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SANITATION PERSONNEL:

CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Final Report of the Sanitation Training And Capacity Study March 2012
Prepared by:

P T. Q i p ra G a l a n g Ku a l i t a

Water Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Facility
Jl. Lembang No. 11A, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat, Tlp./Fax: 021-31907811/021-3915416 http://www.waspola.org Waspola1@cbn.net.id

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 5 SCOPE OF THE REPORT ................................................................................................ 5 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................... 5 SANITATION PERSONNEL ................................................................................................ 7 CLASSIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 7 MAIN PERSONNEL ..................................................................................................... 10 QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................ 13 LEVEL OF DEMAND .................................................................................................... 13 LEVEL OF SUPPLY ....................................................................................................... 16 Eligible ................................................................................................................... 17 Potential ................................................................................................................ 19 Prospective ............................................................................................................ 21 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................... 21 Short-Term Demand and Supply ........................................................................... 21 Medium-Term Demand and Supply ...................................................................... 23 Reality Check ......................................................................................................... 23 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 24 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 24 COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT .......................................................................................... 27 DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE..................................................................................... 27 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ..................................... 28 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.................................................. 30 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ........... 31 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ..................................... 32 CURRENT CONDITION................................................................................................ 33 General Performance ............................................................................................ 33 Working Condition................................................................................................. 34 Level of Competence ............................................................................................. 35 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ................................. 35 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation................... 36 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ....... 36 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ................................. 37 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 37 SUPPLY OF COMPETENCE .......................................................................................... 38 Education ............................................................................................................... 38 Capacity ............................................................................................................. 38 Knowledge Offered............................................................................................ 39 Training .................................................................................................................. 41 Orientation Training .......................................................................................... 41 Regular Training................................................................................................. 41 Providers............................................................................................................ 42 i

Networking............................................................................................................ 43 Experiencing .......................................................................................................... 45 Recognition ........................................................................................................... 45 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................... 46 Gaps of Competence ............................................................................................. 46 Education and Training ......................................................................................... 47 Performance.......................................................................................................... 48 Networking, Experiencing, and Recognition ......................................................... 48 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 48 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 49 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 49 STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN....................................................................................... 51 Closing the Gap ......................................................................................................... 51 Shortage of Personnel ........................................................................................... 51 Competence Gap................................................................................................... 52 Strategy to Develop Sanitation Capacity .................................................................. 52 Overall ................................................................................................................... 52 Strategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs ..................................................... 54 Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement ....................................... 54 Strategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs ....................................................... 56 Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange.......................................................... 56 Action Plan ................................................................................................................ 57 Immediate Activities ............................................................................................. 58 Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel ................... 58 Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ....................................................................... 58 Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions ................................... 59 Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation ............................................................... 59 Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ................................ 59 Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel ...................................... 60 Follow-Up Studies ..................................................................................................... 60

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Tables
Table 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities ................................................... 9 Table 2. Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities ..................... 11 Table 3. Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel ....................................................... 14 Table 4. Number of Sanitation Activities & Main Personnel ......................................... 15 Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals ......................................................................... 18 Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only) .......................... 20 Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning ......... 29 Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior ........... 30 Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation ......................................................................................................... 31 Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning ............................................................................................................ 33 Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia ...................................... 39 Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum .................................. 40 Table 13. Orientation Training Programs ...................................................................... 42 Table 14. Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .................................. 53 Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities.............. 54 Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement .............................. 55 Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs .............................................. 56 Table 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange................................................. 57 Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan.................................................................................. 57 Table 20. Action Plan Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .......................................................................................................... 58 Table 21. Action Plan Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ............................................. 58 Table 22. Action Plan Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions.......... 59 Table 23. Action Plan Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation...................................... 59 Table 24. Action Plan Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ...... 59 Table 25. Action Plan Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel............. 60

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Attachments
1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities. 2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 2014). 3. Projection of the Next PPSP Program (2015 2019). 4. Level of Demand for Sanitation Personnel. 5. Level of Supply of Sanitation Personnel. 6. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning. 7. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change. 8. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Implementation. 9. List of Core Competencies: Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning. 10. List of Universities with Environmental Engineering. 11. References.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Abbreviations
AMPL BAPELKES BAPPENAS BORDA BTAMS CLTS CSS CWSHP DAK DEWATS EHRA EHS EPCM FORKALIM GoI HAKLI IATPI INDII INTAKINDO IPB ITB KMP LPJK MPPS NGO PAMSIMAS PERPAMSI PMSS Pokja AMPL PPSP PUSARPEDAL PUSBINKPK PUSTEKLIM RDS RPA RPJMN SANIMAS SKKNI SLBM SSK STBM STFL TFL TOT WASPOLA WSLIC WSP : Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan : Badan Pelatihan Kesehatan : Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional : Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association : Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi Wilayah : Community-Led Total Sanitation : City Sanitation Strategy : Community Water Services and Health Project : Dana Anggaran Khusus : Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems : Environmental Health Risk Assessments : Environmental, Health, and Safety : Environmental Pollution Control Manager : Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah Permukiman : Government of Indonesia : Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia : Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan Indonesia : Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative : Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan Indonesia : Institut Pertanian Bogor : Institut Teknik Bandung : Konsultan Manajemen Provinsi : Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi : Memorandum Program of Sanitation Sector : Non-Governmental Organization : Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat : Persatuan PDAM Seluruh Indonesia : Program Memorandum Sektor Sanitasi : Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan : Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman : Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan : Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan Konstruksi : Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair : Real Demand Survey : Rapid Participatory Appraisal : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional : Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat : Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia : Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat : Strategi Sanitasi Kota : Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat : Senior - Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan : Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan : Training Of Trainers : Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning : Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities : Water and Sanitation Program

Acknowledgements
The team would like to acknowledge guidance and inputs from the Water and Sanitation Programme - East Asia and the Pacific (Ms. Almud Weitz, Ms. Isabel Blackett, Mr. Martin Albrecht, Mr. Chris Trethewey), as well as the WASPOLA Facility (Mr. Gary Swisher). The team also received invaluable direction and contributions from officials in BAPPENAS, especially Mr. Nugroho Tri Utomo, Ms. Maraita Listyasari and Mr. R. Laisa Wahanudin, as well as officials from Ministry of Public Works, especially Mr. Syukrul Amin, Mr. Handy B. Legowo, and Ms. Rina Agustin Indriani. In addition, more than a hundred people spent their valuable time to share insights and experiences, and provide information, and/or filled out the web-based survey. The team is indebted to all resource persons -- from government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, professional association, universities, consulting firms and donor-funded programs -- who contributed to this challenging task. Team members: Rudy Yuwono, Isna Marifa and Laksmi Wardhani (PT. Qipra Galang Kualita).

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A capacity development strategy was developed to close the gap of numbers and competence among personnel in the sanitation sector in Indonesia. The overarching vision that guides the strategy is that all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitation personnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence. The vision is achievable if the following four strategies are implemented, i.e. (1) improve appeal of sanitation jobs, (2) institutionalize competence advancement schemes, (3) revitalize competence development programs, and (4) stimulate knowledge exchange among stakeholders. The strategies are further defined as actions to be taken. The first strategy, improve appeal of sanitation jobs, would address the pressing need to enhance sanitation job profiles, to adjust compensation package in the sector, and to communicate the high level of demand for sanitation personnel. To implement the strategy, actions to be taken involve upward adjustment of compensation and benefits, promoting sanitation jobs to professional associations, to universities and training institutions, to the public, as well as communicating the need to improve capacity in the sanitation sector to decision makers in government institutions, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms. The second strategy, institutionalize a competence advancement scheme, would create a formal framework that guides competence development among sanitation personnel. The most immediate action is to reach consensus among key stakeholders on job titles in the sanitation sector. This is followed by creation of competence advancement options and development of competency standards for key personnel. Finally, institutionalization of the certification mechanism would involve commitment and decision from government agencies and professional associations. The third strategy, revitalize competence development programs for sanitation, complements the second strategy. Once the competency standards are developed and agreed, training and educational programs can be strengthened by way of producing new materials as well as introducing new innovations, such as internship and mentoring programs. Training and education institutions engagement is necessary, and it is fully expected once the demand for sanitation personnel (in numbers and competence) is communicated and discussed with them. The fourth strategy, stimulate knowledge exchange among stakeholders, is aimed at enhancing the volume and quality of knowledge sharing in line with competence development needs of each category of sanitation personnel. The most immediate action is to create an Indonesian network of sanitation personnel and strengthening existing knowledge management systems in the sector. The capacity development strategy addresses the competence of individuals and the quantity of individuals in the sector. However, the study recognizes that many other factors affect whether sanitation can become an attractive sector to build ones career. Two additional recommendations are proposed to complement the four strategies above. The first is to revise policies governing the sanitation sector as a whole, with the aim to modernize the sector and engage private sector, which is expected to create a more professional atmosphere. The second is to revamp the 1

Executive Summary

sectors image, accordingly, and aim to reintroduce a technologically-appealing sector with modern career opportunities. The sanitation capacity development strategy was developed from findings of a gap analysis conducted over a period of six-months. The study focused only on professionals (covering consultants, facilitators, and operators), and used the PPSP (Accelerated Sanitation Development) program as a basis to estimate the number of activities planned and, subsequently, the number of personnel needed. The main findings of the study from the quantitative side are: Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM), both in the shortterm and in the medium-term (next five-year development plan cycle); Short-term gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. Environmental/sanitary engineers holding competence certification and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. In the medium-term, shortage of personnel will also emerge for operators to run and maintain the sanitation facilities across the country. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. And graduates are more interested in seeking employment in the vibrant industrial sectors (including mining, oil/gas or environmental management), rather than sanitation sector. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. The potential for growth of the student body still exists. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated.

In terms of competence, the study identifies the following gaps: Minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among sanitation personnel relate to: o Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning. o Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants. o Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators. o Writing and communication skills. o Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines). There may be a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understanding gap. Using the

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a persons work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. There is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development.

An action plan is prepared for the 2012-2014 period. Some activities are recommended for initiation immediately, i.e. in the second quarter of 2012, due to their urgency. These include: a) Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel; b) Communicate Jobs in Sanitation; c) Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions; d) Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation; e) Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation; f) Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel. Some of the actions above can directly build upon the products created and left behind by this study, namely: A concept to define job titles in sanitation sector (relates to six sanitation development activities); A list of 20 types of key personnel in sanitation sector, and their required educational background and level of experience; Definition of required competence for four sanitation job titles. This would be used as basis to develop competency requirements for other sanitation job titles. Web-based sanitation professional network, which can be used as means to conduct surveys and develop database of personnel; An analytical framework for sanitation capacity assessment that can be used for further studies covering different types of personnel. 3

Executive Summary

In addition, the study identifies a few follow-up assessments that may be warranted. The first could assess whether changes in the deployment strategies of sanitation personnel would reduce the level of demand for personnel, especially to support the community-based and hygienic behavior programs. Another area that might be studies is the capacity of local government officials (with decision authority in sanitation) and the capacity of personnel involved in the operation of sanitation facilities. This study should be treated as the beginning of a journey to address the issue of capacity in the sanitation sector. The journey may be long and, in some cases, exploratory in nature; however, what is clear is that there are already many stakeholders with common concern and aspirations. The key to a successful journey is ensuring good collaboration and communication among all relevant parties, and consensus on the future direction of the sanitation sector.

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

INTRODUCTION
In November 2009, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) launched a high-profile Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman (PPSP) program. The PPSP cites a substantial scaling up of investments in both urban and rural sanitation over the next 5 years. The RPJMN for 2010-2014 includes investments of IDR 15 trillion (USD 1.6 billion), more than seven times the amount allocated in the previous RPMJN. The augmented government focus and funding for sanitation, has dramatically increased the demand for a wide range of staff, consultants and facilitators with skills ranging from community development and sanitation marketing to sanitary engineering and project management. The Ministry of Public Works, BAPPENAS, and consulting firms have recently remarked that they are finding it difficult to find individuals with appropriate experience and qualifications. Anticipating a demand surge for sanitation personnel, GoI plans to prepare a strategy to fill the gap between demand and supply. The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), through the WASPOLA facility, is supporting the Government to develop such strategy through the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study. PT. Qipra Galang Kualita was awarded a contract by WSP to conduct the Study. The Kick-Off Meeting was held on July 19, 2011, and this report is the Final Report which presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the study.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT


This report presents information used in the analysis, and findings obtained from the analysis. Following the Introduction, this report contains four other chapters, namely: Sanitation Personnel:introduces a definition and classification of sanitation personnel, in order to ensure systematic analysis and common understanding among readers. It also defines key personnel types which are assessed in greater depth. Quantitative Assessment: presents the key findings of the quantitative assessment of sanitation personnel, from the demand and supply perspectives. A discussion is also presented which highlights where major shortages are likely to be found. Competence Assessment: presents the key findings of the qualitative assessment. This includes discussion on the competence expected of sanitation personnel, and the types of competence programs available. It also discusses other factors that build competence and that affect performance of personnel. Strategy and Action Plan: presents the strategy to improve capacity of sanitation human resources in Indonesia, as well as the short-term action plan and details of immediate activities. Suggestion for follow-up studies are presented in the end of this chapter.

OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY


The objective of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study, or the Study, is: Developing a human resource capacity development strategy (or plan) to meet the demand for qualified and competent sanitation personnel to support Indonesias short-term and medium-term sanitation development activities. The final output is a Sanitation Human Resource Capacity Development Strategy, which will be usedby GoI, particularly BAPPENAS, in planning and creating capacity5

Introduction

building activities with the involvement of various stakeholders. The ultimate aim is to ensure that availability of human resources does not become an impediment to achieving the sanitation development targets already set by the Government. The Study was divided into four stages as follows:

The first stage, the Demand Assessment, assessed the future demand of sanitation personnel with appropriate competences needed to support the scaling up of sanitation investments. The Assessment defined the types of sanitation personnel studied and estimates the number for short- and medium-term demand. For four priority sanitation personnel, lists of required competencieswere developed: a) job (occupational) functions, b) core competencies, and c) need-to-know criteria. The second stage, the Supply Assessment, reviewed competencies developed through existing education (undergraduate) and training programs. Assessment was done only for the priority personnel identified in the Demand Assessment. Curriculum and syllabus of education and training programs were reviewed to determine which knowledge and skills are in fact lacking. Effort was made to estimate the quantitative side of supply, namely the number of individuals from each category with potential to fill the demand. Assessment was done also of existing professional network and associations, and other parties which contribute to the development of competence. A web-based survey was used to understand the profile and competence of active individuals from the four priority personnel types. The third stage, Gap Analysis, compared the results of the Demand Assessment with that of the Supply Assessment. Gaps identified include: adequacy and availability of sanitation personnel, expected and actual competence, gaps in training provisions, as well as observations on underlying factors that affect the interest in working in the sanitation sector. The fourth stage, Capacity Development Strategy, was developed based on results of the gap analysis. The plan includes a short-term strategy to improve the numbers and competence of the prioritized sanitation personnel, and a medium-term to overall enhance and maintain competence for the same group. The final report presents recommendations on further study and analysis to broaden the scope of analysis.

NOTE
The broad coverage and the short timeframe of the study made it necessary to develop and utilize many assumptions, especially for the quantitative assessments. Furthermore, some extrapolation was necessary to extend survey results with a small sample size. Findings were reconfirmed against comments from various resourcepersons. This study should be considered a beginning of, rather than an end to, a complex and potentially long-term dialog on capacity in the sanitation sector.

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

SANITATION PERSONNEL
The Study assesses the capacity of sanitation personnel. A definition and classification of sanitation personnel are introduced, in order to ensure systematic analysis and common understanding among readers. Not all types of sanitation personnel were studied with the same intensity. Therefore, the Study also identifies key personnel types which are assessed in greater depth.

CLASSIFICATIONS
101.

Sanitation personnel are defined as any individual involved in sanitation activities, which may comprise of any sanitation sub-sector (liquid waste management, solid waste management, drainage), any activity cycle (planning, design, implementation, construction, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation), and any proficiency level (advanced, intermediate, basic). The term covers individuals working as civil servants, professionals1, academics, and volunteers. The Study will focus more on professionals, rather than the other three. Types of sanitation personnel are clearly specified to allow a systematic and focused assessment2, and later to generate a sound strategy and an implementable action plan. Generic nomenclature of job titles is created for each type of sanitation personnel3. Three attributes are used in each job title, i.e. (Role) + (Field) + (Scope) Note: - Role: - Field: Role to be performed by an individual in an activity includes one of the following: facilitator, consultant, operator, supervisor, etc. Field of expertise that an individual contributes to. The attribute uses

102.

Professionals may refer to individuals who possess specific skills or knowledge to undertake a specialized set of tasks and who receives compensation for his/her services. He/she may work in consulting firm, construction firm, non-governmental organization, training agency, research agency, and others. 2 Discussions with stakeholders and review of literature led to an impression that the term sanitation personnel can be interpreted very broadly. It may include individuals involved in the technical aspects of sanitation development, individuals assisting governments with regulatory or policy work, to villagers who volunteer to organize and educate their peers. It became clear that in order to produce meaningful information and recommendations, it was important for this study to define precisely the sanit ation personnel that it addresses and analyzes. 3 There are many ways to specify types of sanitation personnel. Nomenclature used seems to vary from one activity to another, or from one organization to another. For example, some activities use the general term of sanitary engineer, while others call it more specifically as wastewater engineer, solid waste engineer, or drainage engineer.

Sanitation Personnel

- Scope:

terminology closely related to educational background, e.g. policy, regulation, technical, institutional, financial, management, urban planning, communication, administration, social, public health, and development. Scope of the activity that an individual is involved in. The attribute uses terminology related to phases or components of the activity, e.g. sanitation awareness raising, sanitation development planning, communal system implementation, wastewater system planning, solid waste planning, drainage system planning, final disposal site operation, improvement of hygienic behavior implementation, sludge treatment facility construction, and sewerage system operation.

Some examples are facilitator (social) for communal system implementation, consultant (urban planning) for wastewater system planning, and operator (technical) for wastewater treatment plant operation.
103.

A total of 90 types of sanitation personnel are identified from fifteen selected sanitation activities4. Prior to that, a genericclassification of activities is developed to allow systematic identification of types of sanitation personnel involved in each sanitation activity (see the diagram and Table 1).

Generic Classifications of Sanitation Development Activities. This Study acknowledges 9 classes of activities. The classification is a modification of PPSP program sequence, for example, PPSPs implementation phase is modified into six more-detailed classes of activities. It should be realized that the implementation phase requires the largest number of sanitation personnel compared to the other five PPSPs phases.

It should be noted that asanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social,
4

The fifteen sanitation activities are assumed as priorities in the current PPSP program cycle and the following years. At least until 2014, most PPSP program interventions are focused at completing City Sanitation Strategy documents, preparing Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector, and preparing plans and design for various sanitation services. In addition, a large number of communal sanitation facilities will be made for urban slum areas through SANIMAS scheme; while for rural communities, the focus is implementing the STBM approach in villages. More attention on operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities will be given in the next PPSP program cycle (2015 2019).

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected sanitation activity can be found in Attachment 1. Table 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities
Classification of Activities 1. Improvement of enabling environment Description Activities to improve the readiness of a city/ district, i.e. to a) awareness and commitment of stakeholders, and b) regulatory and institutional framework. Activities which formulate a strategic plan for sanitation development and its implementation plan. Usually conducted by a local working group, and supported by various parties. Activities which empower village communities to adopt healthier and more hygienic behavior, as defined in Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) concept. Activities to empower communities in high-density settlements, usually in urban slums, in developing communal sanitation system. Activities aiming at developing system to manage domestic wastewater. Activities may include planning, design, and 9 implementation of the system Activities Covered in the Study Types of personnel -

2.

Preparation of strategy and implementation plan

1 2

Preparation of City 5 Sanitation Strategy Preparation of Program Memorandum of 6 Sanitation Sector

3 1

3.

Implementation of hygienic behavior improvement Implementation of communal sanitation system Development of domestic wastewater services

Implementation of STBM 7 Program

4.

Implementation of 8 SANIMAS Program

5.

Completion of master plan for wastewater 10 services Engineering design of sewerage system

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The City Sanitation Strategy (CSS) is a medium-term strategic plan developed to steer sanitation development activities in a particular city/district. The CSS, locally known as Strategi Sanitasi Kota (SSK), is expected to help create synergy between sanitation development activities and development activities in other sectors. A CSS is generally developed by a water and sanitation working group (often known by its Indonesian acronym Pokja AMPL or Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan)established by the local government, with members consisting of representatives from relevant agencies concerned with water and sanitation development. The PPSP requires cities/districts interested in participating to have a CSS. 6 Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector is a document that contains commitment and plans from various parties to implement sanitation programs and activities that have been outlined in the CSS. The memorandum describes funding strategy of each program and activity, whether it comes from central government, provincial, district / city governments, foreign aids, private sector, or public. 7 The STBM Program uses an approach that focuses on behavior change based on a communitys own initiative and decision process. Communities are triggered to make changes in their daily practices, and adopting the five pillars of STBM, i.e. 1) stop open-defecation, 2) wash hands with soap, 3) safeguarding household water supply, 4) wastewater management, and 5) solid waste management. This program has been launched as a national strategy for sanitation development by the Ministry of Health. In the other hand, CLTS (community-led total sanitation) is basically an approach to change sanitation behavior of community by triggering them to stop practicing open defecation (similar to first STBM pillar). 8 SANIMAS (Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat) Program aims to improve the environmental quality of urban slum areas, through introduction of a community-based wastewater management system. The SANIMAS program has been made into a national program by the Ministry of Public Works. Facilities built under SANIMAS program may include shared sanitation facility (toilet), small- scale sewer system, and communal wastewater treatment facility. Another term often used to refer to efforts to promote community-based wastewater management service is SLBM (Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat). 9 Planning is the stage where general plans or master plans for sanitation services are prepared (based on a strategic plan for sanitation development). Design is the stage where detailed design of a sanitation.

Sanitation Personnel

Classification of Activities (service). 6. Development of solid waste services

Description

Activities Covered in the Study 7 8 Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Completion of master plan for solid waste services Engineering design of final disposal facility

Types of personnel 7 12

7.

Development of drainage services

8.

Operation and maintenance of sanitation services

Activities aiming at developing a city-scale system to handle solid waste, which may consist of collection, transportation, recycling, composting, incineration, and final disposal. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service). Activities aiming at developing a city-scale system to handle storm-water in an urban area. Such system may consist of catchment, retention, infiltration, conveyance, pumping, and discharge. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service). Activities to ensure a sustainable operation and maintenance of various types of sanitation services, whether it is by government (or governmentowned authority), by private companies or community groups.

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10 11

Completion of master plan for drainage services Engineering design of drainage system

11 8

12 13 14 15 -

Operation of sewer system Operation of sewage treatment plant Operation of sludge treatment facility Operation of final disposal facility -

4 4 4 4 -

9.

Monitoring and evaluation

Activities to gather feedback information to adjust future sanitation development activities.

104.

A sanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social, business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected activity can be found in Attachment1.

MAIN PERSONNEL
105.

Some team members are considered central to the implementation of an activity. These individuals may have competence that is indispensable to reach the activitys objectives, or hold a crucial coordinating role for the activity, may have the longest assignment, and/or consolidates the work of other team members. Such individuals are called, in the Study, as Main Personnel. In the 15 selected sanitation activities, there are 20 job titles associated with main personnel; 13 of which require

facility is prepared. Detailed designs are developed based on direction set in the master plans. Implementation is the stage where the sanitation development plans are realized, including construction and commissioning of physical facilities, preparation of management organization (units). 10 Wastewater system, as it is described in the Ministerial Decree of Public Works no. 16/2008, should include areas of (1) technology interventions, (2) community participation, (3) legal and regulatory development, (4) institutional and capacity development, and (v) financing mechanisms. Therefore, a master plan of wastewater services at least should cover those five areas.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

an environmental/sanitary engineering11 background. The following table presents the main personnel in the selected sanitation activities, along with the required educational background and level of experiencewhich classified into entry-level (straight out of tertiary education), junior (1 5 years of experience), mid-level (5 10 years of experience), senior (over 10 years of experience). Table 2.Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities
Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities 1. Preparation of City Sanitation Strategy Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Development Planning 2.
12

Ri,i

Required Education Background S-1 in urban planning, public health, public administration, engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering.
13

Level of Experience Mid-level

Mid-level

Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation S-1 in urban planning, public 0.1 Development Planning health, public administration, engineering. Implementation of the STBM program Facilitator (Social) for Community Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation of SANIMAS Program Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation
15 14

Mid-level

3.

S-1 in social sciences, public health. D-3 in social sciences, public health. D-3 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering.
16

Mid-level

4.

1 1

Entry-level Entry-level

5.

Completion of master plan for wastewater services Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater 1 System Planning Engineering design of sewerage system
17

S-2 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering.

Senior

6.

11

Sanitary engineering is an engineering field aiming to improve sanitation condition of human communities and prevent disease, mostly by assuring a supply of clean water, removing wastes (liquid and solid) from inhabited areas. Later this engineering field was expanded to cover larger environmental issues, including those of industrial sectors. Therefore, the term sanitary engineering is rarely used these days and most universities use the term environmental engineering. 12 The CSS preparation involves assignment of two facilitators to work with the city/districts Pokja AMPL to prepare the CSS. One facilitator serves as coordinator, and is expected to have a good knowledge of PPSP process, has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning. The second facilitator is expected to have a stronger technical background related to planning and development of sanitation infrastructure. 13 The preparation of program memorandum requires one facilitator to work with the city/districts Pokja AMPL. The facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of development planning process, and experience in water and sanitation planning. 14 Implementation of STBM program involves a number of village facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Desa) which are recruited from among the village community. The village facilitators receive support from a senior facilitator, commonly called Sub-District Level Facilitator (Fasilitator Kecamatan). The Study refers the senior facilitator as Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change. 15 Implementation of SANIMAS program requires a community-level facilitation team to organize, mobilize, empower, and advise the community. The standard team composition consists of two community-level field facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan, TFL), i.e. social facilitator and technical facilitator. Both are involved since the awareness raising stage until the commissioning stages of the facility. BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association), which is a major executor of the SANIMAS program, has slightly modified this arrangement. In BORDA-supported areas, only one TFL (social) is assigned to the target community. He/she receives support and guidance from a Senior TFL (STFL) who covers five locations at once. 16 The completion of master plan of sanitation services (wastewater, solid waste, drainage) involves a team of consultants with sound planning and technical knowledge and experience in the various aspects of sanitation services system. A typical team includes personnel with expertise in system planning, engineering, financial analysis and planning, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatory matters. One of the team members, usually the senior technical expert, serves as a team leader. 17 Engineering design of sanitation facilities (sewer network, sewage treatment plant, sludge treatment facility, final disposal site, drainage system) involve a team of consultants with sound technical knowledge

11

Sanitation Personnel

Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage 18 Engineering Design 7.

