Catalogue of Notable Tunnel Failure Case Histories (up to October (up October 2012

)
Prepared by Mainland East Division Geotechnical Engineering Office Civil Engineering and Development Department

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Foreword

This catalogue of notable tunnel failures is primarily based on published information. Both overseas and local cases involving collapse or excessive deformation of the ground are included. For contractual and other reasons, there are relatively few cases reported in technical publications, and those reported are usually of such scale or seriousness that they have received public attention. Even for the cases reported, public reported, usually usually only only limited information is available. Apart from the cases included, readers can find other information on tunnel failure in the list of General References given at the end of this catalogue. This catalogue is a live document that will be updated from time to time as further information becomes available.

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Foreword
 
The main purpose of the catalogue is to disseminate information and promote awareness on tunnel failures which could pose a danger to life and property. The possible causes of the failures, the geotechnical problems and the lessons learnt, where these are known, are outlined in the catalogue. Readers should refer to the source reference documents quoted for details. Clients and works agents agents are advised to implement implement effective geotechnical risk management measures in the planning, investigation, design and construction of their tunnel projects.

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Foreword
 
The first edition of the catalogue was issued in February 2007 and was put together by Mr W Lee, supervised by Mr K J Roberts. The second edition issued in March 2009 was prepared by Ms L Y Pau, supervised by Mr L P Ho. This third edition was prepared by Ms L Y Pau, supervised by Mr K S Chau. GEO staff, members of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers Geotechnical Division Working Working Group Group on Cavern and Tunnel Engineering Engineering and other individuals have contributed to this Catalogue. All contributions are gratefully acknowledged.

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Ho Man Tin.Foreword   If any information in this catalogue is found to be inaccurate or out-of-date. Hong Kong. Kowloon. N F Chan Chief Geotechnical Engineer/Mainland East Geotechnical Engineering Office Civil Engineering and Development Department October 2012 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . please contact the Chief Geotechnical Engineer/Mainland East of the Geotechnical Engineering Office. 101 Princess Margaret Road. Civil Engineering and Development Department.

1985 Moda Collector Tunnel. Korea. 1965 Southend-on-sea Sewage Tunnel. 18 March 1970 Orange-fish Tunnel. London. 4. UK. Korea. Norway. London. Romania. UK. 1989 10. 6. 16 Dec. 1991 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 3. UK. 8. 9. Turkey. 1966 Rørvikskaret Road Tunnel on Highway 19. Green Park. ermany. 2. Holmestrand Road Tunnel. G Germany. 1980 1980 7. Seoul Metro Line 5 .Phase 2. 1964 Victoria Line Underground.Phase 2. 17 Nov. Seoul Metro Line 5 . South Africa. 1981 Gibei Railway Tunnel. Istanbul Sewerage Scheme. nderground. 27 Nov. Norway. 6. 5.Tunnel Failures – List of Overseas Cases 1. 1991 11. 1970 Munich U Munich Underground.

1992 13. 1998 20. Docklands Light Rail. Greece. UK. Seoul Metro Line 5 . 1994 16. UK. 23 Feb. 27 Sept. 21 Oct. Munich Underground. 11 Feb. 22 June 1995 18. 1 Feb. USA. 1993 15. Norway.Phase 2. Seoul Metro Line 5 .1995 19. Korea.Phase 2.Tunnel Failures – List of  Overseas Cases 12. Motorway Tunnels. Korea. Athens Metro. 1994 17. Lærdal Road Tunnel on European Highway E 16. Seoul Metro Line 5 . 7 Jan. Los Angeles Metro. Austria. Korea.Phase 2. Germany. 15 June 1999 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 1993 . 1991-1998 21. Heathrow Express. 1993 14.

Tunnel Failures – List of  Overseas Cases

22. Sewage Tunnel, Hull, UK, 1999
23. Taegu Metro, South Korea, 1 Jan. 2000 24. Channel Tunnel Rail Link, UK, Feb. 2003 25. Météor Metro Tunnel, France, 14 Feb. 2003 26. Oslofjord Subsea Tunnel, Norway, 28 Dec. 2003
27. Shanghai Metro, China, 2003
2003

28. Tunnel Failure, Japan, 2003
29. Guangzhou Metro Line 3, China, 1 April 2004 30. Singapore MRT, 20 April 2004 31. Kaoshiung Rapid Transit, Taiwan, 29 May 2004 32. Oslo Metro Tunnel, Norway, 17 June 2004
Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Tunnel Failures – List of  Overseas Cases

33. Kaoshiung Rapid Transit, Taiwan, 10 Aug. 2004 34. Hsuehshan Tunnel, Taiwan, 1991-2004 35. Barcelona Metro, Spain, 27 Jan. 2005 36. Lausanne M2 Metro, Switzerland, 22 Feb. 2005 37. Lane Cove Tunnel, Australia, 2 Nov. 2005
38. Kaoshiung 38. Kaoshiung R Rapid apid T Transit, ransit, T Taiwan, aiwan, 4 D Dec. ec. 2005

39. Nedre Romerike Water Treatment Plant Crude Water and Potable Water Tunnels, Norway, 2005 40. Hanekleiv Road Tunnel, Norway, 25 Dec. 2006 41. Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART), Malaysia, 2003 – 2006 42. Sao Paulo Metro Station, Brazil, 15 Jan. 2007
Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Tunnel Failures – List of  Overseas Cases

43. Guangzhou Metro Line 5, China, 17 Jan. 2008 44. Langstaff Road Trunk Sewer, Canada, 2 May 2008 45. Circle Line 4 Tunnel, Singapore, 23 May 2008 46. Hangzhou Metro Tunnel, China, 15 Nov. 2008 47. Cologne North-South Metro Tram Line, German, 3 March 2009 48. Brightwater Tunnel, USA, 8 March 2009 49. Seattle’s Beacon Hill Light Rail, USA, July 2009 50. Cairo Metro Tunnel, Egypt, 3 Sept. 2009 51. Shenzhen Express Rail Link, 27 March 2011, 4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 52. Hengqin Tunnel, Macau, 19 July 2012
Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Tunnel Failures – List of Hong Kong Cases
1. MTR Modified Initial System, Prince Edward Station, Nathan Road, 12 Sept. 1977 2. MTR Island Line, 22 Hennessy Road, 1 Jan. 1983 3. MTR Island Line, Shing On Street, Shau Kei Wan, 23 July 1983 4. MTR Island Line, 140-168 Shau Kei Wan Road, 16 Dec. 1983
5. Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200, Canton Road, 21 Oct. 5. 2006

6. Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200, Salisbury Road, 3
June 2007

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Overseas Cases  Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

 London. 1964 • Background • Tunnel (Green Park to Victoria) driven through London Clay using drum-digger shield • The failure • Inflow of sand and gravel. UK. burying most of the shield Civil Engineering and Development Department Clay & Takacs (1997) The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Green Park.

