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2
No 1 (2005)110
A Cosmi
Quantum Me
hani
s
Arbab I. Arbab
Department of Physi
s, Tea
hers' College, Riyadh 11491, P.O.Box 4341, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
and
Comboni College for Computer S ien e, P.O. Box 114, Khartoum, Sudan
Abstra
t
We presented a model for uni
ation of ele
tri
ity and gravity. We have found a
onsistent
des
ription of all physi
al quantities pertaining to the system. We have provided limiting
values for all physi
al values. These values are neither zero nor innity. Our universe is
des
ribed at all times by the four dimensional
onstants
; h ; k; G only. The remnant of
va
uum remains at all epo
hs with dierent values. The present
osmologi
al hierar
hy
and puzzles are justied as due to the
onsequen
es of
osmi
quantization developed
in this work. The missing energy in the universe
an be resolved if one
onsiders the
ontribution of the gravitoele
tromagneti
ounterparts besides the observed mass in
the universe.
Keywords:
osmology: quantumuni ation, quantum me hani s, gravity.
world su
h problems should not be present. Consequently, a quantum treatment should remove the
singularity problem by allowing all physi
al quantities to have a limiting values; neither zero nor
innity. The ele
tromagneti
ontribution arising from gravitational system is very genuine and
should be taken into
onsideration. Su
h a
ontribution
ould oset the dieren
e between the
presently observed and anti
ipated energy density
of the universe. This amounts to say that the dark
energy problem is no longer a problem.
The quantum nature of the whole universe is
evident in the a
eleration of the
osmi
uid that
permeates the spa
e time at dierent s
ales. In
parti
ular, at present time there should be a uniform a
eleration of this
osmi
uid of the order of
10 10m s 2 permeating the whole universe. Su
h
a value is observed in Casimir experiment and by
the Pioneer satellite.
In this work, we provide the limiting values of
the universe at dierent stages. We have written all physi
al quantities representing the universe
in terms of the four fundamental
onstants, viz.,
; h
; k; G. The universe at dierent levels is gov
I. INTRODUCTION
Many attempts have failed to unify gravity with
quantum me
hani
s. We propose here a new approa
h for uni
ation of gravity, ele
tri
ity and
magnetism. It is based on the idea that the
gravitoele
tri
ee
ts
an not be ignored at large
s
ale. This is a
hieved by dening an appropriate
Plan
k
onstant that takes
are of the large s
ale
ee
t. In this sense, one
onsiders the universe to
have a quantum nature present at all levels. The
quantum nature is manifested by gravitationally
bound system only, whi
h we
all
osmi
system.
General relativity predi
ts a singularity at the Big
Bang and within a Bla
k Hole. A Bla
k Hole is understood when quantum analysis is developed for
it. We have found that all
osmi
systems require
a quantum treatment as well. So in a real quantum
* arbab aiyahoo:
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1
Arbab I. Arbab
Afri
an Journal Of Mathemati
al Physi
s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
same as it is now (Arbab, 2001b).
Assuming all fundamental parti
les, with rest
mass, harbor one or more of these quanta (in virtual form) at their
ores, where va
uum tension is
maximal, the result would be a short range warp
'bubble' enveloping all parti
les with mass. Periodi
reversal of this quanta's eld would give rise
to
avity os
illator behavior, subje
ting its host
parti
le to an alternating polarity warp metri
,
whose intensity would mat
h the ele
tromagneti
eld. If the phase of this periodi
ity syn
hronizes
with the
y
li
al a
eleration/de
eleration for
es
of an ele
tron in ellipti
al orbit about its nu
leus,
and the warpeld is always aligned along the ele
tron/nu
leus axis, then the ele
tron would follow a
sinusoidal, timelike geodesi
through spa
etime,
negating syn
hrotron radiation. The os
illations
of this natural, mi
rowarp eld are therefore proposed to be the essen
e of de Broglie matter waves,
whi
h are the basis of stable, nonradiating atomi
orbits, and the starting point for wave me
hani
s.
The volumetri
variations, within the warp 'bubble', are proposed to alternate between Minkowski
spa
e and the extra dimensions, giving rise to bipolar relativisti
syn
shifts (relativity of simultaneity), due to the resulting bidire
tional linear
translations between parti
les. Consequently, all
fundamental parti
les will appear to rapidly os
illate between the past and future at de Broglie frequen
ies, but average to the lo
al present.
