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Pappu chaupal, Reg. No-10906655, Roll no-RE1E19A20, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab,
Abstract— Most people associate the term "Wi-Fi" with the ability to browse the Internet wirelessly. Though this definition isn't technically incorrect, there is so much more to Wi-Fi wireless technology than just browsing the Internet. Ten years ago, no one would have thought that it would be possible to listen to music from your basement computer on your entertainment system upstairs, or download songs to your Wi-Fi-enabled MP3 player, but Wi-Fi technology has made it possible to do not only these, but a host of other applications as well.
Index Terms—Introduction, The various Wi-Fi standards, Range and data flow, architecture, Features, Limitations, advantage, disadvantage, future, application, conclusion.
I. INTRODUCTION The IEEE 802.11 specification (ISO/IEC 8802-11) is an international standard describing the characteristics of a wireless local area network (WLAN). The name Wi-Fi (short for "Wireless Fidelity", sometimes incorrectly shortened to WiFi) corresponds to the name of the certification given by the Wi-Fi Alliance, formerly WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance), the group which ensures compatibility between hardware devices that use the 802.11 standard. Today, due to misuse of the terms (and for marketing purposes), the name of the standard is often confused with the name of the certification. A Wi-Fi network, in reality, is a network that complies with the 802.11 standard. Hardware devices certified by the Wi-Fi Alliance are allowed to use this logo:
concentration of users (like train stations, airports, and hotels) with wireless networks. These access areas are called "hot spots". The 802.11 standard reserves the low levels of the OSI model for a wireless connection that uses electromagnetic waves, i.e.: The physical layer (sometimes shortened to the "PHY" layer), which offers three types of information encoding. The data link layer, comprised of two sublayers: Logical Link Control (or LLC) and Media Access Control (or MAC). The physical layer defines the radio wave modulation and signaling characteristics for data transmission, while the data link layer defines the interface between the machine's bus and the physical layer, in particular an access method close to the one used in the Ethernet standard and rules for communication between the stations of the network. The 802.11 standard actually has three physical layers, which define alternative modes of transmission: Data Link Layer (MAC) Physical Layer (PHY) 802.2 802.11 D F SSS HSS Infr ared
Any high-level protocol can be used on a Wi-Fi wireless network the same way it can be used on an Ethernet network. II. THE VARIOUS WI-FI STANDARDS The IEEE 802.11 standard is actually only the earliest standard, allowing 1-2 Mbps of bandwidth. Amendments have be made to the original standard in order to optimize bandwidth (these include the 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards, which are called 802.11 physical standards) or to better specify components in order to ensure improved security or compatibility. This table shows the various amendments to the 802.11 standard and their significance:
With Wi-Fi, it is possible to create high-speed wireless local area networks, provided that the computer to be connected is not too far from the access point. In practice, WiFi can be used to provide high-speed connections (11 Mbps or greater) to laptop computers, desktop computers, personal digital assistants(PDAs) and any other devices located within a radius of several dozen meters indoors (in general 20m-50m away) or within several hundred meters outdoors. Wi-Fi providers are starting to blanket areas that have a high
Name of standard
Description The 802.11a (54 practice). standard Mbps 30 The
meant to improve the quality of service at the level of the data link layer. The standard's goal is to define the requirements of different packets in terms of bandwidth and transmission delay so as to allow better transmission of voice and video. The 802.11f is a
(called WiFi 5) allows higher bandwidth 802.11a Wifi5 maximum Mbps in throughput,
802.11a standard provides 8 radio channels in the 5 GHz frequency band. The 802.11b standard is currently the most widely used one. It offers a maximum thoroughput of 11 802.11b WiFi Mbps (6 Mbps in practice) and a reach of up to 300 metres in an open environment. It uses the 2.4 GHz frequency range, with 3 radio channels available. The 802.11c bridging 802.11f Roaming
recommendation for access point vendors that allows products Access Protocol, to Point which be more compatible. It uses the InterRoaming lets a
roaming user transparently switch from one access point to another while moving around, used no on matter the what brands of access points are network infrastructure. This ability is also simply called roaming. The 802.11g standard
