kota), or the Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector (PMSS). In addition to facilitation skills, a CSS/ PMSS facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of sanitation development process (especially under PPSP framework), has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning. He/she works together with a technical facilitator who possesses stronger technical knowledge related to sanitation infrastructure. Although assigned to facilitate the city/district Pokja AMPL, a facilitator (policy) for sanitation development planning is expected to understand most of the issues covered in a CSS and PMSS. 304. Qualification Planning48are: of a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development

with others in teams, e) solving problems, f) using mathematical ideas and techniques, and g) using technology. 46 The full Indonesian National Competency Standard (SKKNI, or Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia) format contains description of Performance Criteria (Kriteria Unjuk Kerja) and Range of Variables (Batasan Variabel). This report does not present the two descriptions; however, performance criteria and range of variables were considered in developing the Need-to-Know Criteria, described in this report. 47 Unit of competency is a short statement of a key function or role in a particular job or occupation, usually expressed as an outcome. 48 Adapted from the selection criteria of CSS City/ District Facilitators (for the Coordinator position) by the Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Educational background: Undergraduate (S-1) degree (minimum) from school of urban planning, public health, public administration, communication, or engineering. Work experience: Five years (minimum) in the fields of infrastructure development planning, public health, or public policy, and development strategic planning. Training:Formulation of City Sanitation Strategy or Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector (see Table 14).

The trainingsare prerequisites for becoming CSS/ PMSS facilitator. 305. The following table presents the occupational function and the condensed list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning (see Attachment6 for the complete version). A CSS facilitator requires 10 competency units with a total of 50 competency elements. Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning
Occupational Function  Provide information about PPSP scheme and approaches to the city/district Pokja AMPL and other sanitation development stakeholders,  Provide technical inputs to Pokja AMPL during community assessment, mapping of sanitation profile, CSS formulation or PMSS preparation  Organize and facilitate discussion, meetings, and workshops involving Pokja AMPL and other stakeholders,  Maintain relationship with provincial Pokja AMPL and other stakeholders,  Monitor and evaluate CSS formulation or PMSS preparation process,  Ensure the quality of documents developed by Pokja AMPL, e.g. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA)
49 50

Core Competencies
(units &number of elements)

Need-to-Know Criteria 5  Basic sanitation and public health issues,  Government policies on sanitation development, especially on PPSP,  National, provincial, and city/ district strategic development plans,  Relations between area’s general characteristics with sanitation 50 condition ,  Sanitation profile mapping,  Type and characteristics of sanitation services,  Community sanitation survey, including data collection and analysis, 51  Format and relations of EHRA , 52 White Book , CSS, and MPPS documents,  Components of city/ district sanitation strategic plans,  Principles of program 53 implementation planning ,  Content and format of a general proposal for sanitation programs,  Decision making and funding

Comprehend general characteristics of the 49 area . Assess sanitation conditions of the communities. Prepare sanitation 54 profile of the area. Comprehend projections on future characteristics of the area. Formulate basic framework for sanitation development in the area. Formulate direction for sanitation development. Prepare general proposal for sanitation development programs. Prepare implementation concept for sanitation development. Develop strategic partnerships.

5

6 5

4

4 6

5

5

In the context of a CSS facilitator or PMSS facilitator, area means city, or urban communities. Especially the characteristics of physical conditions (topography, climate, water bodies, geomorphology, geology, hydrology), demography (population density, growth rate, gender distribution), land-use (landuse types, composition, development trends), socio-economic (average income, jobs and livelihoods), existing infrastructure (road network, electricity, water supply). 51 Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA) is a participatory survey to determine the condition of sanitation facilities, health / hygiene, as well as people's behavior at the community and city level. EHRA can also be used to categorize areas according to the level of environmental health risks. 52 Sanitation White Book is a document which provides an overview of the sanitation conditions of a city/district. The document is prepared to serve as foundation for the preparation of a City Sanitation Strategy. It contains information on the city/district’s existing sanitation services, obstacles to further develop the services, identification of city wards or sub-districts that need priority attention, and provides direction for a sanitation development plan. 53 Planning should cover infrastructure, institutional capacity, regulation and policy, public participation, private sector, and funding issues. 54 Sanitation profile covers information on infrastructure (services), institutional, regulation and policy, public participation, private sector involvement, and funding.

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Competence Assessment

Occupational Function report, the Sanitation White Book, the CSS document, and PMSS document.  Prepare and manage documentation on the CSS formulation and PMSS process.

Core Competencies
(units &number of elements)

Need-to-Know Criteria 5 mechanism of proposals,  Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, facilitation, training, and coaching,  Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the process,  Managing group dynamics, and  Effective communication and presentation skills.

Facilitate participatory process.

Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change
306. A Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change is an individual assigned to provide inputs to village facilitators in facilitating rural communities to implement STBM pillars. A social facilitator is expected to have good knowledge on STBM principles, in addition to management, facilitation, and coaching skills. In a common composition, he/she usually works in a sub-district level to assist STBM implementation in a number of villages. 307.     Qualification of a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change are: Educational background: Undergraduate (S-1) degree (minimum) from school of environmental engineering, public health, or social sciences. Work experience: Three years (minimum) in community-based sanitation, preferably working directly with communities. Training: STBM Facilitations (see Table 14). Other: Knowledge of local language or dialect.

308. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change (see Attachment 7 for the complete version). A social STBM facilitator requires 7 competency units with a total of 31 competency elements. Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior
Occupational Function  Appraise potential of a rural community to implement STBM approach,  Develop work plan and schedule,  Introduce information about sanitation and hygiene issues, STBM, participatory process, choices of facilities,  Prepare and train village facilitators and community members,  Coordinate village facilitators,  Provide inputs and guidance during participatory Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Assess general 5 characteristics of the 55 community . Assess sanitation 5 conditions of the community. Coordinate community 4 empowerment activities. Introduce hygienic 3 behavior/ practices. Conduct triggering process 4 for behavior change. Develop strategic 5 partnerships. Facilitate participatory process. 5 Need-to-Know Criteria  Basic sanitation and public health issues,  Relation between area’s general characteristics with sanitation condition,  Principles of STBM and CLTS approaches, 56  Community sanitation survey , including data collection and analysis,  Principles of community empowerment and development, participatory planning process,  Gender empowerment,  Basic organizational and program management, including monitoring and evaluation techniques,

55 56

In the context of STBM facilitator, community means rural villages, or smaller units of settlement. Types of community sanitation condition survey include Health Impact Assessment for CommunityBased System, Rapid Participatory Appraisal (RPA), or simplified Environmental Health Risk Assessment.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Occupational Function process, including condition assessment, triggering, planning, and documentation.  Maintain relationship with community leaders, subdistrict officials, and other stakeholders,  Monitor and evaluate process,  Prepare and manage documentation on the STBM activity.

Core Competencies (units & number of elements)

Need-to-Know Criteria  Principles, procedures, and techniques of community mapping, social mapping, transect walk, and other triggering techniques,  Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, facilitation, training, and coaching,  Managing group dynamic, and  Effective communication and presentation skills.

Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation
309. A Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation is an individual assigned to facilitate and provide technical inputs to urban poor communities in developing communal sanitation facilities, or better known as SANIMAS facilities. A SANIMAS technical facilitator is expected to have good knowledge on the technical aspects of various types of SANIMAS facilities, in addition to facilitation and coaching skills. In a commonly practiced composition, a technical facilitator is expected to work together with a social facilitator. Both facilitators are expected to be involved from the awareness-raising stage until the construction and commissioning stages, albeit with different roles. 310. Qualification of a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation57are:    Educational background:D-3 (minimum) from a technical school, preferably environmental engineering school. Work experience: Two years (minimum) in SANIMAS facilitation. Training: SANIMAS Field Facilitation (see Table 14).

The facilitation training is a prerequisite for becoming a technical SANIMAS facilitator. 311. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation (see Attachment 8 for the complete version). A SANIMAS technical facilitator requires 8 competency units with a total of 44 competency elements. Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation
Occupational Function  Appraise the potential of an area for communal system,  Develop workplan and schedule,  Introduce information about sanitation issues, Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Assess general 5 characteristics of the community58. Assess sanitation 5 conditions of the community. Need-to-Know Criteria  Basic sanitation and public health issues,  Government policies on sanitation development, especially on PPSP program,  Relation between area’s general

57

Adapted from the the requirements of personnel applying to be a community-level field facilitator (selection criteria of Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan) by BORDA Indonesia. A technical facilitator is expected to be result-oriented and flexible. He/ she should have good communication, facilitation, and conflict management skills. 58 In the context of technical SANIMAS facilitator, community means urban poor community, or a small unit of urban settlement,

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Competence Assessment

Occupational Function participatory process, technology options of communal system,  Prepare and train community group,  Organize and facilitate community discussions and meetings,  Provide technical inputs and process guidance during participatory condition assessment, technical design, construction, commissioning, and document preparation,  Maintain relationship with other facilitators, community leaders, and other stakeholders,  Monitor and evaluate process,  Ensure the quality of technical documents developed by community group,  Prepare and manage documentation on the development process.

Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Develop conceptual 4 design for communal sanitation system. Develop design for shared 6 sanitation facility. Develop design for smallscale sewer system. Develop design for communal wastewater treatment facility. Develop strategic partnerships. Facilitate participatory process. 6 6

Need-to-Know Criteria characteristics with sanitation condition,  Community sanitation survey, including data collection and analysis,  Basic wastewater management system, including wastewater characteristics and estimation,  Components of communal 59 sanitation system , its type and characteristics,  Basic engineering design and drawings of communal facilities,  Operation and maintenance of communal facilities,  Construction and O&M cost estimation,  Content and format oftechnical proposal, and operating procedure documents,  Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, facilitation, training, and coaching,  Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the process,  Managing group dynamics,  Effective communication and presentation skills.

7 5

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning
312. A Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning is an individual assigned to provide technical expertise to develop a masterplan for domestic wastewater management of a city or large communities. He/she must have sound technical knowledge and experience in the technical aspects of wastewater management system. A technical consultant is expected to serve as a coordinator of a team (team leader) consisting of other consultants with expertise in wastewater engineering, financial analysis, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatory matters. 313. are:    Qualification of a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning60 Educational background: University graduate (S-2, at minimum) from the school of environmental engineering. Work experience: Twelve years (minimum) in the field of wastewater management planning. Others: Certification for Senior Expert in Environmental Engineering61.

59

Communal sanitation facilities may include shared sanitation facility, sewer network, and communal treatment facility. 60 Adapted from the requirements of personnel involved in wastewater management system master plan (for Team Leader position) by the Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia. 61 Certificate of Senior Expert in Environmental Engineering is awarded by the Agency for Construction Service Development (LPJK, or Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi) to an individual with extensive experience in planning, design, and supervision of the construction of any facility related to environmental / sanitary engineering field.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

314. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning(see Attachment9 for the complete version). A wastewater technical consultant requires 12 competency units with a total of 57 competency elements. Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning
Occupational Function  Coordinate and manage commencement of assignments,  Provide guidance to team members on direction of plans,  Conduct assignments with regard to his/ her area of expertise,  Assess general characteristics and sanitation condition of the target area,  Review and consolidate results from other team members,  Supervise work of other team members,  Finalize master plans of wastewater management system,  Lead technical discussion, meetings, and workshops,  Maintain relationship with stakeholders,  Ensure the quality of work results and deliverables, and  Prepare and manage documentation on the master plan development process. Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Comprehend general 5 characteristics of the 62 area . Prepare wastewater 7 system profile of the area. Assess demand for 5 wastewater system improvement. Comprehend projections 5 on future characteristics of the area. Formulate basic 4 framework for wastewater system development. Formulate direction for 5 wastewater system development. Determine the most 4 appropriate wastewater system. Develop conceptual 4 design for wastewater treatment facility. Develop conceptual design for sewer network. Develop conceptual design for sludge handling component. Develop conceptual design for communal sanitation facility. Prepare implementation concept for wastewater system development programs. 4 5 Need-to-Know Criteria  Basic wastewater management system, including types and characteristics of services,  Government policies on sanitation and wastewater management development, including PPSP program,  Regulations on wastewater and sludge, e.g. location restrictions, environmental standards,  Wastewater and sludge characteristics,  Principles of wastewater system 63 planning ,  Wastewater profile mapping,  Types and nature of strategic issues in wastewater development,  Relation between area’s general characteristics with sanitation condition,  Principles, methods, and techniques of a demand assessment, e.g. the Real Demand Survey (RDS), willingness-to-pay,  Components of spatial plan,  Prediction methodologies for demography and land-use,  City/ district strategic development planning, as well as the CSS,  Estimation of wastewater and sludge generation,  Components, types, and 64 characteristics of facilities ,  Principles of design, construction, and operation of facilities,  Construction and O&M cost estimation,  Program planning, at city/ district level.

4

5

CURRENT CONDITION
General Performance
315. Many share the opinion that performance of sanitation personnel in Indonesiatends to beweak. This opinion is formed from observations of different
62 63

In the context of a wastewater system technical consultant, area means city. Components of wastewater management profile are infrastructure (services), institutional, regulation and policy, public participation, private sector involvement, and funding. 64 Wastewater facilities include treatment plant, sludge management (collection, treatment, and disposal), sewer system, and communal facility.

33

Competence Assessment

factors, such as quality of their work results, ability to analyze and solve problems, communication style, presentation techniques, and work habits. Some of the shared opinions are as follows65:  Results: The quality of outputs of planning and design consultants is considered sub-standard, in terms of substance and/or presentation. Very poor results are also produced by operators of final disposal facilities or sewage treatment plants, which have not, to date, met the desired performance standards. Knowledge: Many feel that technical SANIMAS facilitators do not have sufficient engineering knowledge to help communities determine appropriate communal sanitation facilities. Similarly, technical consultants are not knowledgeable about new technologies or updated methodologies in their respective sectors. Communication skills: Verbal communication skills are considered poor. Some facilitators and consultants are unable to deliver good presentations. Likewise, operators often have difficulty expressing their views. Reporting skills: Report writing skills are also weak. Reports in this sector generally are poorly structured, and not well-written (weak style) and not presented well (poor formatting). Work habits: A common complaint relates to ability of personnel to meet work deadlines. In addition, some feel facilitators are not persuasive enough, especially in convincing communities or government officials to engage in participatory planning. Attendance has also received attention, especially related to consultants not attending project discussions or meetings. However, many parties show appreciation towards the high dedication among sanitation personnel, particularly facilitators.

Working Condition
316. Performance of sanitation personnel is strongly influenced by their level of competence as much as by the situations and settings of the professional environment in which their competencies are exercised. Although not studied indepth66, these factors are presented here with the intention that future plans and strategies acknowledge their significance, i.e.  Availability of equipment and materials. Most wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities do not have enough equipment and materials to allow their operators to work properly. It is a common knowledge that existing equipment are usually old and/or in bad condition. Limited equipment, such as analytic equipment, computers, and software, may also prevent the consultants from producing good quality results. Availability of funds. Insufficient amount and late disbursement of funds force sanitation personnel to complete their assignment with smaller budget than anticipated. This condition may prevent facilitators from visiting sites, prevent consultants from collecting enough data and information, and prevent operators from running facilities with proper equipment and materials. Availability of personnel. Many consulting projects do not involve as many personnel as they need, or do not involve qualified personnel as they should. A competent individual might not able to do quality work if he/she does not get good support from qualified team members. Or worse, if he/she does not have

65

Summarized from interviews conducted to the users of sanitation personnel, including government officers in charge of sanitation-related projects, program managers, team leaders and supervisors of projects. 66 The basis for this discussion is largely observations, and results of conversations with various personnel active in sanitation programs.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

any other team members to work with altogether. Similarly, an operator’s performance is weakened if he/she does not have enough qualified personnel in the team.  Timeframe. In many cases, the late government bidding process and disbursement of funds force consulting teams to complete assignments within a shorter timeframe. As a result, results expected from the consultants are much higher than their competence can deliver. Availability of data. Generally, data management is very poor in most Indonesian institutions. Reliance on data collection and storage by individuals is still high. As a result, an individual may spend a lot of time to track down data, and when data is not complete, he/she is forced to make analysis and draw conclusions based on insufficient information. The net result is poor outputs (reports, plans, designs, etc). The effect over time is significant, since data and information presented in reports are used by subsequent assignments (projects); compounding the poor reliability of information.

These factors might not be unique to sanitation. However, unless future sanitation activities begin to overcome these obstacles, delivery of outputs will remain substandard, and competency improvement efforts will prove futile. 317. Another factor that may influence an individual’s performance, especially on his/her motivation, is the compensation and benefits. Relative to other (competing sectors), sanitation jobs provide lower compensation and minimal benefits. A rough comparison shows that entry-level engineers (S1) in industry (private sector) can receive a monthly base salary of IDR 6 – 10 million, plus full medical and other benefits. As a consultant in sanitation work, a junior engineer (S1) with 1 to 4 years of experience can only get approximately IDR 4.5 - 6 million , and often with only minimum benefits. Similarly, a mid-level engineer in the private sector can get a monthly base salary of IDR 11 – 20 million, while as a consultant the base salary would only be in the range of IDR 6 – 8.5 million. Compared to various types of environmental engineering jobs67, sanitation personnel can be considered to get the lowest compensation. Low compensation reduces the financial ability of an individual to participate in activities that may improve his/her competence, e.g. trainings, seminar, workshops, and networkings (see section on Networking).

Level of Competence
318. An individual’s level of competence, i.e. knowledge, skills, and attitude, will influence his/her work performance. Lack of competence adversely affects performance, while sufficient competence supports good performance. Levelof competence of sanitation personnel, represented by the same four types assessed in the demand assessment, is evaluated relative to the lists of core competencies68. Competencyshortcomings will be used as important inputs in preparing recommendations for future capacity-building activities(see the followings).

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning
319. Policy facilitators for sanitation planning have various education backgrounds which are still meeting the qualification required (par. 304). Most of them, about 36%, have a degree in civil engineering. Among the rest have background in social
67

When compared to billing rates of environmental auditors, there is also a significant gap. Public Wor ks’ rates for mid-level consultant for government contracts are in the range of IDR 10 to 14 million per month, or approximately IDR 500,000 to 700,000 per day. A mid-level environmental auditor conducting audits for private companies can bill around USD 600 to 800 (or IDR 5 to 7 million) per day. 68 Web-based surveys targeting the four types of sanitation personnel was conducted to assess their background, status, level of competence, and willingness to retain in the sanitation sector.

35

Competence Assessment

sciences (19%), environmental/sanitary engineering (2.4%), and law, management, public health, communications, and economic. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (76%), while 21.6% hold S-2 degree and 2.7% hold S-3 degree. 320. Policy facilitators for sanitation planning are generally confident about their level of competencies, as listed in respective competency units and elements (see Table 7 and Attachment6). These CSS facilitators indicate a high level of confidence on their functional competencies, related to participation process and strategic partnerships. On the substantive competencies, the facilitators are confident mostly in comprehending the current and future condition of the area, as well as in formulating basic framework for sanitation development in the area. Lack of confidence is indicated in determining timeframe, targets, and zoning of sanitation development, as well as selecting criteria of sanitation services to be developed. This lack of competence may be partly attributed to the lack of their knowledge on technical aspects.

Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation
321. Social facilitators for hygienic behavior have various education backgrounds which meet the qualification required (par. 307). Most of these STBM facilitators, about 50%, have a degree in public health, while the rest have background in civil engineering (16.6%), economics (1.7%), and remainder is other disciplines. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (80%), while 20% hold S-2 degree. 322. Social facilitators for hygienic behavior show a high level of confidence in their competencies. In relation to their list of competencies (see Table 8 and Attachment7), these STBM facilitators are particularly confident about their substantive competencies in assessing sanitation conditions of the community, coordinating community empowerment activities, conducting triggering process for behavior change, and others. They are also confident on their functional competencies as facilitators. Lack of confidence is indicated only in competency related to assessing the general characteristics of the community. The high confidence on their competencies may indicate that the on-the-job training they have undergone is very effective, and/or reflects the fact that district-level facilitators have had field experience (for STBM), where their knowledge and skills are directly put into practice and sharpened.

Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation
323. Technical facilitators for communal system have various education backgrounds. Not all of them meet the qualification required (par. 310). Most of these SANIMAS facilitators have a degree in civil engineering. Only a small number of SANIMAS facilitators have a degree in environmental engineering. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (60%), while 40% hold D-3 degree. 324. Technical facilitators for communal system show confidence in describing an area’s physical and socio-economic characteristics, in assessing the sanitation conditions, and in designing simple sewer network, as well as managing the participatory process of developing a communal system. Where this group appears less confident is in developing the conceptual design for the sanitation system, especially related to the sewage treatment system, in estimating construction and operational costs, as well as in preparing the operational guidelines for the units (see Table 9 and Attachment 8). This seems consistent with the fact that most of the facilitators have a degree in civil engineering, where the technical aspects of liquid waste management are not part of the curriculum.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning
325. Technical consultants for wastewater planning have various education backgrounds which are still meeting the qualification required (par. 313). All of these consultants have a degree in environmental/sanitary engineering69, of which 75% are environmental engineering, and 25% are sanitary engineering. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (75%), while 25% hold S-2 degree. 326. Technical consultants for wastewater planning show high proficiency in many competency elements, in fact is the highest compared to the other three groups assessed. In relation to their list of competencies (see Table 10 and Attachment9), the technical consultants only indicate slight confidence in competencies related to funding, private sector involvement, and public participation. Those non-engineering subjects seem to be areas where future capacity building programs can place additional attention.

Gender Perspective
327. The gender distribution among sanitation personnel seems to vary. Among the CSS/PMSS facilitators, there are 14 women in a group of 147 facilitators, or approximately 11%. The survey for CSS/PMSS facilitator group indicates similar pattern with a 9% women.Other results of the survey indicate that more than 60% of STBM facilitators are women,while less than 10% of SANIMAS facilitators are women. Among the technical consultants70, there are 23.5 % women. The survey also captured a more balanced gender ratio among university students studying environmental engineering, i.e. 47% women and 53% men.The figures here only give a rough estimation on the gender balance among sanitation personnel. Further analysis would have to be conducted to determine the actual percentage of women in sanitation jobs across the country. 328. Asuming the results above are considered valid, then the following observations are made:  Currently, the percentage of women active as sanitation personnel is small, i.e. less than 25%, despite the fact there are no gender limitations attached to job opportunities in sanitation. The high proportion of women involved in STBM activities (as facilitators) may be due to a fact that more womenare interested with the subject, i.e. hygienic behaviour change in rural communities. Most men are interested with a more technical subject, as it is shown in a higher proportion of men to fill the technical consultants or facilitators positions. The small proportion of womeninvolved as CSS/PMSS and SANIMAS facilitators may due to the fact that both positions require extended assignments outside of hometowns (residence). In the future, with a good percentage of women in the environmental engineering student body, more women can be expected to work in sanitation. However, what factors will ensure their interest in taking sanitation positions needs to be studied further.

69

Sanitary engineering degree indicates that respondent is a very senior expert, when most universities offered only sanitary engineering programs (not environmental engineering). 70 The number of technical consultants is represented by the LPJK certified engineers registered under IATPI (200 individuals).

37

Competence Assessment

SUPPLY OF COMPETENCE
329. An individual’s competence is formed by a combination of at least five factors (see diagram). In the forefront, formal education and trainings establish a person’s foundation of knowledge and skills. On top of that, an individual’s work experience, self-discovery and personal trial-and-error serve to polish knowledge and skills, as well as shape one’s professional attitude. Through networking, a person gains access to new ideas and new information, further encouraging them to grow professionally. Finally, recognition serves as a motivator for one to continue improving competence. The different factors above are described in the Study, although more analysis is given on the education and training factors. While explanation of other factors are limited to a description of conditions or opportunities that currently exist in Indonesia.

Education
330. Undergraduate education, for D-3 and S-1 degrees71, establishes a foundation of knowledge in a particular discipline. This foundation serves as the basis from which an individual develops further knowledge and skills. In most cases, the knowledge obtained is general and theoretical (explicit knowledge), providing the individual with an analytical tool or viewpoint to utilize when addressing an issue. The minimum qualification for many of the technical positions related to sanitation is S-1 degree in environmental/sanitary engineering. The S-1 degree is called Sarjana Teknik (Bachelors in Engineering), which is seen as a prerequisite for one to have a profession as engineer. 331. Other sanitation positions can be filled by individuals with a wide range of educational backgrounds. No special assessment was done to review universities offering social science, urban planning, public health degrees. The numbers are expected to be high, especially for social sciences.

Capacity
332. Currently in Indonesia, there are a total of 47 universities offering a S-1 degree in environmental/ sanitary engineering, with a maximum capacity of 2,800 students/year and a maximum graduation of 1000 individuals/year. These institutions are spread across the country, with 17 universities located outside of Java, i.e. Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua (see Attachment 10 for the list of the universities).Besides S-1 degree, there are five universities offering a D-3 diploma in environmental engineering and four universities offering an S-2 degree (see Table 11). 333. Currently, almost all universities show that actual student intake in environmental engineering program is less than the maximum capacity (see Table 11). In STTL Yogyakarta, the average intake per year is 90 students – half of the school’s capacity. In Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, the actual intake per year is 20 – less than 20% of its capacity. Furthermore, with a maximum capacity of
71

D-3 is a six-semester professional education with 110 – 120 semester credit units (credits), while S-1 is an eight-semester academic education with 140 – 160 credits.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

65 D-3 students annually, Akademi Teknik Tirta Wiyarta has only actual intake of 40 students per year. In Politeknik Muhammadiyah, the actual intake is less than 10 per year. This shows interest in environmental engineering education is quite low, and it is getting worse by years. Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia
Item Number Acceptance Graduate Capacity Universities with largest acceptance capacity Unit Person/year Person/year Person/year 5 49 31 158  Akademi Teknik Tirta Wiyarta, Magelang (65),  Politeknik Muhammadiyah, Magelang (53),  Univ. Pandanaran, Semarang (40 students),  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, Jakarta,  Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda. D-3 47 1,500 72 800 – 1,000 2,800  Sekolah Tinggi Teknik Lingkungan Yogyakarta, STTL (182 students),  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, Jakarta (150),  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya (110),  Institut Teknologi Bandung (100). Degree S-1 4 81 51 103  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November, Surabaya.  Institut Teknologi Bandung.  Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang.  Institut Teknologi Adhi Tama, Surabaya. S-2

Source: Portal Informasi Pendidikan(http://evaluasi.or.id) and websites of Sekolah Teknologi Sapta Taruna (http//:sttsaptataruna.ac.id) and Universitas Mulawarman (http//:unmul.ac.id).

Knowledge Offered
334. Comparisons of the courses and the need-to-know criteria of the SANIMAS technical facilitator and technical consultant for wastewater planning (see Table 9 and Table 10) indicate that the S-1 curriculum of environmental engineering is relatively sufficient in introducing basic science and knowledge for both types of personnel (see Table 12). However, the curriculum does not offer knowledge on current development policies, update technologies, participatory planning process, and facilitation techniques. These program-specific and functional subjects are areas where orientation trainings play a more significant role (see section on Trainings). 335. During sanitary engineering era, undergraduate programs have been geared to producing graduates for the water supply and sanitation sectors. The subjects cover the basics of water supply (transmission, treatment, distribution, and plumbing), wastewater management (treatment and sewer), solid waste management (collection and disposal), drainage, and public health. After it is changed to environmental engineering73, the undergraduate programs have broadened their offerings to meet demand from the industrial sector (manufacturing, oil/gas, mining, plantations). Additional courses include air pollution, hazardous waste, pollution control, occupational health and safety. Most environmental engineering programs now lean towards preparing students for jobs in the private sectorto manage their Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) activities (including environmental assessments, wastewater treatment, solid waste management, hazardous waste management, air quality management, etc.).In fact, lecturers also have developed specializations in a wider range of fields than the
72

The portal data is not current; some schools show zero graduating students indicating that the schools are relatively new. The portal shows a number of 827 graduating per year. But likely the number is higher. 73 Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) is the first university to shift its program from sanitary engineering to environmental engineering, it was done in 1984.

39

Competence Assessment

traditional water and sanitation field. As a result, current graduates may have good overview knowledge of the engineering aspects of all three sub-sectors, but they do not have enough in-depth and practical knowledge to immediately work in a technical capacity. At least, compared to the graduates during sanitary engineering era74. Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum
Facilitator (Technical) for Communal System Need-to-Know Criteria Basic sanitation and public health Government policies on sanitation development Relation between area’s characteristics with sanitation condition Community sanitation survey Basic wastewater management Components of communal system Basic engineering design and drawings of communal facilities Operation and maintenance of communal facilities Construction and O&M cost estimation Content and format oftechnical and operating procedure documents Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, etc. Monitoring &evaluation techniques Managing group dynamics Effective communication and presentation skills Curriculum ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + + Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning Need-to-Know Criteria Basic wastewater system Government policies on sanitation and wastewater development Relation between area’s characteristics with sanitation condition Regulations on wastewater Principles of wastewater planning Wastewater profile mapping Wastewater and sludge characteristics Types and nature of strategic issues in wastewater development Principles, methods, and techniques of a demand assessment Prediction methodologies for demography and land-use Estimation of wastewater and sludge generation City/ district strategic planning Components, types, and characteristics of facilities Principles of design, construction, and operation of facilities Construction and O&M cost estimation Curriculum ++ + ++ ++ + ++ + + + ++ ++ ++ +

Note:

(++) = introduced strongly, (+) = introduced mildly, (-) = not introduced

Training
336. Training courses generally cover a specific topic, and either increase knowledge on a technology, program, approach, and/or improve a set of skills needed for a particular task. In the Study, training programs are differentiated into:  Orientation training; Courses that must be attended by individuals as a prerequisite to begin work as a certain type of sanitation personnel. The courses are tailored specifically to meet the needs for a job title in a program, firm, or project. Continuation training; Courses that must be attended by individuals to continue working as sanitation personnel, with the aim to maintain ori mprovetheir professionalstatus. Participation in the course is part of their requirements as employee/staff, certification holder, and hired professionals.

74

However, there are strong intentions of some universities to modify their S-1 curriculum to put more attention on water supply and sanitation sector. In fact, ITB is in the final preparation stage to open a Water and Sanitation Infrastructure department where the curriculum will more materials on water supply, wastewater, solid waste, and drainage engineering. If approved, it is expected that the S-1 program will be officially opened in 2013.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Regular training; Courses which are not tied to any work requirement and open to the public on a scheduled basis.

Orientation Training
337. There are a number of orientation trainings available in the sanitation sector, i.e. those related to CSS/PMSS policy facilitator, SANIMAS technical facilitator, and STBM facilitator (see Table 13).The trainings are conducted as part of the recruitment process with an objective to provide program- and job-specific knowledge, skills, and motivation to the candidates. Comparisons to the need-toknow criteria (see Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7) show that most of the orientation training programs have fulfilled almost all requirements. However, there is a need to add more technical materials in the training for technical SANIMAS facilitators, e.g. design engineering and O&M principles of small-scale sewer system.

Regular Training
338. Regular trainings are offered by a number of universities, private firms, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The courses include community-based solid waste management, integrated solid waste management, and wastewater treatment plant operations. However, the courses are not offered consistently each year. In fact many classes end up being cancelled due to insufficient participants. This indicates the low demand among the public for sanitation-related courses. A Yogyakarta-based organization, PUSTEKLIM (Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair) is known to be active in conducting wastewaterrelated courses. Table 13. Orientation Training Programs
Programs Formulation of 75 CSS Target Group Candidates of city/provincial CSS facilitators Candidates of PMSS facilitators STBM district facilitators Candidates of SANIMAS field facilitators Duration 10 days
76

Coverage PPSP principles, sanitation policies and institutions, White Book and CSS, sanitation mapping and assessment, monitoring-evaluation, adult-learning methods, facilitation, documents’ quality control. Sanitation policies and institutions, prioritizing and internalizing programs, programing and budgeting, formulating PMSS, studies and technical design, monitoring-evaluation, implementation plan. STBM national strategy and implementation, facilitation techniques, communication, pillars of STBM. SANIMAS principles and stages, rapid community selfassessment, facilitation principles and techniques, participatory planning, community action plan, options of technologies.

Preparation of 77 PMSS

4 days

STBM 78 Facilitations SANIMAS Field 79 Facilitation

6 days 7 days

75

Based on the latest CSS facilitation training conducted by the Ministry of Public Works in 5 – 14 December 2011 at Bogor (West Java). The training was attended by 220 candidates of city and provincial facilitators. 76 The Formulation CSS training for facilitators was recently reduced to 10 days duration, from the previous duration of three weeks. 77 Based on the PMSS facilitation training conducted by the Ministry of Public Works on 18-21 July 2011 in Jakarta. The training was attended by 68 candidates of provincial management consultant (Konsultan Manajemen Provinsi, or KMP). 78 Based on TOT for STBM facilitators conducted by the Ministry of Health on 29 November – 4 December 2010 in Lembang, Bandung (West Java). 79 Based on description of training module for SANIMAS facilitators, developed by Badan Sertifikasi DEWATS, Borda Indonesia.

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Competence Assessment

Providers
339. A number of ministries and government agencies possess training centers which offer sanitation-related courses. Among them are:  Ministry of Public Works: Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi Wilayah (BTAMS, or Center for Water and Sanitation Engineering). There are two of such centers, located in Surabaya (East Java) and Bekasi (West Java). The centers offer mainly short-courses, with duration of approximately 3 to 4 days, covering various topics on wastewater, solid waste, drainage, and water supply80. Besides the two centers, Ministry of Public Works has nine other training centers (Balai Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Pekerjaan Umum) and one competence development unit (PUSBINKPK, or Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan Konstruksi) which occasionally conduct sanitation-related trainings. BTAMS is considered as the most established training institutions for sanitation among the other centers. Ministry of Health: Balai Pelatihan Kesehatan (BAPELKES, or Center for Health Trainings) in Lemah abang (Karawang, West Java) offers courses on basic sanitation technology, public health, and sanitation assessment. Ministry of Environment: Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan (PUSARPEDAL, or Center for Environmental Impact Management) in Serpong (Banten) offers courses on wastewater, solid waste, and impact assessment.

Most training programs offered by the centers are specifically designed for government officials, especially from local government agencies. However, they are open to cooperate with other institutions, programs, or firms. One example is the cooperation between Pokja AMPL and BTAMS Bekasi to conduct CSS facilitator training courses. In such cases, the centers provide the training venue and staff, while the partner institutions supply trainers, organize participants and prepare training materials. The centers are equipped with full training facilities, laboratory and training equipment, and accommodation. They are allowed to receive payment for services provided to outside parties, known as PNBP (Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak). 340. A number of universities offer sanitation-related courses. Amongthe universities are Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Universitas Indonesia, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), Universitas Islam Indonesia (Yogyakarta), and Universitas Gajah Mada (Yogyakarta). A number of NGOs also offer such courses. One of them is a Yogyakarta-based organization, PUSTEKLIM (Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair) which is known to be active in conducting wastewater-related courses.

Networking
341. Being part of a professional peer group -- exchanging information and ideas, sharing enthusiasm and aspirations -- also contributes to development of a person’s competence. For active sanitation personnel, being part of a network plays a very significant role in building competence, considering they have limited time to attend training courses. Such knowledge networking can be done through professional associations, groups of peers, business associations, and alumnae groups. Another form is internet-based networking, which has become more and more popular these days.
80

Courses offered by BTAMS Bekasi include Management of Domestic Liquid Waste, Solid Waste Management, Technical Preparations and Management of Drainage Facilities, On-site Management of Solid Waste, Transmission and Distribution Pipe Network, Clean Water Production, Mechanical and Electrical, Project Supervision, and Water-Loss Mitigation.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

342. There are a number of professional associations currently involved in developing competence of sanitation personnel in Indonesia, i.e.  IATPI (Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Sanitary and Environmental Engineers):Its members comprise of those who are directly or indirectly involved in the sectors of water, wastewater, solid waste, drainage, industrial pollution control, environmental remediation, environmental assessment, and industrial hygiene. Most of them are graduates of sanitary and environmental engineers. IATPI was founded in 1977, therefore it is considered as the most established sanitation-related professional association in Indonesia. Their activities include a) providing technical inputs to government and other stakeholders, b) conducting trainings, seminars, workshops, conferences, and exhibitions, on various environmental subjects81, c) publishing journals, d) developtechnologies and prototypes,e) promoting competence and capacity of its members,f) developing and awarding formal recognition for various type of environmental professionals, g) providing experts. Its members reach 1,500 individuals, of which 600 are certified engineers82.  HAKLI (Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia, or Indonesian Association forEnvironmental Health Experts):Its members comprise of environmental health professionals with various educational backgrounds, positions, role, and specialization. HAKLI aims to enhance capabilities and roles of its members, as well as to provide assistance to the government on environmental and public health issues. HAKLI was established on 1980, as an improvement to the Association of Indonesian Health Controllers (IKKI), founded in 1955. In the public health sector, many HAKLI members are sanitarians, either as implementers, assessors, or instructors.  INTAKINDO (Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Consultants): Its members comprise of individuals who are involved as experts in a wide range of consultancy work, including sanitation-related work. INTAKINDO is very active in the certification process, including for engineers involved in construction activities, and experts of environmental impact assessment (AMDAL). It now has almost 2,500 members, most of which are certificate holders. INTAKINDO was established in 2004 by INKINDO (Ikatan Konsultan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Consulting Firms)83. Although one of their missions is to develop and promote competence of their members, all of the above professional associations do not have a comprehensive implementation plan to do so. Most of their activities are responsive to requests or needs from other parties. Lack of manpower and funding is a common obstacle faced by most professional associations.