Ri,i 1

Required Education Background S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering S-2 in environmental/sanitary engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering. S-2 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary engineering, civil engineering. S-1 in environmental/sanitary eng., mechanical eng. D-3 in management, or administration. S-1 in environmental/sanitary eng., mechanical eng. D-3 in management, or administration. S-1 in environmental/sanitary eng., mechanical eng D-3 in management, or administration.

Level of Experience Senior

Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Consultant (Technical) for Sludge 1 Treatment Engineering Design Completion of master plan for solid waste services Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste 1 System Planning Engineering design of final disposal facility Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design 1

Senior

8.

Senior

9.

Senior

10.

Completion of master plan for drainage services Consultant (Technical) for Drainage 1 System Planning Engineering design of drainage system Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Engineering Design Operation of sewer system Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation
19

Senior

11.

Senior

12.

3 1

Mid-level Mid-level

13.

Operation of sewage treatment plant Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operation of sludge treatment facility Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation

3 1

Mid-level Mid-level

14.

3 1

Mid-level Mid-level

15.

Operation of final disposal facility Operator (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level 4 Operation eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sanitary D-3 in management, or 1 Mid-level Landfill Operation administration. Ri,i= Involvement ratio, or ratio of the number of individual(s) involved in an activity per location. Note: For a type of sanitation personnel, some activities require one personnel per location while some require one personnel for more than one location.

and experience in designing the facilities as well as the operational plans. A typical team includes personnel with expertise in technical aspect of each facility, civil works, mechanical works, electrical works, project management, financial, and environmental management. One of the team members, usually the senior engineer related to the type of facility, serves as a team leader. 18 A sewerage system may consist of sewer network and sewage treatment plant(s). The design of each requires individual with specific expertise. 19 The activity involves a team of operators, ranging from management level to field workers. Their duties include operating and maintaining all sewer facilities which may include pumping stations.

12

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT
The Study assesses the level of demand and supply of sanitation personnel associated with 15 activities. The demand is estimated from the projected number of activities. While the supply is estimated from known groups who can immediately be involved or be prepared for sanitation activities. Shortages of personnel in the short- and medium-terms are discussed.

LEVEL OF DEMAND
201. The level of demand indicates the number of individuals required to fill job opportunities in the 15 selected sanitation activities (see Table 1), for short-term (2012 2014) and medium-term (2015 2019). It should be noted that the number of jobs opportunities may not be the same with the number of individuals required. There is a big chance that an individual is involved in an activity for more than one period, therefore he/she will fill more than one job opportunity. 202. The number of job opportunities for a particular job title is estimated by factoring the frequency of activity (requiring a particular job title) and the number of individuals needed in an activity. Frequencies of activities are projected using the following basis: Short-term: Based on the current PPSP program roadmap (see Attachment 2) and other targets mentioned in the national mid-term development plan. It is targeted that by end of 2014, 340 cities/districts complete their CSS, 240 cities/districts complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2014, and 240 cities/districts initiate the implementation phase. SANIMAS programs will be implemented in 2,000 areas per year. Medium-term: Based on preliminary projections of the next PPSP program cycle (see Attachment 3)20. It is assumed that 500 cities/districts in Indonesia will complete their CSS by end of 2017, complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2018, and initiate the implementation phase by end of 2019. STBM and SANIMAS programs will continue into the next development cycle with the same rate of implementation. The number of individuals required to fill sanitation jobs, or the quantitative demand of sanitation personnel, is a function of the number of job opportunities and a continuity factor, i.e. the proportion of individuals expected to continue working in the same job in the subsequent period.

20

No official data is available for targets beyond 2014.

13

Quantitative Assessment

203. Sanitation development in Indonesia will need sanitation personnel of more than 15,000 individuals in the short-term) and and addition of 18,000 individuals in the medium-term). For the main personnel, it will need almost 11,000 individuals in the short-term and an addition of 12,400 in the medium-term. Most of them are facilitators (for the preparation of CSS, STBM implementation, and SANIMAS implementation). A significant number of individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background will be needed. The estimates also show that more than 60% of the individuals will be those with entry-level and junior experience (see Table 3 for summary of the estimates and Attachment 4 for the complete estimates). Table 3.Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel
Category Total Role All Personnel Main Personnel All Personnel Facilitator Consultant Operator Main Personnel Facilitator Consultant Operator Field Education / All Personnel Technical
21

Short Term Amount 15,140 10,845 9,780 4,310 1,050 9,710 500 630 5,240 3,950 870 420 9,900 4,870 3,950 500 420 5,975 500 5,020 5,870 3,750 500 1,145 5,450 3,750 72 65 28 7 89 5 6 35 26 6 3 65 45 36 5 4 55 3 33 39 25 5 11 50 35 %

Medium-Term Amount 18,290 12,400 9,950 5,140 3,200 9,890 590 1,920 6,190 3,960 950 1,280 12,100 5,830 3,960 590 1,289 6,570 590 7,175 6,780 3,750 590 2,560 5,500 3,750 68 54 28 17 80 5 15 34 22 5 7 66 47 32 5 10 55 3 39 37 21 5 21 44 30 %

Facilitator Consultant Operator Non-Technical Main Personnel Technical Facilitator Consultant Operator Non-Technical Experience All Personnel Senior Mid-Level Junior Entry-Level Main Personnel Senior Mid-Level Junior Entry-Level Note:

Percentages of categories under the all personnel are proportional to the total number of all personnel. While, percentages of categories under the main personnel are proportional to the total number of main personnel.

The following table presents a more detail estimates of the demand for main personnel.
21

Technical personnel, in this Study, represent those with knowledge considered central to the main subjects of the activity, e.g. wastewater management, solid waste management, and drainage. Such knowledge are usually possessed by individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background.

14

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Table 4.Number of Sanitation Activities &Main Personnel


Activity Number of Activities
ShortTerm MediumTerm

Main Personnel22

Number of Job Opportunities


ShortTerm MediumTerm

Number of Individuals Required


Fc,i ShortTerm MediumTerm

Preparation of City Sanitation Strategies Preparation of PMSS Implementation of STBM program Implementation of SANIMAS program

210

500

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning

270 290 190 2,000 4,500 4,500

715 665 550 3,500 7,500 7,500

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5

210 200 110 1,700 3,750 3,750

275 210 160 1,750 3,750 3,750

2 3 4

190 20,000 4,500

550 35,000 7,500

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation

Completion of master plans for wastewater services Engineering design of sewerage system Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Completion of master plan for solid waste services Engineering design of final disposal facility Completion of master plan for drainage system Engineering design of drainage system Operation of sewer system

140

340

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning

140

340

0.8

110

110

15

50

15

50

0.8

10

15

80

400

80

400

0.8

50

115

140

340

140

340

0.8

110

110

150

250

Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation

150

250

0.8

70

50

10

140

340

140

340

0.8

110

110

11

90

320

90

320

0.8

50

90

12

10

45

20 10

90 45

1.0 1.0

30 10

135 45

13

Operation of sewage treatment plant

10

80

Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation

20

90

1.0

30

135

10

45

1.0

10

45

14

Operation of sludge treatment facility

40

300

Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation

80

600

1.0

120

900

40

300

1.0

40

300

15

Operation of final disposal facility

150

250

Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation

300 150

500 250

1.0 1.0

600 150

1,000 250

Total Number Proportion to all personnel (%)

13,135 63

24,390 56

10,845 72

12,400 68

22

Names of some job titles are shortened for practicality.

15

Quantitative Assessment

204. Types of main personnel mostly needed to support the current and next PPSP program cycles are (ranked based on the highest number of individuals required in both terms): Facilitators & Consultants 1. Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 2. Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation 3. Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior 4. Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning 5. Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 6. Consultant (Technical) Wastewater Planning Operators 1. Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation 2. Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation 3. Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation 4. Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation 7,500 7,500 3,450 745 410 215 800 680 400 110

LEVEL OF SUPPLY
205. The supply of sanitation personnel consists of individuals from the following three groups (see diagram):

Eligible:

Individuals who have the right qualifications (education and experience) for a particular sanitation job title. These individuals have worked in sanitation, and have received relevant training, therefore they can be immediately employed for a particular sanitation job. The eligible group is divided into a) active personnel, or eligible individuals currently involved in sanitation activities, and b) inactive personnel, or eligible individuals currently not involved in a sanitation activity. Individuals who have partial qualifications (education or experience), but still require additional preparation before they are ready to fill a particular sanitation job. The preparation can be as minimal as orientation training to introduce individuals to the specifics of a program23; or as elaborate as a technical training to introduce a technology or technical approach used by a program. This category includes individuals with a relevant educational degree, but has not pursued career in sanitation24, or individuals who have recently graduated.

Potentials:

Prospective: Individuals who may have the interest and potential to be prepared for sanitation jobs. These individuals are currently still students in a relevant educational program, i.e. environmental engineering, public health, social science, etc. Interventions may be needed to enhance or create the individuals interest in pursuing sanitation jobs.

23

For example, training on basic facilitation for CSS/PMSS preparation, and training on basic facilitation for developing SANIMAS system in urban areas. 24 Example would be alumni of environmental/ sanitary engineering who works as Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) staff in oil/gas companies, or has built his/her career as an EIA consultant or environmental auditor. Also, alumni of social sciences who have not been involved in any sanitation work.

16

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

The three categories combined are expected to play a role in satisfying the demand for sanitation personnel in the short-term and medium-term of sanitation development in Indonesia.

Groupings of Individuals for Supply Assessment. Demand for sanitation personnel will be fulfilled by the Eligible and the Potential groups. After graduating, the Prospective will become part of the Potential group.

Eligible
206. There are about 9,000 eligible individuals that can be immediately involved in the short-term period (see Table 5). Some of them are active personnel, while others are inactive for various reasons25. Estimates of the eligible (the main personnel) are described as follows. Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning: There are about 320 individuals who have served as facilitators for preparation of CSS/PMSS, or have been trained for these functions by BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their development partners26. Some of the individuals are currently active, but some appear not to be employed due to changes in the employing institution (provincial level, instead of national level). In addition to the policy facilitators, there are also 130 technical facilitators available. Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior: The eligible supply is around 1300 individuals27. These people are individuals who have participated in CLTS or STBM related programs and/or have been trained as facilitators by the Ministry of Health or its development partners. Facilitators (Technical) for Communal System: There are 3,000 technical individuals who have been prepared and involved in previous or on-going SANIMAS programs, or been trained by Ministry of Public Works or their development partners28. In addition to the technical facilitators, there are also 3,000 individuals who have served as social facilitators.
25

There is no database available to assess the number of personnel currently active or inactive in the sanitation activities. Moreover, the Study was unable to find any reasonable assumption to assess the proportion of active personnel and inactive personnel among the eligible. Therefore, the supply assessment does not quantitatively differentiate the two categories. 26 BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their partners have conducted training of basic facilitation for CSS or PMSS preparation since 2010, with the latest done in December 2010. A total of 220 individuals have been trained for CSS policy facilitators (provincial, city/district level) and 100 individuals for PMSS facilitators. In addition, almost 130 individuals have been trained as CSS technical facilitators, and about 30 individuals as CSS financial facilitators. 27 Various programs have trained and prepared CLTS/STBM facilitators. The most significant one is the program of PAMSIMAS (Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat, or Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities or WSLIC 3, 2008 2013) which has prepared more than 1250 facilitators. Another program, the CWSHP (Community Water Services and Health Project) has prepared about 80 STBM facilitators. An NGO, Plan Indonesia, has prepared almost 50 facilitators to support its CLTS programs in Central Java. 28 It is assumed that the implementation of SANIMAS in 2010 and 2011 have prepared at least one technical facilitator for each SANIMAS location. The Ministry of Public Works claims that SANIMAS have

17

Quantitative Assessment

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: More than 140 individuals are eligible to be wastewater system technical consultants. They are basically the number of senior and some mid-level certified engineers29 with strong wastewater experience30. Eligible individuals are also available for solid waste and drainage system planning, as well as for the engineering design of various sanitation facilities31. Among the three sub-sectors, qualifications in drainage appear to be weakest (compared to wastewater and solid waste)32. Operators of various sanitation facilities: The number of eligible individuals for various operator functions is assumed from the number of facilities currently operating in Indonesia. With 11 sewerage systems operating in the country, it is assumed there is at least one qualified person for each position. Similarly, it is assumed that for final disposal site operators, there are at least 200 technical operators and 200 managerial operators handling existing disposal sites. Individuals eligible as sludge treatment operators comprise of 100 operators (each) handling existing facilities33. Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals
Main Personnel FACILITATORS Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation CONSULTANTS Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design OPERATORS Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation 10 10 Insufficient Sufficient 130 105 65 55 Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Sufficient 140 115 Sufficient Sufficient 320 130 1,380 3,000 3,000 Sufficient Insufficient Insufficient Insufficient Insufficient Number of Individuals Relative to Short-Term Demand

been conducted using the Specific-Allocated Fund (DAK, or Dana Anggaran Khusus) in 2,700 locations for the last two years. In addition, the Ministry of Public Works has also implemented SANIMAS in 300 other locations using direct central government funding. Therefore, it can be assumed that there is about 3,000 individuals eligible to be technical facilitators. 29 The Agency for Construction Services Development (or, LPJK) has awarded certificates to more than 7,400 individuals who are considered to be qualified as experts in environmental engineering field. Among the awarded certificates, 2% are for the senior experts (ahli utama), 18% are for mid-level experts (ahli madya), and 76% are for junior experts (ahli muda). 30 Review of data on 200 certified environmental engineers indicate that 17% have strong wastewater experience. The others have strong experience on solid waste (16%), drainage (8%), and water supply (59%). 31 Eligible individuals are available for sewerage system and sludge treatment facility design, despite recruitment difficulties encountered by a major program such as the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (INDII) program. 32 Some of the certified civil engineers are equally qualified to design drainage systems. However, certified civil engineers were not reviewed in the Study. 33 The issue of individual competence, related to poor performance of existing sanitary landfills and sludge treatment facilities, will be discussed in the Gap Analysis chapter.

18

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Main Personnel Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation Note:

Number of Individuals 10 10 100 100 200 200

Relative to Short-Term Demand Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Insufficient Sufficient

Comparison is made to the short-term demand of main personnel as shown in Table 4. Sufficient means the number of eligible individuals will be enough to satisfy the shortterm demand. Insufficient means the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to satisfy the short-term demand. Not enough information was obtained to completely separate consultant (technical) for sewerage design and for sludge treatment.

Attachment 5 presents a more complete estimate of individuals in the eligible group. 207. Asuming all active and inactive personnel will join the sector, the number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of consultants, except that for drainage planning (see Table 5). However, there are not enough eligible individuals to satisfy the demand for social and technical facilitators. Likewise, for the technical operator category, eligible individuals cannot meet the demand.

Potential
208. There are a high number of individuals in the second layer, who can be upgraded and recruited to fill shortage of eligible individuals (see Table 6). Estimation was made for technical personnel only, by exploring individuals holding the LPJK professional certification for environmental engineering and individuals with environmental engineering degrees. Some of these individuals may have appropriate qualifications, but may have never been employed in the sanitation sector. Estimates are made based on the level of qualification (education and experience), and matched to the most suitable job titles. The description is as follows. Technical with senior experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from senior certified experts (Ahli Utama) with strong water supply background. The number can reach up to 100 individuals. They are expected to fill the mediumterm demand for technical consultant for master plan of sanitation services. Shifting from water supply to managing master plan development for sanitation services would not require too much capacity building. Technical with mid-level experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources. The first from mid-level certified experts (Ahli Madya) with a strong water supply background, i.e. 500 individuals. A shift to sanitation sectors would relatively easy since most of them have environmental/sanitary engineer background. The second is environmental engineering alumni with 5 10 years of experience, i.e. 600 individuals. Some of them are not yet engaged in the water and sanitation sector. They are expected to fill the demand of technical facilitators for sanitation planning or technical operators for various sanitation facilities. Technical with junior experience: Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources, i.e. junior-level certified environmental engineers (Ahli Muda) and environmental engineering alumni with 2 4 years of experience. They are 19

Quantitative Assessment

expected to fill the short-term demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. A total amount of 2,600 individuals can be tapped from this group. Technical with entry-level experience: Environmental engineers with less than 2 years of experience can fill the demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. The number of this group may reach to 250 individuals. More than 4,000 technical individuals from the potential group can be expected to get involved in the short-term sanitation activities. Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only)
Groups & Main Personnel Senior Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Mid-Level Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Junior Entry-Level Note: Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 2,600 250 620 400 Number of Individuals 100 Relative to Short-Term Demand Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient

Comparison is made to the number of personnel needed after inclusion of the eligible group. Sufficient means that the number of potential individuals will be enough to fill the shortterm shortage of eligible individuals. Insufficient means that the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to fill the short-term shortage of eligible inidividuals.

Supply of social and policy facilitators, as well as for non-technical operators, are open to individuals from diverse educational backgrounds. The pool is very large, since it crosses social sciences, public policy, public health and other technical disciplines. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply for the demand of these types of personnel is enormous. 209. The number of technical potential individuals is more than enough to cover the lack of personnel in the short-term period. However, further estimate shows that there will not be enough potential individuals to satisfy the medium-term demand34. Around 6.200 technical individuals are still required to meet the medium-term demand (see Table 4).This medium-term deficiency will likely be covered by those who are grouped as the prospective, or by inviting more individuals from other technical backgrounds.

34

With additional experience, some potential individuals will have gained higher qualification, making them prepared to fill sanitation position with higher competence level, say a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.

20

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Prospective
210. There is a significant number of university students who can be expected to become sanitation personnel in the near future35. For the supply of technical personnel, the pool of prospective individuals is estimated from the number of students majoring in environment/sanitary engineering in 47 universities across the country. For the supply of non-technical professions, the size of prospective individuals is not calculated, since it involves a large number of faculties and universities. There should be no difficulty in tapping into the supply for nontechnical professionals as long as sanitation jobs can compete with other jobs in the market. 211. Annually, 800 to 1,000 individuals graduate from environmental engineering schools with an S-1 degree36 (see section on Capacity of Suppliers). Assuming that 25% of the graduates end up as sanitation professionals37, the prospective individuals to become technical personnel are estimated at 250 individuals a year. In time, they become part of the potential group; in fact, a portion of them can directly join the eligible group to fill entry-level sanitation positions, such as technical SANIMAS facilitator.

DISCUSSION
Short-Term Demand and Supply
212. Overall;The final years of the current cycle of PPSP implementation (2012 2014) will need more than 15,000 individuals(see Table 3). Assuming inactive personnel can be attracted back,the supply of eligible individuals for the remaining years of the current PPSP cycle (2012-2014) may reach 9,000 individuals(see Table 5). The remaining shortage can further be covered by potential individuals invited to join the sanitation sector. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply of individuals from the eligible and potential groups will be sufficient to meet the short-term demand for sanitation personnel. 213. Facilitators;The largest portion of the short-term demand for sanitation personnel, 65% or almost 9,800 individuals (see chart), consists of facilitators for CSS and PMSS preparation, as well as SANIMAS and STBM implementation. This high demand for facilitators is commensurate with the accelerated pace of the four activities throughout Indonesia38. Assuming all inactive facilitators can be mobilized, the number of eligible is sufficient only to satisfy the demand for CSS policy facilitators, but not for CSS
35

Composition of the Short-Term Demand

A web-based survey targeting environmental engineering students was conducted in the Study. A questionnaire is made to check their current status, possession of knowledge, attractiveness to the sanitation sector, and issues of joining the sanitation sector. Survey results indicate that there is still high interests for the students to join the sanitation sector. 36 Source: Ministry of Education, as shown in www.evaluasi.or.id where all data of Indonesian universities are completely presented, including those having environmental engineering department. 37 Based on records of the environmental engineering alumni of the University of Trisakti which identifies about 25 percent of the alumni works as consultant/contractor. If 60 percent among them are engaged in sanitation, then it is safe to assume that 15 percent of graduates are available for sanitation positions. 38 For example, SANIMAS program is implemented with an annual rate of 1,500 locations, while STBM program has an annual rate of 7,000 locations.

21

Quantitative Assessment

technical facilitators or SANIMAS and STBM facilitators, where demand is very high. Supply of individuals from the potential groupmay be sufficient to fix the facilitator shortage. 214. Consultants;The number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of main consultants involved in the planning and design stages of urban sanitation services.There will be more than 600 main consultants(see Table 5), with sanitary/environmental engineering background, available to satisfy the short-term demand for 500 main consultants (see Table 3). Minor shortage for drainage planning consultants will be easily covered by those with civil engineering background. 215. Operators;There will be enough individuals from the eligible group to be involved in the operation of most sanitation facilities. Minor shortage of operators for sewer, sewage treatment, and solid waste final disposal facilities can easily be covered by individuals from the potential group. 216. Technical personnel;Of all the main personnel needed in the remaining PPSP years, 45% or about 4,900 individuals require technical qualifications in environmental/sanitary engineering39(see Table 3). The rest requires various backgrounds, ranging from other engineering, social science, urban planning, and others. Assuming all of those individuals are interested in joining the sanitation sector, there will be more than 4,000 potential individuals available to fill the shortterm demand for technical personnel(see Table 6).In addition to those from the eligible group, the short-term demand for technical personnel can be satistified. 217. Inactive Personnel;The eligible group consists of active and inactive personnel. Mathematically, the individuals from this group will be able to satisfy the short-term demand for various types of sanitation personnel. However, that supply will not be sufficient if inactive personnel are reluctant to return to the sanitation sector. This situation is made worse if active personnel decide to stop working in the sanitation sector, which may occur if (a) other sectors offer more attractive benefits, (b) work opportunities are limited, (c) information on work opportunities do not reach the eligible individuals, and (d) challenges and opportunities for competence advancement are limited.If the eligible group cannot be fully mobilized, more individuals from the potential group must be recuitted to fill in the gaps. 218. Young Personnel;The final two years of PPSP will require, mainly, individuals with entry-level and junior level experience. About 3,750 entry-level individuals (or 25% of the total) are needed to serve as technical SANIMAS facilitators (see Table 3). Another 40% of the total required will be junior level individuals to serve as facilitators or operators of sanitation facilities. These numbers are high compared to 500 senior individuals needed to serve as team leaders for various planning and design activities. Individuals with junior-level certificate of environmental engineering and new Composition of the Short-Term Demand for Main Personnel graduates may be sufficient to satisfy the demand for technical personnel with entry-level and junior-level experience.

39

The high demand of environmental/ sanitary engineers is understandable considering the types of services (or facilities) to be developed are those closely related to the knowledge offered in the school of environmental/ sanitary engineering.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Medium-Term Demand and Supply


219. Overall;The next PPSP program cycle of 2015 2019, if any, will need an addition of over 18,000 individuals (see Table 3). The highest demand in the medium-term is still facilitators, since the implementation rate of SANIMAS and STBM programs are expected to be the same (see chart). An additional 9,950 facilitators must be available in that period, of which 7,500 facilitators would be SANIMAS-related. The demand for operators of sanitation facilities will see a significant increase. Over 3,200 additional operators will have to be available in that period, compared to 1,050 operators in the current PPSP cycle. 220. The Prospective;Major shortages of sanitation personnel will be experienced in the next PPSP cycle (2015 2019). At least, 10,000 entry-level and junior personnel will be required. Estimates indicate that even by utilizing all technical individuals from the potential group, the shortage still can reach more than 2,000 individuals. This medium-term deficiency may be covered partly by a group of new university graduates from environmental engineering schools. Almost fifty universities throughout Indonesia offer D-3, S-1 and S-2 degrees in environmental engineering. These universities combined generate almost 1,000 new S-1 graduates a year. With the low interest in employment in the sanitation sector (15%), the supply of new graduates will not meet the medium-term demand of 3,750 levelentry individuals. Inviting more new graduates with other technical backgrounds may quickly solve this shortage. Those with civil engineering backgrounds can qualify to fill the shortage. 221. Conditions;Current environmental engineering students are generally still interested in becoming professionals in the sanitation sector. However, the appeal of other sectors is very high, such as from the manufacturing and oil/ gas industries. Several issues that seem to work against the sanitation sector are40 a) unclear career path, b) lack of prestige, c) limited work opportunities, d) limited technological breakthroughs and progress, and e) low compensation and benefits.

Reality Check
222. The estimate indicates that there are a large number of qualified individuals available to fill the job opportunities in the sanitation sector41. However, the fact seems to show otherwise. Many program managers experience difficulty in finding and recruiting qualified individuals, while many qualified individuals experience difficulty in finding work in sanitation. This gap between reality and the estimates may be caused by the following: Sanitation jobs are less attractive. Not all inactive and qualified personnel, as well as students, are attracted to sanitation jobs. Compared to other sectors, sanitation sector offers lower compensation and benefits. The jobs rarely offer
40 41

Based on results of the students web-based survey. The estimate should be considered as an approximation, since many assumptions were used in the calculations. One of the assumptions implies that most individuals will join the sanitation sector, meaning all fully and partly qualified individuals, as well as students, will somehow get involved in the sector. This might be a very optimistic view.

23

Quantitative Assessment

long-term security and clear professional advancement path. Furthermore, the unpopular and unexciting image of work in sanitation sector makes many individuals reluctant to join the sector. Sanitation jobs are invisible. Not all qualified individuals know how and where to access job opportunities.While jobs in other sectors are advertised quiet extensively, opportunities on sanitation jobs are not well exposed. There are very few employers in the sanitation sector, besides government and international agencies. The sanitation sector does not yet have an industry, where private (or semi-private) firms offer full-time employment and professional advancement opportunities. Sanitation jobs are not well-defined. Competence requirements for most sanitation work have not been well-defined, making it difficult for employers to articulate the precise type of person they need, and the qualification and competence requirements. Consequently, employers also have difficulty in finding the right group(s) of professions to approach when looking for candidates.

Individuals will only consider employment opportunities in the sanitation sector if the sector becomes more appealing and competitive. Otherwise, the lure of better paying jobs, more exciting careers, and a clearer career path will always be too powerful for most individuals to resist.

