G en eral Rela tiv ity an d G ravi tation , Vol. 2 9, No.

1 , 1 997

Cosm ological Models W ith Variable Cosm ological and Grav itational ª Constantsº and B ulk Viscou s Mod els
Arbab I. Arbab 1
Rece ived October 30 , 19 95. Rev. ver sion A u gu st 2 3, 1996 A v iscous m odel w it h variable grav it at ional an d cosm ological con st ant has b een considered. Several solutions are present ed an d som e are shown t o be equivalent t o B erm an, Kalligas et al. an d B ran s± Dicke solut ions. KE Y W ORDS : Fried m an n cosm ological m odels ; in¯ at ion

1. INTRODUCTION T he role of viscosity in cosmology has been studied by several aut hors [1± 4]. T he bulk viscosity associat ed with grand uni® ed t heory phase transit ion can lead to the in¯ ationary universe scenario. It is well known that in an early stage of the universe when neut rino decoupling occurred, the matt er behaves like viscous ¯ uid [22]. T he coe cient of viscosity is known to decrease as the universe expands. B eesham [20] studied a universe consist ing of a cosmological constant ( L ~ t - 2 ) and bulk viscosity. He showed that the Berman model could be a viscous model for n = 1 . More 2 recently Abdel Rahman considered a model in which the gravit ational constant , G , varies wit h time but energy is conserved [11]. et al. [8,19]. In the present work we will invest igat e t he eŒ of viscosity in a universe ect where G and L vary in such a way that energy is conserved.

1

Depart m ent of P hy sics, Facu lty of Science, Un iversity of Kh art oum , P.O. 321, Khart oum 11115, Sudan 61
0001-7701/ 97/ 0100-0061$09.50/ 0 1997 P lenum P ublishing Corporation

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2. THE MODEL In a Robert son± Walker universe dt 2 = dt 2 ± R 2 ( t)

[

dr 2 + r 2 (d h 2 + sin h 2 dw 2 ) , 1 ± kr 2

]

(1)

where k is the curvat ure index. Einst ein’ s ® eld equat ions with time dependent cosmological and gravitat ional ª const ant sº Rmu ±
1 2 gm u R

= 8pG Tm u + Lgm u

(2)

and the perfect ¯ uid energy momentum tensor Tm u = (r + p)Um Uu ± yield the two indep endent equat ions 3 3 È Eliminat ion of R gives Ç 3(p + r) R = ± È R = ± 4pG 3p + r ± R pgm u (3)

Ç R2 L = 8pG r + 2 R 8pG

(

(

L
4pG

)
±

) )

,

(4) (5)

3k . R2

(

Ç Ç G L r+ r+ Ç G 8pG

R.

(6)

T he conservat ion of energy and moment um yields 3(p + r) = ± R dr . dR (7)

T he eŒ of bulk viscosity in the ® eld equat ion is to replace p by p ± 3gH , ect where g is the viscosity coe cient. It follows immediat ely t hat Ç 9gH R = and r + 3H (r + p) = 0 . Ç (9)

(

Ç Ç G L r+ G 8pG

)

R

(8)

C o s m olo g ic a l M o d e l s W it h V a r ia b le L a n d G

63

Equat ion (8) can be written as 9g H G9 L9 = r+ , R G 8pG (10)

where prime denot es derivat ive w.r.t scale factor R while dot is the derivative w.r.t t o cosmic time t. In what follows we will consider a ¯ at universe, k = 0. Equat ions (5) and (17) lead to 8pG r = 3( 1 ± and the equat ion of st ate p = (c ± in eqs. (8) and (9) leads to r = AR where A is a constant . 9g or H H9 = 2 r± R H r9 + 2b H9 r (1 ± b ) H
1 3c

b )H 2
1)r

(11)

(12)

,

(13)

(14)

H9 3c ( 1 ± b ) 1 9(1 ± + = H2 2R H

b )g0 A n 2

R-

3c n + 3c - 1

,

(15)

where we have taken the viscosity coe cient to have the power law g = g0 rn , and the ansat z g0 0, n const., (16)

L = 3b H 2 ,

b const .