Green Park. 1964  • Possible cause of failure • The crown of the shield penetrated through the London Clay layer into sand and gravel • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . London. UK.

 UK.7m internal diameter) driven through London Clay using hand-shield and lined with cast-iron segments under a disused railway marshalling yard • The failure • Inflow nflow of of sand sand an and d grave gravel l Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Clay & Takacs (1997) . London.Victoria Line Underground. 1965 • Background • Tunnel (300m long and 3.

 1965 • Possible cause of failure • The shield was ineffective in supporting the overlying ground • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Victoria Line Underground. London. UK.

Southend­on­Sea Sewage Tunnel. UK. 1966 • Background • Tunnel driven through London Clay (40m long and 1.35m in diameter) • The failure • Water inflow into the tunnel Civil Engineering and Development Department Clay & Takacs (1997) The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

 1966 • Possible cause of failure • The tunnel intersected the bottom of an abandoned 600mm diameter well • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . UK.Southend­on­Sea Sewage Tunnel.

000m3 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Rørvikskaret Road Tunnel on Highway 19.  Norway. • The cave-in zone extended 30m along the tunnel and the total volume of material hauled out from the tunnel was Karlsrud (2010) about 75. cave-in continued from the shaft until autumn 1972.• Background • Road tunnel 726m long and 8m wide constructed by the drill-and-blast method • The failure • Tunnel face collapsed and a 100m high cave-in shaft from the tunnel up to the ground surface was created • The top top of the shaft on the ground ground surface had a dimension of about 25m x 50m • Although soft material was hauled out from the tunnel during the spring in 1971. 18 March 1970 .

Rørvikskaret Road Tunnel on Highway 19.  Norway.000m3 concrete into the shaft to form a plug from the tunnel up to 10m above the crown and another 4.000m3 of sand and stone from the top of the shaft above the concrete plug Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 18 March 1970 • Possible cause of failure • Preliminary investigation carried out without any drilling • Probe drilling was not performed during tunnelling • No stabilization measures to support a large swelling clay section before blasting • Consequences • Programme • Programme delayed delayed for more than 3 years years • Double the cost of the tunnel compared to the estimated cost • Emergency and remedial measures • Installation of corrugated steel vault. steel tubes and 500mm thick concrete lining was not successful • The cave-in ceased after filling of about 3.

Rørvikskaret Road Tunnel on Highway 19. 18 March 1970 • Lessons learnt • The importance of the adequate ground investigation to identify if weak ground is present and to provide measures to support the weak ground before tunnel excavation • Source • Karlsrud Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .  Norway.

200m above sea level) • Tunnelling using the rail-mounted drill and blast method and lined with insitu concrete • First failure – Heavy water inflow • Water inflow of about 55. almost perpendicularly Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 1970 • Background • Tunnel designed to carry irrigation water from the Orange River (80km long and 5.6km tunnel section flooded within 24 hours • Possible cause of failure • The tunnel passed through a shallow anticline and intersected a fissure.3m in diameter.Orange­fish Tunnel. about 75mm wide. South Africa. 1.000 litres/min into the tunnel at 14 bars • Entire 1.

 South Africa. 1970 • Second failure – Fire • Methane gas ignited by a blast • No explosion occurred as the gas did not reach the explosive concentration • The fire burnt for about 6 month • Possible cause of failure • Methane gas from a methane bearing fissure entered the tunnel during excavation • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Orange­fish Tunnel.

 1980 Construction Today (1994b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Munich Underground. Germany.

Munich Underground.5m and led to overstressing of the sprayed concrete temporary lining Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Germany. 14m deep sinkhole • Possible causes of failure • Local variation in geology with reduction in marl cover to 1-1. 1980 • Background • New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) construction of twin 6m diameter tunnels • The failure • 10m wide.

 1980 • Consequences • Delay to works • Remedial Measures • Void was backfilled with crushed rock and cement and pressure grouted Source • Construction Today (1994b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Munich Underground. Germany.

 Norway. 1981 • Background • Road tunnel 1.78km long and 10m wide tunnel constructed by the drill­ and-blast method • The failure • A minor cave-in from the face and partly from the crown occurred during the process of moving the steel formwork for cast concrete lining forward to the face • Possible cause of failure • A weak fault zone was encountered • No spiling bolts ahead of the face to support the weak ground Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Holmestrand Road Tunnel. 16 Dec.

Holmestrand Road Tunnel. 1981 • Consequences • More time (5 hours extended to 25 hours) required for hauling out and concreting the foundation for the mould • Lessons learnt • Spiling bolts ahead of the face in combination with fibre reinforced sprayed concrete. Norway. rock bolts. and reinforced ribs of sprayed concrete are required at the fault zones with extremely poor rock mass quality • Source • Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Karlsrud (2010) . 16 Dec.

 Romania. allowing water inflow >600 litres/min into the tunnel Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Clay & Takacs (1997) .Gibei Railway Tunnel.21km long and 9m in diameter • The failure • “Compact” fissured clay layer failed suddenly. 1985 • Background • Railway tunnel 2.

 1985 • Possible cause of failure • The tunnel penetrated a lens of waterlogged fine-grained sand just above the crown • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Gibei Railway Tunnel. Romania.

 Turkey. 1989 • Background • Tunnel constructed by Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) • The failure • Fine soil flowed into the tunnel forming a hole in the road as the TBM went through the rock into the soft ground Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Clay & Takacs (1997) .Moda Collector Tunnel. Istanbul Sewerage Scheme.

 Turkey. Istanbul Sewerage Scheme.Moda Collector Tunnel. 1989 • Possible cause of failure • The tunnel intersected a hidden area of soft clay • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea.  17 Nov. 1991 Lee & Cho (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

surface.  17 Nov. 1991 • Background • Construction of Seoul Metro tunnel near Majang by drill and blast method • The failure • After blasting : daylight collapse up to ground surface. involving the embankment of a river • 20m x 15m and 4m deep crater at the ground surface • Water from river flowed into the tunnel • Possible cause of failure • Thin weathered rock cover • Inflow of soil and groundwater Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Korea.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.