Notes
223. Assumptions; The level of demand of sanitation personnel is estimated by using various assumptions. The demand may change if deployment strategies are modified, as represented by the involvement ratio. The experience with changes in SANIMAS deployment strategy provides a clear example of how the number of personnel needed may change very quickly. Moreover, the level of demand may also change if the number of individuals who stay in their positions change, as represented by the continuity factor. 224. The level of demand estimated in the Study does not cover all types of personnel related to PPSP program activities42. If extrapolated to include all possible job titles, the numbers may increase by 25%. Additional positions may relate to PPSP activities under improvement of enabling environment, and monitoring and evaluation (see Table 1). There may also be other types of activities that will create additional demand of personnel, e.g. preparation of feasibility studies for different sanitation facilities, and engineering design of other auxiliary facilities.

CONCLUSION
225. Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM). The existing facilitators will not be enough to satisfy the demand for SANIMAS and STBM activities in the remaining years of the current PPSP cycle. However, these shortterm gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. LPJK-certified environmental/sanitary engineers and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. Reserves from the same groups can also be used to satisfy the demand for other technical personnel, i.e. technical personnel
42

This demand assessment is also still deficient regarding geographic spread of the demand. Geography adds another level of complexity to the analysis, and was not attempted in the Study. Furthermore, since the supply assessment cannot cover geographic location of available individuals or students, it was decided that the demand assessment would also not pursue this line of analysis.

24

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

for facilitating CSS formulation, planning drainage, and operating facilities. On the other hand, gaps of non-technical personnel will have to be filled by attracting individuals from other disciplines and providing sufficient orientation training. 226. In the medium-term (2015-2019), assuming the accelerated pace of sanitation development continues, gaps of sanitation personnel will be quite serious. Personnel recruited before 2014 are assumed to continue employment in sanitation activities. Additional personnel will have to be recruited and trained to meet the medium-term demand. The highest deficiencies will be for SANIMAS and STBM facilitators, followed by operators for the various sanitation facilities constructed. A group of new university graduates can be expected to cover this deficiency. 227. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. Furthermore, the percentage of graduates who enter the sanitation field is small, and the numbers are much lower than the annual demand for technical personnel. The sanitation field lacks the appeal of other sectors, such as mining, oil/gas or environmental management. Projected into the future, the shortage of technical individuals to sanitation will continue unless the sector is made more attractive. 228. Any scenario to close the gap can succeed only if the sanitation sector is made more appealing for professionals, especially those who are already pursuing work in other sectors. This requires some policy and institutional changes in the sector, as well as proactive image-building. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated. 229. Alternatively, the gaps can also be reduced by ensuring that deployment strategies for sanitation programs utilize available personnel in the most efficient and effective manner. For example, a pair of SANIMAS facilitators might be able to work for three locations instead of one, as currently applied.

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Quantitative Assessment

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

COMPETENCEASSESSMENT
The Study assesses the competence of sanitation personnelby using four key personnel as samples. The required competenceis used as reference to evaluate their level of competence and knowledge, and to assess availablecompetence development programs. The study also discusses other factors that affect a persons competence outside of education and training. Gaps in competence development are identified.

DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE


301. The demand for competence describes sets of competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes)requiredfor sanitation personnel to perform their respective occupational functions properly. From the level of personnel demand (par. 204), four types of sanitation personnel with the highest demand are selected for the competence demand assessment43, namely: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning, Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change, Facilitator (Technical) for CommunalSanitation System Implementation, and Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.

302. Assessment of competence demand starts with the evaluation of occupational functions of existing personnel (see the diagram). It involves gathering and analyzing information about the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of each type of personnel44. List of Core Competencies45 then is developed for each type of personnel. Following

43

The short duration of the Study pushed for a prioritization effort, i.e. analyzing a handful of key sanitation personnel where a shortage is already being felt by practitioners and stakeholders active in sanitation in Indonesia. The prioritized sanitation personnel would be the object of analysis in the demand and supply assessments. After careful consideration of various inputs from resource persons and discussions at the Sanitation Donor Group, the four types of sanitation personnel were chosen for qualitative analysis in this study. Consequently, this study should be treated as an effort to create and test an analytical framework to assess the demand and supply of certain professions. This framework can be utilized to expand the study to a broader spectrum of sanitation personnel. 44 A number of interviews were conducted to users of the personnel, program managers, and active personnel, in addition to desk studies using local and international references. Direct observations were also conducted to a number of individuals in their day-to-day activities. 45 Core competencies are defined as group of fundamental knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area in sanitation-related fields. One type of sanitation personnel possesses a unique set of core competencies, which makes them differs from other type of personnel. Another group of competencies, called key competencies, consists of generic knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed by all types of personnel. These competencies are considered transferable and adaptive to different types of personnel. Following the Meyer scheme, the Key Competencies are a) collecting, analyzing and organizing information, b) communicating ideas and information, c) planning and organizing activities, d) working

27

Competence Assessment

the Indonesian National Competency Standards format46, the list consists of a number of Units of Competency47, which are further elaborated into Elements of Competency and required knowledge (or, need-to-know criteria).

The Lists later will be used as the basis for evaluating performance of existing personnel, assessing sufficiency of knowledge, and analyzing gaps between the demand and supply of competence. It is also expected that the Lists of Core Competency produced in this Study will be further developed as the draft for Indonesian National Competency Standard in the near future.

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning


303. A Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning is an individual assigned to facilitate a city/districts Pokja AMPL in preparing the City Sanitation Strategies (CSS or, Strategi Sanitasi Kota), or the Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector (PMSS). In addition to facilitation skills, a CSS/ PMSS facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of sanitation development process (especially under PPSP framework), has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning. He/she works together with a technical facilitator who possesses stronger technical knowledge related to sanitation infrastructure. Although assigned to facilitate the city/district Pokja AMPL, a facilitator (policy) for sanitation development planning is expected to understand most of the issues covered in a CSS and PMSS. 304. Qualification Planning48are: of a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development

with others in teams, e) solving problems, f) using mathematical ideas and techniques, and g) using technology. 46 The full Indonesian National Competency Standard (SKKNI, or Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia) format contains description of Performance Criteria (Kriteria Unjuk Kerja) and Range of Variables (Batasan Variabel). This report does not present the two descriptions; however, performance criteria and range of variables were considered in developing the Need-to-Know Criteria, described in this report. 47 Unit of competency is a short statement of a key function or role in a particular job or occupation, usually expressed as an outcome. 48 Adapted from the selection criteria of CSS City/ District Facilitators (for the Coordinator position) by the Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Educational background: Undergraduate (S-1) degree (minimum) from school of urban planning, public health, public administration, communication, or engineering. Work experience: Five years (minimum) in the fields of infrastructure development planning, public health, or public policy, and development strategic planning. Training:Formulation of City Sanitation Strategy or Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector (see Table 14).

The trainingsare prerequisites for becoming CSS/ PMSS facilitator. 305. The following table presents the occupational function and the condensed list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning (see Attachment6 for the complete version). A CSS facilitator requires 10 competency units with a total of 50 competency elements. Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning
Occupational Function Provide information about PPSP scheme and approaches to the city/district Pokja AMPL and other sanitation development stakeholders, Provide technical inputs to Pokja AMPL during community assessment, mapping of sanitation profile, CSS formulation or PMSS preparation Organize and facilitate discussion, meetings, and workshops involving Pokja AMPL and other stakeholders, Maintain relationship with provincial Pokja AMPL and other stakeholders, Monitor and evaluate CSS formulation or PMSS preparation process, Ensure the quality of documents developed by Pokja AMPL, e.g. Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA)
49 50

Core Competencies
(units &number of elements)

Need-to-Know Criteria 5 Basic sanitation and public health issues, Government policies on sanitation development, especially on PPSP, National, provincial, and city/ district strategic development plans, Relations between areas general characteristics with sanitation 50 condition , Sanitation profile mapping, Type and characteristics of sanitation services, Community sanitation survey, including data collection and analysis, 51 Format and relations of EHRA , 52 White Book , CSS, and MPPS documents, Components of city/ district sanitation strategic plans, Principles of program 53 implementation planning , Content and format of a general proposal for sanitation programs, Decision making and funding

Comprehend general characteristics of the 49 area . Assess sanitation conditions of the communities. Prepare sanitation 54 profile of the area. Comprehend projections on future characteristics of the area. Formulate basic framework for sanitation development in the area. Formulate direction for sanitation development. Prepare general proposal for sanitation development programs. Prepare implementation concept for sanitation development. Develop strategic partnerships.

6 5

4 6

In the context of a CSS facilitator or PMSS facilitator, area means city, or urban communities. Especially the characteristics of physical conditions (topography, climate, water bodies, geomorphology, geology, hydrology), demography (population density, growth rate, gender distribution), land-use (landuse types, composition, development trends), socio-economic (average income, jobs and livelihoods), existing infrastructure (road network, electricity, water supply). 51 Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA) is a participatory survey to determine the condition of sanitation facilities, health / hygiene, as well as people's behavior at the community and city level. EHRA can also be used to categorize areas according to the level of environmental health risks. 52 Sanitation White Book is a document which provides an overview of the sanitation conditions of a city/district. The document is prepared to serve as foundation for the preparation of a City Sanitation Strategy. It contains information on the city/districts existing sanitation services, obstacles to further develop the services, identification of city wards or sub-districts that need priority attention, and provides direction for a sanitation development plan. 53 Planning should cover infrastructure, institutional capacity, regulation and policy, public participation, private sector, and funding issues. 54 Sanitation profile covers information on infrastructure (services), institutional, regulation and policy, public participation, private sector involvement, and funding.

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Competence Assessment

Occupational Function report, the Sanitation White Book, the CSS document, and PMSS document. Prepare and manage documentation on the CSS formulation and PMSS process.

Core Competencies
(units &number of elements)

Need-to-Know Criteria 5 mechanism of proposals, Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, facilitation, training, and coaching, Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the process, Managing group dynamics, and Effective communication and presentation skills.

Facilitate participatory process.

Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change


306. A Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change is an individual assigned to provide inputs to village facilitators in facilitating rural communities to implement STBM pillars. A social facilitator is expected to have good knowledge on STBM principles, in addition to management, facilitation, and coaching skills. In a common composition, he/she usually works in a sub-district level to assist STBM implementation in a number of villages. 307. Qualification of a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change are: Educational background: Undergraduate (S-1) degree (minimum) from school of environmental engineering, public health, or social sciences. Work experience: Three years (minimum) in community-based sanitation, preferably working directly with communities. Training: STBM Facilitations (see Table 14). Other: Knowledge of local language or dialect.

308. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change (see Attachment 7 for the complete version). A social STBM facilitator requires 7 competency units with a total of 31 competency elements. Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior
Occupational Function Appraise potential of a rural community to implement STBM approach, Develop work plan and schedule, Introduce information about sanitation and hygiene issues, STBM, participatory process, choices of facilities, Prepare and train village facilitators and community members, Coordinate village facilitators, Provide inputs and guidance during participatory Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Assess general 5 characteristics of the 55 community . Assess sanitation 5 conditions of the community. Coordinate community 4 empowerment activities. Introduce hygienic 3 behavior/ practices. Conduct triggering process 4 for behavior change. Develop strategic 5 partnerships. Facilitate participatory process. 5 Need-to-Know Criteria Basic sanitation and public health issues, Relation between areas general characteristics with sanitation condition, Principles of STBM and CLTS approaches, 56 Community sanitation survey , including data collection and analysis, Principles of community empowerment and development, participatory planning process, Gender empowerment, Basic organizational and program management, including monitoring and evaluation techniques,

55 56

In the context of STBM facilitator, community means rural villages, or smaller units of settlement. Types of community sanitation condition survey include Health Impact Assessment for CommunityBased System, Rapid Participatory Appraisal (RPA), or simplified Environmental Health Risk Assessment.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Occupational Function process, including condition assessment, triggering, planning, and documentation. Maintain relationship with community leaders, subdistrict officials, and other stakeholders, Monitor and evaluate process, Prepare and manage documentation on the STBM activity.

Core Competencies (units & number of elements)

Need-to-Know Criteria Principles, procedures, and techniques of community mapping, social mapping, transect walk, and other triggering techniques, Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, facilitation, training, and coaching, Managing group dynamic, and Effective communication and presentation skills.

Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation


309. A Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation is an individual assigned to facilitate and provide technical inputs to urban poor communities in developing communal sanitation facilities, or better known as SANIMAS facilities. A SANIMAS technical facilitator is expected to have good knowledge on the technical aspects of various types of SANIMAS facilities, in addition to facilitation and coaching skills. In a commonly practiced composition, a technical facilitator is expected to work together with a social facilitator. Both facilitators are expected to be involved from the awareness-raising stage until the construction and commissioning stages, albeit with different roles. 310. Qualification of a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation57are: Educational background:D-3 (minimum) from a technical school, preferably environmental engineering school. Work experience: Two years (minimum) in SANIMAS facilitation. Training: SANIMAS Field Facilitation (see Table 14).

The facilitation training is a prerequisite for becoming a technical SANIMAS facilitator. 311. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation (see Attachment 8 for the complete version). A SANIMAS technical facilitator requires 8 competency units with a total of 44 competency elements. Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation
Occupational Function Appraise the potential of an area for communal system, Develop workplan and schedule, Introduce information about sanitation issues, Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Assess general 5 characteristics of the community58. Assess sanitation 5 conditions of the community. Need-to-Know Criteria Basic sanitation and public health issues, Government policies on sanitation development, especially on PPSP program, Relation between areas general

57

Adapted from the the requirements of personnel applying to be a community-level field facilitator (selection criteria of Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan) by BORDA Indonesia. A technical facilitator is expected to be result-oriented and flexible. He/ she should have good communication, facilitation, and conflict management skills. 58 In the context of technical SANIMAS facilitator, community means urban poor community, or a small unit of urban settlement,

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Competence Assessment

Occupational Function participatory process, technology options of communal system, Prepare and train community group, Organize and facilitate community discussions and meetings, Provide technical inputs and process guidance during participatory condition assessment, technical design, construction, commissioning, and document preparation, Maintain relationship with other facilitators, community leaders, and other stakeholders, Monitor and evaluate process, Ensure the quality of technical documents developed by community group, Prepare and manage documentation on the development process.

Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Develop conceptual 4 design for communal sanitation system. Develop design for shared 6 sanitation facility. Develop design for smallscale sewer system. Develop design for communal wastewater treatment facility. Develop strategic partnerships. Facilitate participatory process. 6 6

Need-to-Know Criteria characteristics with sanitation condition, Community sanitation survey, including data collection and analysis, Basic wastewater management system, including wastewater characteristics and estimation, Components of communal 59 sanitation system , its type and characteristics, Basic engineering design and drawings of communal facilities, Operation and maintenance of communal facilities, Construction and O&M cost estimation, Content and format oftechnical proposal, and operating procedure documents, Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, facilitation, training, and coaching, Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the process, Managing group dynamics, Effective communication and presentation skills.

7 5

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning


312. A Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning is an individual assigned to provide technical expertise to develop a masterplan for domestic wastewater management of a city or large communities. He/she must have sound technical knowledge and experience in the technical aspects of wastewater management system. A technical consultant is expected to serve as a coordinator of a team (team leader) consisting of other consultants with expertise in wastewater engineering, financial analysis, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatory matters. 313. are: Qualification of a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning60 Educational background: University graduate (S-2, at minimum) from the school of environmental engineering. Work experience: Twelve years (minimum) in the field of wastewater management planning. Others: Certification for Senior Expert in Environmental Engineering61.

59

Communal sanitation facilities may include shared sanitation facility, sewer network, and communal treatment facility. 60 Adapted from the requirements of personnel involved in wastewater management system master plan (for Team Leader position) by the Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia. 61 Certificate of Senior Expert in Environmental Engineering is awarded by the Agency for Construction Service Development (LPJK, or Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi) to an individual with extensive experience in planning, design, and supervision of the construction of any facility related to environmental / sanitary engineering field.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

314. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning(see Attachment9 for the complete version). A wastewater technical consultant requires 12 competency units with a total of 57 competency elements. Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning
Occupational Function Coordinate and manage commencement of assignments, Provide guidance to team members on direction of plans, Conduct assignments with regard to his/ her area of expertise, Assess general characteristics and sanitation condition of the target area, Review and consolidate results from other team members, Supervise work of other team members, Finalize master plans of wastewater management system, Lead technical discussion, meetings, and workshops, Maintain relationship with stakeholders, Ensure the quality of work results and deliverables, and Prepare and manage documentation on the master plan development process. Core Competencies (units & number of elements) Comprehend general 5 characteristics of the 62 area . Prepare wastewater 7 system profile of the area. Assess demand for 5 wastewater system improvement. Comprehend projections 5 on future characteristics of the area. Formulate basic 4 framework for wastewater system development. Formulate direction for 5 wastewater system development. Determine the most 4 appropriate wastewater system. Develop conceptual 4 design for wastewater treatment facility. Develop conceptual design for sewer network. Develop conceptual design for sludge handling component. Develop conceptual design for communal sanitation facility. Prepare implementation concept for wastewater system development programs. 4 5 Need-to-Know Criteria Basic wastewater management system, including types and characteristics of services, Government policies on sanitation and wastewater management development, including PPSP program, Regulations on wastewater and sludge, e.g. location restrictions, environmental standards, Wastewater and sludge characteristics, Principles of wastewater system 63 planning , Wastewater profile mapping, Types and nature of strategic issues in wastewater development, Relation between areas general characteristics with sanitation condition, Principles, methods, and techniques of a demand assessment, e.g. the Real Demand Survey (RDS), willingness-to-pay, Components of spatial plan, Prediction methodologies for demography and land-use, City/ district strategic development planning, as well as the CSS, Estimation of wastewater and sludge generation, Components, types, and 64 characteristics of facilities , Principles of design, construction, and operation of facilities, Construction and O&M cost estimation, Program planning, at city/ district level.

CURRENT CONDITION
General Performance
315. Many share the opinion that performance of sanitation personnel in Indonesiatends to beweak. This opinion is formed from observations of different
62 63

In the context of a wastewater system technical consultant, area means city. Components of wastewater management profile are infrastructure (services), institutional, regulation and policy, public participation, private sector involvement, and funding. 64 Wastewater facilities include treatment plant, sludge management (collection, treatment, and disposal), sewer system, and communal facility.

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Competence Assessment

factors, such as quality of their work results, ability to analyze and solve problems, communication style, presentation techniques, and work habits. Some of the shared opinions are as follows65: Results: The quality of outputs of planning and design consultants is considered sub-standard, in terms of substance and/or presentation. Very poor results are also produced by operators of final disposal facilities or sewage treatment plants, which have not, to date, met the desired performance standards. Knowledge: Many feel that technical SANIMAS facilitators do not have sufficient engineering knowledge to help communities determine appropriate communal sanitation facilities. Similarly, technical consultants are not knowledgeable about new technologies or updated methodologies in their respective sectors. Communication skills: Verbal communication skills are considered poor. Some facilitators and consultants are unable to deliver good presentations. Likewise, operators often have difficulty expressing their views. Reporting skills: Report writing skills are also weak. Reports in this sector generally are poorly structured, and not well-written (weak style) and not presented well (poor formatting). Work habits: A common complaint relates to ability of personnel to meet work deadlines. In addition, some feel facilitators are not persuasive enough, especially in convincing communities or government officials to engage in participatory planning. Attendance has also received attention, especially related to consultants not attending project discussions or meetings. However, many parties show appreciation towards the high dedication among sanitation personnel, particularly facilitators.

Working Condition
316. Performance of sanitation personnel is strongly influenced by their level of competence as much as by the situations and settings of the professional environment in which their competencies are exercised. Although not studied indepth66, these factors are presented here with the intention that future plans and strategies acknowledge their significance, i.e. Availability of equipment and materials. Most wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities do not have enough equipment and materials to allow their operators to work properly. It is a common knowledge that existing equipment are usually old and/or in bad condition. Limited equipment, such as analytic equipment, computers, and software, may also prevent the consultants from producing good quality results. Availability of funds. Insufficient amount and late disbursement of funds force sanitation personnel to complete their assignment with smaller budget than anticipated. This condition may prevent facilitators from visiting sites, prevent consultants from collecting enough data and information, and prevent operators from running facilities with proper equipment and materials. Availability of personnel. Many consulting projects do not involve as many personnel as they need, or do not involve qualified personnel as they should. A competent individual might not able to do quality work if he/she does not get good support from qualified team members. Or worse, if he/she does not have

65

Summarized from interviews conducted to the users of sanitation personnel, including government officers in charge of sanitation-related projects, program managers, team leaders and supervisors of projects. 66 The basis for this discussion is largely observations, and results of conversations with various personnel active in sanitation programs.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

any other team members to work with altogether. Similarly, an operators performance is weakened if he/she does not have enough qualified personnel in the team. Timeframe. In many cases, the late government bidding process and disbursement of funds force consulting teams to complete assignments within a shorter timeframe. As a result, results expected from the consultants are much higher than their competence can deliver. Availability of data. Generally, data management is very poor in most Indonesian institutions. Reliance on data collection and storage by individuals is still high. As a result, an individual may spend a lot of time to track down data, and when data is not complete, he/she is forced to make analysis and draw conclusions based on insufficient information. The net result is poor outputs (reports, plans, designs, etc). The effect over time is significant, since data and information presented in reports are used by subsequent assignments (projects); compounding the poor reliability of information.

These factors might not be unique to sanitation. However, unless future sanitation activities begin to overcome these obstacles, delivery of outputs will remain substandard, and competency improvement efforts will prove futile. 317. Another factor that may influence an individuals performance, especially on his/her motivation, is the compensation and benefits. Relative to other (competing sectors), sanitation jobs provide lower compensation and minimal benefits. A rough comparison shows that entry-level engineers (S1) in industry (private sector) can receive a monthly base salary of IDR 6 10 million, plus full medical and other benefits. As a consultant in sanitation work, a junior engineer (S1) with 1 to 4 years of experience can only get approximately IDR 4.5 - 6 million , and often with only minimum benefits. Similarly, a mid-level engineer in the private sector can get a monthly base salary of IDR 11 20 million, while as a consultant the base salary would only be in the range of IDR 6 8.5 million. Compared to various types of environmental engineering jobs67, sanitation personnel can be considered to get the lowest compensation. Low compensation reduces the financial ability of an individual to participate in activities that may improve his/her competence, e.g. trainings, seminar, workshops, and networkings (see section on Networking).

Level of Competence
318. An individuals level of competence, i.e. knowledge, skills, and attitude, will influence his/her work performance. Lack of competence adversely affects performance, while sufficient competence supports good performance. Levelof competence of sanitation personnel, represented by the same four types assessed in the demand assessment, is evaluated relative to the lists of core competencies68. Competencyshortcomings will be used as important inputs in preparing recommendations for future capacity-building activities(see the followings).

Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning


319. Policy facilitators for sanitation planning have various education backgrounds which are still meeting the qualification required (par. 304). Most of them, about 36%, have a degree in civil engineering. Among the rest have background in social
67

When compared to billing rates of environmental auditors, there is also a significant gap. Public Wor ks rates for mid-level consultant for government contracts are in the range of IDR 10 to 14 million per month, or approximately IDR 500,000 to 700,000 per day. A mid-level environmental auditor conducting audits for private companies can bill around USD 600 to 800 (or IDR 5 to 7 million) per day. 68 Web-based surveys targeting the four types of sanitation personnel was conducted to assess their background, status, level of competence, and willingness to retain in the sanitation sector.

35

Competence Assessment

sciences (19%), environmental/sanitary engineering (2.4%), and law, management, public health, communications, and economic. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (76%), while 21.6% hold S-2 degree and 2.7% hold S-3 degree. 320. Policy facilitators for sanitation planning are generally confident about their level of competencies, as listed in respective competency units and elements (see Table 7 and Attachment6). These CSS facilitators indicate a high level of confidence on their functional competencies, related to participation process and strategic partnerships. On the substantive competencies, the facilitators are confident mostly in comprehending the current and future condition of the area, as well as in formulating basic framework for sanitation development in the area. Lack of confidence is indicated in determining timeframe, targets, and zoning of sanitation development, as well as selecting criteria of sanitation services to be developed. This lack of competence may be partly attributed to the lack of their knowledge on technical aspects.

Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation


321. Social facilitators for hygienic behavior have various education backgrounds which meet the qualification required (par. 307). Most of these STBM facilitators, about 50%, have a degree in public health, while the rest have background in civil engineering (16.6%), economics (1.7%), and remainder is other disciplines. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (80%), while 20% hold S-2 degree. 322. Social facilitators for hygienic behavior show a high level of confidence in their competencies. In relation to their list of competencies (see Table 8 and Attachment7), these STBM facilitators are particularly confident about their substantive competencies in assessing sanitation conditions of the community, coordinating community empowerment activities, conducting triggering process for behavior change, and others. They are also confident on their functional competencies as facilitators. Lack of confidence is indicated only in competency related to assessing the general characteristics of the community. The high confidence on their competencies may indicate that the on-the-job training they have undergone is very effective, and/or reflects the fact that district-level facilitators have had field experience (for STBM), where their knowledge and skills are directly put into practice and sharpened.

Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation


323. Technical facilitators for communal system have various education backgrounds. Not all of them meet the qualification required (par. 310). Most of these SANIMAS facilitators have a degree in civil engineering. Only a small number of SANIMAS facilitators have a degree in environmental engineering. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (60%), while 40% hold D-3 degree. 324. Technical facilitators for communal system show confidence in describing an areas physical and socio-economic characteristics, in assessing the sanitation conditions, and in designing simple sewer network, as well as managing the participatory process of developing a communal system. Where this group appears less confident is in developing the conceptual design for the sanitation system, especially related to the sewage treatment system, in estimating construction and operational costs, as well as in preparing the operational guidelines for the units (see Table 9 and Attachment 8). This seems consistent with the fact that most of the facilitators have a degree in civil engineering, where the technical aspects of liquid waste management are not part of the curriculum.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning


325. Technical consultants for wastewater planning have various education backgrounds which are still meeting the qualification required (par. 313). All of these consultants have a degree in environmental/sanitary engineering69, of which 75% are environmental engineering, and 25% are sanitary engineering. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (75%), while 25% hold S-2 degree. 326. Technical consultants for wastewater planning show high proficiency in many competency elements, in fact is the highest compared to the other three groups assessed. In relation to their list of competencies (see Table 10 and Attachment9), the technical consultants only indicate slight confidence in competencies related to funding, private sector involvement, and public participation. Those non-engineering subjects seem to be areas where future capacity building programs can place additional attention.