For bound gravitational obje
t, the spa
e time
inside the obje
t and out side is dierent. Thus,
parti
les moving inside these obje
ts experien
e an
a
eleration whi
h is dierent from those moving
outside. For instan
e, the tension of spa
etime
inside the nu
lear region is enormously redu
ed,
ompared to the outside tension. This may elu
idate the asymptoti
free nature of quarks residing
inside baryons. The surfa
e tension of the nu
leus
is the same as that of the whole universe.
In 1984 DerSarkissian suggested that a
osmi
version of ordinary quantum me
hani
s may be responsible for the observed physi
al properties of
galaxies. Agob et al (1998) used a fra
tal spa
e
time has shown that the Solar System is a quantized system. They have found a
osmologi
al
Plan
k's
onstant for the galaxies of the order of
g 1067Js. With this huge value the expe
t a rah
dio emission to dominate galaxies. A similar form
of
osmi
quantum me
hani
s was suggested independently by Co
ke (1984). Re
ently (Arbab,
2004; 2001a) we have shown that the hierar
hi
al
problems of the matter buildup of the universe is
resolved with the idea of large s
ale quantization.
In this work, we provide the lower and upper limits
of our physi
al quantities. They are neither zero
nor innity. Consequently, innities
an not o

erned by this set of equations. Thus, the universe
appears at these stages the way it understood be
ause it is the only way it
ould. It turns out
that some of the physi
al quantities are relativisti
,
quantum, gravitational and ele
tromagneti
. This
is evident from the way it depends on the
orresponding
onstants. We remark that the speed of
light does not depend of the size of the system
under
onsideration. However, the Plan
k's
onstant depends on the size of the system sin
e its
unit is M L2T 1. Therefore, it is large for larger
systems and small for smaller systems. Hen
e, we
expe
t that its value for a ma
ros
opi
to be very
large (large M and L). The in
lusion of G into
the model is to represent gravity (mass), or equivalently to represent spa
etime.
In a re
ent work, we have found that for every
bound system (nu
leus, atom, star, galaxy, and
the whole universe) there is a
hara
teristi
Plan
k
onstant (Arbab, 2001a). Hen
e, a parti
ular system intera
ts quantum me
hani
ally with its
orresponding Plan
k's
onstant. With this pres
ription all gravitational phenomena are interpreted
in terms of quantum ones. With this remedy in
mind, the gravitational systems are su
essfully
des
ribed. Hen
e, any bound gravitational system
exhibits the quantum nature (phenomena) if it is
fully understood. We have seen that an obje
t
(mass) whether
harged or not exhibits the ele
tromagneti
phenomena. That is be
ause an ele
tromagneti
eld is asso
iated with every gravitational bound system. Thus, an (un)
harged mass
in a gravitational eld intera
ts as if it were a
harged mass pla
ed in ele
tromagneti
eld. Its
orresponding
ele
tromagneti
elds andvoltage
7 12
5 12
1
are E = h
Gk2 ; B = h
Gk2 and V =
G4 k 2 :
At the present time, some
osmologists believe
that a new gravitational phenomena is thought to
show up in extra dimension. An extra dimension of
10 17
m is thought to allow an exponential in
rease in the strength of gravity to where it would
mat
h the strength of the ele
troweak and strong
for
es at the remarkably modest energy of about 1
TeV. This is nearly 16 orders of magnitude below
the Plan
k s
ale, whi
h is 1019 GeV, the dogmati
ally assumed uni
ation energy of all nature's
for
es. If the extra dimension
on
ept is valid, then
gravity should parti
ipate equally with the strong
and ele
troweak for
es in the synthesis of exoti
new quanta in the supersymmetry mass range. Arguments are advan
ed to support the thesis that at
least one of these quanta should be endowed with
a pseudogravity eld, whose strength is equal to
the ele
tromagneti
eld in its low energy form.
