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I – General Introduction 1. Overview
A few years ago, the goal for which Human Resources Management was created was to make it possible for any organization to meet its strategic goals by selecting, developing, maintaining, and effectively managing the human capital, being the most invaluable entity of the organization‟s three assets. It has been known for the human resources department to devise an interdisciplinary examination, understanding, and planning strategies of the human capital. However, the fierce international competition resulted from globalization, the worldwide emerging markets, and the technological advancement have created an urgent need for both private as well as public organizations to work out innovative and competitive management strategies consistent with the fast-pace changing marketplace where only the most adaptable, resilient, and customer-centered organizations can survive. In such an environment, the duties of the human resource leaders are no more just aligning the employees‟ performance with the organization‟s strategic objectives. Further, organizations have become in need of a Human Resources leader whose charismatic personality, well-rounded knowledge, and task-oriented performance would enable him\her to grasp the dynamic environment within which today‟s organizations operate: a know -how leader who can make the human capital takes part in the formulation and implementation of the Human Resource policies which stem from and influence the workplace environment.
2. Rationale The reasons behind selecting “Leadership in Human Resources Management” as the core subject of this paper have been motivated by both the value of the topic and academic motives. Leadership is a form of control which is not restricted to business world, for it has historically maintained unity and integrity within organizations and communities. Leadership is a rationale form of authority that any type of organization is in need of, be it political, social, or economic. Its value duels in its mission, which is serving through directive vision and concrete guidelines. In marketing, a number of practitioners have sensed the importance of leadership for the success of business. However, the fast and global socio-economic changes have obliged companies to revise their management and leadership strategies in order to survive in the world economy. Hence, rethinking the concept and practices of leadership in areas of Human Resources Management or Strategic Marketing Management has become a necessarily. This is partially why the topic of Leadership in Human Resources Management is brought in this paper.
One of the event‟s panel discussion addressed the issue of “Professional Growth through Volunteer Leadership. in general. and Human Resources Management. controversial concepts. Chief Executive Officers of international organizations. it grew lucid in my mind the fruitfulness of writing a simple but up-dated framework of Human Resources leadership profile.Regional Conference . along with my participation in the Human Resources Regional Conference. in addition to a review of literature and the outcome of my humble life-experience. The model of “leadership. Accordingly. held at Rutgers University of New Jersey. hoping that it would be informative for any business student as well as any person has intent to learn about leadership in the area of Human Resources. I have developed a sort of reflective maturity toward this field. it is a modified and up-to-date approach to leadership. was among the reasons that motivated the writing of this paper. rather. which takes into consideration some of the major changes as well as previous theories and approaches of management. 4. Hence. Objective of this Paper The subject of this paper revolves around the notion of „leadership‟ in the area of Human Resources Management. 3. and over hundred of students from a number the States‟ Universities meet to share their theoretical and professional expertise. my participation (as Chaperon of a group of Business school students at Alfred University) in the 2007 Society for Human Resource Management‟s – SHRM. held at Rutgers University of New Jersey.” which highlighted the crucial role of leadership in the success of organizations in the era of globalization. and taking a Course of Human Resources Management. theories. is not an unprecedented framework. international business analysts. In addition. this model is not the outcome of any scientific study or field work assessment. theoretical tools and approaches I have acquired from our Academic Course of Human Resource Management. in which a number of Human Resources well-qualified professors.Additionally. and become more aware of aspects that need more academic investigation in this area of study.” suggested in this paper. Addressed Questions On the ground of the aforementioned rationale and objectives. having been exposed to various aspects. It is a mere outcome of the accumulated knowledge. in specific. issues. and map out the . The aim is to sketch out an integrative framework of the prerequisite features of an efficient leader in matter of Human Resources Management. the present paper seeks to answer three main questions: 1 – What are the major factors governing leadership in Human Resources Management? Answer to this question will provide a general frame of the mechanisms – internal and external – that both mould the leadership styles adopted by the Human Resources leader.