Gender Perspective
327. The gender distribution among sanitation personnel seems to vary. Among the CSS/PMSS facilitators, there are 14 women in a group of 147 facilitators, or approximately 11%. The survey for CSS/PMSS facilitator group indicates similar pattern with a 9% women.Other results of the survey indicate that more than 60% of STBM facilitators are women,while less than 10% of SANIMAS facilitators are women. Among the technical consultants70, there are 23.5 % women. The survey also captured a more balanced gender ratio among university students studying environmental engineering, i.e. 47% women and 53% men.The figures here only give a rough estimation on the gender balance among sanitation personnel. Further analysis would have to be conducted to determine the actual percentage of women in sanitation jobs across the country. 328. Asuming the results above are considered valid, then the following observations are made: Currently, the percentage of women active as sanitation personnel is small, i.e. less than 25%, despite the fact there are no gender limitations attached to job opportunities in sanitation. The high proportion of women involved in STBM activities (as facilitators) may be due to a fact that more womenare interested with the subject, i.e. hygienic behaviour change in rural communities. Most men are interested with a more technical subject, as it is shown in a higher proportion of men to fill the technical consultants or facilitators positions. The small proportion of womeninvolved as CSS/PMSS and SANIMAS facilitators may due to the fact that both positions require extended assignments outside of hometowns (residence). In the future, with a good percentage of women in the environmental engineering student body, more women can be expected to work in sanitation. However, what factors will ensure their interest in taking sanitation positions needs to be studied further.

69

Sanitary engineering degree indicates that respondent is a very senior expert, when most universities offered only sanitary engineering programs (not environmental engineering). 70 The number of technical consultants is represented by the LPJK certified engineers registered under IATPI (200 individuals).

37

Competence Assessment

SUPPLY OF COMPETENCE
329. An individuals competence is formed by a combination of at least five factors (see diagram). In the forefront, formal education and trainings establish a persons foundation of knowledge and skills. On top of that, an individuals work experience, self-discovery and personal trial-and-error serve to polish knowledge and skills, as well as shape ones professional attitude. Through networking, a person gains access to new ideas and new information, further encouraging them to grow professionally. Finally, recognition serves as a motivator for one to continue improving competence. The different factors above are described in the Study, although more analysis is given on the education and training factors. While explanation of other factors are limited to a description of conditions or opportunities that currently exist in Indonesia.

Education
330. Undergraduate education, for D-3 and S-1 degrees71, establishes a foundation of knowledge in a particular discipline. This foundation serves as the basis from which an individual develops further knowledge and skills. In most cases, the knowledge obtained is general and theoretical (explicit knowledge), providing the individual with an analytical tool or viewpoint to utilize when addressing an issue. The minimum qualification for many of the technical positions related to sanitation is S-1 degree in environmental/sanitary engineering. The S-1 degree is called Sarjana Teknik (Bachelors in Engineering), which is seen as a prerequisite for one to have a profession as engineer. 331. Other sanitation positions can be filled by individuals with a wide range of educational backgrounds. No special assessment was done to review universities offering social science, urban planning, public health degrees. The numbers are expected to be high, especially for social sciences.

Capacity
332. Currently in Indonesia, there are a total of 47 universities offering a S-1 degree in environmental/ sanitary engineering, with a maximum capacity of 2,800 students/year and a maximum graduation of 1000 individuals/year. These institutions are spread across the country, with 17 universities located outside of Java, i.e. Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua (see Attachment 10 for the list of the universities).Besides S-1 degree, there are five universities offering a D-3 diploma in environmental engineering and four universities offering an S-2 degree (see Table 11). 333. Currently, almost all universities show that actual student intake in environmental engineering program is less than the maximum capacity (see Table 11). In STTL Yogyakarta, the average intake per year is 90 students half of the schools capacity. In Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, the actual intake per year is 20 less than 20% of its capacity. Furthermore, with a maximum capacity of
71

D-3 is a six-semester professional education with 110 120 semester credit units (credits), while S-1 is an eight-semester academic education with 140 160 credits.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

65 D-3 students annually, Akademi Teknik Tirta Wiyarta has only actual intake of 40 students per year. In Politeknik Muhammadiyah, the actual intake is less than 10 per year. This shows interest in environmental engineering education is quite low, and it is getting worse by years. Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia
Item Number Acceptance Graduate Capacity Universities with largest acceptance capacity Unit Person/year Person/year Person/year 5 49 31 158 Akademi Teknik Tirta Wiyarta, Magelang (65), Politeknik Muhammadiyah, Magelang (53), Univ. Pandanaran, Semarang (40 students), Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, Jakarta, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda. D-3 47 1,500 72 800 1,000 2,800 Sekolah Tinggi Teknik Lingkungan Yogyakarta, STTL (182 students), Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, Jakarta (150), Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya (110), Institut Teknologi Bandung (100). Degree S-1 4 81 51 103 Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November, Surabaya. Institut Teknologi Bandung. Universitas Katolik Soegijapranata, Semarang. Institut Teknologi Adhi Tama, Surabaya. S-2

Source: Portal Informasi Pendidikan(http://evaluasi.or.id) and websites of Sekolah Teknologi Sapta Taruna (http//:sttsaptataruna.ac.id) and Universitas Mulawarman (http//:unmul.ac.id).

Knowledge Offered
334. Comparisons of the courses and the need-to-know criteria of the SANIMAS technical facilitator and technical consultant for wastewater planning (see Table 9 and Table 10) indicate that the S-1 curriculum of environmental engineering is relatively sufficient in introducing basic science and knowledge for both types of personnel (see Table 12). However, the curriculum does not offer knowledge on current development policies, update technologies, participatory planning process, and facilitation techniques. These program-specific and functional subjects are areas where orientation trainings play a more significant role (see section on Trainings). 335. During sanitary engineering era, undergraduate programs have been geared to producing graduates for the water supply and sanitation sectors. The subjects cover the basics of water supply (transmission, treatment, distribution, and plumbing), wastewater management (treatment and sewer), solid waste management (collection and disposal), drainage, and public health. After it is changed to environmental engineering73, the undergraduate programs have broadened their offerings to meet demand from the industrial sector (manufacturing, oil/gas, mining, plantations). Additional courses include air pollution, hazardous waste, pollution control, occupational health and safety. Most environmental engineering programs now lean towards preparing students for jobs in the private sectorto manage their Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) activities (including environmental assessments, wastewater treatment, solid waste management, hazardous waste management, air quality management, etc.).In fact, lecturers also have developed specializations in a wider range of fields than the
72

The portal data is not current; some schools show zero graduating students indicating that the schools are relatively new. The portal shows a number of 827 graduating per year. But likely the number is higher. 73 Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) is the first university to shift its program from sanitary engineering to environmental engineering, it was done in 1984.

39

Competence Assessment

traditional water and sanitation field. As a result, current graduates may have good overview knowledge of the engineering aspects of all three sub-sectors, but they do not have enough in-depth and practical knowledge to immediately work in a technical capacity. At least, compared to the graduates during sanitary engineering era74. Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum
Facilitator (Technical) for Communal System Need-to-Know Criteria Basic sanitation and public health Government policies on sanitation development Relation between areas characteristics with sanitation condition Community sanitation survey Basic wastewater management Components of communal system Basic engineering design and drawings of communal facilities Operation and maintenance of communal facilities Construction and O&M cost estimation Content and format oftechnical and operating procedure documents Principles, methods, and techniques of participatory process, etc. Monitoring &evaluation techniques Managing group dynamics Effective communication and presentation skills Curriculum ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + + Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning Need-to-Know Criteria Basic wastewater system Government policies on sanitation and wastewater development Relation between areas characteristics with sanitation condition Regulations on wastewater Principles of wastewater planning Wastewater profile mapping Wastewater and sludge characteristics Types and nature of strategic issues in wastewater development Principles, methods, and techniques of a demand assessment Prediction methodologies for demography and land-use Estimation of wastewater and sludge generation City/ district strategic planning Components, types, and characteristics of facilities Principles of design, construction, and operation of facilities Construction and O&M cost estimation Curriculum ++ + ++ ++ + ++ + + + ++ ++ ++ +

Note:

(++) = introduced strongly, (+) = introduced mildly, (-) = not introduced

Training
336. Training courses generally cover a specific topic, and either increase knowledge on a technology, program, approach, and/or improve a set of skills needed for a particular task. In the Study, training programs are differentiated into: Orientation training; Courses that must be attended by individuals as a prerequisite to begin work as a certain type of sanitation personnel. The courses are tailored specifically to meet the needs for a job title in a program, firm, or project. Continuation training; Courses that must be attended by individuals to continue working as sanitation personnel, with the aim to maintain ori mprovetheir professionalstatus. Participation in the course is part of their requirements as employee/staff, certification holder, and hired professionals.

74

However, there are strong intentions of some universities to modify their S-1 curriculum to put more attention on water supply and sanitation sector. In fact, ITB is in the final preparation stage to open a Water and Sanitation Infrastructure department where the curriculum will more materials on water supply, wastewater, solid waste, and drainage engineering. If approved, it is expected that the S-1 program will be officially opened in 2013.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Regular training; Courses which are not tied to any work requirement and open to the public on a scheduled basis.

Orientation Training
337. There are a number of orientation trainings available in the sanitation sector, i.e. those related to CSS/PMSS policy facilitator, SANIMAS technical facilitator, and STBM facilitator (see Table 13).The trainings are conducted as part of the recruitment process with an objective to provide program- and job-specific knowledge, skills, and motivation to the candidates. Comparisons to the need-toknow criteria (see Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7) show that most of the orientation training programs have fulfilled almost all requirements. However, there is a need to add more technical materials in the training for technical SANIMAS facilitators, e.g. design engineering and O&M principles of small-scale sewer system.

Regular Training
338. Regular trainings are offered by a number of universities, private firms, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The courses include community-based solid waste management, integrated solid waste management, and wastewater treatment plant operations. However, the courses are not offered consistently each year. In fact many classes end up being cancelled due to insufficient participants. This indicates the low demand among the public for sanitation-related courses. A Yogyakarta-based organization, PUSTEKLIM (Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair) is known to be active in conducting wastewaterrelated courses. Table 13. Orientation Training Programs
Programs Formulation of 75 CSS Target Group Candidates of city/provincial CSS facilitators Candidates of PMSS facilitators STBM district facilitators Candidates of SANIMAS field facilitators Duration 10 days
76

Coverage PPSP principles, sanitation policies and institutions, White Book and CSS, sanitation mapping and assessment, monitoring-evaluation, adult-learning methods, facilitation, documents quality control. Sanitation policies and institutions, prioritizing and internalizing programs, programing and budgeting, formulating PMSS, studies and technical design, monitoring-evaluation, implementation plan. STBM national strategy and implementation, facilitation techniques, communication, pillars of STBM. SANIMAS principles and stages, rapid community selfassessment, facilitation principles and techniques, participatory planning, community action plan, options of technologies.

Preparation of 77 PMSS

4 days

STBM 78 Facilitations SANIMAS Field 79 Facilitation

6 days 7 days

75

Based on the latest CSS facilitation training conducted by the Ministry of Public Works in 5 14 December 2011 at Bogor (West Java). The training was attended by 220 candidates of city and provincial facilitators. 76 The Formulation CSS training for facilitators was recently reduced to 10 days duration, from the previous duration of three weeks. 77 Based on the PMSS facilitation training conducted by the Ministry of Public Works on 18-21 July 2011 in Jakarta. The training was attended by 68 candidates of provincial management consultant (Konsultan Manajemen Provinsi, or KMP). 78 Based on TOT for STBM facilitators conducted by the Ministry of Health on 29 November 4 December 2010 in Lembang, Bandung (West Java). 79 Based on description of training module for SANIMAS facilitators, developed by Badan Sertifikasi DEWATS, Borda Indonesia.

41

Competence Assessment

Providers
339. A number of ministries and government agencies possess training centers which offer sanitation-related courses. Among them are: Ministry of Public Works: Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi Wilayah (BTAMS, or Center for Water and Sanitation Engineering). There are two of such centers, located in Surabaya (East Java) and Bekasi (West Java). The centers offer mainly short-courses, with duration of approximately 3 to 4 days, covering various topics on wastewater, solid waste, drainage, and water supply80. Besides the two centers, Ministry of Public Works has nine other training centers (Balai Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Pekerjaan Umum) and one competence development unit (PUSBINKPK, or Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan Konstruksi) which occasionally conduct sanitation-related trainings. BTAMS is considered as the most established training institutions for sanitation among the other centers. Ministry of Health: Balai Pelatihan Kesehatan (BAPELKES, or Center for Health Trainings) in Lemah abang (Karawang, West Java) offers courses on basic sanitation technology, public health, and sanitation assessment. Ministry of Environment: Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan (PUSARPEDAL, or Center for Environmental Impact Management) in Serpong (Banten) offers courses on wastewater, solid waste, and impact assessment.

Most training programs offered by the centers are specifically designed for government officials, especially from local government agencies. However, they are open to cooperate with other institutions, programs, or firms. One example is the cooperation between Pokja AMPL and BTAMS Bekasi to conduct CSS facilitator training courses. In such cases, the centers provide the training venue and staff, while the partner institutions supply trainers, organize participants and prepare training materials. The centers are equipped with full training facilities, laboratory and training equipment, and accommodation. They are allowed to receive payment for services provided to outside parties, known as PNBP (Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak). 340. A number of universities offer sanitation-related courses. Amongthe universities are Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Universitas Indonesia, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), Universitas Islam Indonesia (Yogyakarta), and Universitas Gajah Mada (Yogyakarta). A number of NGOs also offer such courses. One of them is a Yogyakarta-based organization, PUSTEKLIM (Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair) which is known to be active in conducting wastewater-related courses.

Networking
341. Being part of a professional peer group -- exchanging information and ideas, sharing enthusiasm and aspirations -- also contributes to development of a persons competence. For active sanitation personnel, being part of a network plays a very significant role in building competence, considering they have limited time to attend training courses. Such knowledge networking can be done through professional associations, groups of peers, business associations, and alumnae groups. Another form is internet-based networking, which has become more and more popular these days.
80

Courses offered by BTAMS Bekasi include Management of Domestic Liquid Waste, Solid Waste Management, Technical Preparations and Management of Drainage Facilities, On-site Management of Solid Waste, Transmission and Distribution Pipe Network, Clean Water Production, Mechanical and Electrical, Project Supervision, and Water-Loss Mitigation.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

342. There are a number of professional associations currently involved in developing competence of sanitation personnel in Indonesia, i.e. IATPI (Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Sanitary and Environmental Engineers):Its members comprise of those who are directly or indirectly involved in the sectors of water, wastewater, solid waste, drainage, industrial pollution control, environmental remediation, environmental assessment, and industrial hygiene. Most of them are graduates of sanitary and environmental engineers. IATPI was founded in 1977, therefore it is considered as the most established sanitation-related professional association in Indonesia. Their activities include a) providing technical inputs to government and other stakeholders, b) conducting trainings, seminars, workshops, conferences, and exhibitions, on various environmental subjects81, c) publishing journals, d) developtechnologies and prototypes,e) promoting competence and capacity of its members,f) developing and awarding formal recognition for various type of environmental professionals, g) providing experts. Its members reach 1,500 individuals, of which 600 are certified engineers82. HAKLI (Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia, or Indonesian Association forEnvironmental Health Experts):Its members comprise of environmental health professionals with various educational backgrounds, positions, role, and specialization. HAKLI aims to enhance capabilities and roles of its members, as well as to provide assistance to the government on environmental and public health issues. HAKLI was established on 1980, as an improvement to the Association of Indonesian Health Controllers (IKKI), founded in 1955. In the public health sector, many HAKLI members are sanitarians, either as implementers, assessors, or instructors. INTAKINDO (Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Consultants): Its members comprise of individuals who are involved as experts in a wide range of consultancy work, including sanitation-related work. INTAKINDO is very active in the certification process, including for engineers involved in construction activities, and experts of environmental impact assessment (AMDAL). It now has almost 2,500 members, most of which are certificate holders. INTAKINDO was established in 2004 by INKINDO (Ikatan Konsultan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Consulting Firms)83. Although one of their missions is to develop and promote competence of their members, all of the above professional associations do not have a comprehensive implementation plan to do so. Most of their activities are responsive to requests or needs from other parties. Lack of manpower and funding is a common obstacle faced by most professional associations.

81

IATPI has supported BAPPENAS and Pokja AMPL in organizing the national conferences on sanitation (KSN 2009 and KASN 2011), supported ITB in conducting international seminar on water and sanitation, and supported environmental agencies by providing resource persons for various trainings. IATPI biannually conducts scientific forum for environmental research, namely Forum Ilmiah Lingkungan Tropis. In October 2012, IATPI will conduct an international conference on sanitary landfill. 82 More information are provided in IATPIs website, www.iatpi.org. 83 More information are provided in INTAKINDOs website, www.intakindo.org.

43

Competence Assessment

343. There are not many groups currently active in providing and maintaining networks in sanitation sector in Indonesia. Two groups which are quite active: FORKALIM (Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah Permukiman, or Communication Forum for Domestic Wastewater Management):The forum was founded by PERPAMSI84in 2004. Its members are cities with wastewater services, i.e. Medan, Palembang, Banjarmasin, DKI Jakarta, Bandung, Denpasar, Makassar, Surakarta, and Surabaya. FORKALIM has conducted a number of capacity-building activities for its members including seminars, trainings, and workshops on wastewater management. Jejaring AMPL (Jejaring Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan, or Network for Drinking Water and Sanitation):The forum was founded in 2002 to improve communications, coordination, and synergy among sanitation stakeholders. The network allows its members to share information, transfer knowledge, create collective ideas, strengthen relationships, and manage shared resources. Jejaring AMPL was founded in 2007, and now has more than 50 members comprising of donor agencies, institutions, programs, universities, professional associations, private firms, NGOs, and others. Jejaring AMPL can be considered as a network with the most diverse membership in the sanitation sector85. In terms of knowledge management, the two networks have not maximized their full potential. Combining knowledge and other resources of their members, both organizations can contribute more to competency development of sanitation personnel. 344. An increasing number of professions and professional circles in Indonesia are using web-based networks or mailing lists as a means to activate or mobilize a group to contribute to the growth of a sector or discipline. Such networks have a powerful advantage of reducing geographic distances, allowing individuals from all parts of the country to participate. Even passive participants can learn from or be inspired by discussions posted in the network. Currently active mailing lists related to sanitation sector are: Milis AMPL: Established in May 2005, the AMPL (Air Minum Dan Penyehatan Lingkungan) mailing listallows its members to post new information, promote events and observe common goals and approaches. The mailing list, in fact, serves as a media to forge new partnerships. It provides a forum for individual members to share information and personal opinions, and to debate ideas. Per December 2011, its membership reached more than 1,500 individuals. The AMPL mailing list is managed by the Secretariat of Pokja AMPL. Milis STBM: Established in May 2010, the STBM (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat) mailing list allows its members to share information and knowledge. It contains information on STBM best practices, event announcements, methodologies and tools, etc. The STBM mailing list is managed by the STBM Secretariat. Per December 2011, its membership reached more than 200 individuals.

The potential to expand such a network to become a means for better knowledge management and dissemination is immense, especially for a country as large as Indonesia.

84

PERPAMSI (Persatuan PDAM Seluruh Indonesia) is an association of water supply companies in Indonesia. Wastewater services in many Indonesian cities are still under the management of water supply companies. 85 More information are provided in Jejarings website, www.jejaring -ampl.org

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Experiencing
345. Once an individual enters the workforce, a very important competencebuilding process happens. By performing tasks, doing required research and observations, and by making mistakes, an individual experiences a more profound learning process. Such experience validates personal knowledge, molds professional attitude, and establishes a persons professional credibility. Building competence through experience and self-learning is difficult to plot, track and design, especially since an individuals propensity to learn and grow is a major factor, and yet differs from one individual to another. This study does not pursue this factor further, although it recognizes the importance and may recommend some actions in the strategy. 346. Over the past decades, sanitation personnel in Indonesia has had limited opportunities to experience work in this field, due to the low level of sanitation investments, which resulted in the relatively small number of projects. The most extreme example is sewerage. With only eleven cities equipped with a sewerage network (with a small coverage), Indonesia has not developed a substantial professional corps with proven competence in designing, constructing and operating sewerage systems. Compared to water supply, where investments have been relatively high and personnel seem sufficient, sewerage is lagging behind. This is also the case with septage management (septic tank sludge), which has continued to use low technology approaches. Consequently, there is generally low competence in this field. Similarly, the fact that no solid waste disposal site is functioning as a proper sanitary landfill, has hindered development of competent operators for sanitary landfills in the country.

Recognition
347. Recognition of professional competence comes in the form of certification from an accredited certifying organization. The Government has also made certification a prerequisite for various jobs and/or tender proceedings, partly as a means to ensure quality but also to anticipate influx of foreign workers when freetrade agreements become effective. In the sanitation-related fields, professional certification is still limited to a handful of positions, i.e. Certification for Experts in Environmental Engineering: The certification scheme is run by LPJK (Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi, or the Agency for Construction Service Development)86, which includes a classification for environmental/sanitary engineers. This covers individuals who are involved in the planning, design, and construction of sanitation facilities. More than ten professional associations87 are given the right by LPJK to certify its members with the environmental/sanitary engineering background. Currently, more than 7,400 individuals are listed as senior, mid-level, junior, and entry-level certified engineers under the environmental/sanitary engineering classification. Certification for Environmental Pollution Control Manager (EPCM): The professional certification scheme is launched by the Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Environment, targeting individual-in-charge of managing wastewater in their facilities. Although it is officially aimed at industries, there are certificate holders from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, commercial buildings

86

LPJK is an independent organization that issues professional certification for a wide range of engineering professions related to construction. This scheme is recognized by the Ministry of Public Works, and is used as pre-requisite for all government construction tenders since 2009. 87 Among them are IATPI, INTAKINDO, Himpunan Profesi Tenaga Konstruksi Indonesia (HIPTASI), Persatuan Insinyur Indonesia (PII), Ikatan Ahli Perencanaan Indonesia (IAP), Perhimpunan Ahli Teknik Indonesia (PATI), Asosiasi Tenaga Teknik Indonesia (ASTTI), Asosiasi Tenaga Ahli Konstruksi Indonesia (ATAKI), Ikatan Ahli Konstruksi Indonesia (IAKI).

45

Competence Assessment

and housing estates (with effluent characteristics similar to municipal). The certification program is managed by IATPI, since the association was involved in the development of this certification scheme and its standard of competencies. Currently, more than 300 individuals are awarded EPCM certificate. Recognition so far does not exist for facilitators related to CSS, SANIMAS88, or STBM. If facilitators (in this context) are not considered suitable for professional certification programs, then other forms of recognition must be explored. 348. The two schemes requires a certificate holder to continually improve competence by (a) practicing their competence in relevant activities, (b) participating in training courses, seminar, and workshops. Those who do not comply will not be able to renew their certificates. However, to date, none of the organizations have developed a structured competence building (or continuing education) programs to support this requirement.

DISCUSSION
Gaps of Competence
349. Demand for competence; The assessment draws the following conclusions regarding competence demand: City-level planning facilitators89 require inter disciplinary competence, combining not only technical and non-technical knowledge, but strong skills in communication and facilitation. The policy facilitator for sanitation planning needs to have 50 competency elements (see Attachment 6).Mid-level personnel from a wide range educational background (engineering, urban planning, public health, public administration or communication)are suitable for these functions. Rural-level hygienic behaviour facilitators90 can be recruited from a wide range of educational backgrounds (any social sciences or public health) at a S-1 or D-3 level. About 30 competency elements must be fulfilled for this social facilitator (see Attachment 7). Junior and mid-level personnel are eligible for these functions. Technical facilitators91 for communal sanitation require technical competence specific for these systems, which tend to be simpler than city-wide systems (required of Technical Consultants). The educational pre-requisite is not very high (D-3), so junior personnel can fill this position. The technical facilitator needs to have 44 competency elements (see Attachment 8). Technical consultants92, especially in the main personnel category, will likely require S-1 or S-2 qualifications from environmental/sanitary engineering or civil engineering, with high level of competence in the particular sanitation facility or service that is being developed. The consultant for wastewater planning requires 57 competency elements (see Attachment 9) that certainly take time and effort to develop. Only senior-level individuals can fill this position. Operators (both technical and management) are not studied in detail in this study. Qualifications will be a mixture of technical and non-technical at D-3 or S-1 level, but development of operators competence will be needed.
88

A number of parties, including BORDA Indonesia, have discussed the possibility of creating certification scheme for SANIMAS facilitators. However, none has been materialized. 89 Represented by the Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning. 90 Represented by Facilitator (Social) Hygienic Behavior Change. 91 Represented by the Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation. 92 Represented by the Consultant (Technical) Wastewater System Planning.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

350. Competence shortcomings; Although there is a concern among many that existing sanitation personnel are not performing well, most active personnel are generally confident about their level of competence. However, the following are some areas where these personnel feel less confident: Basic technical knowledge: Most CSS policy facilitator does not have enough basic knowledge on sanitation technologies and services. Although he/she is not a technical person, the capacity to describe some basic knowledge is often required in meetings or discussions with stakeholders. STBM facilitators are also often required to be able to assess sanitation conditions of a community. Knowledge on current sanitation policy: Most technical consultants in sanitation sector are not aware there are PPSP development approaches that they should consider in their plans. They still develop the master plans of sanitations services with a business-as-usual approach. Acknowledgement of SANIMAS and STBM approaches are rarely found in wastewater master plans. Other competency deficiencies, regarding skills and attitudes, are felt by many managers, and are not unique to sanitation personnel. This includes report writing skills, communication skills, and poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines).

Education and Training


351. Education;The undergraduate program of environmental engineering offers courses that will provide an individual with basic technical knowledge in the planning and design of wastewater, solid waste, and drainage systems. However, the programs do not have enough time to cover practical knowledge required for field assignments and current approaches in sanitation development. The programs do not put enough attention on the operational aspects of sanitation facilities. A number of trainings are required to overcome this deficiency. Therefore, a combination of formal education and orientation training is sufficient to develop competence of an individual to allow him/her to start a sanitation assignment. 352. Lack of training programs; Competence of sanitation personnel can be enhanced through combination of orientation, continuation, and regular training courses, covering a broad spectrum of tasks and assignments, to expand their respective educational foundation. However, the number and types of trainingcourses currently available is very limited despite the fact that there is a large demand for competent personnel. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects exist. Moreover, the courses are not designed as a series (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) to allow an individual to improve his/her competence in phases.