standard is of no interest to the general public. It is only 802.11c Bridging and 802.1d 802.11 an amended version of the 802.1d standard that lets 802.1d bridge with 802.11compatible devices (on the data link level). The 802.11d standard is a supplement to the 802.11 standard which is meant to allow international use of 802.11d Internationalization local 802.11 networks. It lets different information permitted in devices on the trade frequency country 802.11h 802.11g
offers high bandwidth (54 Mbps maximum throughput, 30 Mbps in practice) on the 2.4 GHz frequency range. The the 802.11g 802.11b standard is backwards-compatible with
meaning that devices that support the 802.11g standard can also work with 802.11b. The 802.11h standard 802.11 standard and is the
ranges depending on what is where the device is from. 802.11e Improving service The 802.11e standard is
intended to bring together the European standard
(HiperLAN 2, hence the h in 802.11h) while conforming to European regulations related to frequency use and energy efficiency. The 802.11i standard meant to improve is the
WiFi B (802.11b) WiFi G (802.11b)
2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz
11 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s
100 m 100 m
security of data transfers (by managing and distributing keys, 802.11i and implementing and based on encryption is
a).802.11a The 802.11 standard has a maximum theoretical data flow of 54 Mbps, five times that of 802.11b, but at a range of only about thirty metres. The 802.11a standard relies on a technology called OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). It broadcasts in the 5 GHz frequency range and uses 8 non-overlapping channels. Because of this, 802.11a devices are incompatible with 802.11b devices. However, there are devices that incorporate both 802.11a and 802.11b chips, called "dual band" devices. Hypothetical speed (indoors) 54 Mbits/s 48 Mbits/s 36 Mbits/s 24 Mbits/s 12 Mbits/s Range 10 m 17 m 25 m 30 m 50 m 70 m
authentication). This standard the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and can encrypt transmissions that run on 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g technologies. The 802.11r standard has
been elaborated so that it 802.11Ir may use infra-red signals. This standard has become technologically obsolete. The 802.11j standard is to 802.11j Japanese regulation what the 802.11h regulation. It is also useful to note the existence of a standard called "802.11b+". This is a proprietary standard with improvements in data flow. However, this standard also suffers from gaps in interoperability due to not being an IEEE standard. III. RANGE AND DATA FLOW The 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards, called "physical standards" are amendments to the 802.11 standard and offer different modes of operation, which lets them reach different data transfer speeds depending on their range. Standard WiFi a (802.11a) Frequency 5 GHz Speed 54 Mbit/s Range 10 m is to European
b).802.11b The 802.11b standard allows for a maximum data transfer speed of 11 Mbps, at a range of about 100 m indoors and up to 200 meters outdoors (or even beyond that, with directional antennas.) Hypothetical speed 11 Mbits/s 5.5 Mbits/s 2 Mbits/s 1 Mbit/s Range(indoors) 50 m 75 m 100 m 150 m Range(outdoors) 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m
c).802.11g The 802.11g standard allows for a maximum data transfer speed of 54 Mbps at ranges comparable to those of the 802.11b standard. What's more, as the 802.11g standard uses the 2.4GHz frequency range with OFDM coding, this standard is compatible with 802.11b devices, with the exception of some older devices. Hypothetical speed 54 Mbits/s Range (indoors) 27 m Range(outdoors) 75 m
48 Mbits/s 36 Mbits/s 24 Mbit/s 18 Mbit/s 12 Mbit/s 9 Mbit/s 6 Mbit/s
29 m 30 m 42 m 55 m 64 m 75 m 90 m
100 m 120 m 140 m 180 m 250 m 350 m 400 m
IV. WI-FI ARCHITECTURE Approval of the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless local area networking (WLAN) and rapid progress made toward higher data rates have put the promise of truly mobile computing within reach. While wired LANs have been a mainstream technology for at least fifteen years, WLANs are uncharted territory for most networking professionals. In September of 1999, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) ratified the specification for IEEE 802.11b, also known as Wi-Fi. IEEE 802.11b defines the physical layer and media access control (MAC) sub layer for communications across a shared, wireless local area network (WLAN). At the physical layer, IEEE 802.11b operates at the radio frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (GHz) with a maximum bit rate of 11 Mbps. It uses the direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) transmission technique. At the MAC sub layer of the Data Link layer, 802.11b uses the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) media access control (MAC) protocol.
b). Hardware Access Point with Internet. Wireless connected computers using a Hardware Access Point for shared Internet access.
c).Roaming A user can move from Area 1 to Area 2 transparently. The Wireless networking hardware automatically swaps to the Access Point with the best signal.
a). Software Access Point with Internet. Wireless connected computers using a Software Access Point for shared Internet access.