containing a general review. Organization This paper is made up of four parts. 4) the Context. they tentative answer based on analytical study. Part one is a form of a general introduction. 2) followers. objectives. followed by the four Factors governing Leadership within an organization. Rather. Ironically enough. previous theories and models of leadership suggested by professionals and psychologist leadership. Its importance resides in its intrinsic value and tremendous impact on both individuals as will as organizations. Part two covers the review of the literature. both internal and external criteria constructing the profile of an efficient leader are to be mapped out. in this vain. 5. this area of study remains a puzzling . in general. and the addressed questions alongside the organisation of the paper. for it is an intellectually all-encompassing subject. 2 – What are the different styles of leadership. related to the scope of topic: thus. The paper will be concluded by a recapitalization of the main points discussed in this paper. what are the criteria required in today‟s Human Resources leader serving international organization? The third question is meant to develop a tentative framework of an efficient would-be-leader in a global marketplace. and how are they characterized? The aim behind raising this question is to highlight current leadership styles and underlying features of each approach to leadership. 3) Communication. II – Review of the Literature The issue of leadership. Part three outlines a framework of Leadership in Human Resources Management. management. 3 – Considering the fast-pace changes taking place at the global level. Besides. rationale. has long occupied the timely and spatial contexts of a number of theorists and thinkers in all fields of science and human interactions. a thorough definition of leadership. In part four. answers to these questions are not based on any scientific experiments or empirical data. and followership is going to be catered for. supported by an overall review of literature. a review of major styles of leadership is to be discussed. namely: 1) Leaders.directions followed in the leading process. discussed is a model of human resources leadership in today‟s global organization: the case of IBM Organization will exemplify of adopting a model of a good leadership in the area of Human resources management. The basis on which this updated model is going to be developed is derived from two main sources: first. Notably. That says that the paper does not claim any generalizable results or recommendations. The second source will be derived from a focus on IBM international corporate‟s leadership strategy in the area of human resources.
Leadership process. ” In this vain. .What is “leadership?” In “The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society. management anchors on the realization of a concrete plan in a specific . While a manager has a legal power derived from his professional status. whereas. leadership style can be also applied to management style. the leader derives his power from the influence s/he might have on his followers. 2 . Management is a kind of leadership in which the achievement of organizational goals is paramount. a leader‟s power is represented in his capacity to make his/her followers want to achieve given goals. .The Difference between Leadership and Management One of the main factors distinguishing between management and leadership is highlighted by Hersey.” Kenneth Boulding defines “leadership” as “a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. 1. in this respect. which is just one form of leadership. a number of strategic management theorists underline a difference between the two processes. and there is not up till now any scientific study on leadership. Another distinction has to do with the nature of power both a manager and a leader hold within the organization. This is why there is hardly a consensus on an exact definition of the concept. and have a direct authority over the latter‟s employees. P. by providing them with both directions and motivation. a leader is not only expected to have a clear vision on the future of the organization but also required to communicate this vision with the employees and make them active participants in its realization. because the topic has not yet been experimentally investigated. . Further. and professional performing skills. ” That says that the primary role of management within an organization is to align the employees‟ performance with the organization‟s strategic objectives. However.topic. "Leadership occurs any time one attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group. Hence. contrastingly. regardless of the reason. in most of its parts. These abilities can be summarized in high personal attributes. and Blanchard who consider management styles as a part of the whole leadership process. leadership is perceived as inspiring in its overall vision regardless the reasons or goals behind it. a manager has the authority to boss people around because of the power s/he has over them. According to both theorists. all of which make of an individual a charismatic leader who is considered as a model to be followed. appears to be synonymous with management practices in the sense that both managers and leaders hold the same responsibility towards their organization. Being as such. leadership in human resources management reflects an individual‟s abilities to efficiently direct a group of individuals or workers toward achieving pre-set goals of a given organization or company of which they are members. diversified intellectual background. thus.