Performance
353. Performance and competence;Confronted with weak performance in the sector, there is a general perception that there is a serious shortage of competencies among sanitation personnel in Indonesia. However, competence and performance are not synonymous. It should be recognized that competence is only one factor that forms ones performance. Other factors that play an important role and must be considered including: availability of equipment and materials, sufficient funds and timeframe, availability of other personnel, sufficient data and stakeholders support. Without any effort to address these work condition issues, various capacity building programs will not significantly improve the performance of sanitation personnel. Another factor is the relatively low compensation and benefits received by sanitation personnel.

47

Competence Assessment

Networking, Experiencing, and Recognition


354. Networking;Many networking opportunities exist for sanitation personnel in Indonesia. Through professional associations, peer groups, mailing lists, and other web-based networking media, an individual can receive a lot of information to increase and update his/her knowledge. Pokja AMPL is very active in providing information on sanitation development progress. However, there is much room to strengthen and optimize the activities and influence of the existing networks to support competence development in the sanitation sector. 355. Experiencing; Most sanitation projects in Indonesia involve low technologies and are relatively homogeneous across the nation. Types of sanitation projects have basically been the same for the last twenty years. No advancement on technologies used for handling liquid waste, treating septage, and final disposal. This fact affects the range of competence of Indonesian sanitation personnel. There is little chance for an individual to gain new technological experiences that wouldenhance his/herknowledge and skills. 356. Formal recognition;The existing certification programs provide a structure for bench-marking and advancement, and motivate individuals to improve their competence. The programs require certificate holders to participate in training courses, seminars, workshops that will improve his/her knowledge and skills. To some extent, this requirement has made certificate holders participate in various training courses. However, the positive impact of this requirement can be further optimized if the certification agency possesses a professional competence improvement scheme. Such a roadmap will guide individuals in selecting training courses to attend. If managed effectively, this requirement will create high demand for training courses, which at the moment are not available in the market.

Gender Perspective
357. The Study only made quick observationson gender issues related to the capacity of sanitation personnel. The results should be treated only as indicative, for further studies to elaborate. Some of them are: Involvement of women in sanitation activities is still low, despite the fact that there is never be a gender limitiation to fill sanitation jobs for women. Involvement of women in sanitation activities is strongly influenced by work subjects, locations, and duration.

Notes
358. Shared competencies; Overall, sanitation personnel share a number of common competency and knowledge requirements. For example, the competency unit of assess general characteristics of the community is required for social and technical facilitators, as well as technical consultants. The same applies to the competency unit of assess sanitation conditions of the community. Furthermore, all types of facilitators should possess competency units to develop strategic partnerships and facilitate participatory process. Such commonality makes possible the compilation of a generic set of competency units that can be used in developing (new) competency lists for other sanitation personnel types.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

CONCLUSION
359. There are indications that minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among most sanitation personnel occur as follows: Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning. Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants. Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators. Writing and communication skills. Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines).

Orientation and on-the-job training may easily close the knowledge and skill gaps. Improvement of work conditions may improve work habits. 360. The assumption that there is a major competence deficiency among Indonesian sanitation personnel is difficult to prove or disprove. Despite managers expressed dissatisfaction on sanitation staffs work performance, most sanitation personnel feel relatively confident about their competencies. This may indicate there is a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understand in gap. Using the competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results. 361. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a persons work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. Consultants, facilitators and operators all need to have supporting work conditions to enable them to make full use of their capabilities. Otherwise, their performance (often misunderstood as competence) will continue to be deemed inadequate. 362. When there is a large demand for competent personnel, one expects to see the emergence of a viable industry providing competence development services. Unfortunately, that is not the case in the sanitation sector. Practically, there is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere. 363. Other means to develop competence in sanitation sector are available. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development. Optimization of their role can start by improving data collection system of members engaged in the field of sanitation, linking job opportunities to members, and managing sanitation knowledge for its member.

49

Competence Assessment

364. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. The side-effect of linking certification programs with training courses is that it motivates professionals to seek new knowledge, and to continue to develop their competence.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

STRATEGYAND ACTION PLAN


Developing capacity of sanitation personnel in Indonesia requires action and decisions from key players in sanitation, and will only succeed if stakeholders collaborate on a continuous basis. The strategy presented here includes a short-term action plan and a medium-term strategy. Some recommendations for further analysis are also presented, especially for aspects that could not be covered in this study. The strategy is intended for consideration by the Government of Indonesia in planning future programs and activities.

Closing the Gap


Shortage of Personnel
401. A number of actions to be considered to reduce demand or fill the shortage of sanitation personnel are: Optimize deployment; Adjust the personneldeployment strategy in existing programs to reduce the number of personnel neededand to optimize the use of available sanitation personnel, especially for facilitators. Enhance job profile; Introduce breakthroughs to revampprofile of sanitation jobs, which, in turn can increase the number of people interested to work or continue in the sector. Communicate demand; The high demand for sanitation personnel should be communicated to professional and business associations, universities, vocational and high schools toattract more qualified personnel and inspire anew generation of individuals. Improve job security; Adjust upwards compensation and benefits for sanitation personnel, as well as improve conditions ofwork agreementsattract and retain qualified individuals. Recognize the profession; Boost the sense of pride of sanitation personnel by formally recognizing their profession. Create database; A sanitation personnel database will reduce difficulties in confirming the actual number of and availability of individuals with the right qualification. It would also support further assessment of personnel capacity.

51

Strategy and Action Plan

Competence Gap
402. A number of actions to be considered to overcome the competence gap among sanitation personnel: Acknowledge job titles; A consensus on clearly-defined job titles will form a foundation for future sanitation competence development programs. Formalize competency standards; A formal lists of required competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes)of key sanitation personnel will create a nationalreference for competence development. Recognize the profession; A formal recognition mechanism would not only to attract more individuals into the sector, it is expected to encourage sanitation personnel to continually improve their competence. Collaborate roles; Facilitate cooperation among education and training institutions, sanitation-related professional networks, and related government institutions, with common goals to improve competence of sanitation personnel. Provide teaching materials; Teaching materials covering sanitation policies, approaches, programs, and technologies will overcome the lack of knowledge among university students on recent sanitation activities. Create competency-basedcourses; Adjust existing training courses to ensure that materials are consistent with the types and levels of competencies required. Support training providers; Supporttraining institutions to improve their capacity in creating, promoting, conducting, and managing competence-based training courses. Innovate with competence development programs; Availability of self-learning packages, mentoring, and other innovative competence programs will add opportunities for individuals to learn in a flexible way. Internship and apprenticeship programs will allow individuals to experience working in specific type of sanitation facilities. Facilitate knowledge sharing;Knowledge and information sharing among sanitation personnel and other stakeholders (project managers, educators, trainers, evaluators, students, investors, and policy makers) will provide opportunities for an individual to tap knowledge from his/her peers. Provide more resources;Better availability of work resourcesare expected to allow individuals to apply his/her competence optimally and perform satisfactorilyin completing their tasks.

Strategy to Develop Sanitation Capacity


Overall
403. The overarching vision for capacity development in sanitation is all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitation personnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

404. The vision is achievable through four strategies (see Table 14).Each strategy is followed by a number of activities to be implemented immediately or in the nearfuture. Table 14.Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel
Strategy 1) Improve appeal of sanitation jobs Closing the Gaps Enhance job profile Communicate demand Improve job security Provide more resources a. b. c. d. 2) Institutionalize competence advancement. Acknowledge job titles Recognize the profession Formalize competency standards Collaborate roles Provide teaching materials to universities Create competencybased courses Support training providers Innovate competence programs Collect and share knowledge Create database a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. Activities Advocate the need to improve capacity of sanitation personnel Communicate jobs in sanitation Sanitation promotional visits to education institutions Adjust compensation structure for sanitation personnel Consensus on job titles in sanitation Create path for competence advancement in sanitation Develop competency standards for key personnel in sanitation Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation Develop competency-based training programs in sanitation Produce self-learning packages in sanitation Disseminate sanitation teaching materials Establish internship programs on sanitation operation Set-up mentoring programs Create Indonesian network for sanitation personnel Set-up network of competence suppliers Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation

3) Revitalize competence development programs

4) Stimulate knowledge exchange.

405. It should be noted that the above capacity-related strategies should be accompanied by larger strategies and long-term actions to: Revise policies; In the long-term, sanitation policies need to be revised to serve as a new engine to propel interest in the field. An example would be policies that affect the structure of the sanitation sector, especially to make the sector more interesting for private investors, thus reducing the dependence on government institutions as implementers of sanitation services. Private sector involvement is expected to create a more professional atmosphere, where sanitation personnel can pursue better careers. Also necessary are policies affecting direction of the sanitation sector, especially with regard to technological advancement. Better (more advanced) technological choices are expected to attract young individuals to consider sanitation- related professions. Revamp image; To complement changes in technology and sector players, the image of the sanitation sector as a whole needs a boost. The old image of lowtechnology, informal workers, and unsophisticated work needs to be changed to one where workers are proud and excited, technology is modern and effective, and institutions are credible and professionally-run. A forward-looking image will help the sector continue to appeal to younger generations in the future.

53

Strategy and Action Plan

Strategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs


406. This strategy aims to create sustained interest amongqualified individuals to join and stay in the sanitation sector. Implementation of this strategy will involve commencement of a series of advocacy and promotional activities to increase awareness of stakeholders on job profiles and opportunities in sanitation sector. 407. A communication strategy should be developed to allow effective delivery of messages to decision-makers, professional communities, and students. Various means of communications should be used to communicate information on tasks and responsibilities of sanitation personnel, present an appealing image of sanitation jobs, inform about the level of demand for competent sanitation personnel, and the need to improve their capacity. 408. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in the following table. Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities
Activities a. Advocate the need to improve capacity of sanitation personnel Decription To advocate the high demand for competent sanitation personnel, a series of presentations and discussions should be conducted to decision-makers and officers in various government institutions, professional associations, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms. Seminars, exhibitions, competition, and dissemination of promotional materials on sanitation jobs, supported by effective news and article placements in a number of relevant magazines, newspaper, and websites. Face-to-face interaction with students in relevant universities, academies, vocational schools, and high schools, supported by dissemination of promotional materials to raise their awareness on sanitation jobs and opportunities. A series of discussions with representatives of government institutions, professional associations, programs, and firms to determine the most appropriate fee and benefits for sanitation personnel.

b.

Communicate jobs in sanitation

c.

Sanitation promotional visits to education institutions Adjust compensation structure of sanitation personnel

d.

Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement


409. This strategy aims to make available a competence advancement path for each key sanitation personnel. The path is expected to: a) provide encouragement and incentive for sanitation personnel to continually improve their competence in a structured manner, b) create framework for competence suppliers to develop and optimize their role in achieving common objectives and goals, and c) trigger training providers to develop and deliver more relevant training courses. 410. For each job title, a competence advancement path (see diagram)describes:(a) levels of professional status, (b) required competencies, (c) outline of competence improvement plans (training and other competencemaintenance activities), and (d) formal recognition system. 411. A number of parties will be involved in preparing suchcompetence advancement path (see the diagram), i.e. Sponsoring agency; a government institution that will serve as the official agency which owns and manages the scheme. Training agencies; universities, private firms, and NGOs that will create and conduct mandatory training programs for sanitation personnel.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Certification body; an independent organization, such as professional association, that will provide formal recognition to sanitation personnel. Under the path, roles of each competence supplier will be clearly defined.
training agencies

required competencies #4 required competencies #3

competency-based trainings

3
2 1

required competencies #2
required competencies #1

outlines of competence improvement plans


competencymaintenance activities

formal recognition mechanism

certyfying body

levels of professional status

project owners universities research agencies proffesional association

Elements and Involved Parties in a Competence Advancement Path.Each job title will have its own path describing levels of professional status, required competence, and mechanism to obtain formal recognition.

412. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table. Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement
Activities a. Consensus on job titles in sanitation Decription Seminar and workshop involving government institutions, professional associations, sanitation programs, selected sanitation personnel, and academics, to generate a list of job titles in the subsectors of wastewater, solid waste, drainage, and hygienic behavior. Competence advancement paths for prioritized key personnel are to be developed and approved through a series of assessments, workshops, seminars, and consensus-building involving professional associations, training agencies, practitioners, academics, and government institutions. A set of competency lists for prioritized key personnel will be formalized into a national competency standard by involving Ministry of Public Works as the sponsoring agency. Support from professional and business associations, academics, and practitioners are instrumental. Certification mechanism, as a form of formal recognition of competence, will be institutionalized following the requirements 93 from the BNSP . Such mechanism will involve a number of parties to play the roles as certifying body and accredited training agencies.

b.

Create path for competence advancement in sanitation

c.

Develop competency standards for key personnel in sanitation

d.

Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation

413. The institutionalization of competence path should be prioritized for a subsector and a type of personnel where the demand is largest, i.e. wastewater and facilitators for communal system.

93

BNSP (Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi, or the National Agency for Professional Certification) is an independent body with the authority to formally recognize standards of competence for professionals in various fields, and carry out certification of those personnel.

55

Strategy and Action Plan

Strategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs


414. This strategy aims toincrease the availability and variation of competence programs to support competence advancement paths for sanitation personnel. It is expected that there will be more competency-based training courses, as well as other type competence programs available in the market. Higher capacity in the competence-building industry is a basic requirement for institutionalizing competence advancement. 415. This strategy will triggertraining providers to develop and deliver more relevant training courses, as well as attract other parties to create innovative competence development programs. In addition to the competency-based trainings, a number of new variants of competence programs will be introduced, i.e. distant learning, mentoring, and internship programs. 416. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table. Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs
Activities a. Developcompetency-based training programs in sanitation Decription Training agencies are supported to adjust or develop training courses based on requirements from the competence path (especially related to competency standards) for prioritized key personnel. Options are open for the training agencies to select the most appropriate delivery techniques. Self-learning multimedia packages on various subjects will be developed. It will improve access of sanitation personnel to knowledge required in competence path. Self-learning materials will be distributed in the form of compact disk, or be attached to existing sanitation web-sites. Teaching materials related to current sanitation policies, approaches, and technologies will be developed and disseminated to universities. It is expected that such materials will close or minimize the gap of required knowledge in tertiary education. In the absence of properly-operated sanitation facilities, specific internship and apprenticeship programs will allow individuals to improve his/her competence by performing tasks, observing others, and following guidance from supervisors in such facilities. Mentoring programs will provide opportunities for an individual to obtain information and guidance from his/her designated mentor. A mentoring function will be considered to be a requirement for an individual to retain his certification.

b.

Produce self-learning packages in sanitation

c.

Disseminate sanitation teaching materials

d.

Establish internship programs on sanitation operation Set-up mentoring programs

e.

Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange


417. This strategy aims to increase access to sanitation knowledge among sanitation personnel and other stakeholders. It will also create opportunities for all parties to share knowledge, information, ideas, enthusiasm and aspirations. It is believed that such knowledge networking will contribute significantly in building competence for those already active in the field. 418. This strategy will create networks for competence suppliers, as well as for individuals interested in sanitation sector (engineers, specialists, managers, educators, trainers, students, investors, and policy makers). Existing web-sites will be reviewed and adjusted to match with expected roles under the competence advancement path. 419. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Table 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange


Activities a. Create Indonesian network for sanitation personnel Decription An internet-based professional network will be established to provide dynamic and interactive means of communication among sanitation personnel and interested individuals. Such network will allow its member to share information, knowledge, data, and opinion. It may also serve as a database for sanitation personnel, and means to announce job opportunities and events. Selected universities, private firms, NGOs, and government-owned training centers are invited to form a network of competence suppliers in sanitation. Technical assistance will be provided to improve their capacity, especially on course development, competency of trainers, training management, and access of communication. It may involve commencement of a series of workshops, seminars, and training-of-trainers. Existing web-sites, mailing lists, and blogs will be enhanced and promoted to optimize their contribution in developing competence of sanitation personnel. Discussion with owners or managers of existing web-sites, mailing lists will be conducted to obtain consensus on their specific roles and ways to improve its knowledge management.

b.

Set-up network of competence suppliers

c.

Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation

Action Plan
420. Action plan consists of activities to be initiated in the period of 2012 2014. Some of those activities are better to be conducted immediately, considering the urgency and the preparedness of such activities (see next section). The following table presents the proposed schedule of activities in that period. Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan
Activities
1) a. b. c. d. 2) a. b. c. d. Advocate the need to improve capacity of sanitation personnel Communicate jobs in sanitation Sanitation promotional visits to education institutions Adjust compensation structure of sanitation personnel Consensus on job titles in sanitation Create path for competence advancement in sanitation Develop competency standards for key personnel in sanitation Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation Develop competency-based training programs Produce self-learning packages Disseminate sanitation teaching materials Establish internship programs on sanitation operation Set-up mentoring programs Create Indonesian network for sanitation personnel Set-up network of competence suppliers

2012
1 2 3 4 1

2013
2 3 4 1

2014
2 3 4

x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

3)

a. b. c. d. e.

x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

4)

a. b.

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Strategy and Action Plan

Activities
c. Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation

2012
1 2 3 4 1

2013
2 3 4 1

2014
2 3 4

Immediate Activities
421. There are at least six activities that can be initiated in the second quarter of 2012. Most of them are activities related to the effort to improve communication among stakeholders of sanitation competence.

Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel


422. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 20. Action Plan Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel
Steps Develop papers and presentation materials on demand and supply of sanitation personnel Seminar on demand and supply of sanitation personnel National workshop on competence development in sanitation Output Paper on Demand and Supply of Sanitation Personnel (in Bahasa Indonesia). Standard presentation tool on Demand & Supply of Sanitation Personnel. Seminars on 5 locations. Timeframe Q2 (2012), 2 months

Q2-Q3 (2012)

National workshop on one location. Workplans from each participating party.

Q4 (2012)

423. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, members of Pokja AMPL, professional association, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.

Communicate Jobs in Sanitation


424. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 21. Action Plan Communicate Jobs in Sanitation


Steps Develop communication materials jobs in sanitation sector Dissemination of communication materials Output Booklet and leaflets on jobs in sanitation Poster on the need of sanitation personnel. Articles for media. Booklets and leaflets distributed to government institutions, professional associations, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms. Coverage in printed media. Seminars. Competition on sanitation technologies. Participation in exhibitions. Timeframe Q3 (2012), 2 months

Q3 (2012) Q2 (2013)

Promotional events on jobs in sanitation

Q3 (2012) Q2 (2013)

425. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity. 58

Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions


426. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 22. Action Plan Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions


Steps Develop promotion materials jobs in sanitation sector Dissemination of promotional materials Events in universities and schools Output Booklet and leaflets on jobs in sanitation Poster on the need of sanitation personnel. Booklets and leaflets distributed to universities, academies, vocational schools, and high schools. Seminars, discussions, and exhibitions on a number of universities, academies, vocational schools, and high schools. Timeframe Q3 (2012), 2 months Q3 (2012) Q2 (2013) Q3 (2012) Q2 (2013)

427. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.

Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation


428. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.

Table 23. Action Plan Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation


Steps Develop papers and presentation materials on job titles in sanitation Seminar on job title in sanitation National workshop on job title Output Paper on Job Titles of Sanitation Personnel (in Bahasa Indonesia). Standard presentation tool on Job Titles of Sanitation Personnel. Seminars on 5 locations. National workshop on one location. Consensus on job titles in sanitation Timeframe Q2 (2012), 2 months

Q2-Q3 (2012) Q4 (2012)

429. This activity requires involvement of professional association, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and a work group. It is expected that GoI can provide funding for this activity.

Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation


430. Competence path will be immediately created for wastewater subsector, with special attention for facilitators for communal system where the demand is largest. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity. Table 24. Action Plan Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation
Steps Formation of stakeholder group. Clarifying job titles of personnel Arranging levels of professional status for Output Stakeholder group for wastewater subsector. Job titles in in wastewater sub-sector. Levels of professional status for each job title in wastewater sub-sector, along with descriptions on the scope of works and Timeframe Q3 (2012) Q3 (2012), 2 months Q4 (2012), 2 months

59

Strategy and Action Plan

Steps each job title Outlining competence improvement plans for each professional status Determining requirement for formal recognition for each job title

Output degree of responsibilities. List of requirements to improve competence (mandatory training programs, additional experience, participation on seminars, etc.). Type of formal recognition for each job title (e.g. certification on competence (BNSP model), certification on training commencement, etc.).

Timeframe Q4 (2012), 2 months Q4 (2012), 2 months

431. This activity requires involvement of Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, professional association, training agencies, practitioners, academics, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity. 432. This activity should be followed by the development of competency standards and institutionalization of certification mechanism for prioritized job title in wastewater sub-sector. It is recommended that any follow-ups should targeting facilitators for communal system.

Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel


433. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity94.

Table 25. Action Plan Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel
Steps Review of existing webbased network Appointing manager of the web-based network Improvement of existing web-based network Launching & promotion of the web-based network Output Working group Workplan to improve existing network Manager of the network Supervisory group Improved network (e.g. more features, access speed, graphic user interface, mobile application, and others). Promoting the network; Events, internet, participation in exhibition, distributing leaflets, etc. Timeframe Q2 (2012) Q2 (2012) Q3-Q4 (2012)

Q4 (2012)

434. This activity requires involvement of Pokja AMPL, JEJARING network, professional association, and a work group. It is expected that donor agency can provide funding for this activity.

Follow-Up Studies
435. This study focused on a portion of sanitation personnel, and many aspects of capacity among sanitation personnel could not be addressed. Follow-up studies may be necessary to further evaluate various aspects not covered in this study. Among them are the following:
94

This activity will use the website developed for conducting survey in this Study as a starting point (www.leherangsa.com). In its development, the website has been designed using asocial network template. Therefore, it does need a lot of effort to modify it into a professional network. It is expected that the professional network can also serve as an integrated database for sanitation personnel, performance assessment tools, event and job promotion media, discussion forums, etc. An organization should be appointed to be in-charge in managing and improving the network. The network must be promoted to increase its members, including by having its official launching.

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Sanitation Training and Capacity Study

Assess current capacity and required competence of personnel involved in operations of sanitation facilities (sewerage systems, septage treatment plants, final disposal sites, etc); Assess gender preferences related to sanitation jobs, to answer the question why not more women are involved in sanitation programs; Assess current capacity and required competence of local government staff, and identify means to develop their capacity. Assess the potential and capacity of vocational schools (secondary) to offer sanitation-related programs, to produce personnel who support operations of municipal facilities and/or who support design and construction of communal sanitation facilities.

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ATTACHMENTS
1. JobTitlesinSelectedSanitationActivities. 2. RoadmapofPPSPProgram(20102014). 3. ProjectionoftheNextPPSPProgram(20152019). 4. LevelofDemandforSanitationPersonnel. 5. LevelofSupplyofSanitationPersonnel. 6. ListofCoreCompetencies:Facilitator(Policy)forSanitationDevelopmentPlanning. 7. ListofCoreCompetencies:Facilitator(Social)forHygienicBehaviorChange. 8. ListofCoreCompetencies:Facilitator(Technical)forCommunalSanitation Implementation. 9. ListofCoreCompetencies:Consultant(Technical)forWastewaterSystemPlanning. 10. ListofUniversitieswithEnvironmentalEngineering. 11. References

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SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

ATTACHMENT1

JOBTITTLESINSELECTEDSANITATIONACTIVITIES
Activity JobTitle Background Level

PREPARATIONOFSTRATEGYANDIMPLEMENTATIONPLAN PreparationofCity SanitationStrategy 1 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanningProvince 2 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 3 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanningProvince 4 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 5 Facilitator(Financial)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning PreparationofPMSS 6 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning Various Various EnvironmentalEngineering EnvironmentalEngineering Financials Various MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel

IMPLEMENTATIONOFHYGIENICBEHAVIORIMPROVEMENT ImplementationofSTBM program 7 Facilitator(Social)forHygienicBehavior Change Various Junior

IMPLEMENTATIONOFCOMMUNALSANITATIONSYSTEM Implementationof SANIMASProgram 8 Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation 9 Facilitator(Social)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation DEVELOPMENTOFDOMESTICWASTEWATERSERVICES Completionofmasterplan forwastewaterservices 10 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater SystemPlanning 11 Consultant(Technical)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign 12 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 13 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 14 Consultant(Financial)forWastewater SystemPlanning 15 Consultant(Institutional)forWastewater SystemPlanning 16 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 17 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 18 Consultant(Business)forWastewater SystemPlanning 19 Consultant(Communication)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 20 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forWastewaterSystemPlanning Engineeringdesignof seweragesystem 21 Consultant(Technical)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign EnvironmentalEngineering EnvironmentalEngineering UrbanPlanning SocialSciences Financials Institutionals Law SocialSciences BusinessStudy Communications EnvironmentalSciences EnvironmentalEngineering Senior MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel Senior EnvironmentalEngineering Various EntryLevel Junior

11

Attachment1

22 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 23 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 24 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 25 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 26 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 27 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 28 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 29 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSewerageSystemEngineeringDesign Engineeringdesignof sludgetreatmentfacility 30 Consultant(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 31 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 32 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 33 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 34 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 35 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 36 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design DEVELOPMENTOFSOLIDWASTESERVICES Completionofmasterplan forsolidwasteservices 37 Consultant(Technical)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 38 Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 39 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 40 Consultant(Transportation)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 41 Consultant(SocioEconomic)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 42 Consultant(Financial)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 43 Consultant(Institutional)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 44 45 46 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning Consultant(CommunityDevelopment)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning Consultant(Business)forSolidWaste EnvironmentalEngineering EnvironmentalEngineering UrbanPlanning CivilEngineering SocialSciences Financials Institutionals Law SocialSciences Business Senior MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel EnvironmentalEngineering CivilEngineering MechanicalEngineering ElectricalEngineering SoilStudy Management CivilEngineering EnvironmentalSciences EnvironmentalEngineering CivilEngineering MechanicalEngineering ElectricalEngineering Management MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel Senior MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel

Nonspecific EnvironmentalSciences

MidLevel MidLevel

12

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

SystemPlanning 47 48 Engineeringdesignoffinal disposalfacility 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Consultant(Communication)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSolidWasteSystemPlanning Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign Consultant(SoilWorks)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign Communications EnvironmentalSciences EnvironmentalEngineering EnvironmentalEngineering CivilEngineering MidLevel MidLevel Senior MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel

Consultant(CivilWorks)forSanitaryLandfill CivilEngineering EngineeringDesign Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(Transportation)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(Geohydrology)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(CostEstimation)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign MechanicalEngineering ElectricalEngineering CivilEngineering Geohydrology ProjectManagement Various EnvironmentalSciences

DEVELOPMENTOFDRAINAGESERVICES Completionofmasterplan fordrainageservices 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Engineeringdesignof drainagesystem 71 Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem Environmental/Civil Planning Engineering Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(SocioEconomic)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(Financial)forDrainageSystem Planning Consultant(Institutional)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for DrainageSystemPlanning Consultant(Communication)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forDrainageSystemPlanning Environmental/Civil Engineering UrbanPlanning SocialSciences Financials Institutionals Law CivilEngineering MechanicalEngineering Communications EnvironmentalSciences Senior MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel Senior

Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem Environmental/Civil EngineeringDesign Engineering

13

Attachment1

72 73 74 75 76 77 78 OPERATION&MAINTENANCE Operation&maintenance ofsewernetwork operation 79 80 81 82 Operation&maintenance 83 ofsewagetreatmentplant 84 85 86 Operationofsludge treatmentfacility 87 88 89 90 Operation&maintenance offinaldisposalsite 91 92 93 94 Note: Operator(Technical)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Management)forSewer NetworkOperation Operator(Financial)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Safety)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Technical)forSewage Treatmentplant Operator(Management)forSewage TreatmentPlant Operator(Financial)forSewageTreatment Plant Operator(Safety)forSewageTreatment Plant Operator(Technical)forSludgeTreatment Facility Operator(Management)forSludge TreatmentFacility Operator(Financial)forSludgeTreatment Facility Operator(Safety)forSudgeTreatment Facility Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposalSite Operation Operator(Management)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation Operator(Financial)forFinalDisposalSite Operation Operator(Safety)forFinalDisposalSite Operation Environmental/Mechanical Engineering Management Financials Safety EnvironmentalEngineering Management Financials Safety Environmental/Mechanical Engineering Management Financials Safety Environmental/Mechanical Engineering Management Financials Safety MidLevel MidLevel Junior Junior MidLevel MidLevel Junior Junior MidLevel MidLevel Junior Junior MidLevel MidLevel Junior Junior Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(ProjectManagement)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(CostEstimation)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forDrainageSystemEngineeringDesign CivilEngineering MechanicalEngineering CivilEngineering ElectricalEngineering ProjectManagement Various EnvironmentalSciences MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel MidLevel

Mainpersonnelareinboldletters.