We, however, have shown in an earlier work that
the gravitational
onstant at Plan
k's time is the
2
Arbab I. Arbab
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
ur in our physi
al world, i.e., no ultraviolet no
infrared
atastrophes in our theories. Thus, we
noti
e that no fundamental
onstant
an be set to
zero ( 6= 0; h 6= 0; et
) as this would violate
the
osmi
quantum hypothesis. Sin
e the a
tion
of the universe is very large in
omparison with
Plan
k
onstant, one
an use the WKB approximation to write down a eld theoreti
model for
su
h an approa
h. This is feasible sin
e our
osmi
system anti
ipated to involve large numbers
quantization.
time, regarding the universe as a sphere, one nds
the same value. This for
e is attributed as due to
quantum va
uum
u
tuations of the ele
tromagneti
eld. Hen
e, one realizes that su
h a quantum nature does still exist, and has now be
ome
sizable.
One
an dene a gravitational
harge as
r
(2.5)
= Gk M ;
for a system whose gravitational mass is M . Moreover, we have shown re
ently that the Plan
k
onstant for large s
ale system is dened by (Arbab,
2001a)
q
II. THE MODEL
2
P
;
(2.6)
= GM
h
where MP is the
osmi
Plan
k's mass. This equation represents a bipass from ele
tri
system to
gravitational system. So if some phenomena is
known in one system the
orresponding quantity
will be expe
ted to take pla
e for the other system.
Spa
etime is
onne
ted by strings whose tension
is dened by
In order to unify gravity with ele
tri
ity and
magnetism one requires that only fundamental
onstant des
ribing these domains should appear.
These systems are des
ribed by the following
onstant:
G ; k ;
; h :
(2.1)
With this pres
ription, one
an dene the quantum ee
t of gravitational and ele
tromagneti
systems. In order for gravity to unify with ele
tri
ity, they should have on
e had same strength.
This would mean that one had at some time the
equation
Gm2
= kq2 ;
(2.2)
where k = 41 0 is the ele
tri
al
onstant, whi
h
means that gravitational and ele
tri
for
es between elementary parti
les with mass m and
harge q were equal. We argue that this for
e however remains un
hanged (
onserved). Its value at
Plan
k's time and today is the same; and all other
for
es are derived from it. Its value at Plan
k's
time is
FP
2
P
= Gm
1043 N;
r2
P
r T
is also appli
able. If the ee
tive Plan
k's area
is really in
reasing ass the universe expands,
that suggests the universe will be
ome more and
more gravitationally quantized larger s
ales. The
Plan
k's area is given by the produ
t of the
lassi
al gravity radius and the quantum radius as
GM h
A=
:
= Gh :
(2.9)
(2.3)
2
and its value today is
F0
2
0
= GM
1043 N;
R2
0
4
= 8
G ;
(2.7)
This value happens to be very huge. It implies that
the spa
etime is in
redibly sti (T 1043N) and
no stressenergy density
an make it bend no matter how big it is. The string has a duality prin
iple
that for a physi
al quantity r the relation
1 ;
h
r0 =
(2.8)
T
M
3
Now we see that this area at Plan
k's time (Apl )
and at the present time (A0 ) are respe
tively
AP 10 69 m2 ;
(2.10)
and
A0 1052 m2 ;
(2.11)
respe
ting the above mentioned duality. Thus, the
two theories would be appli
able. We see that the
same formula governs the mi
ros
opi
as well as
ma
ros
opi
worlds. Therefore, the two worlds are
omplementary to one another.