problem solving: Monitor results against plan and take corrective action Outcomes Produces positive and sometimes dramatic change Produces order. on the other side. allocate resources Developing people Aligning people: Communicate vision and strategy. influence creation of teams which accept validity of goals Organizing and staffing: Decide structure and allocate staff. whereas leaders have a wider vision of the horizon with a focus on people. However. satisfy human needs Controlling. goals. Figure . develop policies. perceiving both processes as different in function. consistency and predictability . John Kotter (1990) introduces a new dimension. Warren Bennis drew a lucid dichotomy between the duties and roles of a leader and a manager in an organization. In this vain. He decrees that both are equally necessary for the effective running of an organization: “Leadership is different from management.1 summarizes Buchanan and Huczynski‟s model . purpose. efficacy. For him. Leaders‟ interests revolve around establishing clear vision. It's not the province of a chosen few . but none is necessary favored over the other. They have their eye on the bottom line with a focus on systems and structure of the organization. contrasting both processes may prove to be informative in terms of the nature and roles of leadership and management. Further. and natural resources in meeting the companies preset goals as opposed to the dynamic and strategic process of leadership. It has nothing to do with having charisma or other exotic personality traits. but not for the reason most people think. financial. procedures and monitoring Execution Motivating and inspiring: Energize people to overcome obstacles. these distinctions tend to picture management in a traditional and inferior form of control in the sense that it is inflexible and rather bureaucratic process: it deploys the human. and the trust-inspiration of the followers. Leadership isn't mystical and mysterious.time frame. Leadership functions Management functions Creating an agenda Establishing direction: Vision of the future. technological. Other Human Resources analysts argue that a comprehensive definition of the concept of “leadership” is better achieved through understanding the intrinsic leader-follower and/or leadership-followership correlation." Buchanan and Huczynski (2004) align with the latter trend and design a frame work of various functions in the agenda of both leaders and managers. direction. Indeed. depicted as human-capital and creativity-inspiring dynamic. Managers. Managers administer while leaders innovate. are concerned with short-term achievement by controlling the workers‟ performance. develop strategies for change to achieve goals Plans and budgets: Decide action plans and timetables.
or a clear sense of direction. employees represent keystone in the life and function of the leaders. which. Thus. 1990) 3 . out of touch. motivation.Figure 1: Leadership and Management (Buchanan and Huczynski. part of being an effective leader is having excellent ideas. an experienced worker might need less monitoring than an inexperienced one. the leader can evaluate the level of competence.A Framework of Leadership in Human Resources Management 1 . would help adjusting the appropriate leadership style according to each individual worker‟s needs. 4) situation. it refers to the staff members or employees under the leader‟ responsibility. and society. The concept “servant leadership. III . . For example. but they are made by the group which shapes their aspirations and values.Leadership and Followership Current analysts have shift their focus toward the followers/employees. Once this reciprocal communication is blocked. On the ground of this knowledge of the led. and communication skills needed for his/her employees. an unmotivated employee may require different approach than a highly motivated one. the better the process of leadership is understood and can be theorized for the sake of designing training programs and academic curriculum aiming at making the process of leadership a systematically transferable core of skills in the field of human resources in particular.” according to Robert. and followership. True enough.The Led: Also known as follower.Factors of Leadership Like in any other form of organization. organization.based on Kotter. the more the leader-follower interaction studied. For example. the leader needs to devote much time in understanding the human capital . and how best they can perform under different working environment. the human resources leader has to know every single employee‟s experience level pertaining to the assigned job. alongside a profile of theleader. These thee points are very essential for understanding the nature and qualification of employees. being a crucial factor in shaping the form and function of leadership. in return. p 718 . leaders become lost. leadership in a business organization is governed by four factors: 1) led. 3) communication. a sense of mission. refers to the leader‟s commitment to serve his employees. in fact. Robert Greenleaf has lately introduced the concept of followership. In order to establish mutually successful report with the led/employees. In order to come to this level of understanding. The latter. do not choose to be so. 2004. 2) leader. But such ideas or vision are useless unless the leader can communicate them and get them accepted by followers. and unwanted by the group. confidence level.