14

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

ATTACHMENT2

ROADMAPOFPPSPPROGRAM(20102014)
Plans
Stages
A B C D E F Campaign,education,advocacy,andguidance Institutionalandregulationdevelopment FormulationofCity/DistrictSanitationStrategy PreparationofProgramMemorandum Implementation Monitoringandevaluation

2010
49 63 41 21 3 41

2011
62 72 63 35 24 49

2012
72 82 72 45 59 62

2013
82 62 82 56 104 72

2014
100 100 62 65 160 82

Progress(perDecember2011)
Stages
A B C D E F Campaign,education,advocacy,andguidance Institutionalandregulationdevelopment FormulationofCity/DistrictSanitationStrategy PreparationofProgramMemorandum Implementation Monitoringandevaluation

2010
58 58 (29)42 13 3 n/a

2011
103 103 58 41 24 n/a

2012
117 117 117 67 59 n/a

2013
n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

2014
n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Note: ThenumberofImplementationisaccumulative,whiletherestisadditional. Thenumberinbracketis2009.

21

Attachment2

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SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

ATTACHMENT3

PROJECTIONOFTHENEXTPPSPPROGRAM(20152019)
Stages
A B C D E F Campaign,education,advocacy,andguidance Institutionalandregulationdevelopment FormulationofCity/DistrictSanitationStrategy PreparationofProgramMemorandum Implementation Monitoringandevaluation

2015
100 100 130 100 60 70

2016
0 40 120 130 60 80

2017
0 0 140 120 70 80

2018
0 0 60 140 70 90

2019
0 0 50 60 80 100

Assumption: Endof2017:500cities/districtswillhaveCSS, Endof2018:500cities/districtswillcompletePMSS Endof2019:500cities/districtswillinitiatetheimplementationstage. Cities/districtsmustrenewitsCSSin5yearcycle,meaningthenumberinstageCrepresentingthetotalnumberof cities/districtsrenewingtheirCSS(developedinpreviousPPSPcycle)withnewcities/districtwhohaveCSSforthe firsttime.SamecasewiththenumberinstageD. ThenumberofImplementationisaccumulative,whiletherestisaddition.

31

Attachment3

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SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

ATTACHMENT4

LEVELOFDEMANDFORSANITATIONPERSONNEL
Theattachmentcontainstablesof: EstimatedNumberofActivities(ShortTermandMediumTerm) EstimatedNumberofJobOpportunities(ShortTermandMediumTerm) EstimatedNumberofPersonnelRequired(ShortTermandMediumTerm) SummaryofMainPersonnel OverallSummary

Numbersofactivitiesareprojectedbasedon: Shortterm: Current PPSP program roadmap (see Attachment 2) and other targets in the RPJMN, i.e. by end of 2014: 340 cities/districts with CSS, 240 cities/districts with PMSS, and 240 cities/districts initiateimplementation.SANIMASprograms:2,000areasperyear. Mediumterm: Preliminary projections of the next PPSP program cycle (see Attachment 3) with the targets: 500 cities/districts with CSS by end of 2017, with PMSS by end of 2018, and initiate implementationbyendof2019.STBMandSANIMASprogramswiththesamerateofimplementation.

Numbersofjobopportunitiesareestimatedusingthisformula: Ji=(Ai)x(Ri,i) Where, Ji:Numberofjobsopportunities(foraparticularjobtitle). Ai:Frequencyofactivity(requiringaparticularjobtitle). Ri,i:Involvementratio,i.e.numberofindividual(ofaparticularjobtitle)requiredinan activity(seeTable2).Example,anSTBMtechnicalfacilitatorhasanRi,iof0.1,which meansonefacilitatorisinvolvedintenlocationofSTBMimplementation. Numbersofindividualsrequiredareestimatedusingthisformula: Pi=f(Ji,Fc,i) Where, Pi:Numberofindividuals(ofaparticulartypeofpersonnel)required. Ji:Numberofjobsavailable(foraparticulartypeofpersonnel). Fc,i:Continuityfactor,i.e.proportionofindividualstocontinueworkinginthesamejobin thesubsequentperiod.Forexample,aFc,i=0.7ofasocialfacilitatormeansthat70%of theindividualswillcontinuetoworkasasocialfacilitatorintheprogramsnextperiod. Thesmallerthefactor,thefewerindividualsstayinthesamejob.

41

Attachment4

TABLE41.EstimatedNumberofActivities(ShortTerm)
NumberofActivities Activity 1 PreparationofCity 1 SanitationStrategies 2 PreparationofPMSS 3 ImplementationofSTBM 3 program 4 Implementationof 4 SANIMASprogram 5 Completionofmasterplans forwastewaterservices5 6 Engineeringdesignof seweragesystem6 7 Engineeringdesignofsludge treatmentfacility7 8 Completionofmasterplan 8 forsolidwasteservices 9 Engineeringdesignoffinal 9 disposalfacility 10 Completionofmasterplan 10 fordrainagesystem 11 Engineeringdesignof
2

Unit 2010 cities/ districts cities/ districts Villages Areas cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ 40 10 1,500 10

Past 2011 60 30 1,500 10 2012 100 60 6,000 1,500 40 5 20 40 50 40 10 2013 60 60 7,000 1,500 40 5 20 40 50 40 40

Shortterm 2014 50 70 7,000 1,500 60 5 40 60 50 60 40 Sum 210 190 20,000 4,500 140 15 80 140 150 140 90

10 10 50 10 10 10 50 10 10

Source:RoadmapofthePPSP(PercepatanPembangunanSanitasiPermukiman)program,20102014(seeAppendix2)andits progress.Note:ThePPSPtotaltargetis330cities/districtshavecompletedCSSattheendof2014.Per2011,around120cities/ districtshavedoneso.Therefore,itisexpectedthat210morecities/districtsmustpreparetheirCSSsinthenextthreeyears.The figuresarepresentedasroundednumbers. Source:RoadmapofthePPSPprogram,20102014(seeAppendix2).Note:ThePPSPtotaltargetis230cities/districtshave preparedtheProgramMemorandumofSanitationSectorattheendof2014.Per2011,around50cities/districtshavedoneso. Therefore,itisexpectedthat180cities/districtswillpreparetheprogrammemorandumforthenextthreeyears.Thefiguresare presentedasroundednumbers. Source:STBMProgramSecretariat,MinistryofHealth.Note:TheupcomingSTBMprogramisstillfocusonitsfirstpillar,i.e.Stop OpenDefecation. Source:DirectorateforEnvironmentalSanitation,DirectorateGeneralofHumanSettlements,MinistryofPublicWorks.Note:The annualtargetuntiltheendof2014isaround1,500SANIMASfacilitiesconstructed.Therewillbe2(two)typesofSANIMAS implementationprograms,accordingtothefundingsource,i.e.1)SANIMASReguler,fundedbynationalgovernmentandcity/district localgovernment,and2)SANIMASUSRI,fundedbytheAsianDevelopmentBankthroughUrbanSanitationandRuralInitiative(USRI) forProgramNasionalPemberdayaanMasyarakat(PNPM).Itisexpectedthatthelocalgovernmentsandprivatesectorswillalso participatetoimplementofSANIMASprograms. Source:RoadmapofPPSPprogram,20102014.Itisassumedthatallcities/districtspursuingtheImplementationphase(inPPSP programroadmap)willpreparewastewaterservicemasterplans(seeAppendix2).Note:In2011,thenationalgovernment (MinistryofPublicWorks)isonlyabletodevelopwastewatermanagementmasterplansfor12cities/district.Itisexpectedthata numberofmasterplanswillbemadedirectlybythelocalgovernments,inadditiontothosedevelopedbytheMinistryofPublic Works.
6 Source:TheNationalMediumTermDevelopmentPlan(RPJMN)20102015.Note:Itisplannedthatby2014,Indonesiawillhave 16citieswithseweragesystems.Theworkswillincludeimprovementofexistingsystemsin11cities(Balikpapan,Banjarmasin, Bandung,Cirebon,Jakarta,Medan,Prapat,Surakarta,Tangerang,Yogyakarta,andDenpasar)anddevelopmentofnewsystemsin fivecities. 7 Itisassumedthatcity/districtwillpreparetheengineeringdesignofsludgetreatmentfacilityinthefollowingyearafter wastewaterservicemasterplaniscompleted. 8 Itisassumedthatallcities/districtspursuingtheImplementationphase(inPPSPprogramroadmap)willalsopreparesolidwaste managementmasterplans. 5 4 3 2 1

Source:TheNationalMediumTermDevelopmentPlan(RPJMN)20102015.Note:By2014,around240solidwastefinaldisposal areasinIndonesiancitiesmustbeimprovedtomeetsanitarylandfillspecificationandperformancestandards.Itisassumedinthe nextthreeyears,therearestill150landfillengineeringdesignstobecompleted,or50designsayear. Source:TheNationalMediumTermDevelopmentPlan(RPJMN)20102015.Note:By2014,arounddrainagesystemsin100 strategiclocationsmustbeimprovedtopreventthemfromflooding.Itisassumedthenthateachyear20masterplansofurban drainagesystemsmustbeproduced.


10

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SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

drainagesystem11 12 Operationofsewersystem 13 Operationofsewage 13 treatmentplant 14 Operationofsludge 14 treatmentfacility 15 Operationoffinaldisposal 15 facility


12

districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts 10 50 5 5 10 50 5 5 20 50 10 10 40 150

Itisassumedthattheengineeringdesignofdrainagesystemmustbepreparedinthefollowingyearafterdrainagesystemmaster planiscompleted. Thenumberisonlyforthenewandimprovedsewersystems.Itisassumedonlytensewersystemscanbedevelopedinthecurrent PPSPoutof16targeted.


13 14 15 12 11

Sameassumptionasthesewersystemsincethesewagetreatmentplantandsewersystemarepartsofaseweragesystem. Atleasttwoyeartimeisrequiredtoconstructasludgetreatmentfacilityfollowingthecompletionofitsengineeringdesign. Atleasttwoyeartimeisrequiredtoconstructafinaldisposalfacilityfollowingthecompletionofitsengineeringdesign.

43

Attachment4

TABLE42.EstimatedNumberofActivities(MediumTerm)
Activity 1 PreparationofCity SanitationStrategies16 2 PreparationofProgram MemorandumofSanitation Sector17 3 ImplementationofSTBM program18 4 Implementationof 19 SANIMASProgram 5 Completionofmasterplans 20 forwastewaterservices 6 Engineeringdesignof 21 seweragesystem 7 Engineeringdesignofsludge 22 treatmentfacility 8 Completionofmasterplan 23 forsolidwasteservices 9 Engineeringdesignoffinal disposalfacility24 10 Completionofmasterplan fordrainagesystem25 11 Engineeringdesignof drainagesystem 12 Operationofsewersystem 13 Operationofsewage treatmentplant 14 Operationofsludge treatmentfacility 15 Operationoffinaldisposal facility Unit cities/ districts cities/ districts Villages Areas cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts cities/ districts NumberofActivities 2015 130 100 2016 120 130 2017 140 120 2018 60 140 2019 50 60 Sum

7,000 2,000 60 10 80 60 50 80 80 5 10 20 50

7,000 2,000 60 10 80 60 50 80 80 5 10 40 50

7,000 2,000 70 10 80 70 50 80 80 10 20 80 50

7,000 2,000 70 10 80 70 50 80 80 10 20 80 50

7,000 2,000 80 10 80 80 50 80 80 10 20 80 50

35,000 10,000 340 50 400 340 250 400 400 40 80 300 250

Cities/districts(totalof330)whichhavepreparedtheirCSSin20102014areexpectedtoupdatetheirCSSforthe20152019 developmentcycle.Inaddition,170morecities/districtswillprepareCSSduring20152017period.Therefore,byendof2017,a grandtotalof500cities/districtswillhaveCSSs.The20152017figuresarecomprisedofcities/districtspreparingCSSupdatesplus newCSS. Itistargetedthatbyendof2018,all500cities/districtswillcompletetheirPMSS.The20152018figuresincludesome cities/districtsfromthepreviousPPSPprogramcycle,whichhavenotfinishedpreparingtheprogrammemorandumbyendof2014. ThesameSTBMimplementationratefromthe20122014periodisused.However,villagesareexpectedtoprogresstothesecond pillar(andfurther)duringthenextdevelopmentcycle.Byendof2019,itexpectedthat35,000villageswillbeinSTBMprogram. ThesameSANIMASimplementationratefromthe20122014periodisused,i.e.2,000peryear.Therefore,itexpectedthat10,000 SANIMASfacilitieswillbecompletedbyendof2019.
20 Itisassumedthatall500cities/districtsintheendof2019mustpossessmasterplansforwastewaterservices,solidwasteservices, anddrainagesystem.PriortothatProgramMemorandummustbeprepared. 21 22 23 19 18 17 16

Itisassumedthat50moreseweragesystemswillbebuiltinmediumtolargecitiesduringthe20142019developmentperiod. Attheendof2019,400moreofsludgetreatmentdesignsarecompleted.Therefore,all500cities/districtswillhavethedesigns.

Attheendof2019,340moreofsolidwastemasterplansarecompleted.Therefore,all500cities/districtswillhavethemaster plans.
24 25

Attheendof2019,250moreoffinaldisposaldesignsarecompleted.Therefore,all500cities/districtswillhavethedesigns.

Attheendof2019,400moreofdrainagesystemmasterplansarecompleted.Therefore,all500cities/districtswillhavethemaster plans.Sameassumptionforthedrainageengineeringdesigns.

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SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

TABLE43.EstimatedNumberofJobOpportunities(ShortTerm)
JobTitle 1 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanningProvince 2 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 3 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanningProvince 4 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 5 Facilitator(Financial)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 6 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 7 Facilitator(Social)forHygienicBehavior Change 8 Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation 9 Facilitator(Social)forCommunalSanitation SystemImplementation 10 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater SystemPlanning 11 Consultant(Technical)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign 12 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forWastewater SystemPlanning 13 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 14 Consultant(Financial)forWastewater SystemPlanning 15 Consultant(Institutional)forWastewater SystemPlanning 16 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 17 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 18 Consultant(Business)forWastewater SystemPlanning 19 Consultant(Communication)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 20 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forWastewaterSystemPlanning 21 Consultant(Technical)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign 22 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 23 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 24 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 25 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 26 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 27 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 28 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 29 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) Ratio (person/ activity) na 1 na 1 na 1 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

NumberofJobOpportunities
2010 10 40 10 1,500 1,500 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2011 30 60 30 1,500 1,500 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2012 26 60 26 100 26 60 600 1,500 1,500 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2013 26 60 26 60 26 60 700 1,500 1,500 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2014 26 70 26 50 26 70 700 1,500 1,500 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Sum 78 190 78 210 78 190 2,000 4,500 4,500 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

45

Attachment4

forSewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 30 Consultant(Technical)forSludgeTreatment FacilityEngineeringDesign 31 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 32 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 33 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 34 Consultant(ProjectManagement)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 35 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 36 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 37 Consultant(Technical)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 38 Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 39 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 40 Consultant(Transportation)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 41 Consultant(SocioEconomic)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 42 Consultant(Financial)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 43 Consultant(Institutional)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 44 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 45 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 46 Consultant(Business)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 47 Consultant(Communication)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 48 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSolidWasteSystemPlanning 49 Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 50 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 51 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 52 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 53 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 54 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 55 Consultant(Transportation)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 56 Consultant(Geohydrology)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 57 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 58 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 59 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

46

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

forSanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 60 Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem Planning 61 Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 62 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forDrainage SystemPlanning 63 Consultant(SocioEconomic)forDrainage SystemPlanning 64 Consultant(Financial)forDrainageSystem Planning 65 Consultant(Institutional)forDrainage SystemPlanning 66 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forDrainage SystemPlanning 67 Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemPlanning 68 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forDrainage SystemPlanning 69 Consultant(Communication)forDrainage SystemPlanning 70 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forDrainageSystemPlanning 71 Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 72 Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 73 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 74 Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 75 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 76 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 77 Consultant(CostEstimation)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 78 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forDrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 79 Operator(Technical)forSewerNetwork Operation 80 Operator(Management)forSewerNetwork Operation 81 Operator(Financial)forSewerNetwork Operation 82 Operator(Safety)forSewerNetwork Operation 83 Operator(Technical)forSewageTreatment plant 84 Operator(Management)forSewage TreatmentPlant 85 Operator(Financial)forSewageTreatment Plant 86 Operator(Safety)forSewageTreatment Plant 87 Operator(Technical)forSludgeTreatment Facility 88 Operator(Management)forSludge TreatmentFacility 89 Operator(Financial)forSludgeTreatment Facility 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 10 10 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 10 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 20 10 10 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 10 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 40 20 20 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 80 40 40

47

Attachment4

90 Operator(Safety)forSudgeTreatment Facility 91 Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposalSite Operation 92 Operator(Management)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation 93 Operator(Financial)forFinalDisposalSite Operation 94 Operator(Safety)forFinalDisposalSite Operation TOTAL 1 2 1 1 1 10 100 50 50 50 10 100 50 50 50 20 100 50 50 50 40 300 150 150 150 20,699

48

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

TABLE44.EstimatedNumberofJobOpportunities(MediumTerm)
JobTitle 1 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanningProvince 2 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 3 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanningProvince 4 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 5 Facilitator(Financial)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 6 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 7 Facilitator(Social)forHygienicBehavior Change 8 Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation 9 Facilitator(Social)forCommunalSanitation SystemImplementation 10 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater SystemPlanning 11 Consultant(Technical)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign 12 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forWastewater SystemPlanning 13 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 14 Consultant(Financial)forWastewater SystemPlanning 15 Consultant(Institutional)forWastewater SystemPlanning 16 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 17 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 18 Consultant(Business)forWastewater SystemPlanning 19 Consultant(Communication)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 20 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forWastewaterSystemPlanning 21 Consultant(Technical)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign 22 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 23 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 24 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 25 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 26 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 27 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 28 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign Ratio (person/ activity) na 1 na 1 na 1 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

NumberofJobOpportunities
2015 33 100 33 130 33 100 700 1,500 1,500 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2016 33 130 33 120 33 130 700 1,500 1,500 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2017 33 120 33 140 33 120 700 1,500 1,500 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2018 33 140 33 60 33 140 700 1,500 1,500 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2019 33 60 33 50 33 60 700 1,500 1,500 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Sum 165 550 165 500 165 550 3,500 7,500 7,500 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

49

Attachment4

29 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 30 Consultant(Technical)forSludgeTreatment FacilityEngineeringDesign 31 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 32 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 33 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 34 Consultant(ProjectManagement)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 35 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 36 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 37 Consultant(Technical)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 38 Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 39 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 40 Consultant(Transportation)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 41 Consultant(SocioEconomic)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 42 Consultant(Financial)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 43 Consultant(Institutional)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 44 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 45 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 46 Consultant(Business)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 47 Consultant(Communication)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 48 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSolidWasteSystemPlanning 49 Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 50 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 51 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 52 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 53 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 54 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 55 Consultant(Transportation)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 56 Consultant(Geohydrology)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 57 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 58 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 10 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 50 400 400 400 400 400 400 400

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250

410

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

59 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forSanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 60 Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem Planning 61 Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 62 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forDrainage SystemPlanning 63 Consultant(SocioEconomic)forDrainage SystemPlanning 64 Consultant(Financial)forDrainageSystem Planning 65 Consultant(Institutional)forDrainage SystemPlanning 66 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forDrainage SystemPlanning 67 Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemPlanning 68 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forDrainage SystemPlanning 69 Consultant(Communication)forDrainage SystemPlanning 70 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forDrainageSystemPlanning 71 Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 72 Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 73 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 74 Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 75 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 76 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 77 Consultant(CostEstimation)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 78 Consultant(EnvironmentalManagement) forDrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 79 Operator(Technical)forSewerNetwork Operation 80 Operator(Management)forSewerNetwork Operation 81 Operator(Financial)forSewerNetwork Operation 82 Operator(Safety)forSewerNetwork Operation 83 Operator(Technical)forSewageTreatment plant 84 Operator(Management)forSewage TreatmentPlant 85 Operator(Financial)forSewageTreatment Plant 86 Operator(Safety)forSewageTreatment Plant 87 Operator(Technical)forSludgeTreatment Facility 88 Operator(Management)forSludge TreatmentFacility 89 Operator(Financial)forSludgeTreatment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 10 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 40 20 20 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 80 40 40 50 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 160 80 80 50 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 160 80 80 50 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 20 10 10 10 20 10 45 10 10 160 80 80 45 45 600 300 300 250 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 90 45 45 45 90

411

Attachment4

Facility 90 Operator(Safety)forSudgeTreatment Facility 91 Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposalSite Operation 92 Operator(Management)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation 93 Operator(Financial)forFinalDisposalSite Operation 94 Operator(Safety)forFinalDisposalSite Operation TOTAL 1 2 1 1 1 20 100 50 50 50 40 100 50 50 50 80 100 50 50 50 80 100 50 50 50 80 100 50 50 50 300 500 250 250 250 43,915

412

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

TABLE45.EstimatedNumberofIndividualsRequired(ShortTerm)
JobTitle 1 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 2 Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 3 Facilitator(Financial)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 4 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 5 Facilitator(Social)forHygienic BehaviorChange 6 Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation 7 Facilitator(Social)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation 8 Consultant(Technical)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 9 Consultant(Technical)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 10 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 11 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 12 Consultant(Financial)forWastewater SystemPlanning 13 Consultant(Institutional)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 14 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 15 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment) forWastewaterSystemPlanning 16 Consultant(Business)forWastewater SystemPlanning 17 Consultant(Communication)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 18 Consultant(Environmental Management)forWastewaterSystem Planning 19 Consultant(Technical)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 20 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 21 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 22 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 23 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 24 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 25 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign Work Continuity Duration Ratio (years) 2 0.7 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

NumberofIndividuals
2012 86 126 26 60 600 1,500 1,500 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 2013 86 86 26 18 700 1,500 1,500 40 40 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 2014 36 (12) 8 28 400 750 750 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 Sum 208 200 60 106 1,700 3,750 3,750 108 108 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

413

Attachment4

26 Consultant(CostEstimation)for SewerageSystemEngineeringDesign 27 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign 28 Consultant(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 29 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 30 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for SludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 31 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for SludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 32 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SludgeTreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 33 Consultant(CostEstimation)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign 34 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSludgeTreatment FacilityEngineeringDesign 35 Consultant(Technical)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 36 Consultant(Technical)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 37 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 38 Consultant(Transportation)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 39 Consultant(SocioEconomic)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 40 Consultant(Financial)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 41 Consultant(Institutional)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 42 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 43 Consultant(CommunityDevelopment) forSolidWasteSystemPlanning 44 Consultant(Business)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 45 Consultant(Communication)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 46 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSolidWasteSystem Planning 47 Consultant(Technical)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 48 Consultant(Technical)forWastewater TreatmentPlantEngineeringDesign 49 Consultant(SoilWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 50 Consultant(CivilWorks)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 51 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 1 1 0.8 0.8 5 5 1 1 1 1 7 7

1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8

20 20 20

4 4 4

24 24 24

48 48 48

0.8

20

24

48

0.8

20

24

48

1 1

0.8 0.8

20 20

4 4

24 24

48 48

2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

40 40 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

108 108 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76

2 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

50 50 50 50 50

10 10 10 10 10

10 10 10 10 10

70 70 70 70 70

414

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

52 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 53 Consultant(Transportation)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 54 Consultant(Geohydrology)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 55 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 56 Consultant(CostEstimation)for SanitaryLandfillEngineeringDesign 57 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign 58 Consultant(Technical)forDrainage SystemPlanning 59 Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 60 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)for DrainageSystemPlanning 61 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for DrainageSystemPlanning 62 Consultant(Financial)forDrainage SystemPlanning 63 Consultant(Institutional)forDrainage SystemPlanning 64 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory)for DrainageSystemPlanning 65 Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemPlanning 66 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for DrainageSystemPlanning 67 Consultant(Communication)for DrainageSystemPlanning 68 Consultant(Environmental Management)forDrainageSystem Planning 69 Consultant(Technical)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 70 Consultant(SoilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 71 Consultant(MechanicalWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 72 Consultant(CivilWorks)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 73 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 74 Consultant(ProjectManagement)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 75 Consultant(CostEstimation)for DrainageSystemEngineeringDesign 76 Consultant(Environmental Management)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign 77 Operator(Technical)forSewer NetworkOperation 78 Operator(Management)forSewer NetworkOperation 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 50 50 50 50 50 50 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 70 70 70 70 70 70