(17)

T he solut ion of eq. (15) is obt ained as follows. Let y = 1/ H and a = [3c (1 ± b ) ]/ 2. T herefore d yR dR yR a

a

R - 3c n + 3 c - a - 1 , 2 9(1 ± b ) g0 A n - 1 - 3 c n + 3 c - a = R , 2(3c n ± 3c + a) = 9(1 ± b ) g0 A n - 1 R 2(3c n ± 3c + a)
3 c n + 3c

± 9(1 ±

b )g0 A n -

1

(18) (19) (20)

y =

,

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and ® nally H = 2(3c n ± 3c + a) 3 c n R 9(1 ± b ) g0 A n - 1
3c

.

(21)

Equat ions (11) and (21) give G = where D = Equat ion (21) gives R (t) = [3D c ( 1 ± Hence eqs. ( 13) and (22) become r(t) = A 9 t [- 1 / ( 1- n ) ] , G (t) = B 9 t [( 2 n - 1) / ( 1 - n ) ] , and g(t) = A 0 t [where A 9 = A[3D c (1 ±
2 1 / ( 1- n ) ]

3D 2 (1 ± b ) 3 c ( 2 n R 8pA

1)

,

(22)

2(3c n ± 3c + a) . 9( 1 ± b )g0 A n - 1

n )] [1 / 3 c ( 1 -

n ) ] [1 / 3 c ( 1 - n ) ]

t

.

(23)

(24) (25) (26)

,

n ) ] [-

1 / ( 1- n ) ]

,
1 ) / ( 1- n ) ]

B9 = and

3D (1 ± b ) [3D c (1 ± 8pA

n ) ] [( 2 n -

,

A 0 = A 9 n g0 . T he Hubble param eter is H (t) = 1 1 , 3c ( 1 ± n ) t (27)

where 0 £ n £ 1. T his condit ion on n rules out some models with n > 1 [3]. T he cosmological constant becomes

L=

b
3c 2 (1 ±

1 . n ) 2 t2

(28)

C o s m olo g ic a l M o d e l s W it h V a r ia b le L a n d G

65

T his law of variat ion of L is thought t o be fundament al [20]. T he deceleration param eter is given by q= ± È RR , Ç 2 R 3c n ± 1. (29)

q = 3c ±

T his shows that the decelerat ion paramet er is constant . T he constant decelerat ion models have considered by Berman and Som [9,15]. Equation (27) can be writt en as H = and for the present phase ª pº tp = 1 1 . (1 + qp ) H p (31) 1 1 , (1 + q) t (30)

It is evident t hat negat ive qp would increase the present age of the universe. From eq. ( 25) we obt ain Ç G 2n ± 1 1 = , G 1± n t and the present value is (32)

( )
Ç G G

=
p

2n ± 1 1 2n ± 1 = (1 + qp )H p . 1 ± n tp 1± n

(33)

A power law dependenc e of G was obt ained by Kalligas et al. [19], and was shown to lead nat urally to L ~ t - 2 . Unlike the model of Abdel Rahman and Beesham, this model shows a constant G does not imply constant L. We see that the quant ity G r satis® es the condit ion for a Machian cosmological solut ion i.e G r ~ H 2 (see Ref. 25) . T his also follows from the model of Kalligas et al. T he analogy of our model and that due t o Kalligas et al. is manifest ed in t he following replacem ent: n = 1 + nK 2 + nK and

b=

nK , 2 + nK

where n K is n due to Kalligas et al. T his furnishes the resemblance. Hence the Kalligas model is equivalent to a viscous model.