one has to have a comprehensive grasp of who s/he is. these four factors – the led. including: the task. Based on marketing theories and assumptions. written. need to decide on an employee‟s inappropriate behavior in the workplace. Indeed. the confrontation might be ineffective. the leader.The Autocratic Leader This approach to leadership is characterized by the leader‟s complete control of the employees‟ . the leader has to delineate the repertory of his/her general and professional knowledge as Human Resources employer.Leadership Styles Leadership styles in Human Resources Management is mainly defined by the culture of the company as well as the leader‟s values. and the nature of the punishment itself has to be consistent with the nature of the mistake.The Situation: this is a dynamic factor that requires the leader to be situation-oriented in his/her problem-solving skills. a professional. knowledge. and the subordinate competence level. and situation – are said to govern the roles of the human resources leader in the sense that help determining preferred leadership styles that would align with the culture and vision of a given organization. because it is the followers who may determine whether or not an individual is a successful leader. and a leader. the choice of the time.Communication: Part of the leader‟s duties is to communicate ideas/messages on a regular basis with all the employees. as a person. Recorded literature on Leadership in Organization suggests seven leadership styles: below is a precise feature of each of the leadership styles adoptable in the Human Resources Department.the context. for instance. and the given situation that might favor a certain style over others. or physical. .The Leader: as a leader. Besides. For so doing. leaders have to have a good understanding of their personality. the leader has to be clever in selecting the communication channel – oral.under his/her responsibility. . . the staff available for task. skills. the context. Being aware of what one knows implies that one is able to decide what s/he can do as Human resources leader. the timing. the human resources leader has to perpetually consider four main variables in every situation. A leader may. The formulation of the communicated ideas can have either positive or negative outcomes on the employees‟ understanding and translation of the messages into concrete actions. otherwise. various leadership styles are derived and deployed according to the above mentioned factors. . communication. Therefore. 2. and performance. and timing of message delivery: effective communication does not only strengthen the relationship between the leader and the employees but it also influences the organization‟s performance and image. In short.
and performance of unconventional behavior. Charismatic leaders usually work on building up the concept of “group” within which they try to fuse themselves along with their employees. Their mastery of verbal and body language makes them persuasive. employees‟ participation in decision making is highlighted. if not no. Autocratic leadership may prove to be useful in some situations where the organization operates under pressure. sensitivity to member needs. encourages group discussion. They are also known for incarnating a trustworthy profile through visible self-commitment and assumed-responsibilities. they can even select the people who might perform those tasks. for instance. this style of leadership might not be appropriate especially in modern and/or international corporate. they are very attentive in listening to the person they converse with making that person charmed by them. It is also referred to as management by objectives. . . charismatic leadership encompasses sensitivity to the environment. a f act which makes the followers less individualistic in their performance and strongly committed to the service of the group at large. in this case. say in decision making. . In short. The Charismatic leader gathers followers through dint of personality and charm. workers gain more and more motivation and self-empowerment. have a moderate space of freedom to determine the ways certain tasks are to be accomplished. However. Charismatic leaders also are vigilantly aware of the environment within which they operate. Besides. The human resources department that adopts this style seeks to involve its workers in decision making process in order to foster their commitment and collaborative spirit.The Charismatic Leader Charismatic Leaders are good listeners and speakers who pay great of their consideration to their surrounding environments. while the leader keeps his/her sights over his/her team performances and intervenes whenever need be. and power-sharing. . joint decision-making. This technique is not much different from democratic leadership.The Democratic Leader In companies where the human resources department is managed by a democratic leader. usually give directions and expect outcomes rather than negotiating or taking roles in teamwork. also. and draws a pool of plausible suggestions from his/her led for the sake of improving team collaboration.actions and task performances in the sense that the team has little. personal risk taking. and it believes that there is no one way of doing business. and are good at uplifting the self-esteem of the workers. They do so by using a wide range of communicative interactions and motivational tactics.Participative Leadership The participative leadership is one of the most favored styles of leadership among organizations. Leaders. A democratic leader. By directing themselves. rather than any form of external power or authority. Workers.
