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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING (IJCET), ISSN 0976INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER 6367(Print), ISSN 0976

6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)

ISSN 0976 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), pp. 102-107 IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI)


Prabakaran. G 1, Dr. Bhavani.R 2 and Kanimozhi.K 3 Assistant Professor , 2 Professor, 3 PG student Dept. of CSE, FEAT, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu, India ABSTRACT Steganography is an art of hiding the information in the cover such as a way that, it looks like simple cover, though it has hidden information. In this paper, we presented a two secret image hiding using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) technique. First applied SVD on cover image and adds singular value of diagonal component value () with secret image1 to get a SVD cover image. Both secret image2 and SVD cover image are decomposed into 8x8 matrix. Scrambling the secret image2 by using a key to get scrambled secret image. Extract DWT coefficients on both SVD cover image and scrambled secret image, then embedded by using image reverse fusion technique.We achieved good visual quality stego image with excellent PSNR values, provides high level security and more robustness. Keywords: DWT, SVD, Fusion Process, Statistical Parameters. 1. INTRODUCTION The amazing developments in the field of network communications during the past years have created a great requirement for secure image transmission over the Internet. The Internet is a public network and is not so can recover the message. The two methods can be combined by encrypting the message then hiding it using steganography, so even if the hidden message is discovered, its meaning can remain secret . Steganography is the science of hiding messages in a medium called cover object in such a way that the existence of the message is concealed. The cover object could be an audio file, image file or a video file. The message to be hidden called the payload. The payload could be plain text, audio, video or an image. The cover object along with the hidden message is known as the stego object or steganogram. Steganography is in contrast to cryptography where the existence of the hidden message is known, but the content is intentionally obscured.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

2. LITERATURE SURVEY Review of literature survey has been conducted on discrete wavelet transformation combined with singular value decomposition techniques for hiding information in digital color images. The powerful numerical analysis SVD and DWT transformation that is widely applied to digital image applications is first introduced. Ray-Shine Run et al., [1] has proposed reliable SVD-based image watermarking. It was solving the ambiguities situation and the false positive problem and he gets the best PSNR value. Ahmad A. Mohammad et al., [2] has proposed SVD-based watermarking algorithm for ownership protection. This proposed algorithm was more robust and solves the false-positive detection flaw in most SVD-based techniques. Bai Ying Lei et al., [3] has proposed a blind and robust audio watermarking technique combined with SVD, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and synchronization code technique achieves very low error probability rates. Veysel Aslantas et al., [4] has presented optimal robust image watermarking technique based on SVD using the differential evolution algorithm effectively to improve the quality of the watermarked image. Khasim T, et al., [5] has presented a dual transform technique for robust steganography for secret and secure communication. Ali Al-Ataby et al., [6] proposed a modified high capacity image steganography technique that depends on wavelet transform with acceptable levels of imperceptibility and distortion on the cover image with high levels of overall security. Sushil Kumar et al., [4] presented a multilayered secure, robust and high capacity image steganography algorithm. This algorithm achieved three layers of security, better in terms of imperceptibility, robustness and embedding capacity compared with corresponding algorithms based on DWT. Tanmay Bhattacharya et al., [8] proposed a DWT based steganographic technique. In the proposed method second image is embedded in the HL sub band of the cover image. The paper is organized as following sections. The steganography method is described in section3. Section4 introduced the proposed model with illustration of each phase. Testing and Result analysis is illustrated in section5. Conclusion discussed in section6. References are given in the last section. 3. METHODS USED FOR PROPOSED MODEL 3.1 Singular value decomposition Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is one of a number of effective numerical analysis tools used to analyze matrices. In SVD transformation, a matrix can be decomposed into three matrices that are the same size as the original matrix. Although SVD works for any n*n matrix A, and without loss of generality, our discussion will be limited for the n*n matrix. The SVD of the n*n matrix A is A= U VT (1)

Where, U and VR n*n are unitary, and R n*n is a diagonal matrix and the superscript T denotes matrix transposition. The SVD can be looked at from three mutually compatible points of view. On the one hand, it is a method for transforming correlated variables into a set of uncorrelated ones that better expose the original data items.


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

3.2 Discrete wavelet transform The wavelet transform has the ability of reconstructing, so there is no information loss and redundancy in the process of decomposition and reconstruction. Wavelets convert the image into a series of wavelets that can be stored more efficiently than pixel blocks. In numerical analysis and functional analysis, a DWT any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. Discrete wavelet transforms map data from the time domain to the wavelet domain. The result is a vector of the same size. Wavelet transforms are linear and they can be defined by matrices of dimension n X n if they are applied to inputs of size n. DWT is applied to discrete data sets and produce discrete outputs. 4. PROPOSED STEGANOGRAPHY SCHEME 4.1 Proposed steganography encoding process In non-blind steganography,embedding process first read one cover image and two secret images are secret image 1 and secret image 2. Apply singular value decomposition of the cover image and get components such as U, , VT. Multiply component with secret image 1 to get a SVD cover image. Both SVD cover image and secret image 2 are decomposing into 8x8 matrix. Scrambling the secret image 2 by using a key to get scrambled secret image SS. Perform DWT on both SVD cover image and scrambled secret image to get fused image. Take the inverse DWT on the fused to get a stego image. The decoding process is the reverse process of encoding process and the schematic diagram of the proposed embedding and decoding process is shown in figure 1 and 2.