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3. THE HORIZON PROBLEM T he horizon dist ance, i.e., the size of the causally connect ed region, is given by t dt 9 d H = R (t) , R (t9 ) t0 3c ± 3c n d H (t, t 0 ) = (t, t 0 ) . 3c ± 3c n ± 1

s

We would like to have 3c ±

3c n = 1 so n = 3c ± 1 . 3c

Note t hat 3c ± 3c n > 0 implies n < 1. In what follows we will discuss some classes of models. 3.1. Mod el w ith n = 1 Equat ion (7) becomes d yR dR yR or H = Hence R (t) = F exp H 0 t, F const. which is an in¯ ationary solut ion. Such a solut ion has been obt ained by several aut hors [2,5,13]. * Here the density is not constant but has the following variat ion: r = AF
- 3c a

= ± =

9(1 ± 9( 1 ±

b )g0 A n 2 b )g0 A n 2a
1

1

R-

1- a

,

(34) (35)

a

R- a ,

c = H0 . 3g0

(36)

exp ± 3c H 0 t .

Such a solut ion was obt ained by Berman and Som for B rans± Dicke theory for scalar ® eld w where w = 1 / G [26]. In t he present case, however, G is not const ant during this epoch, viz. G (t) = M exp 3c H 0 t,
*

E di tor ’ s n ote : H. Oleak also m ad e a ª Rem ark on t he In¯ at ionary Un iverse Gen erat ed by B ulk V iscosity º in 1987; see A n n . P h ys. (Lei pzi g) 4 4 , 74.

C o s m olo g ic a l M o d e l s W it h V a r ia b le L a n d G

67

where M =

2 3H 0 F 3 c (1 ± 8p A

b)

.

3.2. Mod el w ith n = 1/ 2, c = 1 Equat ions (23) ± (25) become R (t) = E t 2 / 3 , r = A 0 t- 2 , and G = const.
2 - 1 . 3t

where E and A 0 are const ant s. T he Hubble param eter is H (t) = T his is the ¯ at f rw universe result . T he decelerat ion paramet er is q = ± 3n + 2 =
1 2

.

Since several aut hors claim t hat t he age of the universe comput ed from the f rw ¯ at model tends to be smaller than the range given by observat ion, 0 .6 < H p t p < 1 .4, our model could give a better value for any depart ure from n = 1 . However, it has been found that only n = 1 solut ions are 2 2 st ructurally stable [21]. It was shown by B eesham that the Berman solut ion (a power law for R ) is a viscous solut ion with n = 1 . T he relat ion between our model and 2 Berman’ s [9] is m = 3c ( 1 ± n ) . T he value of m in our case is not put by hand, but emerges nat urally from the dependen ce of the viscosity on the energy density (g ~ rn ) in a given epoch. T his solut ion seems more elegant . 3.3. Mod el w ith n = 0, c = 1 Equat ions (23) ± (25) give R (t) = F 9 t 1 / 3 , r = A 9 t- 1 , and G (t) = B t - 1 ,

where F 9 , A 9 and B are const ant s. T his is a model of constant bulk viscosity. It resembles the Brans± Dicke model [16]. We see that Ç G 1 = ± = ± 3H - 1 , G t (37)

( )
Ç G G

= ± 3H p p

1

(38)

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A rbab

T his solut ion was obt ained by Berman [15] for the Bertolami equat ion for the present phase. Note that in g r , k = 0, r= 1 - 2 t . 6pG (39)

W hether our result is acceptable or not depends up on the value we measure for ( r/ r) p for the present phase. Ç T his also resembles the Dirac no-creat ion model. For this class of solut ions q = 2. 3.4. Mod el w ith n = 2/ 3, c = 1 T he scale factor is R (t) = R 0 t, r = A 9 t- 3 , and G = B t,

where A 9 , R and B are const ant s. T his linear variat ion of G has been found by Berman [15] for the Bertolami solut ion for B rans± Dicke ( bd ) theory with a t ime-varying cosmological constant for the present phase. For t his model q = 0. 3.5. Mod el w ith n = 3/ 4, c = 4/ 3 T he scale factor is given by R(t) = F t, r = A 9 t- 4 , and G = B = const.,

where F , A 9 and B are constant s. T his solut ion was obt ained by B erman [15] for the B ert olami theory for t he radiat ion era. He also found that T µ R - 1 , preserving Stefan’ s law. It was also found by Abdel Rahman that a variable G and L model leads t o a similar result for the radiat ion universe [11]. In his model he considered L ~ R - 2 . For this class of models q = 0. 3.6. Mod el w ith n = 1/ 2, c = 4/ 3 For this model R (t) = F t 1 / 2 , r = A 9 t- 2 , and G = B = const .,

where F , A 9 and B are constant s. T his special value for n gives a constant G in bot h radiat ion and matter epochs. T his is equivalent to a f rw ¯ at universe. For t his class q = 1. 3.7. Mod el w ith g = g 0 H Using eq. (13) in eq. (14) we obt ain H9 3c (1 ± b ) 1 9(1 ± b )g0 3 c - 1 + = R . H3 2R H2 2A (40)