81

IATPI has supported BAPPENAS and Pokja AMPL in organizing the national conferences on sanitation (KSN 2009 and KASN 2011), supported ITB in conducting international seminar on water and sanitation, and supported environmental agencies by providing resource persons for various trainings. IATPI biannually conducts scientific forum for environmental research, namely Forum Ilmiah Lingkungan Tropis. In October 2012, IATPI will conduct an international conference on sanitary landfill. 82 More information are provided in IATPI’s website, www.iatpi.org. 83 More information are provided in INTAKINDOs website, www.intakindo.org.

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Competence Assessment

343. There are not many groups currently active in providing and maintaining networks in sanitation sector in Indonesia. Two groups which are quite active:  FORKALIM (Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah Permukiman, or Communication Forum for Domestic Wastewater Management):The forum was founded by PERPAMSI84in 2004. Its members are cities with wastewater services, i.e. Medan, Palembang, Banjarmasin, DKI Jakarta, Bandung, Denpasar, Makassar, Surakarta, and Surabaya. FORKALIM has conducted a number of capacity-building activities for its members including seminars, trainings, and workshops on wastewater management.  Jejaring AMPL (Jejaring Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan, or Network for Drinking Water and Sanitation):The forum was founded in 2002 to improve communications, coordination, and synergy among sanitation stakeholders. The network allows its members to share information, transfer knowledge, create collective ideas, strengthen relationships, and manage shared resources. Jejaring AMPL was founded in 2007, and now has more than 50 members comprising of donor agencies, institutions, programs, universities, professional associations, private firms, NGOs, and others. Jejaring AMPL can be considered as a network with the most diverse membership in the sanitation sector85. In terms of knowledge management, the two networks have not maximized their full potential. Combining knowledge and other resources of their members, both organizations can contribute more to competency development of sanitation personnel. 344. An increasing number of professions and professional circles in Indonesia are using web-based networks or mailing lists as a means to activate or mobilize a group to contribute to the growth of a sector or discipline. Such networks have a powerful advantage of reducing geographic distances, allowing individuals from all parts of the country to participate. Even passive participants can learn from or be inspired by discussions posted in the network. Currently active mailing lists related to sanitation sector are:  Milis AMPL: Established in May 2005, the AMPL (Air Minum Dan Penyehatan Lingkungan) mailing listallows its members to post new information, promote events and observe common goals and approaches. The mailing list, in fact, serves as a media to forge new partnerships. It provides a forum for individual members to share information and personal opinions, and to debate ideas. Per December 2011, its membership reached more than 1,500 individuals. The AMPL mailing list is managed by the Secretariat of Pokja AMPL. Milis STBM: Established in May 2010, the STBM (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat) mailing list allows its members to share information and knowledge. It contains information on STBM best practices, event announcements, methodologies and tools, etc. The STBM mailing list is managed by the STBM Secretariat. Per December 2011, its membership reached more than 200 individuals.

The potential to expand such a network to become a means for better knowledge management and dissemination is immense, especially for a country as large as Indonesia.

84

PERPAMSI (Persatuan PDAM Seluruh Indonesia) is an association of water supply companies in Indonesia. Wastewater services in many Indonesian cities are still under the management of water supply companies. 85 More information are provided in Jejaring’s website, www.jejaring -ampl.org

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Experiencing
345. Once an individual enters the workforce, a very important competencebuilding process happens. By performing tasks, doing required research and observations, and by making mistakes, an individual experiences a more profound learning process. Such experience validates personal knowledge, molds professional attitude, and establishes a person’s professional credibility. Building competence through experience and self-learning is difficult to plot, track and design, especially since an individual’s propensity to learn and grow is a major factor, and yet differs from one individual to another. This study does not pursue this factor further, although it recognizes the importance and may recommend some actions in the strategy. 346. Over the past decades, sanitation personnel in Indonesia has had limited opportunities to experience work in this field, due to the low level of sanitation investments, which resulted in the relatively small number of projects. The most extreme example is sewerage. With only eleven cities equipped with a sewerage network (with a small coverage), Indonesia has not developed a substantial professional corps with proven competence in designing, constructing and operating sewerage systems. Compared to water supply, where investments have been relatively high and personnel seem sufficient, sewerage is lagging behind. This is also the case with septage management (septic tank sludge), which has continued to use low technology approaches. Consequently, there is generally low competence in this field. Similarly, the fact that no solid waste disposal site is functioning as a proper sanitary landfill, has hindered development of competent operators for sanitary landfills in the country.

Recognition
347. Recognition of professional competence comes in the form of certification from an accredited certifying organization. The Government has also made certification a prerequisite for various jobs and/or tender proceedings, partly as a means to ensure quality but also to anticipate influx of foreign workers when freetrade agreements become effective. In the sanitation-related fields, professional certification is still limited to a handful of positions, i.e.  Certification for Experts in Environmental Engineering: The certification scheme is run by LPJK (Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi, or the Agency for Construction Service Development)86, which includes a classification for environmental/sanitary engineers. This covers individuals who are involved in the planning, design, and construction of sanitation facilities. More than ten professional associations87 are given the right by LPJK to certify its members with the environmental/sanitary engineering background. Currently, more than 7,400 individuals are listed as senior, mid-level, junior, and entry-level certified engineers under the environmental/sanitary engineering classification. Certification for Environmental Pollution Control Manager (EPCM): The professional certification scheme is launched by the Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Environment, targeting individual-in-charge of managing wastewater in their facilities. Although it is officially aimed at industries, there are certificate holders from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, commercial buildings

86

LPJK is an independent organization that issues professional certification for a wide range of engineering professions related to construction. This scheme is recognized by the Ministry of Public Works, and is used as pre-requisite for all government construction tenders since 2009. 87 Among them are IATPI, INTAKINDO, Himpunan Profesi Tenaga Konstruksi Indonesia (HIPTASI), Persatuan Insinyur Indonesia (PII), Ikatan Ahli Perencanaan Indonesia (IAP), Perhimpunan Ahli Teknik Indonesia (PATI), Asosiasi Tenaga Teknik Indonesia (ASTTI), Asosiasi Tenaga Ahli Konstruksi Indonesia (ATAKI), Ikatan Ahli Konstruksi Indonesia (IAKI).

45

Competence Assessment

and housing estates (with effluent characteristics similar to municipal). The certification program is managed by IATPI, since the association was involved in the development of this certification scheme and its standard of competencies. Currently, more than 300 individuals are awarded EPCM certificate. Recognition so far does not exist for facilitators related to CSS, SANIMAS88, or STBM. If facilitators (in this context) are not considered suitable for professional certification programs, then other forms of recognition must be explored. 348. The two schemes requires a certificate holder to continually improve competence by (a) practicing their competence in relevant activities, (b) participating in training courses, seminar, and workshops. Those who do not comply will not be able to renew their certificates. However, to date, none of the organizations have developed a structured competence building (or continuing education) programs to support this requirement.

DISCUSSION
Gaps of Competence
349. Demand for competence; The assessment draws the following conclusions regarding competence demand:  City-level planning facilitators89 require inter disciplinary competence, combining not only technical and non-technical knowledge, but strong skills in communication and facilitation. The policy facilitator for sanitation planning needs to have 50 competency elements (see Attachment 6).Mid-level personnel from a wide range educational background (engineering, urban planning, public health, public administration or communication)are suitable for these functions.  Rural-level hygienic behaviour facilitators90 can be recruited from a wide range of educational backgrounds (any social sciences or public health) at a S-1 or D-3 level. About 30 competency elements must be fulfilled for this social facilitator (see Attachment 7). Junior and mid-level personnel are eligible for these functions.  Technical facilitators91 for communal sanitation require technical competence specific for these systems, which tend to be simpler than city-wide systems (required of Technical Consultants). The educational pre-requisite is not very high (D-3), so junior personnel can fill this position. The technical facilitator needs to have 44 competency elements (see Attachment 8).  Technical consultants92, especially in the main personnel category, will likely require S-1 or S-2 qualifications from environmental/sanitary engineering or civil engineering, with high level of competence in the particular sanitation facility or service that is being developed. The consultant for wastewater planning requires 57 competency elements (see Attachment 9) that certainly take time and effort to develop. Only senior-level individuals can fill this position. Operators (both technical and management) are not studied in detail in this study. Qualifications will be a mixture of technical and non-technical at D-3 or S-1 level, but development of operators’ competence will be needed.
88

A number of parties, including BORDA Indonesia, have discussed the possibility of creating certification scheme for SANIMAS facilitators. However, none has been materialized. 89 Represented by the Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning. 90 Represented by Facilitator (Social) Hygienic Behavior Change. 91 Represented by the Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation. 92 Represented by the Consultant (Technical) Wastewater System Planning.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

350. Competence shortcomings; Although there is a concern among many that existing sanitation personnel are not performing well, most active personnel are generally confident about their level of competence. However, the following are some areas where these personnel feel less confident:  Basic technical knowledge: Most CSS policy facilitator does not have enough basic knowledge on sanitation technologies and services. Although he/she is not a technical person, the capacity to describe some basic knowledge is often required in meetings or discussions with stakeholders. STBM facilitators are also often required to be able to assess sanitation conditions of a community.  Knowledge on current sanitation policy: Most technical consultants in sanitation sector are not aware there are PPSP development approaches that they should consider in their plans. They still develop the master plans of sanitations services with a ‘business-as-usual’ approach. Acknowledgement of SANIMAS and STBM approaches are rarely found in wastewater master plans. Other competency deficiencies, regarding skills and attitudes, are felt by many managers, and are not unique to sanitation personnel. This includes report writing skills, communication skills, and poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines).

Education and Training
351. Education;The undergraduate program of environmental engineering offers courses that will provide an individual with basic technical knowledge in the planning and design of wastewater, solid waste, and drainage systems. However, the programs do not have enough time to cover practical knowledge required for field assignments and current approaches in sanitation development. The programs do not put enough attention on the operational aspects of sanitation facilities. A number of trainings are required to overcome this deficiency. Therefore, a combination of formal education and orientation training is sufficient to develop competence of an individual to allow him/her to start a sanitation assignment. 352. Lack of training programs; Competence of sanitation personnel can be enhanced through combination of orientation, continuation, and regular training courses, covering a broad spectrum of tasks and assignments, to expand their respective educational foundation. However, the number and types of trainingcourses currently available is very limited despite the fact that there is a large demand for competent personnel. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects exist. Moreover, the courses are not designed as a series (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) to allow an individual to improve his/her competence in phases.

Performance
353. Performance and competence;Confronted with weak performance in the sector, there is a general perception that there is a serious shortage of competencies among sanitation personnel in Indonesia. However, competence and performance are not synonymous. It should be recognized that competence is only one factor that forms one’s performance. Other factors that play an important role and must be considered including: availability of equipment and materials, sufficient funds and timeframe, availability of other personnel, sufficient data and stakeholders’ support. Without any effort to address these work condition issues, various capacity building programs will not significantly improve the performance of sanitation personnel. Another factor is the relatively low compensation and benefits received by sanitation personnel.

47

Competence Assessment

Networking, Experiencing, and Recognition
354. Networking;Many networking opportunities exist for sanitation personnel in Indonesia. Through professional associations, peer groups, mailing lists, and other web-based networking media, an individual can receive a lot of information to increase and update his/her knowledge. Pokja AMPL is very active in providing information on sanitation development progress. However, there is much room to strengthen and optimize the activities and influence of the existing networks to support competence development in the sanitation sector. 355. Experiencing; Most sanitation projects in Indonesia involve low technologies and are relatively homogeneous across the nation. Types of sanitation projects have basically been the same for the last twenty years. No advancement on technologies used for handling liquid waste, treating septage, and final disposal. This fact affects the range of competence of Indonesian sanitation personnel. There is little chance for an individual to gain new technological experiences that wouldenhance his/herknowledge and skills. 356. Formal recognition;The existing certification programs provide a structure for bench-marking and advancement, and motivate individuals to improve their competence. The programs require certificate holders to participate in training courses, seminars, workshops that will improve his/her knowledge and skills. To some extent, this requirement has made certificate holders participate in various training courses. However, the positive impact of this requirement can be further optimized if the certification agency possesses a professional competence improvement scheme. Such a roadmap will guide individuals in selecting training courses to attend. If managed effectively, this requirement will create high demand for training courses, which at the moment are not available in the market.

Gender Perspective
357. The Study only made quick observationson gender issues related to the capacity of sanitation personnel. The results should be treated only as indicative, for further studies to elaborate. Some of them are:   Involvement of women in sanitation activities is still low, despite the fact that there is never be a gender limitiation to fill sanitation jobs for women. Involvement of women in sanitation activities is strongly influenced by work subjects, locations, and duration.

Notes
358. Shared competencies; Overall, sanitation personnel share a number of common competency and knowledge requirements. For example, the competency unit of “assess general characteristics of the community” is required for social and technical facilitators, as well as technical consultants. The same applies to the competency unit of “assess sanitation conditions of the community”. Furthermore, all types of facilitators should possess competency units to “develop strategic partnerships” and “facilitate participatory process”. Such commonality makes possible the compilation of a generic set of competency units that can be used in developing (new) competency lists for other sanitation personnel types.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

CONCLUSION
359. There are indications that minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among most sanitation personnel occur as follows:      Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning. Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants. Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators. Writing and communication skills. Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines).

Orientation and on-the-job training may easily close the knowledge and skill gaps. Improvement of work conditions may improve work habits. 360. The assumption that there is a major competence deficiency among Indonesian sanitation personnel is difficult to prove or disprove. Despite managers’ expressed dissatisfaction on sanitation staff’s work performance, most sanitation personnel feel relatively confident about their competencies. This may indicate there is a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understand in gap. Using the competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results. 361. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a person’s work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. Consultants, facilitators and operators all need to have supporting work conditions to enable them to make full use of their capabilities. Otherwise, their performance (often misunderstood as competence) will continue to be deemed inadequate. 362. When there is a large demand for competent personnel, one expects to see the emergence of a viable industry providing competence development services. Unfortunately, that is not the case in the sanitation sector. Practically, there is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way – one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere. 363. Other means to develop competence in sanitation sector are available. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development. Optimization of their role can start by improving data collection system of members engaged in the field of sanitation, linking job opportunities to members, and managing sanitation knowledge for its member.

49

Competence Assessment

364. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. The side-effect of linking certification programs with training courses is that it motivates professionals to seek new knowledge, and to continue to develop their competence.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

STRATEGYAND ACTION PLAN
Developing capacity of sanitation personnel in Indonesia requires action and decisions from key players in sanitation, and will only succeed if stakeholders collaborate on a continuous basis. The strategy presented here includes a short-term action plan and a medium-term strategy. Some recommendations for further analysis are also presented, especially for aspects that could not be covered in this study. The strategy is intended for consideration by the Government of Indonesia in planning future programs and activities.

Closing the Gap
Shortage of Personnel
401. A number of actions to be considered to reduce demand or fill the shortage of sanitation personnel are:  Optimize deployment; Adjust the personneldeployment strategy in existing programs to reduce the number of personnel neededand to optimize the use of available sanitation personnel, especially for facilitators. Enhance job profile; Introduce breakthroughs to revampprofile of sanitation jobs, which, in turn can increase the number of people interested to work or continue in the sector. Communicate demand; The high demand for sanitation personnel should be communicated to professional and business associations, universities, vocational and high schools toattract more qualified personnel and inspire anew generation of individuals. Improve job security; Adjust upwards compensation and benefits for sanitation personnel, as well as improve conditions ofwork agreementsattract and retain qualified individuals. Recognize the profession; Boost the sense of pride of sanitation personnel by formally recognizing their profession. Create database; A sanitation personnel database will reduce difficulties in confirming the actual number of and availability of individuals with the right qualification. It would also support further assessment of personnel capacity.

 

51

Strategy and Action Plan

Competence Gap
402. A number of actions to be considered to overcome the competence gap among sanitation personnel:   Acknowledge job titles; A consensus on clearly-defined job titles will form a foundation for future sanitation competence development programs. Formalize competency standards; A formal lists of required competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes)of key sanitation personnel will create a nationalreference for competence development. Recognize the profession; A formal recognition mechanism would not only to attract more individuals into the sector, it is expected to encourage sanitation personnel to continually improve their competence. Collaborate roles; Facilitate cooperation among education and training institutions, sanitation-related professional networks, and related government institutions, with common goals to improve competence of sanitation personnel. Provide teaching materials; Teaching materials covering sanitation policies, approaches, programs, and technologies will overcome the lack of knowledge among university students on recent sanitation activities. Create competency-basedcourses; Adjust existing training courses to ensure that materials are consistent with the types and levels of competencies required. Support training providers; Supporttraining institutions to improve their capacity in creating, promoting, conducting, and managing competence-based training courses. Innovate with competence development programs; Availability of self-learning packages, mentoring, and other innovative competence programs will add opportunities for individuals to learn in a flexible way. Internship and apprenticeship programs will allow individuals to experience working in specific type of sanitation facilities. Facilitate knowledge sharing;Knowledge and information sharing among sanitation personnel and other stakeholders (project managers, educators, trainers, evaluators, students, investors, and policy makers) will provide opportunities for an individual to tap knowledge from his/her peers. Provide more resources;Better availability of work resourcesare expected to allow individuals to apply his/her competence optimally and perform satisfactorilyin completing their tasks.

Strategy to Develop Sanitation Capacity
Overall
403. The overarching vision for capacity development in sanitation is all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitation personnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

404. The vision is achievable through four strategies (see Table 14).Each strategy is followed by a number of activities to be implemented immediately or in the nearfuture. Table 14.Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel
Strategy 1) Improve appeal of sanitation jobs Closing the Gaps  Enhance job profile  Communicate demand  Improve job security  Provide more resources a. b. c. d. 2) Institutionalize competence advancement.  Acknowledge job titles  Recognize the profession  Formalize competency standards  Collaborate roles  Provide teaching materials to universities  Create competencybased courses  Support training providers  Innovate competence programs  Collect and share knowledge  Create database a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. Activities Advocate the need to improve capacity of sanitation personnel Communicate jobs in sanitation Sanitation promotional visits to education institutions Adjust compensation structure for sanitation personnel Consensus on job titles in sanitation Create path for competence advancement in sanitation Develop competency standards for key personnel in sanitation Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation Develop competency-based training programs in sanitation Produce self-learning packages in sanitation Disseminate sanitation teaching materials Establish internship programs on sanitation operation Set-up mentoring programs Create Indonesian network for sanitation personnel Set-up network of competence suppliers Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation

3) Revitalize competence development programs

4) Stimulate knowledge exchange.