 1991 • Consequences • Roads collapse and gas mains fractured • Remedial measures • Backfilling the crater with soil followed by cement grouting and chemical grouting • Lessons learnt • • • • Insufficient ground investigation Unexpected groundwater inflow No tunnel face stability analysis No consideration of blasting effects closed to weathered zone with shallow cover Lee & Cho (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 17 Nov.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea.

 1991 • Source • Lee & Cho (2008) • Madrid (1996) • Shin et al (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 17 Nov.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea.

Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. 1991 Lee & Cho (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .  27 Nov. Korea.

Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. 1991 • Background • Construction of Seoul Metro tunnel near Dangsan by drill and blast method • The failure • 27 November 1991 10:40am : bl 10:40am blasting asting 4:00pm : rock falls at the tunnel face 10:00pm : soil and groundwater inflow into the tunnel • 28 November 1991 3:20am : substantial daylight collapse up to ground surface forming a 25m diameter crater Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Korea.  27 Nov.

 Korea. 1991 • Possible cause of failure • Weathered granite at the face and high permeability soil • Consequences • Three buildings collapsed • Several water mains.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.  27 Nov. gas pipes and sewerage were broken • Remedial measures • Backfilling the crater with soil followed by cement grouting and chemical grouting Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Cho (2008) . mains.

  27 Nov.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea. 1991 • Lessons learnt • • • • Insufficient ground investigation Unexpected groundwater inflow No tunnel face stability analysis No consideration of blasting effects closed to weathered zone with with s shallow hallow cover • Source • Lee & Cho (2008) • Madrid (1996) • Shin et al (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

 1992 Lee & Cho (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .   11 Feb.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea.

5 tonnes of soil flowed into tunnel • 38m wide x 6m deep crater at the ground surface Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 1992 • Background • Construction of Seoul Metro tunnel near Youido by road header • The failure • Significant inflow of groundwater • About 4.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea.   11 Feb.

   11 Feb.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. 1992 • Possible cause of failure • Weathered granite at the tunnel face and high permeability soil • Remedial measures • Backfilling the crater with soil followed by followed by cement grout grouting ing an and d chemical grouting • Lessons learnt • Insufficient ground investigation • Unexpected groundwater inflow • No tunnel face stability analysis Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Cho (2008) . Korea.

   11 Feb. Korea. 1992 • Source • Lee & Cho (2008) • Madrid (1996) • Shin et al (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.

 1993 Lee & Cho (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2. Korea.   7 Jan.

 Korea.   7 Jan. 1993 • Background • Construction of Seoul Metro tunnel near Yongdungpo by drill and blast method • The failure • Tunnel collapsed after removing spoil • Tunnel collapsed starting from the left side of the crown • 900m3 of loose material flowed into the tunnel and water inflow of up to 300 litres/min recorded Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.

   7 Jan. 1993 • Possible cause of failure • Weathered granite at the tunnel face • High groundwater pressure • Remedial Remedial measures • Backfilling the crater with soil followed by cement grouting and chemical grouting Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Cho (2008) . Korea.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.

Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.   7 Jan. Korea. 1993 • Lessons learnt • • • • Insufficient ground investigation Unexpected groundwater inflow No tunnel face stability analysis No consideration of blasting effects closed to weathered zone with shallow cover • Source • Lee & Cho (2008) • Madrid (1996) • Shin et al (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

 1993 Lee & Cho (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .   1 Feb. Korea.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.

 1993 • Background • Construction of Seoul Metro tunnel near Anyangcheon by road header • The failure • Daylight collapse when weathered granite found at the tunnel face • Groundwater flowed into the tunnel • 60m wide oval shaped area subsided Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.   1 Feb. Korea.

 Korea. 1993 • Possible cause of failure • Weathered granite and alluvium at the tunnel face • High groundwater pressure • Consequences Consequences • Six heavy plants buried • Remedial measures • Backfilling the crater with soil followed by cement grouting and chemical grouting Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Cho (2008) .   1 Feb.Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.

 1993 • Lessons learnt • Insufficient ground investigation • Unexpected groundwater inflow • No tunnel face stability analysis • Source • Lee & Cho (2008) • Madrid (1996) • Shin et al (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Seoul Metro Line 5 ­ Phase 2.   1 Feb. Korea.

 27 Sept. 1994 • Background • 7m diameter tunnel supported by sprayed concrete lining • The tunnel was assumed to be beneath a clay layer overlying water-bearing gravel and groundwater would not be drawn down down • The failure • Quick inflow of water and ground materials • Large subsidence crater quickly filled with groundwater • 20m wide. Germany. 18.Munich Underground.5m deep crater Construction Today (1994a) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

 1994 • Possible causes of failure • Layer of marl separating groundwater bearing layers was much thinner than originally assumed • Sand-infilled cracks in the marl layer acted as preferential pathways for water • Consequences • Bus fell into the crater • Three passengers killed • 30 people injured Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Construction Today (1994a) . 27 Sept. Germany.Munich Underground.

 27 Sept. Germany. 1994 • Remedial measures • Bored-pile wall to form a shaft • Excavation inside the shaft for rescue • Tunnel driven again using compressed air • Sources • Boos et al (2004) • Construction Today (1994a) • Ground Engineering (1994) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Munich Underground.

 UK.Heathrow Express Tunnel. 1994 Ground Engineering (2008) ICE (1998b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 21 Oct.

 21 Oct. 1994 • Background • NATM in London Clay • The failure • 10m diameter crater formed ICE (1998b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . UK.Heathrow Express Tunnel.

 1994 • Possible cause of failure • A series of design and management errors combined with poor workmanship and quality control • Consequences • • • • Differential settlement induced at ad adjacent jacent buildings buildings Services Terminal 4 halted for one month Remedial measures caused chaos at Heathrow Airport Recovery cost £150M (3 times original contract sum) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . UK.Heathrow Express Tunnel. 21 Oct.