Not all access points are capable of being configured to support roaming. Also of note is that any access points for a single vendor should be used when implementing roaming, as there is no official standard for this feature.
V. FEATURES OF WI-FI There is lots of Wi-Fi which make it more easy and simple wireless network. Wi-Fi Technology is, in spirit, a version of Ethernet without wires in the form of a wireless local area network. Wi-Fi Technology can be used to connect two or more than two devices for various purposes like data sharing. There are no needs of wires to connect with internet or to build a network. Wi-Fi based on IEEE 802.11 .Now days million of people using this built in feature amazing wireless technology. VI. LIMITATIONS OF WI-FI So far we've covered some of the advantages offered by Wi-Fi wireless technology, but there are some limitations that must be addressed as well. Security and interference are the main issues with current Wi-Fi standards. 1). Security concerns Though typically very easy to set up, securing your Wi-Fi network requires a bit more effort. Wi-Fi access points do not come with encryption straight out of the box; you have to do it from your computer once the network is up and running. An unsecured wireless network is susceptible to attacks from hackers, potentially giving them access to all of the information stored by the devices on your network. In addition, "friendly," yet unauthorized computers will also be able to connect to your network, occupying the bandwidth and hindering overall network performance. 2). Interference from other devices Wi-Fi transmissions take place primarily within the 2.4 GHz spectrum, making them susceptible to interference from Bluetooth® wireless enabled devices, cordless telephones, microwave ovens, baby monitors, and other household devices. The farther your Wi-Fi devices are located from these known interferences — and the closer they are to one another — the more robust your signal will be, so keep that in mind during setup. If you live in an apartment complex or in close proximity to your neighbors, their wireless network can also be a source of interference. Some newer routers automatically select the channel with the least amount of interference, ensuring that you get the best possible connection. VII. ADVANTAGES OF WI-FI Now that we've covered the basics of the technology, let's check out some of the advantages Wi-Fi has over its wireless (and wired) competition. a). Unparalleled mobility and flexibility If you've ever installed a multi-room stereo and had to run wires through a wall, you know the amount of time and effort it requires, not to mention the permanence of your installation. If you want to move the receiver to another room, the wiring has to be completely redone, and the holes patched. Thanks to WiFi, users are no longer confined by the cords that link their devices, enabling new levels of connectivity without sacrificing function or design options. Products like network music players use Wi-Fi technology to wirelessly stream your music to speakers located throughout your house. Some systems are different than others, but typically you can listen to the same,
or different music in each room, play music from your computer or other devices attached to the network, and even listen to Internet radio. b). Quick, easy setup Setting up a wireless network may sound like a daunting task, but it's actually a pretty straightforward process. Wi-Fi networks don't require professional installation, and, best of all, there are no holes to drill or wires to run through walls. Many new routers are "plug-and-play," meaning you just connect them to a power outlet, plug in an Ethernet cord, and voilà — your network has been created. Unfortunately, wireless security doesn't automatically configure itself, so it's important to remember to enable it via a personal computer once a connection to the wireless network has been established. (We'll touch on this topic more in-depth in the limitations section.) c). Fast data transfer rates With transfer speeds around 150 megabits (Mb) per second (18.75 megabytes), 802.11n is currently the fastest commercially available Wi-Fi protocol on the market. It's more than capable of handling the demands of streaming highdefinition TV signals, as well as CD-quality audio. For information about the kinds of services you can stream through your TV, check out our article on Enjoying the Internet on your TV. VIII. DISADVANTAGES OF WI-FI The 802.11b and 802.11g flavors of Wi-Fi use the 2.4 GHz spectrum, which is crowded with other devices such as Bluetooth, microwave ovens, cordless phones, or video sender devices, among many others. This may cause degradation in performance. Other devices which use microwave frequencies such as certain types of cell phones can also cause degradation in performance. Power consumption is fairly high compared to other standards, making battery life and heat a concern. Not always configured properly by user. Commonly uses WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) protocol for protection, though has been shown to be easily breakable. Newer wireless solutions are slowly providing support for the superior WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) protocol, though many systems still employ WEP. IX. FUTURES OF WI-FI The outlook of Wi-Fi broadband wireless internet is boundless. The future is set to provide greater and longer connection ranges with faster transfer speeds. This allows users to freely surf on the web, check and send emails, connect to your corporate network, make free voice over IP phone calls, play online games, update your blog, and IM with your friends more efficiently with stabilities. The future is set with many companies looking into offering users Wi-Fi not only around internet cafes, coffee houses/shops, and airports around the world but also in public libraries, academic locations such as