405. It should be noted that the above capacity-related strategies should be accompanied by larger strategies and long-term actions to:  Revise policies; In the long-term, sanitation policies need to be revised to serve as a new engine to propel interest in the field. An example would be policies that affect the structure of the sanitation sector, especially to make the sector more interesting for private investors, thus reducing the dependence on government institutions as implementers of sanitation services. Private sector involvement is expected to create a more professional atmosphere, where sanitation personnel can pursue better careers. Also necessary are policies affecting direction of the sanitation sector, especially with regard to technological advancement. Better (more advanced) technological choices are expected to attract young individuals to consider sanitation- related professions.  Revamp image; To complement changes in technology and sector players, the image of the sanitation sector as a whole needs a boost. The old image of lowtechnology, informal workers, and unsophisticated work needs to be changed to one where workers are proud and excited, technology is modern and effective, and institutions are credible and professionally-run. A forward-looking image will help the sector continue to appeal to younger generations in the future.

53

Strategy and Action Plan

Strategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs
406. This strategy aims to create sustained interest amongqualified individuals to join and stay in the sanitation sector. Implementation of this strategy will involve commencement of a series of advocacy and promotional activities to increase awareness of stakeholders on job profiles and opportunities in sanitation sector. 407. A communication strategy should be developed to allow effective delivery of messages to decision-makers, professional communities, and students. Various means of communications should be used to communicate information on tasks and responsibilities of sanitation personnel, present an appealing image of sanitation jobs, inform about the level of demand for competent sanitation personnel, and the need to improve their capacity. 408. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in the following table. Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities
Activities a. Advocate the need to improve capacity of sanitation personnel Decription To advocate the high demand for competent sanitation personnel, a series of presentations and discussions should be conducted to decision-makers and officers in various government institutions, professional associations, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms. Seminars, exhibitions, competition, and dissemination of promotional materials on sanitation jobs, supported by effective news and article placements in a number of relevant magazines, newspaper, and websites. Face-to-face interaction with students in relevant universities, academies, vocational schools, and high schools, supported by dissemination of promotional materials to raise their awareness on sanitation jobs and opportunities. A series of discussions with representatives of government institutions, professional associations, programs, and firms to determine the most appropriate fee and benefits for sanitation personnel.

b.

Communicate jobs in sanitation

c.

Sanitation promotional visits to education institutions Adjust compensation structure of sanitation personnel

d.

Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement
409. This strategy aims to make available a competence advancement path for each key sanitation personnel. The path is expected to: a) provide encouragement and incentive for sanitation personnel to continually improve their competence in a structured manner, b) create framework for competence suppliers to develop and optimize their role in achieving common objectives and goals, and c) trigger training providers to develop and deliver more relevant training courses. 410. For each job title, a competence advancement path (see diagram)describes:(a) levels of professional status, (b) required competencies, (c) outline of competence improvement plans (training and other competencemaintenance activities), and (d) formal recognition system. 411. A number of parties will be involved in preparing suchcompetence advancement path (see the diagram), i.e.  Sponsoring agency; a government institution that will serve as the official agency which owns and manages the scheme.  Training agencies; universities, private firms, and NGOs that will create and conduct mandatory training programs for sanitation personnel.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

 Certification body; an independent organization, such as professional association, that will provide formal recognition to sanitation personnel. Under the path, roles of each competence supplier will be clearly defined.
training agencies

4

required competencies #4 required competencies #3

competency-based trainings

3
2 1

required competencies #2
required competencies #1

outlines of competence improvement plans
competencymaintenance activities

formal recognition mechanism

certyfying body

levels of professional status

project owners universities research agencies proffesional association

Elements and Involved Parties in a Competence Advancement Path.Each job title will have its own path describing levels of professional status, required competence, and mechanism to obtain formal recognition.

412. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table. Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement
Activities a. Consensus on job titles in sanitation Decription Seminar and workshop involving government institutions, professional associations, sanitation programs, selected sanitation personnel, and academics, to generate a list of job titles in the subsectors of wastewater, solid waste, drainage, and hygienic behavior. Competence advancement paths for prioritized key personnel are to be developed and approved through a series of assessments, workshops, seminars, and consensus-building involving professional associations, training agencies, practitioners, academics, and government institutions. A set of competency lists for prioritized key personnel will be formalized into a national competency standard by involving Ministry of Public Works as the sponsoring agency. Support from professional and business associations, academics, and practitioners are instrumental. Certification mechanism, as a form of formal recognition of competence, will be institutionalized following the requirements 93 from the BNSP . Such mechanism will involve a number of parties to play the roles as certifying body and accredited training agencies.

b.

Create path for competence advancement in sanitation

c.

Develop competency standards for key personnel in sanitation

d.

Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation

413. The institutionalization of competence path should be prioritized for a subsector and a type of personnel where the demand is largest, i.e. wastewater and facilitators for communal system.

93

BNSP (Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi, or the National Agency for Professional Certification) is an independent body with the authority to formally recognize standards of competence for professionals in various fields, and carry out certification of those personnel.

55

Strategy and Action Plan

Strategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs
414. This strategy aims toincrease the availability and variation of competence programs to support competence advancement paths for sanitation personnel. It is expected that there will be more competency-based training courses, as well as other type competence programs available in the market. Higher capacity in the competence-building industry is a basic requirement for institutionalizing competence advancement. 415. This strategy will triggertraining providers to develop and deliver more relevant training courses, as well as attract other parties to create innovative competence development programs. In addition to the competency-based trainings, a number of new variants of competence programs will be introduced, i.e. distant learning, mentoring, and internship programs. 416. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table. Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs
Activities a. Developcompetency-based training programs in sanitation Decription Training agencies are supported to adjust or develop training courses based on requirements from the competence path (especially related to competency standards) for prioritized key personnel. Options are open for the training agencies to select the most appropriate delivery techniques. Self-learning multimedia packages on various subjects will be developed. It will improve access of sanitation personnel to knowledge required in competence path. Self-learning materials will be distributed in the form of compact disk, or be attached to existing sanitation web-sites. Teaching materials related to current sanitation policies, approaches, and technologies will be developed and disseminated to universities. It is expected that such materials will close or minimize the gap of required knowledge in tertiary education. In the absence of properly-operated sanitation facilities, specific internship and apprenticeship programs will allow individuals to improve his/her competence by performing tasks, observing others, and following guidance from supervisors in such facilities. Mentoring programs will provide opportunities for an individual to obtain information and guidance from his/her designated mentor. A mentoring function will be considered to be a requirement for an individual to retain his certification.

b.

Produce self-learning packages in sanitation

c.

Disseminate sanitation teaching materials

d.

Establish internship programs on sanitation operation Set-up mentoring programs

e.

Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange
417. This strategy aims to increase access to sanitation knowledge among sanitation personnel and other stakeholders. It will also create opportunities for all parties to share knowledge, information, ideas, enthusiasm and aspirations. It is believed that such knowledge networking will contribute significantly in building competence for those already active in the field. 418. This strategy will create networks for competence suppliers, as well as for individuals interested in sanitation sector (engineers, specialists, managers, educators, trainers, students, investors, and policy makers). Existing web-sites will be reviewed and adjusted to match with expected roles under the competence advancement path. 419. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Table 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange
Activities a. Create Indonesian network for sanitation personnel Decription An internet-based professional network will be established to provide dynamic and interactive means of communication among sanitation personnel and interested individuals. Such network will allow its member to share information, knowledge, data, and opinion. It may also serve as a database for sanitation personnel, and means to announce job opportunities and events. Selected universities, private firms, NGOs, and government-owned training centers are invited to form a network of competence suppliers in sanitation. Technical assistance will be provided to improve their capacity, especially on course development, competency of trainers, training management, and access of communication. It may involve commencement of a series of workshops, seminars, and training-of-trainers. Existing web-sites, mailing lists, and blogs will be enhanced and promoted to optimize their contribution in developing competence of sanitation personnel. Discussion with owners or managers of existing web-sites, mailing lists will be conducted to obtain consensus on their specific roles and ways to improve its knowledge management.

b.

Set-up network of competence suppliers

c.

Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation

Action Plan
420. Action plan consists of activities to be initiated in the period of 2012 – 2014. Some of those activities are better to be conducted immediately, considering the urgency and the preparedness of such activities (see next section). The following table presents the proposed schedule of activities in that period. Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan
Activities
1) a. b. c. d. 2) a. b. c. d. Advocate the need to improve capacity of sanitation personnel Communicate jobs in sanitation Sanitation promotional visits to education institutions Adjust compensation structure of sanitation personnel Consensus on job titles in sanitation Create path for competence advancement in sanitation Develop competency standards for key personnel in sanitation Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation Develop competency-based training programs Produce self-learning packages Disseminate sanitation teaching materials Establish internship programs on sanitation operation Set-up mentoring programs Create Indonesian network for sanitation personnel Set-up network of competence suppliers

2012
1 2 3 4 1

2013
2 3 4 1

2014
2 3 4

x

x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x

x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

3)

a. b. c. d. e.

x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x

x

x x x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

4)

a. b.

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Strategy and Action Plan

Activities
c. Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation

2012
1 2 3 4 1

2013
2 3 4 1

2014
2 3 4

x

x

Immediate Activities
421. There are at least six activities that can be initiated in the second quarter of 2012. Most of them are activities related to the effort to improve communication among stakeholders of sanitation competence.

Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel
422. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 20. Action Plan – Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel
Steps Develop papers and presentation materials on demand and supply of sanitation personnel Seminar on demand and supply of sanitation personnel National workshop on competence development in sanitation Output  Paper on Demand and Supply of Sanitation Personnel (in Bahasa Indonesia).  Standard presentation tool on Demand & Supply of Sanitation Personnel.  Seminars on 5 locations. Timeframe Q2 (2012), 2 months

Q2-Q3 (2012)

 National workshop on one location.  Workplans from each participating party.

Q4 (2012)

423. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, members of Pokja AMPL, professional association, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.

Communicate Jobs in Sanitation
424. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 21. Action Plan – Communicate Jobs in Sanitation
Steps Develop communication materials jobs in sanitation sector Dissemination of communication materials Output  Booklet and leaflets on jobs in sanitation  Poster on the need of sanitation personnel.  Articles for media.  Booklets and leaflets distributed to government institutions, professional associations, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms.  Coverage in printed media.  Seminars.  Competition on sanitation technologies.  Participation in exhibitions. Timeframe Q3 (2012), 2 months

Q3 (2012) – Q2 (2013)

Promotional events on jobs in sanitation

Q3 (2012) – Q2 (2013)

425. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity. 58

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions
426. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 22. Action Plan – Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions
Steps Develop promotion materials jobs in sanitation sector Dissemination of promotional materials Events in universities and schools Output  Booklet and leaflets on jobs in sanitation  Poster on the need of sanitation personnel.  Booklets and leaflets distributed to universities, academies, vocational schools, and high schools.  Seminars, discussions, and exhibitions on a number of universities, academies, vocational schools, and high schools. Timeframe Q3 (2012), 2 months Q3 (2012) – Q2 (2013) Q3 (2012) – Q2 (2013)

427. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.

Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation
428. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 23. Action Plan – Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation
Steps Develop papers and presentation materials on job titles in sanitation Seminar on job title in sanitation National workshop on job title Output  Paper on Job Titles of Sanitation Personnel (in Bahasa Indonesia).  Standard presentation tool on Job Titles of Sanitation Personnel.  Seminars on 5 locations.  National workshop on one location.  Consensus on job titles in sanitation Timeframe Q2 (2012), 2 months

Q2-Q3 (2012) Q4 (2012)

429. This activity requires involvement of professional association, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and a work group. It is expected that GoI can provide funding for this activity.

Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation
430. Competence path will be immediately created for wastewater subsector, with special attention for facilitators for communal system where the demand is largest. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity. Table 24. Action Plan – Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation
Steps Formation of stakeholder group. Clarifying job titles of personnel Arranging levels of professional status for Output Stakeholder group for wastewater subsector. Job titles in in wastewater sub-sector. Levels of professional status for each job title in wastewater sub-sector, along with descriptions on the scope of works and Timeframe Q3 (2012) Q3 (2012), 2 months Q4 (2012), 2 months

59

Strategy and Action Plan

Steps each job title Outlining competence improvement plans for each professional status Determining requirement for formal recognition for each job title

Output degree of responsibilities. List of requirements to improve competence (mandatory training programs, additional experience, participation on seminars, etc.). Type of formal recognition for each job title (e.g. certification on competence (BNSP model), certification on training commencement, etc.).

Timeframe Q4 (2012), 2 months Q4 (2012), 2 months

431. This activity requires involvement of Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, professional association, training agencies, practitioners, academics, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity. 432. This activity should be followed by the development of competency standards and institutionalization of certification mechanism for prioritized job title in wastewater sub-sector. It is recommended that any follow-ups should targeting facilitators for communal system.

Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel
433. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity94.

Table 25. Action Plan – Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel
Steps Review of existing webbased network Appointing manager of the web-based network Improvement of existing web-based network Launching & promotion of the web-based network Output  Working group  Workplan to improve existing network  Manager of the network  Supervisory group Improved network (e.g. more features, access speed, graphic user interface, mobile application, and others).  Promoting the network; Events, internet, participation in exhibition, distributing leaflets, etc. Timeframe Q2 (2012) Q2 (2012) Q3-Q4 (2012)

Q4 (2012)

434. This activity requires involvement of Pokja AMPL, JEJARING network, professional association, and a work group. It is expected that donor agency can provide funding for this activity.

Follow-Up Studies
435. This study focused on a portion of sanitation personnel, and many aspects of capacity among sanitation personnel could not be addressed. Follow-up studies may be necessary to further evaluate various aspects not covered in this study. Among them are the following:
94

This activity will use the website developed for conducting survey in this Study as a starting point (www.leherangsa.com). In its development, the website has been designed using asocial network template. Therefore, it does need a lot of effort to modify it into a professional network. It is expected that the professional network can also serve as an integrated database for sanitation personnel, performance assessment tools, event and job promotion media, discussion forums, etc. An organization should be appointed to be in-charge in managing and improving the network. The network must be promoted to increase its members, including by having its official launching.

60

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

   

Assess current capacity and required competence of personnel involved in operations of sanitation facilities (sewerage systems, septage treatment plants, final disposal sites, etc); Assess gender preferences related to sanitation jobs, to answer the question why not more women are involved in sanitation programs; Assess current capacity and required competence of local government staff, and identify means to develop their capacity. Assess the potential and capacity of vocational schools (secondary) to offer sanitation-related programs, to produce personnel who support operations of municipal facilities and/or who support design and construction of communal sanitation facilities.

61

Strategy and Action Plan

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62

   

  ATTACHMENTS 
    1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities.  2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 – 2014).   3. Projection of the Next PPSP Program (2015 – 2019).  4. Level of Demand for Sanitation Personnel.  5. Level of Supply of Sanitation Personnel.  6. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning.  7. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.   8. List of Core Competencies:  Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation  Implementation.  9. List of Core Competencies:  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.  10. List of Universities with Environmental Engineering.  11. References     

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 1 

JOB TITTLES IN SELECTED SANITATION ACTIVITIES 
Activity  Job Title  Background  Level 

PREPARATION OF STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN  Preparation of City  Sanitation Strategy   1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning ‐ Province   2   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning ‐ Province   4   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  Development Planning   Preparation of PMSS  6   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   Various  Various  Environmental Engineering   Environmental Engineering   Financials   Various  Mid‐Level  Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level 

IMPLEMENTATION OF HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR IMPROVEMENT  Implementation of STBM  program   7   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  Change   Various  Junior 

IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNAL SANITATION SYSTEM  Implementation of  SANIMAS Program   8   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   9   Facilitator (Social) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER SERVICES  Completion of master plan  for wastewater services   10   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  System Planning   11   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   12   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Wastewater System Planning   13   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  System Planning   15   Consultant (Institutional) for Wastewater  System Planning   16   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Community Development) for  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  System Planning   19   Consultant (Communication) for  Wastewater System Planning   20   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Wastewater System Planning   Engineering design of  sewerage system   21   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   Environmental Engineering   Environmental Engineering   Urban Planning   Social Sciences   Financials   Institutionals   Law   Social Sciences   Business Study  Communications   Environmental  Sciences   Environmental Engineering    Senior   Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Senior   Environmental Engineering   Various  Entry‐Level   Junior 

1 ‐ 1   

Attachment 1 

 
22  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   23  Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   24  Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   26  Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   27  Consultant (Project Management) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   28  Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   29  Consultant (Environmental Management)   for Sewerage System Engineering Design   Engineering design of  sludge treatment facility   30  Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   31  Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   32  Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   33  Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34  Consultant (Project Management) for  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   35  Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   36  Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID WASTE SERVICES  Completion of master plan  for solid waste services   37  Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   38  Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   39  Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid  Waste System Planning   40  Consultant (Transportation) for Solid Waste  System Planning   41  Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid  Waste System Planning   42  Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  System Planning   43  Consultant (Institutional) for Solid Waste  System Planning   44   45   46   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  Waste System Planning   Consultant (Community Development) for  Solid Waste System Planning    Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  Environmental Engineering   Environmental Engineering   Urban Planning   Civil Engineering   Social Sciences   Financials   Institutionals   Law   Social Sciences   Business    Senior    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level   Environmental Engineering   Civil Engineering   Mechanical Engineering   Electrical Engineering   Soil Study   Management   Civil Engineering   Environmental  Sciences   Environmental Engineering   Civil Engineering   Mechanical Engineering   Electrical Engineering   Management    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Senior    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level  

Non specific  Environmental Sciences  

 Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level  

1 ‐ 2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
System Planning  47   48   Engineering design of final  disposal facility   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   Consultant (Communication) for Solid  Waste System Planning   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Solid Waste System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   Communications   Environmental Sciences   Environmental Engineering   Environmental Engineering   Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Senior    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level  

Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Civil Engineering   Engineering Design   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Transportation) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   Mechanical Engineering   Electrical Engineering   Civil Engineering   Geohydrology   Project Management   Various   Environmental Sciences  

DEVELOPMENT OF DRAINAGE SERVICES  Completion of master plan  for drainage services   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70   Engineering design of  drainage system   71   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Environmental/ Civil  Planning   Engineering   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage System  Planning   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Drainage System Planning    Consultant (Communication) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Drainage System Planning   Environmental/ Civil  Engineering   Urban Planning   Social Sciences   Financials   Institutionals   Law   Civil Engineering   Mechanical Engineering   Communications   Environmental Sciences    Senior    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Senior  

Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Environmental/ Civil  Engineering Design   Engineering  

1 ‐ 3   

Attachment 1 

 
72   73   74   75   76   77   78   OPERATION & MAINTENANCE  Operation & maintenance  of sewer network  operation   79   80   81   82   Operation & maintenance  83   of sewage treatment plant    84   85   86   Operation of sludge  treatment facility   87   88   89   90   Operation & maintenance  of final disposal site    91   92   93   94   Note:   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Operation  Operator (Management) for Sewer  Network Operation  Operator (Financial) for Sewer Network  Operation  Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  Operation  Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Treatment plant  Operator (Management) for Sewage  Treatment Plant  Operator (Financial) for Sewage Treatment  Plant  Operator (Safety) for Sewage Treatment  Plant  Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility  Operator (Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility  Operator (Financial) for Sludge Treatment  Facility  Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  Facility  Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  Site Operation  Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  Environmental/ Mechanical  Engineering   Management  Financials  Safety  Environmental Engineering   Management  Financials  Safety  Environmental/ Mechanical  Engineering   Management  Financials  Safety  Environmental/ Mechanical  Engineering   Management  Financials  Safety   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level  Junior  Junior   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level  Junior  Junior   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level  Junior  Junior   Mid‐Level   Mid‐Level  Junior  Junior  Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Project Management) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Drainage System Engineering Design   Civil Engineering   Mechanical Engineering   Civil Engineering   Electrical Engineering   Project Management   Various   Environmental Sciences    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level    Mid‐Level  

Main personnel are in bold letters. 