Heathrow Express Tunnel. 1994 GROUND SURFACE CONTOURS LEGENDS 0 to +0. 21 Oct. UK.5m 0 to -1m -1 to -2m -2 to -3m > -3m Central Terminal Area Settlement Contours Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Heathrow Express Tunnel. 21 Oct. 1994 • Remedial measures • Backfilled with 13.000m3 concrete Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . UK.

1999) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . half of them were matters of management • However much engineers engineers are p pressured ressured to build q quickly uickly and cheaply. the industry will be judged by its own failures • Sources • Ground Engineering (2000) • HSE (1996. 2000) • ICE (1998b. 1994 • Lessons learnt • Measures to ensure safety must be planned • Do not lose sight of critical technical issues in the pursuit of time and cost reduction • Whilst a number of factors contributed to the collapse.Heathrow Express Tunnel. UK. 21 Oct.

 UK. 21 Oct.Heathrow Express Tunnel. 1994 1996 report 2000 report Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

7m diameter. which had been bored off line • Hard siltstone overlain by alluvium with groundwater level 10-12m below sur below surface face • The failure • 25m deep sinkhole caused by collapse of south bore • Serious cracking observed in temporary lining of north bore Civil Engineer International (1995) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . USA.Los Angeles Metro. 22 June 1995 • Background • Re-mining/remedial works to realign an existing TBM tunnel (6. 25m deep).

 USA. 22 June 1995 • Possible causes of failure • Failure occurred during removal of segmental lining in tunnel roof and relining of tunnel to correct the horizontal alignment • Unexpected ground conditions in the alluvium • Fractured water mains (unconfirmed) • Consequences Consequences • 30m length of a four lane road (Hollywood Boulevard) affected leading to road closure • Collapsed 250mm water main possibly contributing to failure • Broken gas pipe • Evacuation of local residents Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Los Angeles Metro.

300m3 of grout to fill void and stabilise area • Road resurfacing • Source • Civil Engineer International (1995) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Los Angeles Metro. 22 June 1995 • Remedial measures • Steel rings installed in tunnel either side of the collapse • 3. USA.

 1993 ­ 1995 • Background • Tunnel constructed in sandstone and shale with fault zones by the drill & blast method • Tunnel divided into 4 sections. maximum deformation of 120mm measured in the tunnel • 200m3 of loose material collapsed after a blast. T2 .760m and T4 – 1.Motorway Tunnels.461m3. Austria.562m. resulting in water inflow of up to 450 litres/min Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . namely T1 – T4 • T1 . T3 – 2.376m long.230m • Failures at T4 in 1993 • About 130 overbreak incidents with total volume of 1.

water inflow of up to 1. 1993 ­ 1995 • Two failures at T3 in 1995 • 650m3 of loose material flowed into the tunnel. Austria.Motorway Tunnels.500 litres/min recorded • Radial movement of rib of about 300mm occurred and water inflow of up to 1.500 litres/min recorded • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Docklands Light Rail, UK, 23 Feb. 1998

ICE (2004)

ICE (1998a)

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Docklands Light Rail, UK, 23 Feb. 1998
• Background
• Tunnel constructed for Docklands Light Rail (diameter 5.2m) by earth pressure balance TBM

• The failure
• 22m wide and 7m deep crater formed in the grounds of George Green School

ICE (1998a)

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Docklands Light Rail, UK, 23 Feb. 1998

• Possible causes of failure
• Insufficient overburden above the tunnel • High pressure within tunnel causing blow out failure

• Consequence
• Windows Windows up t to o 100 100m m away b broken roken b by y th the es shower hower o of f mu mud d an and d stones released

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Docklands Light Rail, UK, 23 Feb. 1998
• Lesson learnt
• To require specific assessments / calculations to demonstrate the adequacy of factor of safety against blow out failure

• Sources
• ICE (1998a) • ICE (2004)

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Athens Metro, Greece, 1991­1998

IMS

IMIA

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Athens Metro, Greece, 1991­1998
• Background
• Construction of the Olympic Metro under a turnkey contract (estimated cost about 2 billion ECUs) • Construction started in November 1991 and operation in 1998 • TBM (by Mitsubishi) used for construction of 11.7km long, 9.5m diameter tunnels located at a depth of 15-20m (with penetration rate ranging ranging from 1.6m to 18m per per da day y based on 18 18-hour-hour-per per-da -day y shift, depending on the ground conditions) • Cut and cover, supported by soldier piles, struts and prestressed anchor tiebacks for 6.3km long tunnels and stations • NATM for other short auxiliary tunnels and oval-shaped stations where existence of buried antiquities precluded open excavation

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Athens Metro, Greece, 1991­1998
• The failures
• Roof collapses of appreciable size often occurred • Large and occasionally uncontrollable overbreaks for TBM

• Possible causes of failure
• Ravelling of the ground seems to be due to insufficient strength in the intensely the intensely wea weathered thered an and d hi highly ghly t tectonised ectonised zones o of f Ath Athenian enian schist (which is a flysch-type sediment consisting of thinly bedded clayey and calcareous sandstones with alterations and subjected to intense folding, thrusting, faulting and fracturing) • Large muck openings of the TBM cutterhead which cannot adequately control muck-flow (the cutterhead operates in the open air, i.e. under atmospheric pressure)

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Athens Metro. Greece. 1991­1998 • Consequence • Major delay in TBM tunnelling • Remedial measures • Cavities caused by the TBM overbreaks was backfilled by grout (which sometimes reached the ground surface) • Source • • • • IMIA IMS Kavvadas et al (1996) Mihalis & Kavvadas (1999) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

11080 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Karlsrud (2010) .5km long and 9m wide constructed by the drill-and-blast method • The failure • A cave-in involving 17m length of tunnel and extending up to about 11-12m above the crown • The volume of the failed rock mass was estimated to be 1.100m depth.200­ 1. 15 June 1999 • Background • Road tunnel at 1. 24.  Norway.500m3 The Lærdal Tunnel CAVE IN DEBRIS 1200-1500m3 Ch.Lærdal Road Tunnel on European Highway E 16.