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

40 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

108 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

1 1

10 5

10 5

20 10

415

Attachment4

79 Operator(Financial)forSewer NetworkOperation 80 Operator(Safety)forSewerNetwork Operation 81 Operator(Technical)forSewage Treatmentplant 82 Operator(Management)forSewage TreatmentPlant 83 Operator(Financial)forSewage TreatmentPlant 84 Operator(Safety)forSewage TreatmentPlant 85 Operator(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacility 86 Operator(Management)forSludge TreatmentFacility 87 Operator(Financial)forSludge TreatmentFacility 88 Operator(Safety)forSudgeTreatment Facility 89 Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation 90 Operator(Management)forFinal DisposalSiteOperation 91 Operator(Financial)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation 92 Operator(Safety)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation TOTAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 10 10 10 100 50 50 50 5 5 10 5 5 5 20 10 10 10 100 50 50 50 5 5 10 5 5 5 40 20 20 20 100 50 50 50 10 10 20 10 10 10 80 40 40 40 300 150 150 150 15,136

416

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

TABLE46.EstimatedNumberofIndividualsRequired(MediumTerm)
JobTitle 1 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 2 Facilitator(Technical)for SanitationDevelopment Planning 3 Facilitator(Financial)for SanitationDevelopment Planning 4 Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning 5 Facilitator(Social)forHygienic BehaviorChange 6 Facilitator(Technical)for CommunalSanitationSystem Implementation 7 Facilitator(Social)for CommunalSanitationSystem Implementation 8 Consultant(Technical)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 9 Consultant(Technical)for SewerageSystemEngineering Design 10 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 11 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 12 Consultant(Financial)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 13 Consultant(Institutional)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 14 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory) forWastewaterSystemPlanning 15 Consultant(Community Development)forWastewater SystemPlanning 16 Consultant(Business)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 17 Consultant(Communication)for WastewaterSystemPlanning 18 Consultant(Environmental Management)forWastewater SystemPlanning 19 Consultant(Technical)for SewerageSystemEngineering Design 20 Consultant(Technical)for WastewaterTreatmentPlant EngineeringDesign 21 Consultant(CivilWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineering Design 22 Consultant(MechanicalWorks) forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign Work Continuity Duration Ratio (years) 2 0.7 2 0.7

NumberofIndividuals
2015 73 103 2016 96 100 2017 60 59 2018 59 (14) 2019 (14) (38) Sum 273 209

0.7

15

15

10

10

10

59

1 2 2

0.7 0.5 0.5

51 350 750

60 350 750

29 350 750

56 350 750

(38) 350 750

158 1,750 3,750

0.5

750

750

750

750

750

3,750

2 2

0.8 0.8

28 28

12 12

22 22

22 22

24 24

108 108

1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

12 12 12 12 12 12

12 12 12 12 12 12

22 22 22 22 22 22

14 14 14 14 14 14

24 24 24 24 24 24

84 84 84 84 84 84

1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8

12 12 12

12 12 12

22 22 22

14 14 14

24 24 24

84 84 84

0.8

14

0.8

14

0.8

14

0.8

14

417

Attachment4

23 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineering Design 24 Consultant(SoilWorks)for SewerageSystemEngineering Design 25 Consultant(Project Management)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 26 Consultant(CostEstimation)for SewerageSystemEngineering Design 27 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign 28 Consultant(Technical)for SludgeTreatmentFacility EngineeringDesign 29 Consultant(CivilWorks)for SludgeTreatmentFacility EngineeringDesign 30 Consultant(MechanicalWorks) forSludgeTreatmentFacility EngineeringDesign 31 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for SludgeTreatmentFacility EngineeringDesign 32 Consultant(Project Management)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 33 Consultant(CostEstimation)for SludgeTreatmentFacility EngineeringDesign 34 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineering Design 35 Consultant(Technical)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 36 Consultant(Technical)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 37 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 38 Consultant(Transportation)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 39 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 40 Consultant(Financial)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 41 Consultant(Institutional)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 42 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory) forSolidWasteSystemPlanning 43 Consultant(Community Development)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 44 Consultant(Business)forSolid WasteSystemPlanning 45 Consultant(Communication)for SolidWasteSystemPlanning 1 0.8 6 2 2 2 2 14

0.8

14

0.8

14

0.8

14

0.8

14

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

0.8

48

16

16

16

16

112

2 2

0.8 0.8

28 28

12 12

22 22

22 22

24 24

108 108

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

12 12 12 12 12 12 12

12 12 12 12 12 12 12

22 22 22 22 22 22 22

14 14 14 14 14 14 14

24 24 24 24 24 24 24

84 84 84 84 84 84 84

1 1

0.8 0.8

12 12

12 12

22 22

14 14

24 24

84 84

418

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

46 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning 47 Consultant(Technical)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 48 Consultant(Technical)for WastewaterTreatmentPlant EngineeringDesign 49 Consultant(SoilWorks)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 50 Consultant(CivilWorks)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 51 Consultant(MechanicalWorks) forSanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 52 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 53 Consultant(Transportation)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 54 Consultant(Geohydrology)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 55 Consultant(Project Management)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 56 Consultant(CostEstimation)for SanitaryLandfillEngineering Design 57 Consultant(Environmental Management)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign 58 Consultant(Technical)for DrainageSystemPlanning 59 Consultant(SoilWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineering Design 60 Consultant(UrbanPlanning)for DrainageSystemPlanning 61 Consultant(SocioEconomic)for DrainageSystemPlanning 62 Consultant(Financial)for DrainageSystemPlanning 63 Consultant(Institutional)for DrainageSystemPlanning 64 Consultant(Legal/Regulatory) forDrainageSystemPlanning 65 Consultant(CivilWorks)for DrainageSystemPlanning 66 Consultant(MechanicalWorks) forDrainageSystemPlanning 67 Consultant(Communication)for DrainageSystemPlanning 68 Consultant(Environmental Management)forDrainage SystemPlanning 1 0.8 12 12 22 14 24 84

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

0.8

10

10

10

10

10

50

2 1

0.8 0.8

28 12

12 12

22 22

22 14

24 24

108 84

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14

24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84

419

Attachment4

69 Consultant(Technical)for DrainageSystemEngineering Design 70 Consultant(SoilWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineering Design 71 Consultant(MechanicalWorks) forDrainageSystemEngineering Design 72 Consultant(CivilWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineering Design 73 Consultant(ElectricalWorks)for DrainageSystemEngineering Design 74 Consultant(Project Management)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 75 Consultant(CostEstimation)for DrainageSystemEngineering Design 76 Consultant(Environmental Management)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign 77 Operator(Technical)forSewer NetworkOperation 78 Operator(Management)for SewerNetworkOperation 79 Operator(Financial)forSewer NetworkOperation 80 Operator(Safety)forSewer NetworkOperation 81 Operator(Technical)forSewage Treatmentplant 82 Operator(Management)for SewageTreatmentPlant 83 Operator(Financial)forSewage TreatmentPlant 84 Operator(Safety)forSewage TreatmentPlant 85 Operator(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacility 86 Operator(Management)for SludgeTreatmentFacility 87 Operator(Financial)forSludge TreatmentFacility 88 Operator(Safety)forSudge TreatmentFacility 89 Operator(Technical)forFinal DisposalSiteOperation 90 Operator(Management)for FinalDisposalSiteOperation 91 Operator(Financial)forFinal DisposalSiteOperation 92 Operator(Safety)forFinal DisposalSiteOperation TOTAL 2 0.8 28 12 12 22 14 88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

0.8

28

12

12

22

14

88

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 40 20 20 20 100 50 50 50

20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 80 40 40 40 100 50 50 50

20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 160 80 80 80 100 50 50 50

20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 160 80 80 80 100 50 50 50

20 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 160 80 80 80 100 50 50 50

90 45 45 45 90 45 45 45 600 300 300 300 500 250 250 250 18,290

420

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

TABLE47.SummaryofDemandforMainPersonnel
JobOpportunities MainPersonnel Facilitator(Policy)forSanitationDevelopment Planning Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning Facilitator(Policy)forSanitationDevelopment Planning Facilitator(Social)forHygienicBehavior Change Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation Facilitator(Social)forCommunalSanitation SystemImplementation Consultant(Technical)forWastewaterSystem Planning Consultant(Technical)forSewerageSystem EngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forSludgeTreatment FacilityEngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forSolidWasteSystem Planning Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem Planning Consultant(Technical)forDrainageSystem EngineeringDesign Operator(Technical)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Management)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Technical)forSewageTreatment plant Operator(Management)forSewage TreatmentPlant Operator(Technical)forSludgeTreatment Facility Operator(Management)forSludge TreatmentFacility Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposalSite Operation Operator(Management)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation TOTAL ShortTerm 268 288 190 2,000 4,500 4,500 140 15 80 140 150 140 90 20 10 20 10 80 40 300 150 13,131 Medium Term 715 665 550 3,500 7,500 7,500 340 50 400 340 250 340 320 90 45 90 45 600 300 500 250 24,390 F 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 RequiredIndividuals ShortTerm 208 200 106 1,700 3,750 3,750 108 7 48 108 70 108 50 20 10 20 10 80 40 300 150 10,843 Medium Term 273 209 158 1,750 3,750 3,750 108 14 112 108 50 108 88 90 45 90 45 600 300 500 250 12,399

421

Attachment4

TABLE48.LevelofDemandforSanitaryPersonnel
Category Total Role AllPersonnel MainPersonnel AllPersonnel Facilitator Consultant Operator MainPersonnel Facilitator Consultant Operator Field/ Education AllPersonnel Technical Facilitator Consultant Operator NonTechnical MainPersonnel Technical Facilitator Consultant Operator NonTechnical Experience AllPersonnel Senior MidLevel Junior EntryLevel MainPersonnel Senior MidLevel Junior EntryLevel Note: 4,870 3,950 500 420 5,975 500 5,020 5,870 3,750 500 1,145 5,450 3,750 45 36 5 4 55 3 33 39 25 5 11 50 35 5,830 3,960 590 1,289 6,570 590 7,175 6,780 3,750 590 2,560 5,500 3,750 47 32 5 10 55 3 39 37 21 5 21 44 30 5,240 3,950 870 420 9,900 35 26 6 3 65 6,190 3,960 950 1,280 12,100 34 22 5 7 66 9,710 500 630 89 5 6 9,890 590 1,920 80 5 15 9,780 4,310 1,050 65 28 7 9,950 5,140 3,200 54 28 17 ShortTerm Amount 15,140 10,845 % 72 MediumTerm Amount 18,290 12,400 % 68

Percentagesofcategoriesundertheallpersonnelareproportionaltothetotalnumberofall personnel.While,percentagesofcategoriesunderthemainpersonnelareproportionaltothe totalnumberofmainpersonnel.

422

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

ATTACHMENT5

LEVELOFSUPPLYOFSANITATIONPERSONNEL
Theattachmentcontainstablesof: EstimatedSupplyofEligibleIndividuals EstimatedSupplyofIndividualsfromthePotentialGroup

Numbersofeligibleareprojectedfrom(seeTable91): Facilitator(Policy)forSanitationPlanning:IndividualswhocurrentlyareCSS/PMSSfacilitators,andwhohavebeen trained. Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior: Individuals who have participated in CLTS or STBM programs, and who havebeentrained. Facilitators(Technical)forCommunalSystem:Individualswhohavebeenpreparedandinvolvedinpreviousoron goingSANIMASprograms. Consultant(Technical)forWastewaterPlanning:NumberofseniorandsomemidlevelLPJKcertifiedengineers,of which 17%are wastewater expert,16%are solidwasteexpert,8%are (drainageexpert,and 59%arewater supply expert. Operatorsofvarioussanitationfacilities:NumberoffacilitiescurrentlyoperatinginIndonesia.

Numbersofpotentialindividuals(technicalpersonnelonly)areprojectedfrom(seeTable92): Technical with senior experience: Tapped from senior certified experts (Ahli Utama) with strong water supply background. Technical with midlevel experience:Obtained from two sources, i.e. a) midlevel certified experts (Ahli Madya) with a strong water supply background, and b) environmental engineering alumni with 5 10 years of experience. Technical with junior experience: Obtained from two sources, a) juniorlevel certified environmental engineers (AhliMuda),andb)environmentalengineeringalumniwith24yearsofexperience. Technical with entrylevel experience: Obtain from environmental engineers with less than 2 years of experience.

51

Attachment5

TABLE91.EstimatedSupplyofEligible JobTitles FACILITATORS Facilitator(Policy)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning Facilitator(Social)forHygienicBehavior Change Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation Facilitator(Social)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation CONSULTANTS Consultant(Technical)forWastewater SystemPlanning Consultant(Technical)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning Consultant(Technical)forSanitaryLandfill EngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forDrainage SystemPlanning Consultant(Technical)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign OPERATORS Operator(Technical)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Management)forSewer NetworkOperation Operator(Technical)forSewage Treatmentplant Operator(Management)forSewage TreatmentPlant Operator(Technical)forSludgeTreatment Facility Operator(Management)forSludge TreatmentFacility Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposalSite Operation Operator(Management)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation TOTAL Supplyof Eligibles 321 129 1,378 3,000 3,000 ShortTerm Demand 314 200 1,700 3,750 3,750 Delta Note

7 Sufficient (71) Insufficient (322) Insufficient (750) Insufficient (750) Insufficient

143 115

108 7 48

35 Sufficient 60 Sufficient Insufficient 23 Sufficient 35 Sufficient (41) Insufficient 4 Sufficient

131 105 67 54

108 70 108 50

11 11 11 11 100 100 200 200 9,086

20 10 20 10 80 40 300 150 10,843

(9) Insufficient 1 Sufficient (9) Insufficient 1 Sufficient 20 Sufficient 60 Sufficient (100) Insufficient 50 Sufficient (1,756)

52

SanitationTrainingandCapacityStudy

TABLE92.EstimatedSupplyofIndividualsfromthePotentialGroup Technical Level Senior JobTitles (TechnicalOnly) Consultant(Technical)forWastewater SystemPlanning Consultant(Technical)forSolidWaste SystemPlanning Consultant(Technical)forDrainage SystemPlanning Facilitator(Technical)forSanitation DevelopmentPlanning Consultant(Technical)forSewerage SystemEngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacilityEngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forSanitary LandfillEngineeringDesign Consultant(Technical)forDrainage SystemEngineeringDesign Operator(Technical)forSewerNetwork Operation Operator(Technical)forSewage Treatmentplant Operator(Technical)forSludge TreatmentFacility Operator(Technical)forFinalDisposal SiteOperation EntryLevel TOTAL Facilitator(Technical)forCommunal SanitationSystemImplementation Potential Individuals 99 MediumTerm Demand Note

324 Insufficient

MidLevel

402

209 Insufficient 264

620

1,280 Insufficient

Junior

2,277 372 248 4,018

3,750 Insufficient

5,827 Insufficient

53

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ATTACHMENT6

LISTOFCORECOMPETENCIES: FACILITATOR(POLICY)FORSANITATIONDEVELOPMENTPLANNING
UnitsofCompetency 1.0 Comprehendgeneral characteristicsofthe area 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ElementsofCompetency Evaluateinformationonphysical conditionsofthearea Evaluateinformationon demographiccharacteristics Evaluateinformationonlanduse characteristic Evaluateinformationonsocio economiccondition Evaluateinformationonexisting infrastructure NeedtoKnowCriteria Basicsanitationissues Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology, geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.populationdensity, growthrate,genderdistribution, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,developmenttrends, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

2.0

Assesssanitation conditionsofthe communities

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Assesscommunitysanitation behavior Assessaccessofcommunitiesto safewatersources Assessaccessofcommunitiesto sanitationfacilities Assesslevelofcleanlinessof communities Assessenvironmentalhealthrisksof communities

Basicunderstandingofcommunitysanitation behaviorandhealthissues Principlesofcommunitysanitationcondition survey Sanitationindicatorsforhouseholdslevel Surveydatacollectionandanalysistechniques Assessingandsummarizingofcommunity sanitationcondition PPSPconceptandapproaches FormatofEnvironmentalHealthRisk Assessment(EHRA)reportasguidedbyPPSP RelationofEHRAwithSanitationWhiteBook andCSS. Basicunderstandingofsanitationissues,atthe communityandcitylevels Publichealthissuesrelatedtosanitation condition Componentsofsanitationprofile Principlesofsanitationprofilemapping Typeandcharacteristicsofsanitationservices Datacollectionandanalysistechniques PPSPconceptandapproaches FormatoftheSanitationWhiteBookasguided byPPSP. RelationbetweenSanitationWhiteBookwith EHRAandCSS. Basicsanitationissues Principlesofpredictionmethodologiesfor demographyandlandusedevelopment Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology,

3.0

Preparesanitation profileofthearea

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Evaluateinformationonavailable sanitationservices Evaluateinformationonsanitation institutionalaspect Evaluateinformationonsanitation regulationandpolicyaspect Evaluateinformationon involvementofsanitation stakeholders Evaluateinformationonsanitation financing Identifyissuesandopportunitiesin sanitationdevelopment Evaluateinformationonfuture physicalconditionsofthearea Evaluateinformationonfuture demographiccharacteristics Evaluateinformationonfuture landusecharacteristic Evaluateinformationonfuture

3.5 3.6 4.0 Comprehend projectionsonfuture characteristicsofthe area 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

61

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socioeconomicconditions 4.5 Evaluateinformationonfuture infrastructure 5.0 Formulatebasic frameworkfor sanitation developmentinthe area 5.1 5.2 Formulatethedesiredstateof sanitationconditions Formulatetasksandfunctionsfor developmentofthesanitation sector Identifystrategicissuesofsanitation developmentinthearea Determinescopeofsanitation developmentinthearea geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.population,growthrate, gender, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,trendofdevelopments, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

Componentsofcity/districtspatialplan Basicsanitationissues Governmentpoliciesonsanitation development Componentsofsanitationprofile,i.e. infrastructure(services),institutional, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesectorinvolvement,funding National,provincial,andcity/districtmedium andlongtermstrategicdevelopmentplanning PPSPconceptandapproaches Componentsofcity/districtsanitation strategicplans Basicprinciplesinmakingvisionandmission statements Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin sanitationdevelopment FormatoftheCSSdocumentasguidedbyPPSP RelationbetweenCSSwithSanitationWhite BookandEHRA. Basicsanitationissues Governmentpoliciesonsanitation development,includingthoserelatedtothe basicframework Componentsofsanitationprofile,i.e. infrastructure(services),institutional, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesectorinvolvement,funding City/districtmediumandlongtermstrategic developmentplanning Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin sanitationdevelopment Typeandcharacteristicsofsanitationservices PPSPconceptandapproaches UnderstandingEHRAdocumentandSanitation WhiteBook Zoningofsanitationservices Accesstosanitationservices FormatoftheCSSdocumentasguidedbyPPSP RelationbetweenCSSwithSanitationWhite Book,EHRA,andsanitationdevelopment actionplans Basicsanitationissues Principlesofprogramplanning Governmentpoliciesonsanitation development,includingthoserelatedtoits basicframeworkanddirection.

5.3 5.4

6.0

Formulatedirection forsanitation development

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Determinetimeframefor developmentofsanitationservices Determinetargetsforaccessto sanitationservices Determinecriteriaforzoningof sanitationservices Determinecriteriaforselectionof typeofsanitationservicestobe developed

7.0

Preparegeneral proposalfor sanitation development programs

7.1

Preparegeneralproposalfor sanitationinfrastructure developmentprograms Preparegeneralproposalfor sanitationinstitutionalcapacity buildingprograms

7.2

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7.3 Preparegeneralproposalfor sanitationregulationandpolicy developmentprograms Preparegeneralproposalforpublic participationimprovement programs Preparegeneralproposalforprivate sectorimprovementprograms Preparegeneralproposalfor improvementoffundingmechanism Componentsofsanitationprofile,i.e. infrastructure(services),institutional, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesectorinvolvement,funding Understandingofcity/districtdevelopment planningprocess Principlesofsanitationprogramplanning, coveringinfrastructure,institutionalcapacity, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesector,andfundingissues PPSPconceptandapproaches FormatoftheCSSdocumentasguidedbyPPSP Contentandformatofageneralproposalfor sanitationprograms RelationbetweenCSSwithSanitationWhite Book,EHRA,andsanitationdevelopment actionplans Basicsanitationissues PPSPconceptandapproaches Understandingofcity/districtdevelopment planningprocess Decisionmakingprocessofsanitation developmentproposals Fundingmechanismforsanitation developmentprograms Involvementofsanitationdevelopment stakeholders PreparationofSanitationDevelopment ProgramMemorandum Principlesofmonitoringandevaluationfor sanitationdevelopment Basicsanitationissues PPSPconceptandapproaches Sanitationstakeholdersatthenational, provincial,andlocal/districtlevels Buyinmethodsandtactics Assessmenttechniqueforinstitutionaland individualcapacity Programandprojectmanagement Managinggroupdynamics Organizingworkshops,meetings,trainings,and discussions Trainingandcoachingtechnique Effectivecommunicationandpresentation skills Informationanddatadocumentation Basicsanitationissues PPSPconceptandapproaches Principlesandmethodsofparticipatory process Buyinmethodsandtactics Facilitationprinciples,methods,and techniques

7.4

7.5 7.6

8.0

Prepare implementation conceptfor sanitation development

8.1 8.2

Recommendprioritizationof sanitationdevelopmentprograms Prepareimplementationschedule forsanitationdevelopment programs Definetasksandresponsibilitiesof programimplementors Developconceptforsanitation developmentprogramfunding Developmonitoringandevaluation conceptforsanitationdevelopment implementation

8.3 8.4 8.5

9.0

Developstrategic partnerships

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Identifyandassesscapacityof relevantparties Improveawarenessandknowledge ofrelevantparties Developroleandresponsibilitiesof relevantparties Consolidateworkplanofrelevant parties Developcommunicationchannels amongrelevantparties

10.0 Facilitate participatory

10.1 Explainparticipatoryprocessand objectives 10.2 Facilitatediscussionsandmeetings 10.3 Provideinputstoparticipatory process 10.4 Monitorandevaluateparticipatory process

63

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10.5 Summarizeresultsofparticipatory process Adultlearningprinciplesanddesign Managinggroupdynamics Organizingworkshops,meetings,trainings,and discussions Trainingandcoachingtechnique Effectivecommunicationandpresentation skills Monitoringandevaluationtechniquesofthe process Informationanddatadocumentation

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ATTACHMENT7

LISTOFCORECOMPETENCIES: FACILITATOR(POLICY)FORSANITATIONDEVELOPMENTPLANNING
UnitsofCompetency 1.0 Comprehendgeneral characteristicsofthe area 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ElementsofCompetency Evaluateinformationonphysical conditionsofthearea Evaluateinformationon demographiccharacteristics Evaluateinformationonlanduse characteristic Evaluateinformationonsocio economiccondition Evaluateinformationonexisting infrastructure NeedtoKnowCriteria Basicsanitationissues Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology, geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.populationdensity, growthrate,genderdistribution, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,developmenttrends, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

2.0

Assesssanitation conditionsofthe communities

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Assesscommunitysanitation behavior Assessaccessofcommunitiesto safewatersources Assessaccessofcommunitiesto sanitationfacilities Assesslevelofcleanlinessof communities Assessenvironmentalhealthrisksof communities

Basicunderstandingofcommunitysanitation behaviorandhealthissues Principlesofcommunitysanitationcondition survey Sanitationindicatorsforhouseholdslevel Surveydatacollectionandanalysistechniques Assessingandsummarizingofcommunity sanitationcondition PPSPconceptandapproaches FormatofEnvironmentalHealthRisk Assessment(EHRA)reportasguidedbyPPSP RelationofEHRAwithSanitationWhiteBook andCSS. Basicunderstandingofsanitationissues,at thecommunityandcitylevels Publichealthissuesrelatedtosanitation condition Componentsofsanitationprofile Principlesofsanitationprofilemapping Typeandcharacteristicsofsanitationservices Datacollectionandanalysistechniques PPSPconceptandapproaches FormatoftheSanitationWhiteBookas guidedbyPPSP. RelationbetweenSanitationWhiteBookwith EHRAandCSS. Basicsanitationissues Principlesofpredictionmethodologiesfor demographyandlandusedevelopment Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology,

3.0

Preparesanitation profileofthearea

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Evaluateinformationonavailable sanitationservices Evaluateinformationonsanitation institutionalaspect Evaluateinformationonsanitation regulationandpolicyaspect Evaluateinformationon involvementofsanitation stakeholders Evaluateinformationonsanitation financing Identifyissuesandopportunitiesin sanitationdevelopment Evaluateinformationonfuture physicalconditionsofthearea Evaluateinformationonfuture demographiccharacteristics Evaluateinformationonfuture landusecharacteristic Evaluateinformationonfuture

3.5 3.6 4.0 Comprehend projectionsonfuture characteristicsofthe area 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

71

Attachment7

socioeconomicconditions 4.5 Evaluateinformationonfuture infrastructure 5.0 Formulatebasic frameworkfor sanitation developmentinthe area 5.1 5.2 Formulatethedesiredstateof sanitationconditions Formulatetasksandfunctionsfor developmentofthesanitation sector Identifystrategicissuesofsanitation developmentinthearea Determinescopeofsanitation developmentinthearea geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.population,growth rate,gender, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,trendofdevelopments, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