. awareness. The transformational leader usually starts with the development of a vision. conceptualization. C. Spears. L. there are different styles of leadership. perseverance. the form of leadership is characterized by the leader's complete devotion to the led. argues that "listening. The latter usually appreciate transformational leadership style because it uplifts their professional experience and nurtures them with passion toward their job. foresight.Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership style is an inspiring technique that injects enthusiasm and passion toward work in the souls of workers. hence. Next. stewardship. structure and statement of mission. a task which requires a great deal of energy. that shape up the profile of a good leader. . this method of control is most likely operative in organizations where workers have already reached a discernible level of professional experience along with awareness of the culture of the organization. That is. we now need to understand the factors. . Indeed. For so doing. the leader has to commit him/herself to market the vision to the employees. there are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. known for their excellent work history. Again. commitment to growth of people. both internal and external. because every company has its identical culture. . persuasion. To put it in a nutshell. Furthermore. As its name implies. a leader is expected to scrutinize all these variables before deciding on the leadership style to be adopted. S/he so does beca use he trusts his/her team‟s high proficiency and expertise. for instance. a view of the future that would excite and convert followers into potential leaders. the leader has to set clear and step-by-step directions for the actualization of the vision. the Laissez-Faire technique can be successful with skilled workers. This vision may be developed by the leader or it is already set by the organization's strategy. empathy.which makes the workplace environment supportive as well as flexible. In short. and persuasive skills. The leader has to determine which leadership style is efficiently operational with which company and under what circumstances. Each style has its inherent strengths and drawback. . The laissez-faire leader usually exercises little control on his/led. what makes employees enjoy this leadership style is its being people-oriented and its focus on the success and development of the human capital as well as the company's productivity. Having said so.The Laissez-Faire Leader Laissez-Faire leadership stands on the other side of the autocratic approach.Servant Leaders The servant leader style is a current approach to leadership that has been wildly talked about recently by many Human Resources analysts. healing. and building community" are the pivotal touchstones that make of a given person a servant leader. a servant leader is meant to serve the needy led by helping them to improve their professional performance and achieve remarkable outcomes.
a good leader is judged according to his/her behaviors that have direct influence on both the human capital and the organization. creativity. a leader is neither born with these personality characters. once said. vision. and knowledge into concrete actions. Leaders are made and not born: every one has the potential to be a good leader. a good Human Resources leader has to have a bulk of valid and reliable knowledge. . and professional experience. and respect for his/her employees.The nature of the organization. nor is s/he born a leader. knowledge. Some of these traits are self-esteem. as explained by Bass (1990). and professional performance. Performance Indeed. " leadership consists not in degree of technique but in traits of character. and operational guidance. goals and objectives. the latter's respect toward this leader would most likely grow. though personality traits along with knowledge are crucial assets a good leader should incarnate.His/her duties as a leader. This raises the question of what are the mechanisms that shape up the profile of a good leader of Human Resources Management. However. trust.Internal Criteria Affecting Leadership Lewis H. imagination. Therefore. skills. the leader has to be able to translate his/her character. Lapham. values. From the stand point of the employees. is required to: . Understanding of the Leader's duty Besides having consistent character traits. .The communication tactics and tools to be used in every situation. including its culture. holds that some personality traits are the main predictors of a would-leader. self-commitment. integrative-motivation. In this vain. it requires moral rather than athletic or intellectual efforts. through an ongoing process of self study. Hence. risk taker. education. vision. a Human Resources Department whose leader is a trustworthy. self-efficacy. to be a hankered-for leader. and straightforwardness. courage.Personality Mechanisms The "Trait Theory" of leadership. mission. to be efficient in his/her performance. one has to have an axiomatic grasp of: . . performance is what actually matters in the professional life of the leader." This testimony reveals how important personality traits are in determining the profile of a good leader.Himself/herself as person and a leader: one has to know his/her strengths and weaknesses in terms of character. along with the needs of the led. creative. integrity. and it imposes on both leader and follower alike the burdens of self-restraint. for instance. The leader. .3 .