  Norway. 15 June 1999 • Possible cause of failure • Poor communication : the driller did not inform the engineer about abnormal drilling rate encountered • Expansion of the swelling clay under high stress to water during drilling of the rock bolts • The combination of the swelling of the clay and high stress produced a squeezing effect.Lærdal Road Tunnel on European Highway E 16. which resulted in gradual weakening of the rock mass in the tunnel • Consequences • The crew was evacuated in time and no one was hurt • About 10 days delay in the excavation works and cost increased for the remedial works Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

 15 June 1999 • Emergency and remedial measures • Reinforced ribs of sprayed concrete in The Lærdal Tunnel addition to layers of sprayed concrete Cave in and rock bolts were installed just zone behind the cave-in zone 700 m3 concrete • Rock material was hauled into the tunnel building up a barrier up to 2m below the crown and concrete was pumped through a steel pipe to fill the void above the debris • Debris was gradually hauled out with step wise installation of rock anchors and sprayed fibre reinforced concrete Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Face before cave in Concrete 11070 Debris Debris hauled out 1200-1500 m3 11080 11087 Karlsrud (2010) Ch.  Norway.no .Lærdal Road Tunnel on European Highway E 16.

 15 June 1999 • Lessons learnt • The importance of good communication between the driller and the engineer • Importance of having good understanding of the geological conditions and their influence on the stability • Swelling of clay in condition of high stress could provide a squeezing effect and result in weaking of the rock mass in a tunnel • Source • Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .  Norway.Lærdal Road Tunnel on European Highway E 16.

 1999 Boos et al (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Hull.Sewage Tunnel. UK.

Sewage Tunnel. 1999 • Background • Construction of a 10. UK.2m causing serious subsidence at surface • Possible cause of failure • Fluctuation of groundwater level caused by tidal effects resulting in vertical movement of the tunnel tube causing opening of joints Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .5km long underground sewer by earth pressure balance TBM (diameter 3.85m) supported by reinforced concrete segmental lining • The failure • Water and sand ingress • Tunnel subsided by 1. Hull.

 Hull. roads and utility lines • TBM had to be abandoned • Emergency and remedial measures • Ground freezing • Reconstruction of tunnel using sprayed concrete • Source • Boos et al (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Sewage Tunnel. 1999 • Consequences • Damage to buildings. UK.

 2000 Boos et al (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . South Korea. 1 Jan.Taegu Metro.

 2000 • Background • Construction of underground Taegu Metro • The failure • Failure of diaphragm wall • Excavation pit caved in • Possible causes of failure • Rapid fluctuation of groundwater level caused movement of unidentified gravel and sand strata • Additional loading on diaphragm wall was not considered in design Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . South Korea.Taegu Metro. 1 Jan.

 1 Jan.Taegu Metro. 2000 • Consequences • Bus buried and bus driver seriously injured • Three passengers killed • Neighbouring buildings suffered considerable damage • Remedial measures • Excavation Excavation p pit it b backfilled ackfilled • Subsoil grouted and diaphragm wall strengthened • Source • Boos et al (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . South Korea.

 Feb.Channel Tunnel Rail Link. UK. 2003 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ICE (2003) .

 Feb.8m diameter) to collapse ICE (2003) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .2m) • Boring at a depth of 21m • The failure • 10m diameter and 20m deep void formed i formed in nt the he ground ground b behind ehind a row o of f houses • Possible cause of failure • The vibration from the TBM may have caused the nearby wells (30m deep and 1. 2003 • Background • Tunnelling using TBM (diameter 8.Channel Tunnel Rail Link. UK.

Channel Tunnel Rail Link. UK. 2003 • Consequence • Three uncharted wells collapsed • Remedial measures • The voids were backfilled with grout • Source • ICE (2003) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Feb.

 14 Feb. 2003 Dubois & Rat (2003) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . France.Météor Metro Tunnel.

000m3 of sedimentary deposits collapsed underneath a school. occupying an area of 400m2 on plan Dubois & Rat (2003) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Météor Metro Tunnel. 14 Feb. France. 2003 • Background • Construction of Météor Metro Tunnel in Paris • The failure • About 3.

Météor Metro Tunnel. France. 2003 • Possible cause of failure • Not known • Consequences • No casualty • The school had to be closed for a y year ear affectin affecting g 900 students • Source • Dubois & Rat (2003) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 14 Feb.

Oslofjord Subsea Tunnel. Norway. which fell down from the crown and rested on top of the water shielding vault Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . which came down from the crown went through the frost insulated water shielding vault and down to the carriageway • Second failure involved about 3m3 of heavily weathered rock. 2003 • Background • Three major failures and many minor failures occurred at a road tunnel during in service • The failure • First failure occurred on 28 December 2003: about 20m3 of crushed and weathered rock involving with clay. 28 Dec. which came down from the springline and fell down to the invert • Third failure involved 2-3m3 of completely weathered rock.

28 Dec.Oslofjord Subsea Tunnel. 2003 First failure Third failure Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Karlsrud (2010) . Norway.

28 Dec. 2003 • Possible cause of failure • The humidity behind the vault constructed for frost insulated water shielding was high and the high content of swelling clay in the weathered rock started sucking water and expanded gradually over a long period of time • Consequences • Closure of the tunnel for more than 3 months for extensive repairs and upgrading of the tunnel support • Emergency and remedial measures • Complete removal of the vault before installing additional rock support including fiber reinforced shotcrete. Norway. rock bolts and reinforced ribs of sprayed concrete Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Oslofjord Subsea Tunnel.

Oslofjord Subsea Tunnel. 28 Dec. Norway. 2003 • Lessons learnt • The importance of proper geological mapping and rock mass classification • The need to identify swelling minerals and the potential of deterioration of strength in weathered rock • The importance of adequate support design for long-term stability in weathered rock • Source • Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

China. 2003 Boos et al (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Shanghai Metro.

2003 • Background • Expansion of the Shanghai Metro (上海地鉄) Line 4 crossing beneath the Huangpu River (黃埔江) • Two parallel tunnel tubes constructed by earth pressure balance TBM • The failure • Failure occurred during construction of a cross passage • Massive ingress of water and material at the face at a depth of 35m • Several metres ground subsidence Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . China.Shanghai Metro.

China.Shanghai Metro. 2003 • Possible cause of failure • Failure of ground freezing unit • Consequences • High rise office buildings seriously damaged • Flood protection dyke on the river badly damaged • Source • Boos et al (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Tunnel Failure in Japan. 2003 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Takahashi (2010) .

gravels and water took place at the point 900m away from the tunnel portal • A large crater was observed at the ground surface about 130m above the tunnel Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Takahashi (2010) .Tunnel Failure in Japan. 2003 • The failure • Ground collapse of an avalanche type containing cobbles.