 

1 ‐ 4   

  Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 2 

ROADMAP OF PPSP PROGRAM (2010 – 2014) 
Plans 
Stages 
A  B  C  D  E  F  Campaign, education, advocacy, and guidance  Institutional and regulation development  Formulation of City/District Sanitation Strategy  Preparation of Program Memorandum  Implementation  Monitoring and evaluation 

2010 
49  63  41  21  3  41 

2011 
62  72  63  35  24  49 

2012 
72  82  72  45  59  62 

2013 
82  62  82  56  104  72 

2014 
100  100  62  65  160  82 

  Progress (per December 2011) 
Stages 
A  B  C  D  E  F  Campaign, education, advocacy, and guidance  Institutional and regulation development  Formulation of City/District Sanitation Strategy  Preparation of Program Memorandum  Implementation  Monitoring and evaluation 

2010 
58  58  (29) 42  13  3  n/a 

2011 
103  103  58  41  24  n/a 

2012 
117  117  117  67  59  n/a 

2013 
n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a 

2014 
n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a 

 
Note:  The number of Implementation is accumulative, while the rest is additional.  The number in bracket is 2009. 

       

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Attachment 2 

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2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 3 

PROJECTION OF THE NEXT PPSP PROGRAM (2015 – 2019) 
Stages 
A  B  C  D  E  F  Campaign, education, advocacy, and guidance  Institutional and regulation development  Formulation of City/District Sanitation Strategy  Preparation of Program Memorandum  Implementation  Monitoring and evaluation 

2015 
100  100  130  100  60  70 

2016 
0  40  120  130  60  80 

2017 
0  0  140  120  70  80 

2018 
0  0  60  140  70  90 

2019 
0  0  50  60  80  100 

 
Assumption:  • • • • • End of 2017: 500 cities/districts will have CSS,  End of 2018: 500 cities/districts will complete PMSS  End of 2019: 500 cities/districts will initiate the implementation stage.  Cities/districts must renew its CSS in 5‐year cycle, meaning the number in stage C representing the total number of  cities/districts renewing their CSS (developed in previous PPSP cycle) with new cities/district who have CSS for the  first time. Same case with the number in stage D.  The number of Implementation is accumulative, while the rest is addition.  

 

 

3 ‐ 1   

Attachment 3 

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2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 4 

LEVEL OF DEMAND FOR SANITATION PERSONNEL 
The attachment contains tables of:  • • • • • Estimated Number of Activities (Short‐Term and Medium‐Term)  Estimated Number of Job Opportunities (Short‐Term and Medium‐Term)  Estimated Number of Personnel Required (Short‐Term and Medium‐Term)  Summary of Main Personnel  Overall Summary 

  Numbers of activities are projected based on:    • Short‐term:  Current  PPSP  program  roadmap  (see  Attachment  2)  and  other  targets  in  the  RPJMN,  i.e.  by  end  of  2014:  340  cities/districts  with  CSS,  240  cities/districts  with  PMSS,  and  240  cities/districts  initiate implementation.  SANIMAS programs: 2,000 areas per year.  Medium‐term:  Preliminary  projections  of  the  next  PPSP  program  cycle  (see  Attachment  3)  with  the  targets:    500  cities/districts  with  CSS  by  end  of  2017,  with  PMSS  by  end  of  2018,  and  initiate  implementation by end of 2019.  STBM and SANIMAS programs with the same rate of implementation.   

  Numbers of job opportunities are estimated using this formula:  Ji = (Ai)  x (Ri,i)      Where,   ‐ Ji: Number of jobs opportunities (for a particular job title).  ‐ Ai:  Frequency of activity (requiring a particular job title).  ‐ Ri,i: Involvement ratio, i.e. number of individual (of a particular job title) required in an  activity (see Table 2).  Example, an STBM technical facilitator has an Ri,i of 0.1, which  means one facilitator is involved in ten location of STBM implementation.    Numbers of individuals required are estimated using this formula:  Pi = f(Ji, Fc,i)    Where,   ‐ Pi: Number of individuals (of a particular type of personnel) required.  ‐ Ji: Number of jobs available (for a particular type of personnel).  ‐ Fc,i: Continuity factor, i.e. proportion of individuals to continue working in the same job in  the subsequent period.  For example, a Fc,i = 0.7 of a social facilitator means that 70% of  the individuals will continue to work as a social facilitator in the program’s next period.  The smaller the factor, the fewer individuals stay in the same job.       

4 ‐ 1   

Attachment 4 

 
TABLE 4‐1. Estimated Number of Activities (Short‐Term) 
Number of Activities  Activity   1  Preparation of City  1 Sanitation Strategies   2  Preparation of PMSS   3  Implementation of STBM  3 program   4  Implementation of  4 SANIMAS program   5  Completion of master plans  for wastewater services 5  6  Engineering design of  sewerage system6  7  Engineering design of sludge  treatment facility7  8  Completion of master plan  8 for solid waste services   9  Engineering design of final   9 disposal facility   10  Completion of master plan  10 for drainage system   11  Engineering design of 
2

Unit  2010  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  Villages  Areas  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  40  10  ‐    1,500  10 

Past  2011  60  30  ‐    1,500  10  2012  100  60  6,000  1,500  40  5  20  40  50  40  10  2013  60  60  7,000  1,500  40  5  20  40  50  40  40 

Short‐term  2014  50   70   7,000   1,500   60   5   40   60   50   60   40   Sum  210  190  20,000  4,500  140  15  80  140  150  140  90 

                  ‐                      ‐    10  10  50  10                    ‐    10  10  50  10  10 

                                                            
 Source: Road‐map of the PPSP (Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman) program, 2010 – 2014 (see Appendix 2) and its  progress. Note: The PPSP total target is 330 cities/districts have completed CSS at the end of 2014. Per 2011, around 120 cities/  districts have done so. Therefore, it is expected that 210 more cities/districts must prepare their CSSs in the next three years. The  figures are presented as rounded numbers.   Source: Road‐map of the PPSP program, 2010 – 2014 (see Appendix 2). Note: The PPSP total target is 230 cities/districts have  prepared the Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector at the end of 2014. Per 2011, around 50 cities/ districts have done so.  Therefore, it is expected that 180 cities/districts will prepare the program memorandum for the next three years. The figures are  presented as rounded numbers.    Source: STBM Program Secretariat, Ministry of Health. Note: The upcoming STBM program is still focus on its first pillar, i.e. Stop  Open Defecation.   Source: Directorate for Environmental Sanitation, Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works. Note: The  annual target until the end of 2014 is around 1,500 SANIMAS facilities constructed. There will be 2 (two) types of SANIMAS  implementation programs, according to the funding source, i.e. 1) SANIMAS Reguler, funded by national government and city/ district  local government, and 2) SANIMAS USRI, funded by the Asian Development Bank through Urban Sanitation and Rural Initiative (USRI)  for Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM).  It is expected that the local governments and private sectors will also  participate to implement of SANIMAS programs.   Source: Road‐map of PPSP program, 2010 – 2014. It is assumed that all cities/districts pursuing the Implementation phase (in PPSP  program roadmap) will prepare wastewater service master plans (see Appendix 2).   Note: In 2011, the national government  (Ministry of Public Works) is only able to develop wastewater management master plans for 12 cities/ district. It is expected that a  number of master plans will be made directly by the local governments, in addition to those developed by the Ministry of Public  Works.  
6  Source: The National Medium‐Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010 – 2015. Note: It is planned that by 2014, Indonesia will have  16 cities with sewerage systems. The works will include improvement of existing systems in 11 cities (Balikpapan, Banjarmasin,  Bandung, Cirebon, Jakarta, Medan, Prapat, Surakarta, Tangerang, Yogyakarta, and Denpasar) and development of new systems in  five cities.  7  It is assumed that city/ district will prepare the engineering design of sludge treatment facility in the following year after  wastewater service master plan is completed.   8  It is assumed that all cities/districts pursuing the Implementation phase (in PPSP program roadmap) will also prepare solid waste  management master plans.  5 4 3 2 1

 Source: The National Medium‐Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010 – 2015. Note: By 2014, around 240 solid waste final disposal  areas in Indonesian cities must be improved to meet sanitary landfill specification and performance standards. It is assumed in the  next three years, there are still 150 landfill engineering designs to be completed, or 50 designs a year.   Source: The National Medium‐Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010 – 2015. Note: By 2014, around drainage systems in 100  strategic locations must be improved to prevent them from flooding.  It is assumed then that each year 20 master plans of urban  drainage systems must be produced.   
10

9

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
drainage system11  12  Operation of sewer system   13  Operation of sewage  13 treatment plant    14  Operation of sludge  14 treatment facility   15  Operation of final disposal  15 facility  
12

districts cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts                    ‐                      ‐                      ‐                      ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    10  50    5     5   10   50     5    5  20  50  10  10  40  150 

       

                                                            
 It is assumed that the engineering design of drainage system must be prepared in the following year after drainage system master  plan is completed.     The number is only for the new and improved sewer systems. It is assumed only ten sewer systems can be developed in the current  PPSP out of 16 targeted.  
13 14 15 12 11

 Same assumption as the sewer system since the sewage treatment plant and sewer system are parts of a sewerage system.    At least two year time is required to construct a sludge treatment facility following the completion of its engineering design.   At least two year time is required to construct a final disposal facility following the completion of its engineering design. 

4 ‐ 3   

Attachment 4 

 
TABLE 4‐2. Estimated Number of Activities (Medium‐Term) 
Activity   1  Preparation of City  Sanitation Strategies16  2  Preparation of Program  Memorandum of Sanitation  Sector17  3  Implementation of STBM  program18  4  Implementation of  19 SANIMAS Program   5  Completion of master plans  20 for wastewater services   6  Engineering design of  21 sewerage system   7  Engineering design of sludge  22 treatment facility   8  Completion of master plan  23 for solid waste services   9  Engineering design of final  disposal facility24  10  Completion of master plan  for drainage system25  11  Engineering design of  drainage system  12  Operation of sewer system  13  Operation of sewage  treatment plant   14  Operation of sludge  treatment facility  15  Operation of final disposal  facility  Unit  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  Villages  Areas  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  cities/  districts  Number of Activities  2015  130  100  2016  120  130  2017  140  120  2018  60  140  2019  50  60  Sum  ‐‐‐  ‐‐ 

7,000  2,000  60  10  80  60  50  80  80  5  10  20  50 

7,000  2,000  60  10  80  60  50  80  80  5  10  40  50 

7,000  2,000  70  10  80  70  50  80  80  10  20  80  50 

7,000  2,000  70  10  80  70  50  80  80  10  20  80  50 

7,000  2,000  80  10  80  80  50  80  80  10  20  80  50 

35,000  10,000  340  50  400  340  250  400  400  40  80  300  250 

   

                                                            
Cities/districts (total of 330) which have prepared their CSS in 2010‐2014 are expected to update their CSS for the 2015‐2019  development cycle. In addition, 170 more cities/districts will prepare CSS during 2015 – 2017 period. Therefore, by end of 2017, a  grand total of 500 cities/districts will have CSSs. The 2015 – 2017 figures are comprised of cities/districts preparing CSS updates plus  new CSS.     It is targeted that by end of 2018, all 500 cities/districts will complete their PMSS. The 2015 – 2018 figures include some  cities/districts from the previous PPSP program cycle, which have not finished preparing the program memorandum by end of 2014.     The same STBM implementation rate from the 2012‐2014 period is used. However, villages are expected to progress to the second  pillar (and further) during the next development cycle. By end of 2019, it expected that 35,000 villages will be in STBM program.   The same SANIMAS implementation rate from the 2012‐2014 period is used,  i.e. 2,000 per year. Therefore, it expected that 10,000  SANIMAS facilities will be completed by end of 2019.   
20  It is assumed that all 500 cities/districts in the end of 2019 must possess master plans for wastewater services, solid waste services,  and drainage system. Prior to that Program Memorandum must be prepared.   21 22 23 19 18 17 16

 It is assumed that 50 more sewerage systems will be built in medium‐to‐large cities during the 2014 – 2019 development period.   At the end of 2019, 400 more of sludge treatment designs are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the designs. 

 At the end of 2019, 340 more of solid waste master plans are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the master  plans.  
24 25

 At the end of 2019, 250 more of final disposal designs are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the designs. 

 At the end of 2019, 400 more of drainage system master plans are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the master  plans. Same assumption for the drainage engineering designs. 

4 ‐ 4   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
TABLE 4‐3. Estimated Number of Job Opportunities (Short‐Term) 
Job Title  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning ‐ Province   2   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning ‐ Province   4   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  Development Planning   6   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   7   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  Change   8   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   9   Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation  System Implementation   10   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  System Planning   11   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   12   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Wastewater  System Planning   13   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  System Planning   15   Consultant (Institutional) for Wastewater  System Planning   16   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Community Development) for  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  System Planning   19   Consultant (Communication) for  Wastewater System Planning   20   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Wastewater System Planning   21   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   22   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   23   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   24   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   26   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   27   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   29   Consultant (Environmental Management)   Ratio  (person/  activity)  na  1  na  1  na  1  0.1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

Number of Job Opportunities 
2010   ‐  10   ‐  40   ‐  10  ‐    1,500  1,500  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    2011   ‐  30   ‐  60   ‐  30  ‐    1,500  1,500  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    2012  26   60   26   100   26   60   600   1,500   1,500   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   2013  26   60   26   60   26   60   700   1,500   1,500   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   5   2014  26  70  26  50  26  70  700  1,500  1,500  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  5  Sum  78  190  78  210  78  190  2,000  4,500  4,500  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  15  15  15  15  15  15  15  15  15 

4 ‐ 5   

Attachment 4 

 
for Sewerage System Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility Engineering Design   31   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   32   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   33   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Project Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   35   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   36   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    37   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   38   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   39   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid Waste  System Planning   40   Consultant (Transportation) for Solid Waste  System Planning   41   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid Waste  System Planning   42   Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  System Planning   43   Consultant (Institutional) for Solid Waste  System Planning   44   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  Waste System Planning   45   Consultant (Community Development) for  Solid Waste System Planning   46   Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  System Planning   47   Consultant (Communication) for Solid Waste  System Planning   48   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Solid Waste System Planning   49   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   52   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   53   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Transportation) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   59   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  20  20  20  20  20  20  20  20   20   20   20   20   20   20   40  40  40  40  40  40  40  80  80  80  80  80  80  80 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

10  10  10  10  10  10  10     10  10  10  10  10  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   50   50   50   50   50   50       50   50   50   50   50  

60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  150  150  150  150  150  150  150  150  150  150  150 

4 ‐ 6   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design  60   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Planning   61   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   62   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Drainage  System Planning   63   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Drainage  System Planning   64   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage System  Planning   65   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  System Planning   66   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Drainage  System Planning   67   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Planning   68   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  System Planning   69   Consultant (Communication) for Drainage  System Planning   70   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Drainage System Planning   71   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   72   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Project Management) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   77   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   78   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Drainage System Engineering Design   79   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Operation  80   Operator (Management) for Sewer Network  Operation  81   Operator (Financial) for Sewer Network  Operation  82   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  Operation  83   Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment  plant  84   Operator (Management) for Sewage  Treatment Plant  85   Operator (Financial) for Sewage Treatment  Plant  86   Operator (Safety) for Sewage Treatment  Plant  87   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility  88   Operator (Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility  89   Operator (Financial) for Sludge Treatment  Facility  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  2  1  1  1  2  1  1  1  2  1  1  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    20   10   10   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   40   10   5   5   5   10   5   5   5   20   10   10   60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60       40       40       40       40       40       40       40       40  10    5    5    5  10    5    5    5  40  20  20  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  140  90  90  90  90  90  90  90  90    20     10     10     10  20     10     10     10  80  40  40 

4 ‐ 7   

Attachment 4 

 
90   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  Facility  91   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  92   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  Site Operation  93   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  94   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  TOTAL  1  2  1  1  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    ‐    10  100  50  50  50  10   100   50   50   50   20     100    50    50    50  40    300     150     150     150  20,699 

         

4 ‐ 8   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
TABLE 4‐4. Estimated Number of Job Opportunities (Medium‐Term) 
Job Title  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning ‐ Province   2   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning ‐ Province   4   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  Development Planning   6   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   7   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  Change   8   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   9   Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation  System Implementation   10   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  System Planning   11   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   12   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Wastewater  System Planning   13   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  System Planning   15   Consultant (Institutional) for Wastewater  System Planning   16   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Community Development) for  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  System Planning   19   Consultant (Communication) for  Wastewater System Planning   20   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Wastewater System Planning   21   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   22   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   23   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   24   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   26   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   27   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   Ratio  (person/  activity)  na  1  na  1  na  1  0.1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

Number of Job Opportunities 
2015  33  100  33  130  33  100  700  1,500  1,500  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  2016  33  130  33  120  33  130  700  1,500  1,500  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  2017  33   120   33   140   33   120   700   1,500   1,500   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   2018  33   140   33   60   33   140   700   1,500   1,500   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   2019  33  60  33  50  33  60  700  1,500  1,500  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10  Sum  165  550  165  500  165  550  3,500  7,500  7,500  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

4 ‐ 9   

Attachment 4 

 
29   Consultant (Environmental Management)   for Sewerage System Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility Engineering Design   31   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   32   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   33   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Project Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   35   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   36   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    37   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   38   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   39   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid Waste  System Planning   40   Consultant (Transportation) for Solid Waste  System Planning   41   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid Waste  System Planning   42   Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  System Planning   43   Consultant (Institutional) for Solid Waste  System Planning   44   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  Waste System Planning   45   Consultant (Community Development) for  Solid Waste System Planning   46   Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  System Planning   47   Consultant (Communication) for Solid Waste  System Planning   48   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Solid Waste System Planning   49   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   52   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   53   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Transportation) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  10  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  10  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  10  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  10   80   80   80   80   80   80   80   10  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  50  400  400  400  400  400  400  400 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

70  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   50   50   50   50   50   50   50   50   50   50  

80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  250  250  250  250  250  250  250  250  250  250 