no matter how his/her leadership style might be. expectations. 4. rituals. routines. knowledge. through rewards and appraisals for excellent workers. The aforementioned mechanisms (personality factors. As a leader. their work. supervision. in other terms. Environment. every organization has its identical nature of doing business or services. and evaluation of the team's productivity. There are other external variables influencing the performance and overall philosophy of the Human Resources leader. mission statement.. values. . and performance) are basically intrinsic factors that construct the persona of a good leader. . ethics and standards.Culture of Organization The organization's culture displays the set of customs. is the body of beliefs. . decision-making and problem solving processes with the workers. .Climate of Organizations Climate of a given organization is directly influenced by the board of managers and leaders' actions and behaviors within the workplace. -The Environment of Organizations The concept of "environment" in the sphere of business is the sum up of the organization's goals. and way of doing business that a company embraces. Of course. The organization environment does not only affect the leader's performance but also every individual working for it. every leader.Maintain high team-work spirit and motivational incentives. climate.External factors Influencing Leadership As mentioned earlier. contributes in and incarnates the climate of the organization to which s/he works for. and negotiate the implementing strategies. .Set measurable goals. Studying both internal and external mechanisms that shape the profile of a leader reveals the . but might affect its climate as long as the newly introduced practice or behavior does not conflict with the vision or goals of the organization. vision. and culture are the underlying constituents that define the nature of a given organization. Climate. It is a long-term process which combines the past with present and influences the future of the firm. and influence the leadership style to be adopted. and their customers. one can not easily change aspects of the company's culture. and attitudes of the employers and employees towards themselves.Maintain a regular coordination. philosophy.Provide moral as well as material support to less qualified or novice employees.
two major pension program changes. Success attributed to skilled diverse workforce 2 . IBM employees have earned five Nobel Prizes. the senior vice president of human resources for IBM Corporation. International Business Machines Corporation. As a chip maker. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware. resulted in an employee class action lawsuit alleging age discrimination.IBM‟s Workforce & Diversity In the 1990s. IBM also settled a . 2006.IBM Profile With over 350. USA. known as IBM or "Big Blue". hosting services and consulting services. although appeals are still underway. IBM employees won the lawsuit and arrived at a partial settlement.000 employees worldwide. IBM Corporation: a Leader in Human Resources Management IV – 1 . infrastructure services. headquartered in Armonk. five Turing Awards. including a conversion to cash balance plan. Appreciated for recruiting and retaining the best talent across the world.complexity characterizing the duty of a leader. This complexity does not stem from the nature of the duty. and IBM Research has eight laboratories worldwide. but emanate rather from the unpredictable dynamics surrounding the professional environment of the leader. In early 2003. IBM is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders . is the largest multinational computer technology corporation. five National Medals of Technology. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. the CEO of IBM. software. The fame- Among America top 10 most admired companies by fortune magazine. and five National Medals of Science. It has engineers and consultants in over 170 countries. IBM has fallen to second behind Hewlett-Packard in total revenue. was reviewing his recent meeting with Sam Palmisano. New York. Randy MacDonald.
on its index of gay-friendliness since 2003. respect of the employee‟s rights and dignity has been one of IBM basic beliefs in managing its workers. there has been recently a number of sweeping cuts to the workplace. who always stressed on helping each employee to develop his potential and make the best use of his abilities. and gays and lesbians. such as Business Machines and Think magazines. people with disabilities. Each year.IBM Human Capital Management As far as human capital management in IBM is concerned. Its efforts to promote workforce diversity and equal opportunity date back to World War I. It provides employees' same-sex partners with benefits and provides an anti-discrimination clause.IBM Recruiting IBM is committed to a diversified workforce and actively seeks qualified candidates who know the needs of markets the company serves.s innovative "Why work?" marketing campaign. when the company hired disabled veterans. Although. IBM became the first major company in the world to formally commit to not using genetic information in its employment decisions. IBM. Watson. Thomas J. Jr. and respecting opportunity for a fair hearing and equitable settlement of disagreements. including women. Over the years.” Indeed.. The Human Rights Campaign has consistently rated IBM at 100%. IBM has had a good reputation of long-term staff retention with few large scale layoffs. We say in our business that a company is known by the men it keeps. Watson who said in1926: “They say a man is known for the company he keeps. the highest score. Hence. 3 . IBM has implemented a number of innovative programs. the human capital management has historically been of paramount importance: two-way communications between manager and employee is one of the main features characterizing the leader-led interaction. devoting more time to people than the company‟s products. minorities. This came just a few months after IBM announced its support of the National Geographic Society's Geographic Project. policies and practices that demonstrate and sustain respect for its employees. IBM was the only technology company ranked in Working Mother magazine's Top 10 for 2004.major overtime class-action lawsuit in 2006. 4 . In 2005. This belief has been maintained by one of IBM most successful leader and Chairman. Among them are: • The Open Door policy • “The Speak Up!” Program • Comprehensive Employee Opinion Surveys • Effective Internal Communications and Informational Media. . IBM recruiters attend more than 40 diversity-focused conferences and career fairs to recruit from these constituencies. the value placed on the employees was set long ago by the founder of the company Thomas J.