Now dene the following physi
al quantities des
ribing our system as follows:
(2.4)
where R0 1026 m, rP 10 35 m, mP 10 8 kg
and M0 1053 kg. It seems the gravitational
for
e tiding the universe is
onserved. In 1948
Casimir has found an attra
tive for
e between two
8h
A, where A is the
plates of the form F = 480
L4
area of the plate and L is the separation between
the two plates. If one
al
ulates this for
e for the
present time with the
osmi
Plan
k's
onstant
(h 1087J:s, see the next se
tion) and Plan
k's
3
Arbab I. Arbab
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
A. Ele tromagneti quantities
Q
These quantities provide limiting values for a
essible physi
al quantities. A
ording to our hypothesis, one
an write this in terms of our fundamental
onstant as
B
=
Gh
k
1
2 2
I
=
6
Gk
12
m
E
=
21
7 k
hG2
(2.15)
V
=
4 k
G
21
I
(2.16)
:
21
5 k
= h G2 :
The magneti
ux density is given by
B
=
k h
12
(2.17)
11
12
= h
G3 :
The surfa
e energy is given by
U
= A =
Gh
3
12
S
=
7
hG3
21
=
:
2
(2.25)
8
:
G2 h
(2.26)
Gh3
5
12
(2.27)
:
2
G
(2.28)
:
3
G
(2.29)
:
The ele tri ondu tivity is dened by
=
5
hk2 G
12
:
(2.30)
The a
eleration of the quantum
uid lling the
spa
etime is giving by
a=
(2.20)
7
Gh
12
:
(2.31)
The a
eleration of a
harged parti
le (of
harge q
and mass m) in an ele
tri
eld (E ) is given by
The surfa e mass density is dened as
=
Q=
(2.19)
:
7
:
G2 h
The mass ow rate is dened by
The surfa
e tension ( spa
etime stiness
onstant)
is dened as
=
(2.18)
:
The gravitational eld is dened as
The magneti eld is dened as
(2.24)
The moment of inertia of a gravitating mass about
its
enter is given by
The potential dieren e is given by
:
B2
k
The amount of energy emitted per unit time per
unit area (energy
ux) is given by
=
:
(2.22)
(2.23)
=
=
P
The ele tri eld E is dened as
:
:
The pressure is given by
(2.14)
:
12
5
= h
G2
This
an be written as
m
This is dened formally by
(2.13)
B = IA ;
where I is the
urrent
owing around the loop
whose area is A. Using eq.(9) the above equation
yields,
=
10
h2 G3 k
The magneti
(ele
tri
) eld
ontribution to mass
density is given by
(2.12)
;
a=
(2.21)
q
E;
m
(2.32)
where E is dened above. Using eq.(5) this equation yields
The ele
tri
harge density is dened as
4
Arbab I. Arbab
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
a=
12
G
k
Moreover one nds that the mass and the diusion
onstant are \
anoni
al
onjugate" to ea
h other,
i.e.,
DM = h
:
(2.40)
It has been emphasized by Kozlowska and Kozlowski (2003) that as time goes one the universe
be
omes more and more quantum on large s
ale by
allowing h ! 1. They
on
luded that the prevailing thermal pro
ess for thermal phenomena in the
universe (that taking pla
e on large s
ale) is the
diusion.
(2.33)
E;
valid for all gravitationally bound system. This
a
eleration
oin
ides with the denition
a=
GM
R2
(2.34)
;
for a gravitational system with mass M and radius
R. We remark here the spa
etime (va
uum) a
elerate due to its very nature. This a
eleration
is required to allow the matter to be pla
ed in it.
That is be
ause there is a limiting mass that
an
be pla
ed 2at a given region. This is given by the
quantity
G mentioned above. The energy embedded in this spa
e time de
ays to give the matter
we observe today. However, the de
ay (transfer)
rate is3 limited to the value governed by the quantity
G . The spa
etime a
elerate to give more
spa
e for the
reated matter to be pla
ed in. Thus,
spa
etime (va
uum/quantum) should have a definite geometri
stru
ture. Thus, spa
etime represents a state of a minimum energy. Hen
e, energy
an not be destroyed
ompletely. The remnant of
it will
orrespond to spa
etime. The minimum
energy (ground state) may not be noti
eable. But
its ee
t
an be observed by the way in whi
h the
primeval matter is
reated in the universe. So this
minimum energy state would provide us with a universal referen
e for the motion of matter.