Componentsofcity/districtspatialplan Basicsanitationissues Governmentpoliciesonsanitation development Componentsofsanitationprofile,i.e. infrastructure(services),institutional, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesectorinvolvement,funding National,provincial,andcity/district mediumandlongtermstrategic developmentplanning PPSPconceptandapproaches Componentsofcity/districtsanitation strategicplans Basicprinciplesinmakingvisionandmission statements Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin sanitationdevelopment FormatoftheCSSdocumentasguidedby PPSP RelationbetweenCSSwithSanitationWhite BookandEHRA. Basicsanitationissues Governmentpoliciesonsanitation development,includingthoserelatedtothe basicframework Componentsofsanitationprofile,i.e. infrastructure(services),institutional, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesectorinvolvement,funding City/districtmediumandlongtermstrategic developmentplanning Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin sanitationdevelopment Typeandcharacteristicsofsanitationservices PPSPconceptandapproaches UnderstandingEHRAdocumentand SanitationWhiteBook Zoningofsanitationservices Accesstosanitationservices FormatoftheCSSdocumentasguidedby PPSP RelationbetweenCSSwithSanitationWhite Book,EHRA,andsanitationdevelopment actionplans Basicsanitationissues Principlesofprogramplanning Governmentpoliciesonsanitation development,includingthoserelatedtoits

5.3 5.4

6.0 Formulatedirection forsanitation development 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Determinetimeframefor developmentofsanitationservices Determinetargetsforaccessto sanitationservices Determinecriteriaforzoningof sanitationservices Determinecriteriaforselectionof typeofsanitationservicestobe developed

7.0

Preparegeneral proposalfor sanitation development

7.1

Preparegeneralproposalfor sanitationinfrastructure developmentprograms Preparegeneralproposalfor

7.2

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programs 7.3 sanitationinstitutionalcapacity buildingprograms Preparegeneralproposalfor sanitationregulationandpolicy developmentprograms Preparegeneralproposalforpublic participationimprovement programs Preparegeneralproposalforprivate sectorimprovementprograms Preparegeneralproposalfor improvementoffundingmechanism basicframeworkanddirection. Componentsofsanitationprofile,i.e. infrastructure(services),institutional, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesectorinvolvement,funding Understandingofcity/districtdevelopment planningprocess Principlesofsanitationprogramplanning, coveringinfrastructure,institutionalcapacity, regulationandpolicy,publicparticipation, privatesector,andfundingissues PPSPconceptandapproaches FormatoftheCSSdocumentasguidedby PPSP Contentandformatofageneralproposalfor sanitationprograms RelationbetweenCSSwithSanitationWhite Book,EHRA,andsanitationdevelopment actionplans Basicsanitationissues PPSPconceptandapproaches Understandingofcity/districtdevelopment planningprocess Decisionmakingprocessofsanitation developmentproposals Fundingmechanismforsanitation developmentprograms Involvementofsanitationdevelopment stakeholders PreparationofSanitationDevelopment ProgramMemorandum Principlesofmonitoringandevaluationfor sanitationdevelopment Basicsanitationissues PPSPconceptandapproaches Sanitationstakeholdersatthenational, provincial,andlocal/districtlevels Buyinmethodsandtactics Assessmenttechniqueforinstitutionaland individualcapacity Programandprojectmanagement Managinggroupdynamics Organizingworkshops,meetings,trainings, anddiscussions Trainingandcoachingtechnique Effectivecommunicationandpresentation skills Informationanddatadocumentation Basicsanitationissues PPSPconceptandapproaches Principlesandmethodsofparticipatory process Buyinmethodsandtactics Facilitationprinciples,methods,and techniques

7.4

7.5 7.6

8.0

Prepare implementation conceptfor sanitation development

8.1 8.2

Recommendprioritizationof sanitationdevelopmentprograms Prepareimplementationschedule forsanitationdevelopment programs Definetasksandresponsibilitiesof programimplementors Developconceptforsanitation developmentprogramfunding Developmonitoringandevaluation conceptforsanitationdevelopment implementation

8.3 8.4 8.5

9.0

Developstrategic partnerships

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Identifyandassesscapacityof relevantparties Improveawarenessandknowledge ofrelevantparties Developroleandresponsibilitiesof relevantparties Consolidateworkplanofrelevant parties Developcommunicationchannels amongrelevantparties

10.0 Facilitate participatory

10.1 Explainparticipatoryprocessand objectives 10.2 Facilitatediscussionsandmeetings 10.3 Provideinputstoparticipatory process 10.4 Monitorandevaluateparticipatory process

73

Attachment7

10.5 Summarizeresultsofparticipatory process Adultlearningprinciplesanddesign Managinggroupdynamics Organizingworkshops,meetings,trainings, anddiscussions Trainingandcoachingtechnique Effectivecommunicationandpresentation skills Monitoringandevaluationtechniquesofthe process Informationanddatadocumentation

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ATTACHMENT8

LISTOFCORECOMPETENCIES: FACILITATOR(TECHNICAL)FORCOMMUNALSANITATION IMPLEMENTATION


UnitsofCompetency 1.0 Assessgeneral characteristicsofthe community 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ElementsofCompetency Assessthephysicalconditionsofthe area Assessdemographiccharacteristics Assesslandusecharacteristic Assesssocioeconomiccondition Assessavailabilityandconditionof existinginfrastructure NeedtoKnowCriteria Basicsanitationissues Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology, geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.populationdensity, growthrate,genderdistribution, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,developmenttrends, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

2.0

Assesssanitation conditionsofthe community

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Assesscommunitysanitation behavior Assessaccessofcommunitiesto safewatersources Assessaccessofcommunitiesto sanitationfacilities Assesslevelofcleanlinessof communities Assessenvironmentalhealthrisksof communities Determinetypeandcapacityof communalsanitationsystem Determinelocationforcommunal sanitationsystem Preparebasicdesignforcommunal sanitationsystem Preparestrategytomanage communalsanitationsystem

Basicsanitationbehaviorandhealthissues Principlesofcommunitysanitationcondition survey Sanitationindicatorsforhouseholdslevel Surveydatacollectionandanalysistechniques Analysistechniquestodeterminecommunity sanitationcondition Formatofthereport

3.0

Developconceptual designforcommunal sanitationsystem

3.1

Basicwastewatermanagementsystemand sanitation Basicunderstandingofcommunitysanitation behaviorandhealthissues Governmentpoliciesandregulationon sanitationandwastewatermanagement Componentsofcommunalsanitationsystem, itstypeandcharacteristics Wastewatercharacteristics Estimationofwastewatergenerationloads Criteriaforlocationselectionofcommunal sanitationfacilities Selectioncriteriafortypesofcommunal sanitationfacilities Basicengineeringofcommunalsanitation facilities Operationofcommunalsanitationfacilities Typesandmodelofsharedsanitationfacility Designengineeringofsharedsanitation facility Plumbingandpumping Basictechnicaldrawingsofsharedsanitation

3.2 3.3 3.4

4.0

Developdesignfor sharedsanitation facility

4.1 4.2 4.3

Selecttypesandmodelofshared sanitationfacility Calculatedimensionsofshared sanitationfacility Preparelayoutandtechnical

81

Attachment8

drawingsofthesharedsanitation facility 4.4 Preparetechnicaldescriptionand specificationsfortheshared sanitationfacility Prepareoperatingproceduresfor smallscalesewersystem Estimateconstructionand operationalcostsfortheshared sanitationfacility Selecttypesandmodelofsmall scalesewersystem Calculatedimensionsforsmallscale sewersystem Preparelayoutandtechnical drawingsforsmallscalesewer system Preparetechnicaldescriptionand specificationsforsmallscalesewer system Prepareoperatingproceduresfor smallscalesewersystem Estimateconstructionand operationscostforthesmallscale sewersystem Determinetypeandmodelfor communalwastewatertreatment facility Calculatedimensionsforcommunal treatmentfacility Preparelayoutandtechnical drawingsforcommunalwastewater treatmentfacility Preparetechnicaldescriptionand specificationsforcommunal wastewatertreatmentfacility Prepareoperatingproceduresfor communalwastewatertreatment facility Estimateconstructionand operationscostforcommunal wastewatertreatmentfacility Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesandregulationon wastewatermanagement,construction,and environmental Wastewatercharacteristics Basichydraulics Plumbingandpumping Componentsofsewersystem Typesandcharacteristicsofsewersystem Designengineeringofsewersystem Basictechnicaldrawingsofsewersystem Operationandmaintenanceofshared sanitationfacility Operationandmaintenanceofsewersystem ConstructionandO&Mcostestimation Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesandregulationon wastewatermanagement,construction,and environmentalmanagement Wastewatercharacteristics Regulationsonwastewatertreatment,e.g. locationrestrictionsandeffluentstandards Componentsofsimplewastewatertreatment facility Basicengineeringofsimplewastewater treatmentfacility Typesandcharacteristicsofwastewater treatmentunits Determinationoftreatmentplantefficiency andcapacity Principlesofsimplewastewatertreatment facilitydesign Basicoperationandmaintenanceofsimple wastewatertreatmentfacility ConstructionandO&Mcostestimation Basicsanitationissues Sanitationstakeholdersatthelocal/district levels Buyinmethodsandtactics Assessmenttechniqueforinstitutionaland individualcapacity Programandprojectmanagement Managinggroupdynamics facility Operationandmaintenanceofshared sanitationfacility ConstructionandO&Mcostestimation

4.5 4.6

5.0

Developdesignfor smallscalesewer system

5.1 5.2 5.3

5.4

5.5 5.6

6.0

Developdesignfor communal wastewater treatmentfacility

6.1

6.2 6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

7.0

Developstrategic

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Identifyandassesscapacityof relevantparties Improveawarenessandknowledge ofrelevantparties Developroleandresponsibilitiesof relevantparties Consolidateworkplanofrelevant parties

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7.5 Developcommunicationchannels amongrelevantparties 8.0 Facilitate participatoryprocess 8.1 Explainparticipatoryprocessand objectives 8.2 Facilitatediscussionsandmeetings 8.3 Provideinputstoparticipatory process 8.4 Monitorandevaluateparticipatory process 8.5 Summarizeresultsofparticipatory process Organizingworkshops,meetings,trainings, anddiscussions Trainingandcoachingtechniques Effectivecommunicationandpresentation skills Informationanddatadocumentation Basicsanitationissues Principlesandmethodsofparticipatory process Buyinmethodsandtactics Facilitationprinciples,methods,and techniques Adultlearningprinciplesanddesign Managinggroupdynamics Organizingworkshops,meetings,trainings, anddiscussions Trainingandcoachingtechniques Effectivecommunicationandpresentation skills Monitoringandevaluationtechniquesofthe process Informationanddatadocumentation

83

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ATTACHMENT9

LISTOFCORECOMPETENCIES: CONSULTANT(TECHNICAL)FORWASTEWATERSYSTEMPLANNING
UnitsofCompetency 1.0 Comprehendgeneral characteristicsofthe area 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ElementsofCompetency Evaluateinformationonphysical conditionsofthearea Evaluateinformationon demographiccharacteristics Evaluateinformationonlanduse characteristic Evaluateinformationonsocio economiccondition Evaluateinformationonexisting infrastructure NeedtoKnowCriteria Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology, geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.populationdensity, growthrate,genderdistribution, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,developmenttrends, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

2.0

Preparewastewater managementsystem profileofthearea

2.1

Evaluateinformationoncommunity accesstowastewatermanagement facilities Evaluateinformationonavailable wastewatermanagementservices Evaluateinformationonwastewater managementinstitutionalaspect Evaluateinformationonwastewater managementregulationandpolicy aspect Evaluateinformationonstakeholder involvementinwastewater management Evaluateinformationonwastewater managementfinancing Identifyissuesandopportunitiesin wastewatermanagementsystem improvement Identifytargetfordemand assessment Definescopeandpreparethe demandassessment Assesstheconditionandaccessto basichealthandwastewater services Assessthelevelofdemandand priorityofthecommunitytowards wastewatermanagementservice Assessthewillingnesstopayofthe communityforwastewater managementservice

Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Publichealthissuesrelatedtosanitation condition Componentsofwastewatermanagement profile Principlesofwastewatermanagementprofile mapping Typeandcharacteristicsofwastewater managementservices Datacollectionandanalysistechniques

2.2 2.3 2.4

2.5

2.6 2.7

3.0

Assessdemandfor wastewater managementsystem improvement

3.1 3.2 3.3

Basicwastewatermanagementsystemand sanitation Basicunderstandingofcommunitysanitation behaviorandhealthissues Typeandcharacteristicsofwastewater managementservices Principles,methods,andtechniquesofa demandassessmentsurvey,e.g.theReal DemandSurvey(RDS)forsanitationservices Sanitationindicatorsforhouseholdslevel Surveydatacollectionandanalysistechniques Analysistechniquesforlevelofdemandand willingnesstopay,forsanitationservices. Basicwastewatermanagementsystem

3.4

3.5

4.0 Comprehend projectionsonfuture

4.1 Evaluateinformationonfuture physicalconditionsofthearea

91

Attachment9

characteristicsofthe area 4.2 Evaluateinformationonfuture demographiccharacteristics 4.3 Evaluateinformationonfuture landusecharacteristic 4.4 Evaluateinformationonfuture socioeconomicconditions 4.5 Evaluateinformationonfuture infrastructure Principlesofpredictionmethodologiesfor demographyandlandusedevelopment Relationbetweeninformationonareas generalcharacteristicswithsanitation condition,especiallycharacteristicsof: Physicalconditions,i.e.topography, climate,waterbodies,geomorphology, geology,hydrology, Demography,i.e.population,growthrate, gender, Landuse,i.e.landusetypes, composition,trendofdevelopments, Socioeconomiccondition;average income,jobsandlivelihoods, Existinginfrastructure;roadnetwork, electricity,watersupply.

Componentsofcity/districtspatialplan Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonsanitationand wastewatermanagementdevelopment PPSPconceptandapproaches National,provincial,andcity/districtmedium andlongtermstrategicdevelopmentplanning, aswellastheCity/DistrictSanitationStrategy Componentsofwastewatermanagement profile,i.e.infrastructure(services), institutional,regulationandpolicy,public participation,privatesectorinvolvement, funding Basicprinciplesofdevelopingvisionand missionstatements Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin wastewatermanagementdevelopment Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonsanitationand wastewatermanagementdevelopment Componentsofwastewatermanagement system,i.e.infrastructure(services), institutional,regulationandpolicy,public participation,privatesectorinvolvement, funding City/districtmediumandlongtermstrategic developmentplanning Spatialplans/zoningregulations Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin wastewatermanagement Typeandcharacteristicsofwastewater managementservices Principlesandtechniquesofzoningfor wastewatermanagementservices Wastewatermanagementindicators Accesstowastewatermanagementservices Wastewatercharacteristics Estimationofwastewatergenerationloads Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonsanitationand wastewatermanagementdevelopment Componentsofwastewatermanagement

5.0 Formulatebasic frameworkfor wastewatersystem development

5.1 Formulatedesiredstateof wastewatermanagement conditions 5.2 Formulatetasksandfunctionsfor developmentofwastewater managementsystem 5.3 Identifystrategicissuesof wastewatermanagement developmentinthearea 5.4 Determinescopeofwastewater managementdevelopmentinthe area

6.0 Formulatedirection forwastewater systemdevelopment

6.1 Determinetimeframefor developmentofwastewater managementsystem 6.2 Determinetargetsforaccessto wastewatermanagementservices 6.3 Determinecriteriaforzoningof wastewatermanagementservices 6.4 Determinecriteriatoselection appropriatetypeofwastewater managementservices 6.5 Estimatequalityandquantityof wastewatertobemanagedby system

7.0 Determinethemost appropriate wastewatersystem

7.1 Createzonationforwastewater managementservices 7.2 Selectmostappropriatetypeof wastewatermanagementservice

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7.3 Preparedesigncriteriaforeach componentofwastewater managementservice 7.4 Definesupportingaspectsthatneed tobedeveloped 8.0 Developconceptual designfor wastewater treatmentfacility 8.1 Determinetreatmentplantcapacity andperformance 8.2 Determinetreatmentplantlocation 8.3 Preparebasicdesignfortreatment plant 8.4 Prepareoperationstrategyfor treatmentplant 9.0 Developconceptual designforsewer network 9.1 Determinesewercapacityand criteria 9.2 Preparebasicdesignforthesewer network 9.3 Determinelocationforsewer network 9.4 Prepareoperationstrategyfor sewernetwork 10.0 Developconceptual designforsludge handlingcomponent 10.1 Determinesludgehandlingcapacity andperformance 10.2 Determinelocationforsludge handlingfacility 10.3 Calculatenumberofsludge collectionvehiclesneeded 10.4 Preparebasicdesignforthesludge treatmentfacility 10.5 Prepareoperationstrategyfor sludgetreatmentfacility system,i.e.infrastructure(services), institutional,regulationandpolicy,public participation,privatesectorinvolvement, funding Typesandnatureofstrategicissuesin wastewatermanagement Typeandcharacteristicsofwastewater managementservices Principlesandtechniquesofzoningfor wastewatermanagementservices Selectioncriteriafortypesofwastewater managementservices Basicengineeringofwastewatermanagement services Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonwastewater management Wastewatercharacteristics Regulationsonwastewatertreatment,e.g. locationrestrictionsandeffluentstandards Componentsofwastewatertreatmentsystem Basicengineeringofwastewatertreatment facility Typesandcharacteristicsofwastewater treatmentunits Determinationoftreatmentplantefficiency andcapacity Principlesofwastewatertreatmentfacility design Basicoperationandmaintenanceof wastewatertreatmentfacility Constructionandoperationalcostestimation Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonwastewater management Wastewatercharacteristics Spatialplans/zoningregulations Basichydraulics Componentsofsewersystem Typesandcharacteristicsofsewersystem Basicengineeringofsewersystem Principlesofsewersystemdesign Basicoperationandmaintenanceofsewer system Constructionandoperationalcostestimation Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonwastewater management Regulationsonsludgehandling Wastewaterandsludgecharacteristics Componentsofsludgemanagement Sludgecollectionsystem Typesandcharacteristicsofsludgecollection trucks Basicengineeringofsludgetreatmentfacility Typesandcharacteristicsofsludgetreatment

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units 11.0 Developconceptual designforcommunal sanitationfacility 11.1 Determinetypeandcapacityof communalsanitationfacility 11.2 Determinelocationforcommunal sanitationfacility 11.3 Preparebasicdesignforcommunal sanitationfacility 11.4 Preparestrategytomanage communalsanitationfacility 12.0 Prepare implementation conceptfor wastewater managementsystem development programs 12.1 Preparegeneralproposalfor wastewaterinfrastructure developmentprograms 12.2 Preparegeneralproposalfor wastewatermanagement institutionalcapacitybuilding programs 12.3 Preparegeneralproposalfor wastewaterregulationandpolicy developmentprograms 12.4 Preparegeneralproposalforpublic participationimprovement programsinwastewater managementsector 12.5 Preparegeneralproposalforprivate sectorimprovementprogramsin wastewatermanagementsector Determinationofsludgetreatmentplant efficiencyandcapacity Principlesofsludgetreatmentfacilitydesign Basicoperationandmaintenanceofsludge treatmentfacility Constructionandoperationalcostestimation Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Governmentpoliciesonwastewater management Wastewatercharacteristics Regulationsoncommunalsanitationfacility, e.g.locationrestrictionandeffluentstandards Principlesofparticipatoryplanningprocess Componentsofcommunalsanitationfacility Basicengineeringofwastewatertreatment facility Typesandcharacteristicsofcommunal sanitationfacility Determinationoftreatmentplantefficiency andcapacity Principlesofcommunalsanitationfacility design Basicoperationandmaintenanceofcommunal sanitationfacility Constructionandoperationalcostestimation Basicwastewatermanagementsystem Principlesofprogramplanning Governmentpoliciesonwastewater managementsystemdevelopment,including thoserelatedtothebasicframeworkand direction. Componentsofwastewatermanagement system,i.e.infrastructure(services), institutional,regulationandpolicy,public participation,privatesectorinvolvement, funding Understandingofcity/districtdevelopment planningprocess Principlesofwastewatermanagementsystem planning,coveringinfrastructure,institutional capacity,regulationandpolicy,public participation,privatesector,andfundingissues PPSPconceptandapproaches,especially regardingtoCSS Contentandformatofageneralproposalfor wastewaterdevelopmentprograms

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LISTOFUNIVERSITIESWITHENVIRONMENTALENGINEERING
No. University City Degree Acceptance Graduate Capacity Faculty

S2PROGRAM 1. 2. 3. Total S1PROGRAM 1. 2. UniversitasIndonesia InstitutTeknologi Bandung InstitutTeknologiSepuluh Nopember UniversitasDiponegoro UniversitasGajahMada Jakarta Bandung S1 S1 50 65 26 15 50 CivilEngineering 100 Civiland Environmental Engineering 110 CivilEngineering andPlanning 75 Engineering 93 Facultyof Geographyand Environmental Science 76 Engineering 40 Engineering 60 Engineering 25 CivilEngineering 150 CivilEngineering andPlanning 45 AppliedScience 92 MineralTechnology 182 Environmental Engineering 65 Engineering 40 Environmental Engineering 50 FakultasTeknik 60 CivilEngineering andPlanning 46 CivilEngineering andPlanning InstitutTeknologi Bandung InstitutTeknologiSepuluh November InstitutTeknologiAdhi Tama Bandung Surabaya Surabaya S2 S2 S2 37 39 5 103 25 22 4 81 37 Environmental Engineering 39 Environmental Engineering 5 Environmental Engineering 51

3. 4. 5.

Surabaya Semarang Yogyakarta

S1 S1 S1

110 66 87

60 63 0

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

UniversitasMulawarman UniversitasAndalas UniversitasLambung Mangkurat UniversitasSriwijaya UniversitasIslam Indonesia InstitutSains&Teknologi AKPRIND UniversitasPembangunan NasionalVeteran SekolahTinggiTeknik Lingkungan'Yayasan LingkunganHidup' UniversitasIslamSultan Agung UniversitasKristen Surakarta UniversitasWinayaMukti InstitutTeknologi Nasional UniversitasKebangsaan

Samarinda Padang Banjarmasin Palembang Yogyakarta Yogyakarta Yogyakarta Yogyakarta

S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1

55 36 53 25 55 10 93 90

0 42 0 25 49 5 10 150

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Semarang Surakarta Sumedang Bandung Bandung

S1 S1 S1 S1 S1

5 4 24 41 21

1 6 16 27 9

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19. 20. UniversitasPasundan UniversitasTrisakti Bandung Jakarta S1 S1 33 29 19 28 52 Engineering 75 Landscape Architectureand Environmental Engineering 51 Engineering 57 Engineering 66 Engineering 27 Engineering 150 CivilEngineering andEnvironmental Engineering 64 CivilEngineering andPlanning 40 Environmental Scienceand Technology 0 Environmental Engineering 45 Environmental Engineering 73 Environmental Engineering 32 Environmental Engineering 96 Environmental Engineering 60 Environmental Engineering 60 Environmental Engineering 55 Environmental Engineering 93 Environmental Engineering 0 Environmental Engineering 0 Environmental Engineering& Studies 25 Environmental Engineering 70 Environmental Engineering 0 Environmental Engineering 41 Environmental Engineering 15 Environmental Engineering

21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

UniversitasBatanghari UniversitasMalahayati UniversitasSatyaNegara UniversitasSahid SekolahTinggiTeknologi SaptaTaruna InstitutTeknologi Nasional UniversitasAirlangga

Jambi Bandar Lampung Jakarta Jakarta Jakarta

S1 S1 S1 S1 S1

20 24 9 14 20

11 7 14 95 5

26. 27.

Malang Surabaya

S1 S1

29 46

23 0

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

UniversitasRiau UniversitasTanjungpura, UniversitasSerambi Mekah InstitutTeknologiSains SekolahTinggiTeknologi BantenJaya SekolahTinggiTeknologi Nasional SekolahTinggiTeknik PelitaBangsa UniversitasPGRIAdi Buana UniversitasPembangunan NasionalVeteranJatim UniversitasCakrawala InstitutTeknologi Pembangunan InstitutTeknologiAdhi Tama SekolahTinggiTeknik Lingkungan SekolahTinggiTeknik Universitas Muhammadiyah UniversitasTeknologi Sulawesi

Pekanbaru Pontianak BandaAceh Bandung Serang Bandung Bekasi Surabaya Surabaya Madiun Surabaya

S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1

0 50 16 3 12 7 15 39 54 0 0

0 0 1 1 2 3 0 58 23 0 0

39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Surabaya Mataram Bima Kendari Makassar

S1 S1 S1 S1 S1

4 47 0 25 9

4 7 0 12 0

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44. 45. 46. 47. Total D3PROGRAM 1. 2. 3. Total UniversitasPandanaran AkademiTeknikTirta Wiyarta Politeknik Muhammadiyah Semarang Magelang Magelang D3 D3 D3 2 40 7 158 4 22 5 49 40 Engineering 65 Engineering 53 Environmental Engineering 31 UniversitasTeknologi SulawesiUtara SekolahTinggiTeknologi NusantaraIndonesia SekolahTinggiTeknologi Industri UniversitasSains& Teknologi Manado Makassar Padang Jayapura S1 S1 S1 S1 0 21 19 59 2,853 0 0 6 4 1,494 0 Environmental Engineering 93 Environmental Engineering 88 Environmental Engineering 66 Environmental Engineering 827

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StandarKompetensiKerjaNasionalIndonesia(SKKNI).TimLeaderKonsultanSupervisiSkalaBesarPadaPekerjaan Konstruksi.DepartemenPekerjaanUmum.Jakarta TimTeknisPembangunanSanitasi.2009.PercepatanPembangunanSanitasiPerkotaan(PPSP):UpayaMengejar Ketertinggalan.TimTeknisPembangunanSanitasi.Jakarta. TimTeknisPembangunanSanitasi.2010.PedomanPenyiapanKegiatanKelembagaandanIndikasiKegiatanPercepatan PembangunanSanitasiPermukimandiDaerah.TimTeknisPembangunanSanitasi.Jakarta. Ulleberg,Inger.2009.IncentiveStructuresasaCapacityDevelopmentStrategyinPublicServiceDelivery.International InstitutedforEducationalPlanning.Paris. WaterandSanitationProgram(WSP).2010.GenderinWaterandSanitation.WorldBank.Kenya SecondWater&SanitationforLowIncomeCommunitiesProject.BorrowersCompletionReport(Draft).Governmentof IndonesiaMinistryofHealthDirectorateGeneralforDiseaseControl&EnvironmentalHealth.Jakarta WaterandSanitationProgram(WSP),2011.LessonsinUrbanSanitationDevelopment:IndonesiaSanitationSector DevelopmentProgram20062010.WorldBank.Indonesia www.ampl.or.id www.jejaringampl.or.id www.sanitasi.or.id www.sanitasibersih.blogspot.com www.sanitasipermukiman.blogspot.com

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