Tunnel Failure in Japan. 2003 • Possible cause of failure • Existence of high groundwater pressure • Decrease in cover of the mudstone layer • Water path created by the investigation drillhole • Consequence • Programme delayed for about 2 years • Emergency and remedial measures • Filling the cave-in area by foam concrete • Grouting under the collapse area • Boring for drainage from the tunnel Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Filling with foam concrete Grout Takahashi (2010) .

2003 • Lessons learnt • The importance of adequate ground investigation before tunnelling • The importance of investigations and observations during construction for adopting appropriate support measures • Source • Takahashi (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Tunnel Failure in Japan.

Guangzhou Metro Line 3. 1 April 2004 ChinaDaily (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . China.

1 April 2004 • Background • Construction of a 58.6km is a single-tube shield TBM • The failure • Failure of a diaphragm wall • Possible cause of failure • Rapid fluctuation of groundwater level due to the heavy rainfall • Complicated geology including a layer of swelling soil Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Guangzhou Metro Line 3.5km long underground metro in which 45. China.

China.Guangzhou Metro Line 3. 1 April 2004 • Consequences • A three-storey building collapsed and sunk into the ground • Collapse of nearby underground water mains • Remedial measures • Backfilled with crushed rock and cement • Source • ChinaDaily (2004) • Soufun (2004) • Longhoo (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

20 April 2004 Government of Singapore (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Singapore MRT.

20 April 2004 • Background • An open cut tunnel excavated for Singapore MRT’s new Circle Line • Design and build • Excavated trench of 15m wide and 33m deep mainly in marine clay with some fluvial clay supported by 0.0m thick diaphragm wall which is 35-45m deep without rock socket • Steel struts: 4-5m horizontal and 3m vertical spacing • Bottom-up construction • Jet grouted base slabs • Layer 1-1.5m below ground • Layer 2-3m thick at 33.8-1.5m thick at 28.Singapore MRT.5m below ground (Layer 2 not yet constructed when collapse occurred) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Singapore MRT. 15 minutes before collapse • Collapse plan area was 100m by 130m • Settlement up to 15m • Diaphragm walls displaced • Steel struts mangled Government of Singapore (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 20 April 2004 • The failure • 9th level of struts being installed when collapse took place • Unusual cracking and groaning noises heard early in the morning (6 hours) • Loud cracking noise heard in the afternoon.

for example. excessive wall deflections and surging inclinometer readings • Poor construction quality • Ineffective instrumentation and monitoring system • Failure to implement risk management • • • • Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Singapore MRT. 20 April 2004 • Possible causes of failure Under-design of the strut-waler connection in the strutting system Incorrect use of Finite Element Method No proper design reviews Disregard of different warnings.

Singapore MRT.000 people and 700 businesses affected • Three offices and retail towers at risk from further ground movement • Damage of a gas service line. destroyed • Four workers killed • Several others injured • 15. 20 April 2004 • Consequences • Part of Nicoll Highway. Singapore’s major east-west harbour-front road. resulting in an explosion and fire • A storm drain damaged Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Singapore MRT. 20 April 2004 • Remedial measures Rescue and backfilling Structurally disconnected the Merdeka Bridge All contracts of the Circle Line put on hold All contracts to carry out checks and review of design and construction of temporary works • All Professional Engineers to confirm in writing the adequacy of their designs • All designs to be independently checked by the Building & Construction Authority • • • • Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

design review and independent checking.Singapore MRT. corporate competencies and safety management • The safety of temporary works is as important as that of permanent works and should be designed according to established codes and checked by competent persons • Main Source • Government of Singapore (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . purposeful back analysis. risk management. an effective instrumentation. 20 April 2004 • Lessons learnt • This is a need for robust design. monitoring and interpretation regime. an effective system of management of uncertainties and quality during construction.

Taiwan. 29 May 2004 Lee & Ishihara (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Kaohsiung Rapid Transit .

Kaohsiung Rapid Transit . 29 May 2004 • Background • Chemical Churning Piles (CCP) of 350mm diameter installed as guide walls for the diaphragm wall construction • Soil improvement works by the use of Super Jet Grouting (SJG) method at the reception area for break-out operations • The diaphragm wall panels were first cored through by chain saw according to the face-shape of the shield tunnel machine and manual power tool was used to disassemble the reinforced concrete residual inside the coring holes • EPB Tunnel Boring Machine 500mm away from the wall face awaiting for break-out and invert leakage started Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Ishihara (2010) . Taiwan.

Taiwan.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit . 29 May 2004 • The failure • Sinkhole of about 10m in diameter formed at the ground surface • Ground settlement influence zone ranging from 40m to 50m in diameter with maximum settlement from 500mm to 1.500mm. • Several rings of tunnel segmental linings were damaged Settled Area of Ground Surface Chemical Churning Pile (CCP) Soil Improvement Zone CCP Possible Collapse Zone Tunnel Boring Machine Leakage spot Diaphragm Wall Soil Improvement Zone Path of Leakage Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Ishihara (2010) .

Kaohsiung Rapid Transit . had significant effects on the integrity and water tightness at the interfaces • The highly sensitive and erodible soil dispersed around the SJG might have been disturbed due to the application of highly pressured water jet in the grouting process Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . or inside the lower portion of the JSG body • Chloride assault and deterioration of CCP. which were installed two years before the wall breaking process. 29 May 2004 • Possible causes of failure • Progressive development of unexpected cracks inside the soil improvement zone resulting in groundwater leakages in the reception area as a result of piping and/or hydraulic fracturing • Leakage paths at the interfaces between Chemical Churning Pile (CCP) and the diaphragm wall. Taiwan. CCP and Super Jet Grout (JSG) materials.

Taiwan.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit . 29 May 2004 • Possible causes of failure • Mechanical and/or vibration disturbances occurred during the wall breaking process leading to serious cracks and fissure development inside the deteriorated CCP and defective SJG blocks • Unfavourable sub-surface conditions which consisted of silty sands and sandy silts with water contents almost reaching their liquid limits • Consequences • Adjacent buildings were damaged Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Ishihara (2010) .