One
an dene a
apa
itan
e of a gravitoele
tromagneti
system as follows
12
hG
C=
k 2
3
III. PLANCKIAN DOMAIN
We
al
ulate the above quantities at Plan
k's
times. Now we see that
BP
IP
= EC =
4
Gk
12
:
EP
D=
Gh
12
:
D=
2
k
:
=
BP
21
44
J=T ;
1025 Amp :
(3.1)
(3.2)
7 k
hG2
12
1061 V=m ;
(3.3)
=
5 k
hG2
12
1053 T:
(3.4)
The Plan kian magneti ux density is given by
(2.36)
P =
k h
12
10 17 Wb:
(3.5)
The magneti
(ele
tri
) eld
ontribution to mass
density is given by
(2.37)
Using eq.(31) one nds that
Da =
3 :
(2.38)
This means that a highly a
elerating obje
t is less
diusing, and vi
e versa. One
an also write the
equation relating the ele
tri
al
ondu
tivity () to
the diusion
onstant (D) as
=
6
Gk
10
whi
h is a typi
al Plan
kian eld. The Plan
kian
magneti
eld density is
One an dene a diusion onstant (area/se ) as
12
Gh2
k
The Plan kian ele tri eld intensity is given by
The
harge per unit length (q ) is given by EC , or
q
=
and
(2.35)
:
mP
=
B2
k
1097kg=m3 :
(3.6)
The surfa
e tension of the universe at Plan
k's
time is given by
P
=
11
hG3
12
1078N=m:
(3.7)
The surfa e mass density at Plan k's time is dened as
(2.39)
5
Arbab I. Arbab
=
SP
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
12
7
hG3
1061kg=m2 :
whi h is a typi al nu lear eld. The nu lear magneti eld density is
(3.8)
The pressure exerted at Plan
k's time is given by
=
PP
7
G2 h
10112 N=m2 :
(3.9)
The ele tri Plan kian harge density is given by
N =
12
10
1086 C=m3 ;
(3.10)
2 G3 k
h
whi
h is a enormously huge quantity. The a
eleration of the quantum
uid lling the spa
etime
at Plan
k's time is given by
QP
=
aP
=
7
Gh
12
1051m=s2 :
P =
8
G2 h
10 W=m :
120
2
N
(3.12)
UN
=
IN
=
and
6
GN k
12
10
24
J=T ;
105 Amp :
EN
=
7 k
hG2N
12
1020 V=m ;
=
=
N
(4.7)
B2
k
1015 kg=m3 :
(4.8)
12
11
hG3N
1018N=m:
(4.9)
GN h
3
12
10 12J 10 MeV: (4.10)
=
2
GN
10 13kg=m :
(4.11)
This denes the maximal mass that
an be pla
ed
inside the nu
lear gravitational eld. Thus the
maximal mass whi
h
an be pla
ed over a distan
e
of 10 15m is 10 28kg. Therefore, the mass of the
nu
leus we
ome to know toady is the only possible
mass that the nu
leus
an hold. That is be
ause
the spa
etime tension inside the nu
lear region is
ex
eedingly weak (i.e. T 103N), in
omparison
with the tension outside ( whi
h is 1043N). The
diusion
onstant for nu
lear domain is
(4.3)
(4.4)
DN
The nu lear ele tri eld intensity is given by
10 17Wb:
This
oin
ides with the typi
al value for the binding energy per nu
leons. We would like to remark here the s
ale (QCD ) for quantum
hromodynami
s (QCD) is found o be in this range
(QCD = 66 10M eV ).
The gravitational eld inside the nu
lear region
is
This gives a range of about 1 Fermi, that is a typi
al distan
e for nu
leons. Now we see that
BN
12
The surfa e mass energy of the nu leus is given by
We see that the Plan
k's area inside the nu
lear
domain is given by
GN h
10 30 m2 :
AN =
(4.2)
3
21
k h
We see that the nu
lear density is independent of
the number of nu
leons present.
The surfa
e tension of a nu
lear medium is given
by
(3.11)
From an earlier work (Arbab, 2001b) we have
shown that inside the nu
lear region, the Newton's
onstant (GN ) is given by
GN 1040 G :
(4.1)
GN h2
k
=
mN
IV. NUCLEAR DOMAIN
The magneti
(ele
tri
) eld
ontribution to mass
density is given by
The amount of energy emitted per unit time per
unit area (energy
ux) during Plan
k's time is
given by
12
5
1012 T:
(4.6)
= h
Gk2
N
The nu
lear magneti
ux density is given by
BN
=
GN h
12
10 7 m2 =s :
(4.12)
Therefore, during the nu
lear time the diused
area of the nu
lear
onstituents is 10 30 m2 . This
(4.5)
6
Arbab I. Arbab
Afri
an Journal Of Mathemati
al Physi
s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
The diusion
onstant the nu
lear medium is given
by
is a typi
al area of nu
lear size. The surfa
e mass
density inside the Nu
lear region is dened as
SN
=
7
hG3N
12
102kg=m2 :
The
pressure
exerted
medium(quantum) is given by
=
PN
7
G2N h
by
1032N=m2 :
(4.13)
DN
nu lear
QN
10
G3N k
h
=
2
1026 C=m3;
(4.14)
N
4
= 8G
103N :
(4.15)
aN
=
12
7
GN h
1031m=s2 :
=
4
GN k
12
10 3C=m:
N =
8
G2N h
10 W=m :
40
2
7
m2 =s :
(4.20)
9
G3N h
12
109 Ns=m2 :
(4.21)
3
This gives a range of about 108m, that is a typi
al
distan
e for stars. Now we see that
BS
=
and
IS
=
12
Gh2S
k
6
Gk
21
1042 J=T ;
1025 Amp :
(5.2)
(5.3)
The nu lear ele tri eld intensity is given by
(4.17)
7
12
(5.4)
= h
Gk 2 1017 V=m ;
S
whi
h is a typi
al nu
lear eld. The nu
lear magneti
eld density is
ES
(4.18)
BS
Thus, for a nu
lear dimension one has a
harge
of an order 10 3 10 15 10 18C, whi
h is the
harge of the nu
leus.