7 . each of which has conducted global conferences. In July 2000. the company has invested a total of approximately $150 million in dependent care services to help employees better manage their work and personal lives. and the formation of local women‟s networks around the . The program‟s goals include establishing a network of champions for disabled employees throughout the company.which began in the spring of 1999. In 1995. subject to management approval. 6 . Programs range from new child care centers and science/technology camps for schoolage children to collaborations with other companies to expand existing child care centers. which offer employees the ability to work from a customer‟s location. the rewards. hiring its first professional women in 1935 and its first woman vice president. IBM became the first major employer in the nation to establish a dependent care network for its employees. Task Force. in 1943. Between 1990 and 1994.Flexibility/Telecommuting/Leave of Absence Programs More than 80. the work. The organization is also an active participant in Entry Point program. the creation of Women of Color and Women in Technology sub-committees. Ruth Leach. 5 . For instance. is designed to reach the best and brightest campus and professional talent through a compelling dialogue about IBM‟s strengths: its people. IBM invested $25 million to develop new or expand existing child and elder care facilities and programs through its Funds for Dependent Care Initiatives. the company announced the creation of a five year. Between 1995 and 2000. which later initiated employee work/life surveys in the Americas. sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. or at home. dependent care or for a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.Women at IBM IBM has a long history of commitment to the advancement of women in the workplace . Europe and Asia Pacific.Work/Life Balance In 1984.000 IBMers participate in the company‟s telecommuting programs. the Project Able is an effort to significantly increase the representation of disabled employees at the workplace. a series of Global Women‟s Leadership Conferences. the company formed its Global Women Leaders. dedicated to placing disabled young people in business and industry and preparing them for corporate and community leadership. subject to local management approval. IBM and NASA. $50 million global fund to develop and support work/life programs in communities where its employees live and work. on the road. and its global presence. IBM‟s industry leading workplace flexibility programs offer employees the option of varying their daily arrival time and work hours. The leave of absence programs provide up to three years leave for parenting.
. New York: Harper & Row 4 . Bibliography . (1970) Servant as Leader. (1988).Burns. In 2000. Prentice-Hall. (1987). and Huczynski. Organizational Behavior: an introductory text (5th edition).Kotter. 5. and culture as well as the changing environment of the global market. Globally.Buchanan. The number of women executives around the world increased from a total of 399 in 1998 to 508 at the end of 1999. A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs From Management. ( Heinman Professional Publishing. (1990). C. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. Conclusion Thanks to its commitment to maintain the well-being of its human assets. John . 3rd ed. Warren.” Ad dison Wesley. A.Greenleaf. 8 . M. growing from a total of 351 women executives in 1998 to 445 at the end of 1999. the New York Citybased women‟s advocacy organization.P.. R.world.Musser. The determination of positive and negative charismatic leadership. women comprise almost 18 percent of the IBM worldwide executive population. values. IBM was one of three companies honored by Catalyst. in recognition of its long-standing commitment to the advancement of women. S. New York. IBM has gained a respectful reputation in human resources leadership worldwide.Hersey. Grantham: PA: Messiah College. (2004). Center for Applied Studies 6 . This success has been brought about due to company's creative and ongoing research and innovative programs which improve the social and professional experiences of the employees. K. D.Goodworth. Leadership. In the United States. the number of women in executive positions totaled approximately 21 percent at the end of 1999. IBM has smartly and perpetually managed to formulate an authentic Human Resources leadership style that answers to the corporation‟s goals. 7 . 3 .H (1977). Blanchard. With the uncompromising belief that the human capital is the most invaluable asset of any organization. 2 . Englewood Cliffs. The Secrets of Successful Leadership and People Management. On Becoming a Leader: “Thoughts on Leadership. 1988). New York: Free Press. J.Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. P. (1978).Bennis.J. (1989).