Apply SVD


Decompose into 8x8 blocks


Decompose into 8x8 blocks

Decompose into 8x8 blocks

U VT Decompose into 8x8 blocks











Fig 1: Shows proposed encoding model (scrambled secret image-SS)

Fig 2: Shows proposed decoding model. (secret image1-W, scrambled secret image-SS)


International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME 5. TESTING AND RESULT ANALYSIS MATLAB is a numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. Created by Math Works. We implement the proposed method by using Matlab R2010a and 7.10 version. In this paper , we are embedding and extracting secret image through a standard encoding and decoding with SVD and DWT methods. We use an original cover image and both secret images of size (512x512 pixels). To retain the image quality and provide a stronger robustness and security of a two secret image hiding method, the quality metrics are further considered. The values of quality metrics not only reduces the image perceptibility but also enhances the robustness to resist attacks. The equations of the image quality metrics with corresponding formulas used in our study has been illustrated above table1.
Table 1: Shows the proposed quality metrics with its formulas. QUALITY METRICS FORMULAS 1 , ,

1.Mean Square Error (MSE)

2.Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) 3.Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC)



, ,

4. Structural Content (SC)

x, / x,










Fig 3: Shows (a) Cover Image (b) Secret Image 1 (c) SVD cover image (d ) Srambled secret Image (e) Cover Image DWT (f) Secret Image 2 DWT (g) Stego Image (h) extracted Secret Image 1 (i) recovered Secret Image 2.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

In our approach, we proposed a new method, and their experimental results are shown in the fig 3. Cover image ,secret image 1 and scramble secret image are shown in the corresponding figures 3(a), 3(b), 3(d). Next we applied SVD transform on cover image that correspondent result without any significant difference shown in the fig 3(a) and fig 3(c). DWT transform on fig 3(c) and fig (d) separately and obtained the DWT coefficients and fused the images. Take the inverse transformation on the fig 3(g) represents the stego images. By using SVD transform and extract component is shown in fig 3(h). The fig 3(h) shows the corresponding results of recovered secret image 1.We compare with the other existing method, our proposed algorithm calculated the quality metrics ratio values which gets better acceptable ratio that was shown in table 1. Table2. Shows the performance of quality metric factors. CI Home.jpg SVD Chilly.tiff SVD Home.jpg SVD Water lilies.jpg SVD SI 1 fruit.bmp DWT House.tiff DWT Bliss.bmp DWT Tree.tiff DWT SI 2 liliyr.jpg DWT Car.bmp DWT Winter.jpg DWT ST I Home IDWT Chilly IDWT home IDWT 0.3150 53.1477 1.0019 0.9962 0.6220 50.1932 0.9997 1.0005 0.17615 55.6724 0.9984 1.0032 MSE PSNR NCC SC

lavender.Jpg Water lilies DWT IDWT





(CI=Cover image ),(SI 1=secret image 1) (SI 2= secret image 2), (ST I= stego image),(MSE= Mean Square Error), (PSNR= Peak Signal To Noise Ratio),(NCC= Normalized Cross Correlation), (AD=Average Difference) , (SC=Structural Content) , (MD=Maximum Difference) ,(NAE=Normalized Absolute Error). 6. CONCLUSION In this paper, two secret image hiding method based on SVD and DWT technique was proposed. The quality of steganography scheme should satisfy the requirements of robustness and resist distortions due to common image manipulations such as image suppression, rotation, cropping and other attacks. In addition to this feature one important benefits are our technique, that shows the dual secret image steganography scheme with dual transformation. In this two secret image hiding method achieved high PSNR ratio values nearly 55dB and less MSE values. Future work will concentrate on perfecting the visual effect of the stego image and the more security and robustness against the various attacks.

International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

REFERENCES Ahmad A. Mohammad, Ali Alhaj, Sameer Shaltaf,(2008)An improved SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership Signal Processing Vol-88 pp: 2158 2180. [2] Ray-Shine Run, Shi-Jinn Horng, et al.,(2012) An improved SVD-based watermarking technique for copyright protection, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol-39, pp: 673 689. [3] BaiYingLei n, IngYannSoon,ZhenLi,(2011), Blind and robust audio watermarking schemes based on SVDDCT Signal Processing,Vol-91 ,pp:19731984. [4] Veysel Aslantas et al.,(2009) An optimal robust digital image watermarking based on SVD using the differential evolution algorithm Optics Communications, Vol-282, pp769777. [5] K B Shiva Kumar and Khasim T, K B Raja , (2011) Dual Transform Technique for Robust steganography, International conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Systems, pp. 173-178. [6] Ali Al-Ataby and Fawzi Al-Naima,(2010) A Modified High Capacity Image Steganography Technique Based on Wavelet Transform , International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol 7 (4) , pp . 1-7. [7] Mutoo S.K. and Sushil Kumar, (2011), A Multilayered Secure, Robust and High Capacity Image Steganographic Algorithm , World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal, Vol 6 , pp . 239-246 , 2011. [8] Tanmay Battacharya, Nilanjan Dey and Bhadra Chauduri S.R. (2012),A Session Based Multiple Image Hiding Technique using DWT and DCT, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol 38 (5), pp. 18-21. [9] Nagham Hamid, Abid Yahya ,R. Badlishah Ahmad and Osamah M. Al-Qershi, An Improved Robust and Secured Image Steganographic Scheme International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 22 - 33, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 6472. [10] P. Prasanth Babu, L.Rangaiah and D.Maruthi Kumar, Comparison and Improvement of Image Compression using Dct, Dwt & Huffman Encoding Techniques International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 54 - 60, ISSN Print: 0976 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 6375.


Prabakaran G holds the position of Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at Annamalai University. He is pursing his Image Steganography from Annamalai University. He authored over 25 papers on data embedding and steganalysis. Dr.Bhavani R holds the position of Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at
Annamalai University. She received her Image Processing from Annamalai University. She authored over 60 papers on Image processing and steganalysis.

Kanimozhi K, PG student, Department of Computer Science, Annamalai University.