The amount of energy emitted per unit time
per unit area (energy
ux) in the nu
lear region
is given by
=
S
The
harge per unit length in the nu
lear region is
given by
q
10
For su
h a system (Globular Cluster) one has a
orresponding Plan
k's
onstant hS 1052 Js. We
see that the Plan
k's area inside the star domain
is given by
Gh
S 1017 m2 :
(5.1)
A =
This
oin
ides with the value
al
ulated for the
quarks
onned in side hadrons. It is s thought
that a quarkantiquark is made if one tries to separate strongly intera
ting parti
les, in whi
h
ase
the string tension is broken.
The a
eleration of the quantum
uid lling the
spa
etime inside the nu
leus is given by
12
V. STAR DOMAIN
(4.16)
N
GN h
This value suggests that the nu
lear
onstituents
move freely in this nu
lear medium. This may elu
idate the fa
t that quarks are free inside hadrons.
thus having the same magnitude as the nu
lear
mass density. This implies that inside the nu
leus both ele
tri
ity and gravity dominate. We
al
ulate here the ele
tri
eld of an ele
tron
whose radius
is 10 15m. This is given by
2
E = ker 1020 Vm 1 and its mass density is
14 kg m 3 , and its
harge density is
e
= m
r 3 10
e
e = r3 1026 C m 3 . Comparing these values
with the above data one sees that an ele
tron as a
single system resembles a nu
leus.
The nu
lear tension is given by
TN
One an dene a oeÆ ient of vis osity for the nu lear medium as
The ele
tri
nu
lear
harge density is given by
! 12
=
=
5 k
hS G2
12
109 T:
(5.5)
The star magneti
ux density is given by
S =
k hS
12
1027 Wb:
(5.6)
The magneti
(ele
tri
) eld
ontribution to mass
density is given by
(4.19)
7
Arbab I. Arbab
mS
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
=
B2
k
108kg=m3 :
The gala ti magneti ux density is given by
(5.7)
=
S
11
hS G3
12
1035N=m:
0:1 C=m3 ;
(5.9)
2S G3 k
h
This implies that inside the stars ele
tri
ity is
onsiderable. The a
eleration of the quantum
uid
lling the spa
etime inside the stars domain is
given by
=
QS
=
aS
7
GhS
12
10 m=s :
8
S
=
9
G3 hS
21
10 Ns=m :
27
2
QG
(5.11)
=
aG
3
BG
=
and
IG
=
6
12
10 J=T ;
58
10 5kg=m3 :
(6.7)
11
hG G3
12
1027N=m:
(6.8)
10
2 3
hG G k
12
10
33
C=m3 ;
(6.9)
=
12
GhG
1025 m2 =s:
(6.10)
=
7
GhG
12
10 1m=s2 :
(6.11)
The oeÆ ient of vis osity in this region is
This gives a range of about 1017 m, that is a typi
al
distan
e for galaxies. Now we see that
21
B2
k
This
an be
ompared with value obtained by Agob
et al., whi
h is 1:9 1026 m2 =s.