29 May 2004 • Emergency and remedial measures • Stabilizing the ground by piling-up sand bags in front of the tunnel face to reduce leakage. Taiwan. backfilling the sinkhole and grouting the tunnel crown and invert • Advancing the TBM further to reduce the gap between the D-wall and the tunnel • Installation of steel frames to the damaged ring reinforce segments • Source • Lee & Ishihara (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Lee & Ishihara (2010) .Kaohsiung Rapid Transit .

17 June 2004 • Background • Metro line tunnel 1.3km long and 7m wide connecting with an old tunnel Planned concrete wall Cave in area Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Karlsrud (2010) .Oslo Metro Tunnel. Norway.

Oslo Metro Tunnel. 17 June 2004 • The failure • At the junction where the two tunnels met in an acute angle. tunnel cave-in after removal of most part of the rock pillar between the tunnels New tunnel Old tunnel Removed pillar Span 18-20m after cave-in m iljo\d iv\20 00\ah -1. Norway.pp t Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

reinforced ribs of sprayed concrete and additional 6m long rock bolts Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Norway. 17 June 2004 • Possible cause of failure • Unfavourable direction of the bedding planes in relation to the geometry and span of the tunnels • Over excavation of the rock pillar and the removal of the remaining rock pillar and old concrete wall before the planned concrete pillar was constructed • Consequence • Programme delayed for about 3 months • Cost implication: extra cost of the remedial works • Emergency and remedial measures • Filling up the whole opening by concrete above the fallen debris • Installation of 10m long cable anchors together with permanent support of 200mm thick lining of reinforced sprayed concrete.Oslo Metro Tunnel.

17 June 2004 • Lessons learnt • The importance of adequate ground investigation • The need to follow the sequence of rock support installation in accordance with the design plans during construction • Source • Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Oslo Metro Tunnel. Norway.

2004 • Background • Construction of the Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Blue & Orange Lines in Kaohsiung City • The failures • First collapse on 29 May 2004 underneath a street • Second collapse in mid June 2004 • Third collapse on 13 July 2004 with formation of a large sinkhole • Fourth collapse on 10 Aug 2004 Taiwan Info (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Kaohsiung Rapid Transit. Taiwan. 10 Aug.

Three residential buildings evacuated and significant disruption to water/electricity supply • Fourth collapse .No casualty.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit. 2004 • Possible cause of failure • Possible adverse ground and groundwater conditions • Consequences • First collapse . Taiwan. 10 Aug.Several buildings affected and 100 people evacuated • Third collapse . one building affected and part of the works suspended • Source • Taiwan Info (2004) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Hsuehshan Tunnel. 1991-2004 TANEEB (2005) TANEEB (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Taiwan.

8m diameter Hsuehshan Tunnel in Taiwan (雪山隧道) • Works commenced in 1991 and completed in 2004 • Comprised 2 main tunnels (East & Westbound) and a pilot tunnel • Eastbound by TBM method (July 1993 to Sept. Taiwan. 2004) • Westbound by TBM method (July 1993 to April 2004) • Pilot tunnel by drill & blast method (July 1991 to Oct.Hsuehshan Tunnel. 1991-2004 • Background • Construction of 12. 2003) Westbound Eastbound Pilot Tunnel Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region TANEEB (2005) .9km long and 4.

1991-2004 • The failures • Eastbound • 28 collapses occurred • Westbound • TBM badly damaged due to tunnel collapse and groundwater inflow of 45. Taiwan.Hsuehshan Tunnel.000 litres/min into the tunnel • Pilot Tunnel • 8 collapses occurred • Possible causes of failure • Unexpected difficult geology with fractured rock and massive inflows of water • 6 major faults found along the tunnel alignment Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

1991-2004 • Consequences • Eastbound • Failure in May 1993 affected 56 buildings and 73 families • Westbound • 11 men died • Pilot Tunnel • 13 stoppages • Source • TANEEB (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Taiwan.Hsuehshan Tunnel.

2005 European Foundations (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Spain.Barcelona Metro. 27 Jan.

Barcelona Metro. 27 Jan. Spain. 2005 • Background • Tunnel for Barcelona Line Five Metro Extension • Tunnelling using NATM • The failure • 30m wide and 32m deep crater formed • Possible cause of failure • A “hidden” vertical fault located 1m behind the sprayed concrete lining Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Barcelona Metro. Spain.000m3 • Source • European Foundations (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2005 • Consequences • 2 five-storey buildings and a smaller one demolished • More than 50 families made homeless • Remedial measures • The void was backfilled with grout of about 2. 27 Jan.

Lausanne M2 Metro. 22 Feb. 2005 Tunnels & Tunnelling (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Switzerland.

causing sudden inflow of groundwater Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Lausanne M2 Metro. 22 Feb. 2005 • Background • Tunnel (6km long. Switzerland. leading to a crater at the surface • Possible cause of failure • Tunnel driven through a pocket in the glacial moraine. approximately 10m wide x 7m high) for Lausanne Metro M2 Project (cost US$472M) in Switzerland • Tunnelling using an Eickhoff ET 380-L roadheader • The failure • Collapse in area of soft ground (lake deposits) • 50m3 of material displaced into the tunnel at a depth of 12m.

2005 • Consequences • People in two buildings. Switzerland.Lausanne M2 Metro. a supermarket and a food outlet in commercial district evacuated when their cellars collapsed • No injuries reported • Remedial measures • A curtain of 11 piles constructed ahead of the collapsed face with grouting to strengthen the ground and limit further flow of material into the tunnel • The void was backfilled with 800m3 of glass-sand (recycled glass) • Source • Tunnels & Tunnelling (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 22 Feb.

2 Nov. 2005 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Australia.Lane Cove Tunnel.

25m deep crater formed in the ground between a 3-storey high residential building and a highway exit ramp Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2005 • Background • Twin NATM tunnels (7m high. 8.6km long) constructed under Lane Cove Tunnel Project in Sydney • The failure • Collapse occurred during breakout for a ventilation tunnel from the running tunnel • A 10m by 10m.Lane Cove Tunnel. 2 Nov. Australia.1 wide and 3.

2 Nov. 2005 • Possible causes of failure • Possible “rock slippage” • Ground investigation did not identify dyke at the tunnel intersection • Under designed rock bolts due to increased effective span at intersection of adit and tunnel • Consequences • A 3-storey building partially collapsed and 47 residents evacuated • A water main burst • Citybound road closed Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Lane Cove Tunnel. Australia.