4 ‐ 10   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
59   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   60   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Planning   61   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   62   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Drainage  System Planning   63   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Drainage  System Planning   64   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage System  Planning   65   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  System Planning   66   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Drainage  System Planning   67   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Planning   68   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  System Planning   69   Consultant (Communication) for Drainage  System Planning   70   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Drainage System Planning   71   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   72   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Project Management) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   77   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   78   Consultant (Environmental Management)  for Drainage System Engineering Design   79   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Operation  80   Operator (Management) for Sewer Network  Operation  81   Operator (Financial) for Sewer Network  Operation  82   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  Operation  83   Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment  plant  84   Operator (Management) for Sewage  Treatment Plant  85   Operator (Financial) for Sewage Treatment  Plant  86   Operator (Safety) for Sewage Treatment  Plant  87   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility  88   Operator (Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility  89   Operator (Financial) for Sludge Treatment  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  2  1  1  1  2  1  1  1  2  1  1  50  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  10  5  5  5  10  5  5  5  40  20  20  50  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  60  20  10  10  10  20  10  10  10  80  40  40  50   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   60   60   60   60   60   60   60   60   20   10   10   10   20   10   10   10   160   80   80   50   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   70   20   10   10   10   20   10   10   10   160   80   80   50  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  80  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  70  20  10  10  10  20  10  45  10  10  160  80  80  45  45  600  300  300  250  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  340  320  320  320  320  320  320  320  320  90  45  45  45  90    

4 ‐ 11   

Attachment 4 

 
Facility  90   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  Facility  91   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  92   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  Site Operation  93   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  94   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal Site  Operation  TOTAL  1  2  1  1  1  20  100  50  50  50  40  100  50  50  50  80  100  50  50  50  80   100   50   50   50   80  100  50  50  50  300  500  250  250  250  43,915 

 

4 ‐ 12   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
TABLE 4‐5. Estimated Number of Individuals Required (Short‐Term) 
Job Title  1    Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   2    Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  Development Planning   4   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic  Behavior Change   6   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   7  Facilitator (Social) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   8  Consultant (Technical) for  Wastewater System Planning   9  Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   10  Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Wastewater System Planning   11  Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Wastewater System Planning   12   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  System Planning   13   Consultant (Institutional) for  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  Wastewater System Planning   15   Consultant (Community Development)  for Wastewater System Planning   16   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  System Planning   17   Consultant (Communication) for  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Wastewater System  Planning   19   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   20   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   21   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   22   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   23   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   24   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   Work  Continuity  Duration  Ratio  (years)  2   0.7  2   2   1   2   2   2   2   2   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0.7  0.7  0.7  0.5  0.5  0.5  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

Number of Individuals 
2012  86  126  26  60  600  1,500  1,500  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  2013  86   86   26   18   700   1,500   1,500   40   40   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   2014  36    (12)  8   28   400   750   750   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   Sum  208  200  60  106  1,700  3,750  3,750  108  108  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76 

1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

5  5  5  5  5  5  5 

1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

7  7  7  7  7  7  7 

4 ‐ 13   

Attachment 4 

 
26   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Sewerage System Engineering Design   27   Consultant (Environmental  Management)  for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   29   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   31   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   32   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   33   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Sludge Treatment  Facility Engineering Design    35   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   36   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   37   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid  Waste System Planning   38   Consultant (Transportation) for Solid  Waste System Planning   39   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid  Waste System Planning   40   Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  System Planning   41   Consultant (Institutional) for Solid  Waste System Planning   42   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  Waste System Planning   43   Consultant (Community Development)  for Solid Waste System Planning   44   Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  System Planning   45   Consultant (Communication) for Solid  Waste System Planning   46   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Solid Waste System  Planning   47   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   48   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   49   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   1   1   0.8  0.8  5  5  1  1  1   1   7  7 

1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8 

20  20  20 

4  4  4 

24   24   24  

48  48  48 

1  

0.8 

20 

24  

48 

1  

0.8 

20 

24  

48 

1   1  

0.8  0.8 

20  20 

4  4 

24   24  

48  48 

2   2   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40 

40  40  8  8  8  8  8  8  8  8  8  8 

28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28  

108  108  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76 

2   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

50  50  50  50  50 

10  10  10  10  10 

10   10   10   10   10  

70  70  70  70  70 

4 ‐ 14   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
52   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   53    Consultant (Transportation) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Project Management) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Planning   59   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   60   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Drainage System Planning   61   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Drainage System Planning   62   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage  System Planning   63   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  System Planning   64   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  Drainage System Planning   65   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Planning   66   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Drainage System Planning   67   Consultant (Communication) for  Drainage System Planning   68   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Drainage System  Planning   69   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   70   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   71    Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   72   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Project Management) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Drainage System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   77   Operator (Technical) for Sewer  Network Operation   78   Operator (Management) for Sewer  Network Operation   1   1   1   1   1   1   0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  50  50  50  50  50  50  10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   10   70  70  70  70  70  70 

2   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40  40 

40   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8  

28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28   28  

108  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76  76 

2   1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

10  10  10  10  10  10  10  10 

32   32   32   32   32   32   32   32  

8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8  

50  50  50  50  50  50  50  50 

     

1  1 

                ‐                    ‐   

10   5  

10   5  

20  10 

4 ‐ 15   

Attachment 4 

 
79   Operator (Financial) for Sewer  Network Operation   80   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  Operation   81   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Treatment plant   82   Operator (Management) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   83   Operator (Financial) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   84   Operator (Safety) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   85   Operator (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   86   Operator (Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   87   Operator (Financial) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   88   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  Facility   89   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal  Site Operation   90   Operator (Management) for Final  Disposal Site Operation   91   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal  Site Operation   92   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal  Site Operation   TOTAL                                            1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1                  ‐                    ‐                    ‐                    ‐                    ‐                    ‐    20  10  10  10  100  50  50  50  5  5  10  5  5  5  20  10  10  10  100  50  50  50  5   5   10   5   5   5   40   20   20   20   100   50   50   50   10  10  20  10  10  10  80  40  40  40  300  150  150  150  15,136 

   

4 ‐ 16   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
TABLE 4‐6. Estimated Number of Individuals Required (Medium‐Term) 
Job Title  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   2   Facilitator (Technical) for  Sanitation Development  Planning   3   Facilitator (Financial) for  Sanitation Development  Planning   4   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic  Behavior Change   6   Facilitator (Technical) for  Communal Sanitation System  Implementation   7  Facilitator (Social) for  Communal Sanitation System  Implementation   8  Consultant (Technical) for  Wastewater System Planning   9  Consultant (Technical) for  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   10  Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Wastewater System Planning   11  Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Wastewater System Planning   12   Consultant (Financial) for  Wastewater System Planning   13   Consultant (Institutional) for  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory)  for Wastewater System Planning   15   Consultant (Community  Development) for Wastewater  System Planning   16   Consultant (Business) for  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Communication) for  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Wastewater  System Planning   19   Consultant (Technical) for  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   20   Consultant (Technical) for  Wastewater Treatment Plant  Engineering Design   21   Consultant (Civil Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   22   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   Work  Continuity  Duration  Ratio  (years)  2   0.7  2   0.7 

Number of Individuals 
2015  73  103  2016  96  100  2017  60   59   2018  59   (14)  2019  (14)   (38)  Sum   273  209 

2  

0.7 

15 

15 

10  

10 

10 

59 

1   2   2  

0.7  0.5  0.5 

51  350  750 

60  350  750 

29   350   750  

56  350  750 

 (38)  350  750 

158  1,750   3,750 

2  

0.5 

750 

750 

750  

750 

750 

 3,750 

2   2  

0.8  0.8 

28  28 

12  12 

22   22  

22  22 

24  24 

108  108 

1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

12  12  12  12  12  12 

12  12  12  12  12  12 

22   22   22   22   22   22  

14  14  14  14  14  14 

24  24  24  24  24  24 

84  84  84  84  84  84 

1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8 

12  12  12 

12  12  12 

22   22   22  

14  14  14 

24  24  24 

84  84  84 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

4 ‐ 17   

Attachment 4 

 
23   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   24   Consultant (Soil Works) for  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   25   Consultant (Project  Management) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   26   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   27   Consultant (Environmental  Management)  for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Technical) for  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   29   Consultant (Civil Works) for  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  for Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   31   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   32   Consultant (Project  Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   33   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    35   Consultant (Technical) for Solid  Waste System Planning   36   Consultant (Technical) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   37   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Solid Waste System Planning   38   Consultant (Transportation) for  Solid Waste System Planning   39   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Solid Waste System Planning   40   Consultant (Financial) for Solid  Waste System Planning   41   Consultant (Institutional) for  Solid Waste System Planning   42   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory)  for Solid Waste System Planning   43   Consultant (Community  Development) for Solid Waste  System Planning   44   Consultant (Business) for Solid  Waste System Planning   45   Consultant (Communication) for  Solid Waste System Planning   1   0.8  6  2  2  2   2  14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

2  

14 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

1  

0.8 

48 

16 

16 

16  

16 

112 

2   2  

0.8  0.8 

28  28 

12  12 

22  22 

22   22  

24  24 

108  108 

1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

12  12  12  12  12  12  12 

12  12  12  12  12  12  12 

22  22  22  22  22  22  22 

14   14   14   14   14   14   14  

24  24  24  24  24  24  24 

84  84  84  84  84  84  84 

1   1  

0.8  0.8 

12  12 

12  12 

22  22 

14   14  

24  24 

84  84 

4 ‐ 18   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
46   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Solid Waste  System Planning   47   Consultant (Technical) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   48   Consultant (Technical) for  Wastewater Treatment Plant  Engineering Design   49   Consultant (Soil Works) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   50   Consultant (Civil Works) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   51   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  for Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   52   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   53    Consultant (Transportation) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   54   Consultant (Geohydrology) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   55   Consultant (Project  Management) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   57   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Technical) for  Drainage System Planning   59   Consultant (Soil Works) for  Drainage System Engineering  Design   60   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Drainage System Planning   61   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Drainage System Planning   62   Consultant (Financial) for  Drainage System Planning   63   Consultant (Institutional) for  Drainage System Planning   64   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory)  for Drainage System Planning   65   Consultant (Civil Works) for  Drainage System Planning   66   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  for Drainage System Planning   67   Consultant (Communication) for  Drainage System Planning   68   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Drainage  System Planning   1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84 

2  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

1  

0.8 

10 

10 

10  

10 

10 

50 

2   1  

0.8  0.8 

28  12 

12  12 

22   22  

22  14 

24  24 

108  84 

1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1  

0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8  0.8 

12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12 

12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12  12 

22   22   22   22   22   22   22   22   22  

14  14  14  14  14  14  14  14  14 

24  24  24  24  24  24  24  24  24 

84  84  84  84  84  84  84  84  84 

4 ‐ 19   

Attachment 4 

 
69   Consultant (Technical) for  Drainage System Engineering  Design   70   Consultant (Soil Works) for  Drainage System Engineering  Design   71    Consultant (Mechanical Works)  for Drainage System Engineering  Design   72   Consultant (Civil Works) for  Drainage System Engineering  Design   73   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  Drainage System Engineering  Design   74   Consultant (Project  Management) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  Drainage System Engineering  Design   76   Consultant (Environmental  Management) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   77   Operator (Technical) for Sewer  Network Operation   78   Operator (Management) for  Sewer Network Operation   79   Operator (Financial) for Sewer  Network Operation   80   Operator (Safety) for Sewer  Network Operation   81   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Treatment plant   82   Operator (Management) for  Sewage Treatment Plant   83   Operator (Financial) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   84   Operator (Safety) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   85   Operator (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   86   Operator (Management) for  Sludge Treatment Facility   87   Operator (Financial) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   88   Operator (Safety) for Sudge  Treatment Facility   89   Operator (Technical) for Final  Disposal Site Operation   90   Operator (Management) for  Final Disposal Site Operation   91   Operator (Financial) for Final  Disposal Site Operation   92   Operator (Safety) for Final  Disposal Site Operation   TOTAL  2   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

1  

0.8 

28 

12 

12 

22  

14 

88 

                                               

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

10  5  5  5  10  5  5  5  40  20  20  20  100  50  50  50 

20  10  10  10  20  10  10  10  80  40  40  40  100  50  50  50 

20  10  10  10  20  10  10  10  160  80  80  80  100  50  50  50 

20   10   10   10   20   10   10   10   160   80   80   80   100   50   50   50  

20  10  10  10  20  10  10  10  160  80  80  80  100  50  50  50 

90  45  45  45  90  45  45  45  600  300  300  300  500  250  250  250  18,290 

    4 ‐ 20   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
TABLE 4‐7. Summary of Demand for Main Personnel  
Job Opportunities  Main Personnel  Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development  Planning   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development  Planning   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  Change   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation  System Implementation   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System  Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste System  Planning    Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Operation   Operator (Management) for Sewer Network  Operation   Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment  plant   Operator (Management) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility   Operator (Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  Operation   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  Site Operation   TOTAL   Short‐Term            268            288            190         2,000         4,500         4,500            140              15              80            140            150            140              90              20              10              20              10              80              40            300            150  13,131  Medium‐ Term            715            665            550         3,500         7,500         7,500            340              50            400            340            250            340            320              90              45              90              45            600            300            500            250  24,390  F             0.7             0.7             0.7             0.5             0.5             0.5             0.8             0.8             0.8             0.8             0.8             0.8             0.8             1.0             1.0             1.0             1.0             1.0             1.0             1.0             1.0    Required Individuals  Short‐Term            208             200             106          1,700          3,750          3,750             108                 7               48             108               70             108               50               20               10               20               10               80               40             300             150   10,843  Medium‐ Term            273            209            158         1,750         3,750         3,750            108              14            112            108              50            108              88              90              45              90              45            600            300            500            250  12,399 

 

4 ‐ 21   

Attachment 4 

 
TABLE 4‐8. Level of Demand for Sanitary Personnel  
Category  Total  Role  All Personnel  Main Personnel  All Personnel  Facilitator  Consultant  Operator  Main Personnel  Facilitator  Consultant  Operator  Field /  Education  All Personnel  Technical  Facilitator  Consultant  Operator  Non‐Technical  Main Personnel  Technical  Facilitator  Consultant  Operator  Non‐Technical  Experience  All Personnel  Senior  Mid‐Level  Junior  Entry‐Level  Main Personnel  Senior  Mid‐Level  Junior  Entry‐Level  Note:  4,870  3,950  500  420  5,975    500  5,020  5,870  3,750    500  1,145  5,450  3,750  45  36  5  4  55    3  33  39  25    5  11  50  35  5,830  3,960  590  1,289  6,570    590  7,175  6,780  3,750    590  2,560  5,500  3,750  47  32  5  10  55    3  39  37  21    5  21  44  30  5,240  3,950  870  420  9,900  35  26    6    3  65  6,190  3,960  950  1,280  12,100  34              22  5  7  66  9,710  500  630  89    5    6  9,890  590  1,920  80  5  15  9,780  4,310  1,050                65  28    7  9,950  5,140  3,200  54  28  17  Short Term  Amount  15,140  10,845  %    72  Medium‐Term  Amount  18,290  12,400  %    68 

Percentages of categories under the all personnel are proportional to the total number of all  personnel. While, percentages of categories under the main personnel are proportional to the  total number of main personnel.  

 

4 ‐ 22   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 5 

LEVEL OF SUPPLY OF SANITATION PERSONNEL 
The attachment contains tables of:  • • Estimated Supply of Eligible Individuals  Estimated Supply of Individuals from the Potential Group  

  Numbers of eligible are projected from (see Table 9‐1):    • Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning: Individuals who currently are CSS/PMSS facilitators, and who have been  trained.   • • • Facilitator  (Social)  for  Hygienic  Behavior:  Individuals  who  have  participated  in  CLTS  or  STBM  programs,  and  who  have been trained.   Facilitators (Technical) for Communal System: Individuals who have been prepared and involved in previous or on‐ going SANIMAS programs.   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: Number of senior and some mid‐level LPJK‐certified engineers, of  which  17% are  wastewater  expert, 16% are  solid waste expert, 8% are  (drainage expert, and  59% are water  supply  expert.  Operators of various sanitation facilities: Number of facilities currently operating in Indonesia.   

  Numbers of potential individuals (technical personnel only) are projected from (see Table 9‐2):    • Technical  with  senior  experience:  Tapped  from  senior  certified  experts  (Ahli  Utama)  with  strong  water  supply  background.   • Technical  with  mid‐level  experience: Obtained  from  two  sources,  i.e.  a)  mid‐level  certified  experts  (Ahli  Madya)  with  a  strong  water  supply  background,  and  b)  environmental  engineering  alumni  with  5  –  10  years  of  experience.    Technical  with  junior  experience:  Obtained  from  two  sources,  a)  junior‐level  certified  environmental  engineers  (Ahli Muda), and b) environmental engineering alumni with 2 – 4 years of experience.   Technical  with  entry‐level  experience:  Obtain  from  environmental  engineers  with  less  than  2  years  of  experience.  