C o s m olo g ic a l M o d e l s W it h V a r ia b le L a n d G

69

Let y = 1/ H 2 . T his becomes dy ± dR 3c ( 1 ± b ) ± 9(1 ± b )g0 3 c - 1 y= R , 2R A d ± 9(1 ± b )g0 3 c - 1 yR - 2 a = R dR A 9(1 ± b )g0 3 c y = R , A(2a ± 3c ) (41)
2a

,

(42) (43)

and hence H 2 = N R3c

,

N =

A(2a ± 3c ) . 9(1 ± b )g0

(44)

Subst itut ing this in eq. (11) and using eq. (13) yields G = Hence R (t) = N 3N = const. 8pA
1/ 3 c 2 / 3c

t

.

T his reduces to the ¯ at f rw model with constant G . T his is equivalent to the solut ion with n = 1 . T herefore the assumpt ion g ~ H is equivalent to 2 g ~ r1 / 2 [12]. 3.8. Mod el w ith n = 2/ 3, c = 2 T he scale factor is given by R (t) = F t 1 / 2 , and r( t) = A 9 t - 3 , G (t) = B t, g(t) = g0 t - 2 ,

where F , A 9 and B are constant s. T his result is obt ainable from B erman [2] if we let A = 1 / 16p, B = 1 and m = 2. For this model q = 1. 4 3.9. Mod el w ith n = 1/ 2, c = 2 T he scale factor is given by R = F t1 / 3 , and r = A 9 t- 2 , G = B = const .

where F and A 9 are constant s. T his is the solut ion for the b d theory for the present phase, as shown by B erman and Som [15]. For t his model q = 2. T his solut ion was also found by B eesham for Bianchi typ e I models for n = 0 ( where c = n + 2, i.e. r ~ t - c ). Barrow showed that r ~ t - c dominat es the viscous term for all ¯ uids with 1 £ c £ 2 [3].

70

A rbab

3.10. Mod el w it h n = 1/ 2, c = 2/ 3 T he scale factor is given by R = F t, and r = A 9 t- 2 , G = const.

where F and A 9 are constant s. T hese are the solut ions obt ained by P imentel [14] for the scalar ® eld of the second-self creation theory proposed by B arber, assum ing a power law of the scalar ® eld and the expansion factor. T he resemblance is evident if we put n = n P + 3(c ± 6c 1)

.

n P in n due to P imentel. When n = 1 , the present case, n P = 3. For this 2 class of model q = 0. T here is no horizon problem associat ed with this solut ion. 3.11. Mod el w it h n = 1/ 2, c = 1/ 3 T he scale factor is given by R = F t2 , and r = A 9 t- 2 , G = const.

where F and A 9 are constant s. This is the wall-like matter. For this solut ion q = ± 1 . T his solut ion has been obt ained by B erman for the 2 radiat ion universe, i.e. a wall-like matter behaves the same as radiat ion in a viscous universe. 3.12. Mod el w it h n = 0, c = 1/ 3 T he scale factor is given by R = F t, and r = A 9 t- 1 , G = B t- 1 ,

where F , A 9 and B are const ant s. T his solut ion which solves for the power law is also Machian, i.e. G r ~ H 2 (see Ref. 25) . Such a solut ion has been not ed by B erman and Som for t he constant decelerat ion type with m = 0 [25]. / T his solut ion corresponds to the case m = 1. In t his case we see that the viscosity is constant , i.e. g = g0 . T his solut ion is a wall-like matter solut ion. T his model is free of the horizon problem . T his solut ion has been obt ained by P imentel [24] for the solut ion of B rans± Dicke theory with a constant bulk viscosity for the k = 0 solut ion. He has shown that these / solut ions satisfy the Machian condit ion and the second Dirac hypot hesis. Singh and Devi [23] studied cosmological solut ions in Brans± Dicke theory