The a
eleration of the quantum
uid lling the
spa
etime inside the galaxies is given by
For su
h a system one has a Plan
k's
onstant
G 1068 Js. We see that Plan
k's area inside the
h
gala
ti
domain is given by
Gh
G
A =
1033 m2 :
(6.1)
Gh2G
k
(6.6)
whi
h is a vanishing small quantity. The diusion
onstant (area/se
) for this system is
VI. GALACTIC DOMAIN
1035Wb:
The ele tri gala ti harge density is given by
DG
G
=
G
The oeÆ ient of vis osity in this region is
12
The surfa
e tension of a gala
ti
medium is given
by
(5.10)
2
=
mG
12
10
k hG
The magneti
(ele
tri
) eld
ontribution to mass
density is given by
(5.8)
The ele tri nu lear harge density is given by
G =
The surfa e tension of a star medium is given by
G
(6.2)
=
9
3
G hG
12
1018 Ns=m2 :
(6.12)
VII. COSMIC DOMAIN
1025 Amp :
(6.3)
(6.4)
Here the system is des
ribed by the Plan
k's
onstant h
1087 Js. We see that the Plan
k's area
inside the nu
lear domain is given by
Gh
1052 m2 :
A =
(7.1)
whi h is a typi al gala ti eld. The gala ti magneti eld density is
This gives a range of about 1026 m, that is a typi
al
distan
e for our present universe. Now we see that
Gk
The gala
ti
ele
tri
eld intensity is given by
EG
=
BG
=
7 k
hG G2
12
5 k
hG G2
1010 V=m ;
12
10 T:
2
(6.5)
B
8
=
3
Gh2
k
12
1077 J=T ;
(7.2)
Arbab I. Arbab
and
I
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
=
6
Gk
The mass ow rate is dened by
12
10 Amp :
(7.3)
25
Q
E
=
12
7 k
h
G2
1 V=m ;
(7.4)
whi
h is a typi
al
osmi
eld. The
osmi
magneti
eld density is
B
=
5 k
h
G2
12
10 T:
S
(7.5)
8
=
k h
12
1044 Wb:
=
B2
k
10 26kg=m3 :
(7.6)
11
(7.7)
21
(7.8)
= h
G3 1018N=m :
The surfa
e energy of the universe is given by
U
=
Gh
3
12
1070J :
(7.9)
The amount of energy emitted per unit time per
unit area in whole universe is given by
=
8
G2 h
1W=m2 :
Q
(7.10)
=
G
1027 kg=m :
(7.12)
7
h
G3
12
102kg=m2 :
(7.13)
=
7
G2 h
10 9N=m2 :
(7.14)
=
10
2 3
h
G k
12
10
36
C=m3 ;
(7.16)
Again, this implies that the present universe
an't
be dominated by ele
tri
ity today. The a
eleration of the quantum
uid lling the spa
etime at
present's time is given by
We see that the va
uum energy
ux today is in
redibly small in
omparison with one at Plan
k's
time. It is 120 orders of magnitude smaller. The
gravitational eld is dened as
2
1035kg=se :
Comparing this with the Plan
k value one nds
PP
= hh
10122 :
(7.15)
P
Hen
e, not only the
osmologi
al
onstant today is
122 orders of magnitude, but several other
osmi
quantities. One therefore should not be puzzled
by the smallness of the
osmologi
al
onstant, but
by the whole other
osmi
quantities as well. This
is a manifestation of a
osmi
quantization of our
universe at all levels. It therefore very natural to
observe these hierar
hies in our physi
al world. I
think be
ause of these hierar
hies our universe is
unique, and without them we might not have a
universe lasting for 10  15 billion of years!
The ele
tri
osmi
harge density is given by
The surfa
e tension of a
osmi
medium is given
by
=
P
The magneti
(ele
tri
) eld
ontribution to mass
density is given by
m
G
The pressure exerted by va
uum(quantum) at the
present time is given by
The osmi magneti ux density is given by
3
This implies the universe developed its entire mass
during a time of 1018 se
: We therefore see that the
universe appears the way it is, be
ause it is a highly
onstrained system.
The surfa
e mass density of the whole Universe
at the present time is dened as
The osmi ele tri eld intensity is given by
=
a
(7.11)
=
7
Gh
12
10
10
m=s2 :
(7.17)
We therefore expe
t all obje
ts to have experien
ed
a uniform a
eleration due to expansion of the
osmi
uid lling the whole universe. Thus, every
obje
t will experien
e this a
eleration as far as
it
oats on spa
etime. However, su
h an a
eleration is observed in Casimir experiments and re
ently observed by Pioneer satellite. The diusion
onstant for the
osmi
domain is given by
This denes the maximal mass that
an be pla
ed
in gravitational eld. Thus the maximal mass
whi
h
an be pla
ed over a distan
e of 1026 m is
1053kg. Therefore, the mass of the universe we
observe toady is the only possible mass that the
universe
an hold.