schools, colleges and universities, hotels, motels, resorts, apartment blocks, shopping centers, restaurants and even into homes and offices. This hopes to eliminate the hassles of dial-up internet services and the fuss of costly installations of broadband cables, and broadband ADSL connections. With Wi-Fi available consumers can freely use their computer around places where it suits them without all the lines and cables. In the futures we would also see better securities measures in protecting personal and confidential data's being received and sent out. There will also be better anti-virus and firewall protections whilst using Wi-Fi around destinated areas. With fierce competition of different companies we would see cheaper internet connection costs and choices for better services to consumers. X. SECURING YOUR WI-FI NETWORK
rooms in your home on wireless speakers; print documents anywhere in your house with a wireless printer; and update your Wi-Fi-enabled digital photo frame without even hooking up a camera or memory card. Plus, the possibilities are continuing to grow. We carry an assortment of Wi-Fi products to get you started. Keep a look out for more offerings as Wi-Fi becomes even more popular. Wires? They're so passé. XII. CONCLUSION Today, Wi-Fi is mainly used for making easy connections between a home computer and the Internet. But soon, we'll see even friendlier and easier solutions for all kinds of wireless transmissions — including streaming of music and video. This article is just a first step toward understanding Wi-Fi. Keep an eye on the Advisor as we continue to keep you up-to-date on this hot technology!
The best choice for wireless network encryption is currently Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA2). Most new access points support WPA2 encryption, and it can be configured once your network has been set up. For more security tips, check out our article on creating a home network. Bluetooth® wireless technology, on the other hand, has security built in, and it automatically requires devices to enter a passkey in order to connect to the network. See our introduction to Bluetooth for more information on how Bluetooth works.hoices for better services to consumers. XI. APPLICATION OF WI-FI
As Wi-Fi-enabled devices have become more and more popular, wired devices are quickly becoming a thing of the past. Check out some of the new ways that Wi-Fi is being used below. a). Apple® AirPlay® One of Apple's latest technologies is AirPlay — a proprietary wireless media streaming system for use with devices that use iTunes® 10 (such as a computer or iPhone®) and a variety of compatible audio and video components. AirPlay lets you stream music, photos, and video stored on your computer, iPad®, iPhone, or iPod touch® to your receiver or TV via Apple's Apple TV. You can also stream music to any AirPlay-enabled device, like a speaker or receiver. Imagine watching a TV show that you bought on your iPad streamed through your TV's big screen. Or listening to PANDORA® Internet radio on an AirPlay-compatible speaker in another room in your home, streamed through your iPhone. And let's not forget how great your tunes will sound when you stream them through your home theater system, using your iPod touch as a remote. To find out more about AirPlay, check out Ralph's blog post. b). Whole-house connectivity You can do a variety of things over Wi-Fi that you might not expect. For example, you can listen to music in multiple
ACKNOWLEDGMENT I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. I am highly thankful to Mam Navpreet kaur.for her active support, valuable time and advice, whole-hearted guidance, sincere cooperation and pain-taking involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time stipulated. I also thanks to my university head of “LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY” who gave me an opportunity to make this term paper of Wi-Fi. At last I also thanks to my parents and relatives who gave their blessings to write this project. Lastly, I am thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who have been instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for me during the project, their help, it would have been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound framework. References
 This document entitled « Introduction to Wi-Fi (802.11 or WiFi) » from Kioskea (en.kioskea.net) is made available under theCreative Commons license. http://en.kioskea.net/contents/wifi/wifiintro.php3  Providing complete wireless solution. http://freewimaxinfo.com/wifi-features.html  Ryan Steele — Jul 08, 2011. http://www.crutchfield.com/S J5SKSZcHSMJ/learn/learningcenter/home/wifi.html  Advance Broadband Wireless Internet created by bwif.org. http://www.bwif.org/wifi_future.html  Imran’s Everything cellular. http://www.mobileisgood.com/wifi.php .
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