C o s m olo g ic a l M o d e l s W it h V a r ia b le L a n d G

71

involving part icle creation and obt ained a similar solut ion for k = 0. Some other solut ions are as follows. a.T he Pim entel solu tion for the scalar tetradic theor y A Case I. T his solut ion of P imentel [4] is equivalent to our solut ion provided n P = ( bP ± and 2 + 3c )

bP = 2 ± 6c (1 ± n ) ,
where the subscript ª P º is the P imentel value. T herefore this solut ion is a viscous solut ion. T he viscosity ( g) varies as t - [( 2n P - b P + 2 ) ] / [( 2- b P ) ] . T he condit ion bP = 2 is equivalent to n = 1. Note that / / c = 2 1± or
x

(

1 x nP

)
2)

=

2 3c (2n ± 1)(c ±

.

Case II. T his solut ion is equivalent to our solut ion provided we make the following subst itution: 3c (1 ± n ) = 1 or nP = and therefore
x

2n ± 1 = 3c ± 1± n

2,

=

2( n ± 1) . (2n ± 1)( c ± 2)

T he viscosity coe cient in t his case varies as ~ t - ( 1+ n P ) ( bP = 0) . T he viscosity term in t his case ~ exp ± [(n p + 1) / (n p + 2)]t. b. Berm an solution Berman st udied a constant decelerat ion model [2]. Berman’ s equat ions (14) and (15) are equivalent t o our eq. (24) provided

b = 2n ± 1 £
A= and 1 12pc 2 (1 ±

0, n) ,

72

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B =

2n ± 1 . 3c (1 ± n ) 2
2

We conclude that Berman’ s solut ion is equivalent to a bulk viscous model with variable G and L. T he viscosity term here varies as g ~ t - [1 + ( B / 4 p A ) ] . More recently J ohri and Desikan [27] have considered cosmological models in Brans± Dicke theory wit h constant decelerat ion paramet er. T heir solut ion for a ¯ at universe [their eqs. (65) ± (67) ] are equivalent to our solut ion, i.e. eqs. (23) ± (25) with t he replacement of b = 3c ± 3c n ± 1, a = 3c (1 ± 2n ). c. Cosm ological expan sion in the presence of quadratic bulk viscosity (f) T his t erm appears as 3fH 2 in t he pressure term. Let us consider the f = const. case. It follows that (9gH + 3fH 2 ) Using eq. ( 4) we obt ain H9 + ± 3( 1 ± b )c H 2R 9( 1 ± b )g0 3 c R 2 Ç Ç Ç R G L = r+ . R G 8pG

3c n - 1

H ±

2

3( 1 ± 2

b )f

R

3c - 1

H = 0.

3

T his equat ion adm its a power law of the form H = aR m ,

a const .
1 2

Subst itut ing this in the above equat ion, we get m = ± (3c / 2) and n = Hence - (3c / 2) H = aR or R=

( )
3c a 2

2 / 3c

t2/ 3 c

T his is the familiar f rw ¯ at universe solut ion. If we take a general power law for f, i.e. f ~ rr for some r , it follows that only r = 1 is possible. T his case has been studied by Wolf [5]. He showed that a const ant r leads to the in¯ ationary solut ion. T his model is similar t o the one considered before (g = g0 r).