9
Arbab I. Arbab
D
=
Afri an Journal Of Mathemati al Physi s Vol 2 No 1 (2005)110
Gh
12
1034 m2 =s :
the present
osmi
quantities are related by the
Plan
kian ones by a fa
tor that depends on Plan
k
onstants of the two systems. This fa
tor takes
into a
ount the smallness and the vastness of the
atomi
and
osmi
realms when
ompared to ea
h
other. However, sin
e GP = G0 (Arbab, 2001b),
one denes this fa
tor as:
(7.18)
Therefore, during the
osmi
time the diused area
of the
osmos
onstituents is 1052m2 . This is a
typi
al area of
osmi
size. It has been emphasized by Kozlowska and Kozlowski (2003) that as
time goes one the universe be
omes more and more
quantum on large s
ale by allowing h ! 1. They
on
luded that the prevailing thermal pro
ess for
thermal phenomena in the universe (that taking
pla
e on large s
ale) is the diusion.
One
an dene a
oeÆ
ient of vis
osity for the
osmi
medium as
=
9
G3 h
21
109 Ns=m2 :
N
T
:
=
h
h
1061
(8.1)
;
so that the mass, density, a
eleration and pressure
of the universe are
1 ;
(8.2)
M = (N ) M ;
=
0
(7.19)
0
P
1
a0 =
N
This means that today the
osmos are moving
freely and that the ideal
uid approximation is
valid for the present era. We however, see that the
vis
osity
oeÆ
ient for the nu
lear medium and
osmos are the same. This implies that the quantity G3 h
= G3N h is
onserved. Thus the universe
at the very large and the very small s
ales is governed by the same rules and shows a similarity as
regards to its surfa
e mass density, surfa
e tension
and vis
osity. This is be
ause we have the interrelations:
=
, =
S . One also
an write, using
eqs.(7), (37) and (73), the relation that
D=
s
N2
aP ;
P0
=
P
1
PP ;
N2
and; the radius, age, vis
osity and ele
tri
eld of
the universe are
R = (N ) RP ;
t0
P ;
E0
1
0 =
N
= (N ) tP ;
= 1 E
N
(8.3)
P
:
Hen
e, the present
osmi
quantities are big(or
small) when measured in Plan
kian units. The
main reason behind this is that the universe is
a very quantum (restri
ted) system. We observe
that most of the present quantities are 120 orders
of magnitude smaller than their Plan
kian
ounterparts. There must be some
onspira
y between the
fundamental
onstants that
an maintain a
riti
al
universe at all times. We therefore, argue that the
physi
al laws that govern the universe at its birth
are still lingering behind.
(7.20)
This shows that the diusion
onstant is inversely proportional to vis
osity
oeÆ
ient. Using
eqs.(38), (7), (19) and (37), eq.(116) yields
2
a ; (7.21)
=
a and
=
G
G
whi
h would mean that spa
e time a
elerates
faster in a more vis
ous medium than a less one.
The vis
osity of the universe at Plan
k's time was
very enormous (1070 Ns=m2 ) due to existen
e of so
many intera
ting parti
les whi
h mimi
s a vis
ous
ow. Sin
e the vis
osity of the present universe is
very small (109 Ns=m2 ), whi
h is 61 orders of magnitude smaller than its Plan
k value, one would expe
t that this phenomena had played a great role
in bringing the homogeneous and isotropi
universe
we
ome to observe now.
IX. REFERENCES
Agob, M. et al., Aust. J. Phy. V.51,9, 1998.
Arbab, A.I., Gen. Rel. Gravit. V.36, Nr.11, 2465,
2004.
Arbab, A.I., Spa
etime & Substan
e, V.2, 55,
2001a.
Arbab, A.I., Spa
etime & Substan
e, V.2, 51,
2001b.
DerSarkissian, M., Lett. Nouvo Cimento, V.40,
390, 1984.
Co
ke, W.J., Astrophys. J. Lett. V.23, 239, 1983.
Kozlowska, J.M., and Kozlowski, M.,
http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/astroph/0307168.
VIII. THE HIERARCHICAL UNIVERSE
We see from our analysis that the hierar
hi
al
stru
ture of our universe is due to that fa
t that
10
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