• •

     

5 ‐ 1   

Attachment 5 

 
TABLE 9‐1. Estimated Supply of Eligible  Job Titles   FACILITATORS   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Development Planning   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  Change   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation   Facilitator (Social) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation    CONSULTANTS    Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Engineering Design    OPERATORS   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Operation   Operator (Management) for Sewer  Network Operation   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Treatment plant   Operator (Management) for Sewage  Treatment Plant   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Facility   Operator (Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  Operation   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  Site Operation    TOTAL   Supply of  Eligibles  321  129  1,378  3,000  3,000  Short‐Term  Demand  314  200  1,700  3,750  3,750  Delta  Note 

7   Sufficient    (71)  Insufficient    (322)  Insufficient    (750)  Insufficient    (750)  Insufficient  

143  115 

108  7  48 

35   Sufficient   60   Sufficient   Insufficient   23   Sufficient   35   Sufficient    (41)  Insufficient   4   Sufficient  

131  105  67  54 

108  70  108  50 

11  11  11   11  100  100  200   200  9,086 

20  10  20  10  80  40  300  150  10,843 

 (9)  Insufficient   1   Sufficient   (9)  Insufficient   1   Sufficient   20   Sufficient   60   Sufficient    (100)  Insufficient   50   Sufficient     (1,756)    

 

 

5 ‐ 2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
TABLE 9‐2. Estimated Supply of Individuals from the Potential Group  Technical  Level    Senior    Job Titles   (Technical Only)  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Planning   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Development Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Operation   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Treatment plant   Operator (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal  Site Operation   ‐‐  ‐‐   Entry Level    TOTAL   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Sanitation System Implementation    Potential  Individuals   99   Medium‐Term  Demand   Note 

324   Insufficient 

 Mid‐Level  

402 

209   Insufficient  264  

620 

1,280   Insufficient 

 Junior  

2,277  372     248   4,018 

3,750   Insufficient 

5,827   Insufficient 

     

5 ‐ 3   

Attachment 5 

      This page is intentionally left blank   

5 ‐ 4   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 6 

LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES:  FACILITATOR (POLICY) FOR SANITATION DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 
Units of Competency  1.0  Comprehend general  characteristics of the  area  1.1  1.2  1.3  1.4  1.5  Elements of Competency  Evaluate information on physical  conditions of the area  Evaluate information on  demographic characteristics   Evaluate information on land‐use  characteristic  Evaluate information on socio‐ economic condition   Evaluate information on existing  infrastructure  • • Need‐to‐Know Criteria  Basic sanitation issues   Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population density,  growth rate,  gender distribution,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, development trends,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

• • • •

2.0 

Assess sanitation  conditions of the  communities 

2.1  2.2  2.3  2.4  2.5 

Assess community sanitation  behavior  Assess access of communities to  safe water sources  Assess access of communities to  sanitation facilities   Assess level of cleanliness of  communities  Assess environmental health risks of  communities 

• • • • • • • •

Basic understanding of community sanitation  behavior and health issues  Principles of community sanitation condition  survey  Sanitation indicators for households level  Survey data collection and analysis techniques   Assessing and summarizing of community  sanitation condition   PPSP concept and approaches   Format of Environmental Health Risk  Assessment (EHRA) report as guided by PPSP  Relation of EHRA with Sanitation White Book  and CSS.  Basic understanding of sanitation issues, at the  community and city levels   Public health issues related to sanitation  condition  Components of sanitation profile   Principles of sanitation profile mapping  Type and characteristics of sanitation services  Data collection and analysis techniques  PPSP concept and approaches   Format of the Sanitation White Book as guided  by PPSP.  Relation between Sanitation White Book with  EHRA and CSS.  Basic sanitation issues   Principles of prediction methodologies for  demography and land‐use development   Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology, 

3.0 

Prepare sanitation  profile of the area 

3.1  3.2  3.3  3.4 

Evaluate information on available  sanitation services   Evaluate information on sanitation  institutional aspect   Evaluate information on sanitation  regulation and policy aspect  Evaluate information on  involvement of sanitation  stakeholders   Evaluate information on sanitation  financing  Identify issues and opportunities in  sanitation development  Evaluate information on future  physical conditions of the area  Evaluate information on future  demographic characteristics   Evaluate information on future  land‐use characteristic  Evaluate information on future 

• • • • • • • • • • • •

3.5  3.6  4.0  Comprehend  projections on future  characteristics of the  area  4.1  4.2  4.3  4.4 

6 ‐ 1   

Attachment 6 

 
socio‐economic conditions  4.5  Evaluate information on future  infrastructure  • • • • • 5.0  Formulate basic  framework for  sanitation  development  in the  area  5.1  5.2  Formulate the desired state of  sanitation conditions   Formulate tasks and functions for  development of the sanitation  sector  Identify strategic issues of sanitation  development in the area  Determine scope of sanitation  development in the area  • • • geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population, growth rate,   gender,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, trend of developments,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

Components of city/ district spatial plan   Basic sanitation issues   Government policies on sanitation  development  Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  National, provincial, and city/ district medium‐  and long‐term strategic development planning   PPSP concept and approaches   Components of city/ district sanitation  strategic plans  Basic principles in making vision and mission  statements  Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   Format of the CSS document as guided by PPSP  Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book and EHRA.  Basic sanitation issues   Government policies on sanitation  development, including those related to the  basic framework  Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  City/ district medium‐ and long‐term strategic  development planning  Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   Type and characteristics of sanitation services  PPSP concept and approaches   Understanding EHRA document and Sanitation  White Book  Zoning of sanitation services  Access to sanitation services  Format of the CSS document as guided by PPSP  Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans  Basic sanitation issues   Principles of program planning  Government policies on sanitation  development, including those related to its  basic framework and direction. 

5.3  5.4 

• • • • • • •

6.0 

Formulate direction  for sanitation  development  

6.1  6.2  6.3  6.4 

Determine timeframe for  development of sanitation services  Determine targets for access to  sanitation services  Determine criteria for zoning of  sanitation services   Determine criteria for selection of  type of sanitation services to be  developed 

• •

• • • • • • • • •

7.0 

Prepare general  proposal for  sanitation  development  programs 

7.1 

Prepare general proposal for  sanitation infrastructure  development programs   Prepare general proposal for  sanitation institutional capacity  building programs  

• • •

7.2 

6 ‐ 2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
7.3  Prepare general proposal for  sanitation regulation and policy  development programs  Prepare general proposal for public  participation improvement  programs   Prepare general proposal for private  sector improvement programs  Prepare general proposal for  improvement of funding mechanism  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  Understanding of  city/ district development  planning process  Principles of sanitation program planning,  covering infrastructure, institutional capacity,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector, and funding issues  PPSP concept and approaches   Format of the CSS document as guided by PPSP  Content and format of a general proposal for  sanitation programs  Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans  Basic sanitation issues   PPSP concept and approaches   Understanding of  city/ district development  planning process  Decision making process of sanitation  development proposals  Funding mechanism for sanitation  development programs  Involvement of sanitation development  stakeholders  Preparation of Sanitation Development  Program Memorandum   Principles of monitoring and evaluation for  sanitation development   Basic sanitation issues   PPSP concept and approaches   Sanitation stakeholders at the national,  provincial, and local/ district levels  Buy‐in methods and tactics   Assessment technique for institutional and  individual capacity   Program and project management   Managing group dynamics   Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings, and  discussions  Training and coaching technique  Effective communication and presentation  skills  Information and data documentation  Basic sanitation issues   PPSP concept and approaches   Principles and methods of participatory  process  Buy‐in methods and tactics   Facilitation principles, methods, and  techniques 

7.4 

• •

7.5  7.6 

• • • •

8.0 

Prepare  implementation  concept for  sanitation  development 

8.1  8.2 

Recommend prioritization of  sanitation development programs   Prepare implementation schedule  for sanitation development  programs  Define tasks and responsibilities of  program implementors  Develop concept for sanitation  development program funding  Develop monitoring and evaluation  concept for sanitation development  implementation 

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

8.3  8.4  8.5 

9.0 

Develop strategic  partnerships 

9.1  9.2  9.3  9.4  9.5 

Identify and assess capacity of  relevant parties  Improve awareness and knowledge  of relevant parties  Develop role and responsibilities of  relevant parties   Consolidate workplan of relevant  parties  Develop communication channels  among relevant parties 

10.0  Facilitate  participatory 

10.1  Explain participatory process and  objectives  10.2  Facilitate discussions and meetings   10.3  Provide inputs to participatory  process  10.4  Monitor and evaluate participatory  process  

• • • • •

6 ‐ 3   

Attachment 6 

 
10.5  Summarize results of participatory  process  • • • • • • • Adult learning principles and design   Managing group dynamics   Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings, and  discussions  Training and coaching technique  Effective communication and presentation  skills  Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the  process  Information and data documentation 

 

6 ‐ 4   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 7 

LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES:  FACILITATOR (POLICY) FOR SANITATION DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 
Units of Competency  1.0  Comprehend general  characteristics of the  area  1.1  1.2  1.3  1.4  1.5  Elements of Competency  Evaluate information on physical  conditions of the area  Evaluate information on  demographic characteristics   Evaluate information on land‐use  characteristic  Evaluate information on socio‐ economic condition   Evaluate information on existing  infrastructure  • • Need‐to‐Know Criteria  Basic sanitation issues   Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population density,  growth rate,  gender distribution,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, development trends,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

• • • •

2.0 

Assess sanitation  conditions of the  communities 

2.1  2.2  2.3  2.4  2.5 

Assess community sanitation  behavior  Assess access of communities to  safe water sources  Assess access of communities to  sanitation facilities   Assess level of cleanliness of  communities  Assess environmental health risks of  communities 

• • • • • • • •

Basic understanding of community sanitation  behavior and health issues  Principles of community sanitation condition  survey  Sanitation indicators for households level  Survey data collection and analysis techniques  Assessing and summarizing of community  sanitation condition   PPSP concept and approaches   Format of Environmental Health Risk  Assessment (EHRA) report as guided by PPSP  Relation of EHRA with Sanitation White Book  and CSS.  Basic understanding of sanitation issues, at  the community and city levels   Public health issues related to sanitation  condition  Components of sanitation profile   Principles of sanitation profile mapping  Type and characteristics of sanitation services  Data collection and analysis techniques  PPSP concept and approaches   Format of the Sanitation White Book as  guided by PPSP.  Relation between Sanitation White Book with  EHRA and CSS.  Basic sanitation issues   Principles of prediction methodologies for  demography and land‐use development   Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology, 

3.0 

Prepare sanitation  profile of the area 

3.1  3.2  3.3  3.4 

Evaluate information on available  sanitation services   Evaluate information on sanitation  institutional aspect   Evaluate information on sanitation  regulation and policy aspect  Evaluate information on  involvement of sanitation  stakeholders   Evaluate information on sanitation  financing  Identify issues and opportunities in  sanitation development  Evaluate information on future  physical conditions of the area  Evaluate information on future  demographic characteristics   Evaluate information on future  land‐use characteristic  Evaluate information on future 

• • • • • • • • • • • •

3.5  3.6  4.0  Comprehend  projections on future  characteristics of the  area  4.1  4.2  4.3  4.4 

7 ‐ 1   

Attachment 7 

 
socio‐economic conditions  4.5  Evaluate information on future  infrastructure  • • • • • 5.0  Formulate basic  framework for  sanitation  development  in the  area  5.1  5.2  Formulate the desired state of  sanitation conditions   Formulate tasks and functions for  development of the sanitation  sector  Identify strategic issues of sanitation  development in the area  Determine scope of sanitation  development in the area  • • • geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population, growth  rate,  gender,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, trend of developments,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

Components of city/ district spatial plan   Basic sanitation issues   Government policies on sanitation  development  Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  National, provincial, and city/ district  medium‐ and long‐term strategic  development planning   PPSP concept and approaches   Components of city/ district sanitation  strategic plans  Basic principles in making vision and mission  statements  Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   Format of the CSS document as guided by  PPSP  Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book and EHRA.  Basic sanitation issues   Government policies on sanitation  development, including those related to the  basic framework  Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  City/ district medium‐ and long‐term strategic  development planning  Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   Type and characteristics of sanitation services  PPSP concept and approaches   Understanding EHRA document and  Sanitation White Book  Zoning of sanitation services  Access to sanitation services  Format of the CSS document as guided by  PPSP  Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans  Basic sanitation issues   Principles of program planning  Government policies on sanitation  development, including those related to its 

5.3  5.4 

• • • • • • 6.0  Formulate direction  for sanitation  development   6.1  6.2  6.3  6.4  Determine timeframe for  development of sanitation services  Determine targets for access to  sanitation services  Determine criteria for zoning of  sanitation services   Determine criteria for selection of  type of sanitation services to be  developed  • • •

• • • • • • • • •

7.0 

Prepare general  proposal for  sanitation  development 

7.1 

Prepare general proposal for  sanitation infrastructure  development programs   Prepare general proposal for 

• • •

7.2 

7 ‐ 2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
programs  7.3  sanitation institutional capacity  building programs   Prepare general proposal for  sanitation regulation and policy  development programs  Prepare general proposal for public  participation improvement  programs   Prepare general proposal for private  sector improvement programs  Prepare general proposal for  improvement of funding mechanism  • • • • • • basic framework and direction.  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  Understanding of  city/ district development  planning process  Principles of sanitation program planning,  covering infrastructure, institutional capacity,  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector, and funding issues  PPSP concept and approaches   Format of the CSS document as guided by  PPSP  Content and format of a general proposal for  sanitation programs  Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans  Basic sanitation issues   PPSP concept and approaches   Understanding of  city/ district development  planning process  Decision making process of sanitation  development proposals  Funding mechanism for sanitation  development programs  Involvement of sanitation development  stakeholders  Preparation of Sanitation Development  Program Memorandum   Principles of monitoring and evaluation for  sanitation development   Basic sanitation issues   PPSP concept and approaches   Sanitation stakeholders at the national,  provincial, and local/ district levels  Buy‐in methods and tactics   Assessment technique for institutional and  individual capacity   Program and project management   Managing group dynamics   Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  and discussions  Training and coaching technique  Effective communication and presentation  skills  Information and data documentation  Basic sanitation issues   PPSP concept and approaches   Principles and methods of participatory  process  Buy‐in methods and tactics   Facilitation principles, methods, and  techniques 

7.4 

7.5  7.6 

8.0 

Prepare  implementation  concept for  sanitation  development 

8.1  8.2 

Recommend prioritization of  sanitation development programs   Prepare implementation schedule  for sanitation development  programs  Define tasks and responsibilities of  program implementors  Develop concept for sanitation  development program funding  Develop monitoring and evaluation  concept for sanitation development  implementation 

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

8.3  8.4  8.5 

9.0 

Develop strategic  partnerships 

9.1  9.2  9.3  9.4  9.5 

Identify and assess capacity of  relevant parties  Improve awareness and knowledge  of relevant parties  Develop role and responsibilities of  relevant parties   Consolidate workplan of relevant  parties  Develop communication channels  among relevant parties 

10.0  Facilitate  participatory 

10.1  Explain participatory process and  objectives  10.2  Facilitate discussions and meetings   10.3  Provide inputs to participatory  process  10.4  Monitor and evaluate participatory  process  

• • • • •

7 ‐ 3   

Attachment 7 

 
10.5  Summarize results of participatory  process  • • • • • • • Adult learning principles and design   Managing group dynamics   Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  and discussions  Training and coaching technique  Effective communication and presentation  skills  Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the  process  Information and data documentation 

 

7 ‐ 4   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 8 

LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES:  FACILITATOR (TECHNICAL) FOR COMMUNAL SANITATION  IMPLEMENTATION 
Units of Competency  1.0  Assess general  characteristics of the  community  1.1  1.2  1.3  1.4  1.5  Elements of Competency  Assess the physical conditions of the  area  Assess demographic characteristics   Assess land‐use characteristic  Assess socio‐economic condition   Assess  availability and condition of  existing infrastructure  • • Need‐to‐Know Criteria  Basic sanitation issues   Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population density,  growth rate,  gender distribution,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, development trends,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

• • • •

2.0 

Assess sanitation  conditions of the  community 

2.1  2.2  2.3  2.4  2.5 

Assess community sanitation  behavior  Assess access of communities to  safe water sources  Assess access of communities to  sanitation facilities   Assess level of cleanliness of  communities  Assess environmental health risks of  communities  Determine type and capacity of  communal sanitation system  Determine location for communal  sanitation system  Prepare basic design for communal  sanitation system  Prepare strategy to manage  communal sanitation system 

• • • • • •

Basic sanitation behavior and health issues  Principles of community sanitation condition  survey  Sanitation indicators for households level  Survey data collection and analysis techniques  Analysis techniques to determine community  sanitation condition   Format of the report  

3.0 

Develop conceptual  design for communal  sanitation system 

3.1 

• •

Basic wastewater management system and  sanitation  Basic understanding of community sanitation  behavior and health issues  Government policies and regulation on  sanitation and wastewater management   Components of communal sanitation system,  its type and characteristics   Wastewater characteristics  Estimation of wastewater generation loads  Criteria for location selection of communal  sanitation facilities  Selection criteria for types of communal  sanitation facilities  Basic engineering of communal sanitation  facilities  Operation of communal sanitation facilities  Types and model of shared sanitation facility  Design engineering of shared sanitation  facility  Plumbing and pumping  Basic technical drawings of shared sanitation 

3.2  3.3  3.4 

• • • • • • • •

4.0 

Develop design for  shared sanitation  facility 

4.1  4.2  4.3 

Select types and model of shared  sanitation facility  Calculate dimensions of shared  sanitation facility  Prepare layout and technical 

• • • •

8 ‐ 1   

Attachment  8 

 
drawings of the shared sanitation  facility  4.4  Prepare technical description and  specifications for the shared  sanitation facility  Prepare operating procedures for  small‐scale sewer system  Estimate construction and  operational costs for the shared  sanitation facility  Select types and model of small‐ scale sewer system  Calculate dimensions for small‐scale  sewer system  Prepare layout and technical  drawings for small‐scale sewer  system  Prepare technical description and  specifications for small‐scale sewer  system  Prepare operating procedures for  small‐scale sewer system  Estimate construction and  operations cost for the small‐scale  sewer system  Determine type and model for  communal wastewater treatment  facility   Calculate dimensions for communal  treatment facility  Prepare layout and technical  drawings for communal wastewater  treatment facility  Prepare technical description and  specifications for communal  wastewater treatment facility  Prepare operating procedures for  communal wastewater treatment  facility  Estimate construction and  operations cost for communal  wastewater treatment facility  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Basic wastewater management system  Government policies and regulation on  wastewater management, construction, and   environmental  Wastewater characteristics  Basic hydraulics   Plumbing and pumping  Components of sewer system  Types and characteristics of sewer system  Design engineering of sewer system   Basic technical drawings of sewer system  Operation and maintenance of shared  sanitation facility  Operation and maintenance of sewer system   Construction and O&M cost estimation  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies and regulation on  wastewater management, construction, and   environmental management  Wastewater characteristics   Regulations on wastewater treatment, e.g.  location restrictions and effluent standards   Components of simple wastewater treatment  facility   Basic engineering of simple wastewater  treatment facility   Types and characteristics of wastewater  treatment units  Determination of treatment plant efficiency  and capacity   Principles of simple wastewater treatment  facility design  Basic operation and maintenance of simple  wastewater treatment facility  Construction and O&M cost estimation  Basic sanitation issues   Sanitation stakeholders at the local/ district  levels  Buy‐in methods and tactics   Assessment technique for institutional and  individual capacity   Program and project management   Managing group dynamics   facility  • • Operation and maintenance of shared  sanitation facility  Construction and O&M cost estimation 

4.5  4.6 

5.0 

Develop design for  small‐scale sewer  system  

5.1  5.2  5.3 

5.4 

5.5  5.6 

6.0 

Develop design for  communal  wastewater  treatment facility 

6.1 

6.2  6.3 

• • • • • • • • •

6.4 

6.5 

6.6 

7.0 

Develop strategic  

7.1  7.2  7.3  7.4 

Identify and assess capacity of  relevant parties  Improve awareness and knowledge  of relevant parties  Develop role and responsibilities of  relevant parties   Consolidate workplan of relevant  parties 

• • • • • •

8 ‐ 2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
7.5  Develop communication channels  among relevant parties  • • • • 8.0  Facilitate  participatory process    8.1  Explain participatory process and  objectives  8.2  Facilitate discussions and meetings   8.3  Provide inputs to participatory  process  8.4  Monitor and evaluate participatory  process   8.5  Summarize results of participatory  process  • • • • • • • • • • • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  and discussions  Training and coaching techniques  Effective communication and presentation  skills  Information and data documentation  Basic sanitation issues   Principles and methods of participatory  process  Buy‐in methods and tactics   Facilitation principles, methods, and  techniques  Adult learning principles and design   Managing group dynamics   Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  and discussions  Training and coaching techniques  Effective communication and presentation  skills  Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the  process  Information and data documentation 

     