QuickViews offers handy hints on business meeting protocol. 2 .http://library. W. The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society.html.html 4 .HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT STRATEGY. "Tracing the Past. The courses cater to individual managers or members of an established multicultural team and are designed to heighten awareness of each person’s own cultural biases and increase their sensitivity to other cultures. Kenneth Boulding. (2002). Shades of Blue is a unique learning experience in developing cross-cultural competence.www.www.ac. So if a manager is called upon to travel suddenly to a new culture.Tannenbaum.9 . as the name suggests. (1958). Topics include: culture and globalisation. A. L.com/diversity 5 .ibm. How to Choose a Leadership Pattern. New York.http://www.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon. • Handling issues about team decision-making. .indstate. C.edu/servlead 3 . giving or receiving feedback and conflict resolution.org/wiki/IBM PUBLIÉ PAR BADRE À L'ADRESSE 7:24 PM LIBELLÉS : BUSINESS ADMINISTRAT ION. and Future of Servant-Leadership. Present.H.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/Documents/Styles/styles. intranet-based resources designed to give managers essential and accessible information to conduct business successfully with clients or colleagues from another country. Professional development IBM manager ‘QuickViews’ are. The workshop-based tutorials train employees in: • Understanding the cultural bias of each team member and their impact on mutual perceptions.Spears. culture and business and diversity and multicultural management. HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGE MENT. The shades experience can be a powerful team-building exercise for multicultural teams to transcend cultural differences and become a high-performing team. • Identifying approaches to address cultural gaps that could lead to misunderstandings. and Schmitt. Harvard Business Review. Webliography 1 .ed. Another professional development initiative is IBM’s ‘Shades of Blue’ – a more in-depth program for managers who are engaged in cross-cultural business interactions or have multicultural teams." In Focus On Leadership: Servant-leadership for the Twenty-first Century.S. • Why certain behaviours and communication styles fail in some cultures.wikipedia.nwlink. LEADERSHIP STRATEGY RÉACTIONS : Cultural awareness/acceptance in action Cultural diversity education and awareness initiatives at IBM can be grouped under two headings: individual professional development and general staff awareness.http://en. NY: John Wiley and Sons.see. 10 .
based technology company and has eight research laboratories worldwide. engineers. IBM has been among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders in past years. Corporate office : Corporate office IBM holds more patents than any other U. · Employee representation at an IBM global conference on multicultural people in technology. and sales professionals in over 200 countries Corporate office : Corporate office IBM employees have earned five Nobel Prizes.General staff awareness and polices IBM’s cultural diversity strategy relies on raising the general level of awareness of different cultures within the organisation. four Turing Awards. Corporate office : Corporate office With almost 400.000 employees worldwide. and five National Medals of Science. General initiatives include: · Celebration of Chinese New Year for Sydney employees. · Introduction of a floating holiday program where employees can exchange a public holiday for a significant cultural holiday. · Publication of a diversity calendar. . IBM is second largest (by market capitalization) and the second most profitable information technology and services employer in the world according to the Forbes 2000 list with sales of greater than 100 billion US dollars. nine National Medals of Technology.S. The company has scientists. consultants. showing various dates of cultural significance that might be relevant to employees and business relationships. As a chip maker. Corporate office : Corporate office IBM has been well known through most of its recent history as the world's largest computer company and systems integrator.