C o s m olo g ic a l M o d e l s W it h V a r ia b le L a n d G

73

4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION In this work we have presented a variety of classes of solut ions to Einst ein’ s ® eld equat ions containing variable L, G and bulk viscosity. We have list ed the forms of R, r, G and g as funct ions of time. T hese solut ions turned out to be power law, as are those suggest ed by Berman [2]. It was shown by Mahara j [7] that this is also valid for the scalar tensor theory of Lau for k = 0. All power law solut ions exhibit the feature of viscous solut ions wit h variable G . We have found that L ~ t - 2 for all epochs except the in¯ ationary one, where it remains constant . For n = 1 , G remains constant 2 during radiat ion and mat ter epochs. B eesham has shown t hat variable- L solut ions are equivalent t o a bulk viscosity one with g ~ r1 / 2 . However in the present model this behavior is more general, i.e. for any value of n . More experim ents are needed to limit this large number of models. Pandmanabha n and Chit r e [28] have not ed that bulk viscosity may be of relevance for the future evolut ion of the universe and if g decays su cient ly slowly, i.e. g ~ rn , n < 1 , then the lat e epochs of the universe 2 will be viscosity-dominat ed and the universe will enter a ® nal in¯ ationary era with a steady state charact er. We see that n = 1 is a critical value for G since those with n > 1 are 2 2 increasing and t hose wit h n < 1 are decreasing funct ions of time. We also 2 not ice that as one goes back t he eŒ of viscosity may not be negligible. ect ACK NOW LEDGEMENTS I wish to thank P rof. A.-M.M. Abdel Rahman for suggest ions and enlight ening discussions, and the University of Khart oum for research support . R EFER ENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Novello, M., an d Arau ju, R. A. ( 1980) . P hys. Rev . D2 2 , 260. B erm an , M. S. (1991) . G en . Rel. G rav . 2 3 , 465. B arrow , J . D. ( 1988) . Nu cl. P h ys . B 3 1 0 , 743. P im ent el, L. O. ( 1987) . A stro phys . Space Sc i. 1 1 6 , 387. Wolf, C. ( 1991) . S.-A fr. Tydskr F is. 1 4 . B eesh am , A. ( 1994) . G en . Rel. G rav. 2 6 ,, 159. Mahara j, S. D., an d Naido, R. ( 1993) . A strophy s. Spa ce Sc i. 2 0 8 , 261. Sist ero, R. F. (1991) . G en . Re l. G rav . 2 3 , 1265. B erm an , M. S. (1983) . Nu ovo C im en to B 7 4 , 182. B erm an , M. S. (1990) . In t. J . T h eor . P hys. 2 9 , 571. Ab del Rah m an , A.-M. M. ( 1990) . G en . Re l. G ra v. 2 2 , 655.

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12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Gr øn, é . ( 1990) . A strophy s. Spa ce Sc i. 1 7 3 , 191. Mu rphy, G. ( 1973) . P hys. Rev . D8 , 4231. P im ent el, L. O. ( 1985) . A stro phys . Space Sc i. 1 1 6 , 395. B erm an , M. S., an d Som , M. M. ( 1990) . In t. J. T heo r. P hys . 2 9 , 1411. B ran s, C ., and Dicke, R. H. (1961) . P h ys . Re v. D1 2 4 , 203. È Ozer, M., an d Taha, M. O . ( 1987) . Nu c l. P hys . B 2 8 7 , 776. P azam at a, Z. ( 1987) . In t. J . T heor . P hys . 3 1 , 2115. Kalligas, D., W esson , P., an d E verit t, C. W . ( 1992) . G en . Re l. G rav . 2 4 , 351. B eesh am , A. ( 1993) . P hys. Rev . D4 8 , 3539. Golda, Z., Heller, M., and Szy dlowski, M. ( 1983) . A strophy s. Spa ce Sc i. 9 0 , 313. Klim ek, Z. ( 1976) . Nu o vo C im en to B 3 5 , 249. Singh, R. K., and Dev i, A. R. (1989) . A stro phys . Space Sci . 1 5 5 , 233. P im ent el, L. O. ( 1994) . In t. J. T heo r. P h ys . 3 3 , 1335. B erm an , M. S. (1990) . In t. J . T h eor . P hys. 2 9 , 571. B erm an , M. S., an d Som , M. M. ( 1989) . P hys . Lett. A 1 3 9 , 119. J ohri, V . B ., an d Desikan , K. ( 1994) . G e n . Rel. G rav. 2 6 , 1217. P adm an ab han , T ., an d Chit re, S. M. (1987) . P h ys. Lett. A 1 2 0 , 433.

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