8 ‐ 3   

Attachment  8 

    This page is intentionally left blank   

8 ‐ 4   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 9 

LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES:  CONSULTANT (TECHNICAL) FOR WASTEWATER SYSTEM PLANNING 
Units of Competency  1.0  Comprehend general  characteristics of the  area  1.1  1.2  1.3  1.4  1.5  Elements of Competency  Evaluate information on physical  conditions of the area  Evaluate information on  demographic characteristics   Evaluate information on land‐use  characteristic  Evaluate information on socio‐ economic condition   Evaluate information on existing  infrastructure  • • Need‐to‐Know Criteria  Basic wastewater management system  Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population density,  growth rate,  gender distribution,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, development trends,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

• • • •

2.0 

Prepare wastewater  management system  profile of the area 

2.1 

Evaluate information on community  access to wastewater management  facilities  Evaluate information on available  wastewater management services   Evaluate information on wastewater  management institutional aspect   Evaluate information on wastewater  management regulation and policy  aspect  Evaluate information on stakeholder  involvement in wastewater  management   Evaluate information on wastewater  management financing  Identify issues and opportunities in  wastewater management system  improvement  Identify target for demand  assessment   Define scope and prepare the  demand assessment  Assess the condition and access to  basic health and wastewater  services  Assess the level of demand and  priority of the community towards  wastewater management service  Assess the willingness‐to‐pay of the  community for wastewater  management service 

• • • • • •

Basic wastewater management system  Public health issues related to sanitation  condition  Components of wastewater management  profile   Principles of wastewater management profile  mapping  Type and characteristics of wastewater  management services  Data collection and analysis techniques 

2.2  2.3  2.4 

2.5 

2.6  2.7 

3.0 

Assess demand for  wastewater  management system  improvement 

3.1  3.2  3.3 

• • • •

Basic wastewater management system and  sanitation  Basic understanding of community sanitation  behavior and health issues  Type and characteristics of wastewater  management services  Principles, methods, and techniques of a  demand assessment survey, e.g. the Real  Demand Survey (RDS) for sanitation services  Sanitation indicators for households level  Survey data collection and analysis techniques   Analysis techniques for level‐of‐demand and  willingness‐to‐pay, for sanitation services.   Basic wastewater management system 

3.4 

• • •

3.5 

4.0  Comprehend  projections on future 

4.1  Evaluate information on future  physical conditions of the area 

9 ‐ 1   

Attachment  9 

 
characteristics of the  area  4.2  Evaluate information on future  demographic characteristics   4.3  Evaluate information on future  land‐use characteristic  4.4  Evaluate information on future  socio‐economic conditions  4.5  Evaluate information on future  infrastructure  • • Principles of prediction methodologies for  demography and land‐use development   Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  geology, hydrology,    Demography, i.e. population, growth rate,   gender,   Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, trend of developments,  Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 

• • • • •

Components of city/ district spatial plan  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on sanitation and  wastewater management development  PPSP concept and approaches   National, provincial, and city/ district medium‐  and long‐term strategic development planning,  as well as the City/ District Sanitation Strategy  Components of wastewater management  profile, i.e. infrastructure (services),  institutional, regulation and policy, public  participation, private sector involvement,  funding  Basic principles of developing vision and  mission statements  Types and nature of strategic issues in  wastewater management development   Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on sanitation and  wastewater management development  Components of wastewater management  system, i.e. infrastructure (services),  institutional, regulation and policy, public  participation, private sector involvement,  funding  City/ district medium‐ and long‐term strategic  development planning  Spatial plans/ zoning regulations  Types and nature of strategic issues in  wastewater management  Type and characteristics of wastewater  management services  Principles and techniques of zoning for  wastewater management services  Wastewater management indicators  Access to wastewater management services  Wastewater characteristics  Estimation of wastewater generation loads  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on sanitation and  wastewater management development  Components of wastewater management 

5.0  Formulate basic  framework for  wastewater system  development   

5.1  Formulate desired state of  wastewater management  conditions   5.2  Formulate tasks and functions for  development of wastewater  management system  5.3  Identify strategic issues of  wastewater management  development in the area  5.4  Determine scope of wastewater  management development in the  area 

• • • •

• •

6.0  Formulate direction  for wastewater  system development  

6.1  Determine timeframe for  development of wastewater  management system  6.2  Determine targets for access to  wastewater management services  6.3  Determine criteria for zoning of  wastewater management services   6.4  Determine criteria to selection  appropriate type of wastewater  management services   6.5  Estimate quality and quantity of  wastewater to be managed by  system 

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

7.0  Determine the most  appropriate  wastewater system 

7.1  Create zonation for wastewater  management services  7.2  Select most appropriate type of  wastewater management service  

9 ‐ 2   

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
7.3  Prepare design criteria for each  component of wastewater  management service  7.4  Define supporting aspects that need  to be developed   • • • • • 8.0  Develop conceptual  design for  wastewater  treatment facility   8.1  Determine treatment plant capacity  and performance  8.2  Determine treatment plant location  8.3  Prepare basic design for treatment  plant  8.4  Prepare operation strategy for  treatment plant  • • • • • • • • • 9.0  Develop conceptual  design for sewer  network  9.1  Determine sewer capacity and  criteria  9.2  Prepare basic design for the sewer  network  9.3  Determine location for sewer  network  9.4  Prepare operation strategy for  sewer network   • • • • • • • • • • • 10.0  Develop conceptual  design for sludge  handling component  10.1  Determine sludge handling capacity  and performance  10.2  Determine location for sludge  handling facility  10.3  Calculate number of sludge  collection vehicles needed  10.4  Prepare basic design for the sludge  treatment facility  10.5  Prepare operation strategy for  sludge treatment facility  • • • • • • • • • • • system, i.e. infrastructure (services),  institutional, regulation and policy, public  participation, private sector involvement,  funding  Types and nature of strategic issues in  wastewater management  Type and characteristics of wastewater  management services  Principles and techniques of zoning for  wastewater management services  Selection criteria for types of wastewater  management services  Basic engineering of wastewater management  services  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on wastewater  management   Wastewater characteristics  Regulations on wastewater treatment, e.g.  location restrictions and effluent standards  Components of wastewater treatment system  Basic engineering of wastewater treatment  facility   Types and characteristics of wastewater  treatment units  Determination of treatment plant efficiency  and capacity   Principles of wastewater treatment facility  design  Basic operation and maintenance of  wastewater treatment facility  Construction and operational cost estimation  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on wastewater  management   Wastewater characteristics  Spatial plans/ zoning regulations  Basic hydraulics   Components of sewer system  Types and characteristics of sewer system  Basic engineering of sewer system   Principles of sewer system design  Basic operation and maintenance of sewer  system   Construction and operational cost estimation  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on wastewater  management   Regulations on sludge handling   Wastewater and sludge characteristics  Components of sludge management  Sludge collection system  Types and characteristics of sludge collection  trucks  Basic engineering of sludge treatment facility   Types and characteristics of sludge treatment 

9 ‐ 3   

Attachment  9 

 
units  • • • • 11.0  Develop conceptual  design for communal  sanitation facility  11.1  Determine type and capacity of  communal sanitation facility  11.2  Determine location for communal  sanitation facility  11.3  Prepare basic design for communal  sanitation facility  11.4  Prepare strategy to manage  communal sanitation facility  • • • • • • • • • • • • 12.0  Prepare  implementation  concept for  wastewater  management system  development  programs  12.1  Prepare general proposal for  wastewater infrastructure  development programs   12.2  Prepare general proposal for  wastewater management  institutional capacity building  programs   12.3  Prepare general proposal for  wastewater regulation and policy  development programs  12.4  Prepare general proposal for public  participation improvement  programs in wastewater  management sector  12.5  Prepare general proposal for private  sector improvement programs in  wastewater management sector  • • • • • Determination of sludge treatment plant  efficiency and capacity   Principles of sludge  treatment facility design  Basic operation and maintenance of sludge  treatment facility  Construction and operational cost estimation  Basic wastewater management system  Government policies on wastewater  management   Wastewater characteristics  Regulations on communal sanitation facility,  e.g. location restriction and effluent standards  Principles of participatory planning process  Components of communal sanitation facility  Basic engineering of wastewater treatment  facility   Types and characteristics of communal  sanitation facility  Determination of treatment plant efficiency  and capacity   Principles of communal sanitation facility  design  Basic operation and maintenance of communal  sanitation facility  Construction and operational cost estimation  Basic wastewater management system  Principles of program planning  Government policies on wastewater  management system development, including  those related to the basic framework and  direction.  Components of wastewater management  system, i.e. infrastructure (services),  institutional, regulation and policy, public  participation, private sector involvement,  funding  Understanding of  city/ district development  planning process  Principles of wastewater management system  planning, covering infrastructure, institutional  capacity, regulation and policy, public  participation, private sector, and funding issues  PPSP concept and approaches, especially  regarding to CSS  Content and format of a general proposal for  wastewater development programs 

• •

 

9 ‐ 4   

 Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 10 

LIST OF UNIVERSITIES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 
No.  University  City  Degree  Acceptance  Graduate  Capacity  Faculty 

S‐2 PROGRAM  1.  2.  3.  Total  S‐1 PROGRAM  1.  2.  Universitas Indonesia  Institut Teknologi  Bandung  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh  Nopember  Universitas Diponegoro  Universitas Gajah Mada  Jakarta  Bandung  S‐1  S‐1  50  65  26  15  50  Civil Engineering  100  Civil and  Environmental  Engineering  110  Civil Engineering  and Planning  75  Engineering  93  Faculty of  Geography and  Environmental  Science  76  Engineering  40  Engineering  60  Engineering  25  Civil Engineering  150  Civil Engineering  and Planning  45  Applied Science  92  Mineral Technology  182  Environmental  Engineering  65  Engineering  40  Environmental  Engineering  50  Fakultas Teknik  60  Civil Engineering  and Planning  46  Civil Engineering  and Planning  Institut Teknologi  Bandung  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh  November  Institut Teknologi Adhi  Tama   Bandung  Surabaya  Surabaya  S‐2  S‐2  S‐2  37  39  5  103  25  22  4  81  37  Environmental  Engineering  39  Environmental  Engineering  5  Environmental  Engineering  51   

3.  4.  5. 

Surabaya  Semarang  Yogyakarta 

S‐1  S‐1  S‐1 

110  66  87 

60  63  0 

6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  12.  13. 

Universitas Mulawarman  Universitas Andalas  Universitas Lambung  Mangkurat  Universitas Sriwijaya  Universitas Islam  Indonesia   Institut Sains & Teknologi  AKPRIND  Universitas Pembangunan  Nasional ‘Veteran’  Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Lingkungan 'Yayasan  Lingkungan Hidup'   Universitas Islam Sultan  Agung   Universitas Kristen  Surakarta  Universitas Winaya Mukti  Institut Teknologi  Nasional   Universitas Kebangsaan 

Samarinda  Padang  Banjarmasin  Palembang  Yogyakarta  Yogyakarta  Yogyakarta  Yogyakarta 

S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1 

55  36  53  25  55  10  93  90 

0  42  0  25  49  5  10  150 

14.  15.  16.  17.  18. 

Semarang  Surakarta  Sumedang  Bandung  Bandung 

S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1 

5  4  24  41  21 

1  6  16  27  9 

10 ‐ 1   

Attachment 10 

 
19.  20.  Universitas Pasundan  Universitas Trisakti  Bandung  Jakarta  S‐1  S‐1  33  29  19  28  52  Engineering  75  Landscape  Architecture and  Environmental  Engineering  51  Engineering  57  Engineering  66  Engineering  27  Engineering  150  Civil Engineering  and Environmental  Engineering  64  Civil Engineering  and Planning  40  Environmental  Science and  Technology  0  Environmental  Engineering  45  Environmental  Engineering  73  Environmental  Engineering  32  Environmental  Engineering  96  Environmental  Engineering  60  Environmental  Engineering  60  Environmental  Engineering  55  Environmental  Engineering  93  Environmental  Engineering  0  Environmental  Engineering  0  Environmental  Engineering &  Studies  25  Environmental  Engineering  70  Environmental  Engineering  0  Environmental  Engineering  41  Environmental  Engineering  15  Environmental  Engineering 

21.  22.  23.  24.  25. 

Universitas Batanghari  Universitas Malahayati  Universitas Satya Negara  Universitas Sahid  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Sapta Taruna  Institut Teknologi  Nasional   Universitas Airlangga 

Jambi  Bandar  Lampung  Jakarta  Jakarta  Jakarta 

S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1 

20  24  9  14  20 

11  7  14  95  5 

26.  27. 

Malang  Surabaya 

S‐1  S‐1 

29  46 

23  0 

28.  29.  30.  31.  32.  33.  34.  35.  36.  37.  38. 

Universitas Riau  Universitas Tanjungpura,   Universitas Serambi  Mekah   Institut Teknologi Sains   Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Banten Jaya   Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Nasional   Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Pelita Bangsa   Universitas PGRI Adi  Buana  Universitas Pembangunan  Nasional Veteran Jatim   Universitas Cakrawala  Institut Teknologi  Pembangunan  Institut Teknologi Adhi  Tama   Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Lingkungan   Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Universitas  Muhammadiyah  Universitas Teknologi  Sulawesi 

Pekanbaru  Pontianak  Banda Aceh  Bandung  Serang  Bandung  Bekasi  Surabaya  Surabaya  Madiun  Surabaya 

S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1 

0  50  16  3  12  7  15  39  54  0  0 

0  0  1  1  2  3  0  58  23  0  0 

39.  40.  41.  42.  43. 

Surabaya  Mataram  Bima  Kendari  Makassar 

S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1 

4  47  0  25  9 

4  7  0  12  0 

10 ‐ 2   

 Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 
44.  45.  46.  47.  Total  D‐3 PROGRAM  1.  2.  3.  Total  Universitas Pandanaran   Akademi Teknik Tirta  Wiyarta  Politeknik  Muhammadiyah   Semarang  Magelang  Magelang  D‐3  D‐3  D‐3  2  40  7  158  4  22  5  49  40  Engineering  65  Engineering  53  Environmental  Engineering  31    Universitas Teknologi  Sulawesi Utara  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Nusantara Indonesia  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Industri  Universitas Sains &  Teknologi   Manado  Makassar  Padang  Jayapura  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  S‐1  0  21  19  59  2,853  0  0  6  4  1,494  0  Environmental  Engineering  93  Environmental  Engineering  88  Environmental  Engineering  66  Environmental  Engineering  827   

         

10 ‐ 3   

Attachment 10 

      This page is intentionally left blank   

10 ‐ 4   

 Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 

 

ATTACHMENT 11 

REFERENCES 
Asian Development Bank. 2010. Republic of Indonesia: Urban sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM  Mandiri Project. Asian Development Bank.  Association of Boards of Certification (ABC). 2008. ABC Need‐to‐Know Criteria for Wastewater Treatment Operators.  Association of Boards of Certification (ABC), Iowa.  Association of Boards of Certification (ABC). 2003. Water Treatment Operator “Need‐to‐Know” Criteria. Association of  Boards of Certification (ABC).  Australia Indonesia Partnership. 2011. Prakarsa Compendium : Highlights from the Journal of the Indonesia  Infrastructure Initiative, 2010‐2011. Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, Jakarta.  Australia Indonesia Partnership. 2010. Dokumen Desain Program Komponen Penyediaan Air Minum Dan Sanitasi  Perkotaan, Prakarsa Air Minum Dan Sanitasi ‐ Indonesia. Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, Jakarta.  Bond, Matthew., Paul Tyndale‐Biscoe and Michelle Whalen. 2009. Human Resources Capacity in the Water, Sanitation  and Hygiene Sector in East Timor. FHD Designs.Timor Lorosae.  Cities Development Initiative for Asia. 2010. CDIA Capacity Development Strategy and Action Plan 2010 – 2012. Cities  Development Initiative for Asia. Philippines.  Florian Bemmerlein‐Lux. 2006.Capacity Development Strategy: Guidelines for Awareness Building and Skills Training  Programmes.A Publication Of The Indo‐German Bilateral Project “Strengthening Local Administration For Rural  Water Supply And Minor Irrigation In Himachal Pradesh”. WASH AND GTZ. India.    GEO.1996. Capacity Building Strategy.GEO.  Human Development Sector Unit and Regional Water & Sanitation Group. 2011. Implementation Completion And  Results Report On A Specific Investment Loan In The Amount Of Ida Credit Xdr 57.8 Million And Aud 11.13 Million To  The Government Of Indonesia For A Second Water & Sanitation For Low Income Communities Project. World Bank.  Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII).Term of Reference for Wastewater Investment Master Plans Package I:  Surabaya and Bogor. Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII).  Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII).Term of Reference for Wastewater Investment Master Plans Package II:  Palembang, Bandar Lampung and Batam. Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII).  Morgan, Peter. 1998. Capacity And Capacity Development ‐ Some Strategies. CIDA.  National Community Water and Sanitation Training Institute (NCWSTI). 2002. Development Of Generic And Sectoral  Competencies In The Water Supply And Sanitation Training Sector Report To Water Research Commission. National  Community Water and Sanitation Training Institute (NCWSTI).Sovenga.  Office of Drinking Water Virginia Department of Health. 2008. The Efficacy of Virginia’s Capacity Development  Strategy.Office of Drinking Water Virginia Department of Health. Virginia.  Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI). 2009. Ahli Perencana Pengelolaan Sampah. Departemen  Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta  Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI). Ahli Perencana Sistem Sanitasi Lingkungan: Air Limbah  Permukiman (draft). Departemen Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta  Standar Kompetensi Keahlian (SKK). Perencanaan Sistem Drainase Perkotaan Klasifikasi Tingkat Muda.  Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI). Pelaksana Konstruksi Bangunan Unit SPAM(draft). Departemen  Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta 

11 ‐ 1   

Attachment 11 

 
Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI).Tim Leader Konsultan Supervisi Skala Besar Pada Pekerjaan  Konstruksi. Departemen Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta  Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. 2009. Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Perkotaan (PPSP): Upaya Mengejar  Ketertinggalan. Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. Jakarta.  Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. 2010. Pedoman Penyiapan Kegiatan Kelembagaan dan Indikasi Kegiatan Percepatan  Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman di Daerah. Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. Jakarta.  Ulleberg, Inger. 2009. Incentive Structures as a Capacity Development Strategy in Public Service Delivery. International  Instituted for Educational Planning. Paris.  Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). 2010. Gender in Water and Sanitation.World Bank.Kenya   Second Water & Sanitation for Low Income Communities Project. Borrower’s Completion Report(Draft). Government of  Indonesia Ministry of Health Directorate General for Disease Control & Environmental Health. Jakarta  Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), 2011. Lessons in Urban Sanitation Development: Indonesia Sanitation Sector  Development Program 2006‐2010. World Bank.Indonesia  www.ampl.or.id  www.jejaring‐ampl.or.id  www.sanitasi.or.id  www.sanitasibersih.blogspot.com  www.sanitasipermukiman.blogspot.com   

 

11 ‐ 2   

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