Australia.Lane Cove Tunnel. 2005 • Remedial measures • The void was backfilled with 1.400m3 of concrete • Continual monitoring • Sources • • • • • • • Golder (2005) Ground Engineering (2005) Ground Engineering (2006a) Ground Engineering (2006b) ICE (2006) NNN (2005) SMH (2005) ICE (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2 Nov.

2005 TT (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 4 Dec. Taiwan.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit.

4m deep trench initially formed on 4 Dec. 2005 and was collapsed to form a 50m by 30m. 2005 • Background • Construction of Kaohsiung Rapid Transit (KRT) Orange Line at the junction of Chungcheng Road and Tashun Road in Kaohsiung City • The failure • Failure occurred during excavation of an underground sump pit at a cross passage (33m below ground) underneath an existing reservoir • A 30m by 20m.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit. Taiwan. 10m deep crater at the road surface • This was the 10th reported failure of the KRT project • Another crater (10m diameter. 4 Dec. 7m deep) formed at another location on 10 Dec. 2005 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Taiwan.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit. 4 Dec. 2005 • Possible cause of failure • Massive water seepage from a reservoir Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

800m3 of soil/rock and concrete 20 hours after the accident • The damaged sections of the KRT tunnels needed to be reconstructed • Cost of the remedial measures estimated to be up to NT$500M (US$15M) excluding reconstruction of the damaged sections of the KRT tunnels Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Taiwan. 2005 • Consequences • • • • Chungcheng Road (a major trunk road) closed for a week The nearby Linkang railway line temporarily suspended A 100m long section of tunnels and utilities damaged Cracks found at 20 nearby residential buildings • Remedial measures • The crater was backfilled with about 2.Kaohsiung Rapid Transit. 4 Dec.

2005 • Sources • • • • • • • • • TVB News (2005) TT (2005) SP (2005) ST (2005) Sun (2005) WWP (2005) OD (2005) TKP (2005) MP (2005) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region TVB News (2005) .Kaohsiung Rapid Transit. Taiwan. 4 Dec.

the gneiss is highly weathered and is partly transformed to clay Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Crude Water and Potable Water Tunnels. Norway.Nedre Romerike Water Treatment Plant. Two tunnels of 3m width for crude water and potable water supply were constructed in Precambrian highly metamorphic gneisses • In some areas. 2005 • Background • The tunnel works were completed in 1980.

Norway. 2005 • The failure • The failure was progressive for more than 25 years resulting in blockage of the crude water tunnel • A major failure occurred in the crude water tunnel in winter 2005 and the weathered rock failed • Two major progressive failures occurred in 2007 and about 200m3 and 30-40m3 rocks fell each time Open joint which released a large block Section A-A Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Karlsrud (2010) .Nedre Romerike Water Treatment Plant. Crude Water and Potable Water Tunnels.

Norway. 000 people affected by disruption in water supply Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2005 • Possible cause of failure • Lack of mapping of weakness zones containing swelling clay resulting in insufficient rock support • The humidity in the water tunnel probably causing a gradual expansion of the swelling clay which resulted in detachment of the rock • Consequences • About 150.Nedre Romerike Water Treatment Plant. Crude Water and Potable Water Tunnels.

Nedre Romerike Water Treatment Plant. Norway. 2005 • Emergency and remedial measures • Due to the limited access in the crude water tunnel. detailed mapping of weakness zones and weathered rock. only manually replacement and redistribution of the debris downstream from the cave-in areas could be carried out by divers when the water level was lowered • Lessons learnt • The importance of proper rock mass classification. Crude Water and Potable Water Tunnels. and implementation of adequate rock support • Source • Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

25 December 2006 • Background • The tunnel was supported with a combination of rock bolts and steel fiber reinforced concrete • The failure • A section of tunnel caved in10-11 years after excavation • Possible cause of failure • Unfavourable geometry with joints almost parallel to the tunnel axis.Hanekleiv Road Tunnel. Norway. • The rock bolts installed mainly parallel to the rock joints and with limited influence on the stability Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Hanekleiv Road Tunnel. Norway. 25 December 2006 • Consequences • About 200m3 of debris fell down from the crown and the tunnel was closed for about 6.5 months • Emergency and remedial measures • Casting concrete lining and installing about 4.000 rock bolts • Lessons learnt • Lack of qualified engineering geologist at the site to carry out mapping and design during the tunnel construction • Source • Karlsrud (2010) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

(2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART). T. M.2006 Limestone SMART Siow. 2003 . Malaysia.

Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART). Malaysia.7km long and 13.26m diameter tunnel driven through karst formation by slurry shield TBM • The failure • 37 incidents within 8 km of tunnel excavation • Possible cause of failure • Adverse geology and karst conditions Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .2006 • Background • 9. 2003 .

M. (2006) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART).2006 Siow. 2003 . T. Malaysia.

Malaysia. 2003 .2006 McFeat-Smith (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART).

(2006) • McFeat-Smith (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . T. M. 2003 . Malaysia.Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART).2006 • Source • Siow.

Sao Paulo Metro Station. 15 Jan. Brazil. 2007 Gulp (2007) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

5m diameter 45m long section station tunnel • The tunnel failure occurred close to a junction with a 40m diameter. Brazil. 15 Jan.Sao Paulo Metro Station. 40m deep access shaft • The failure • Collapse of the station tunnel and partial damage to the access shaft • The rate of settlement at the tunnel crown increased rapidly and reached 15mm to 20mm two to three days before the failure Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2007 • Background • New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) was used to excavate a 18.

fractured rock located over the excavation • The lack of sufficient supports in the roof and side walls of the excavation • Consequences • Several vehicles dropped into the 30m-deep hole • Seven persons killed • Remedial measures • Stabilized the section of tunnel with extensive reinforcement • A system of anchors extending 32m into the soil was put in place and the excavation through the section was performed after pregrouting Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 15 Jan. Brazil.Sao Paulo Metro Station. 2007 • Possible cause of failure • Failed to account for the geology of the site.

2007 • Source • ICE (2008) • Gulp (2007) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Sao Paulo Metro Station. 15 Jan. Brazil.

Guangzhou Metro Line 5. 2008 Sina (2008a) AD (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 17 Jan. China.

Guangzhou Metro Line 5. 17 Jan. China. about 100m2 on plan • No injury Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2008 • Background • Construction of a cross passage between two tunnel boring machine tunnels • The failure • Collapse of the cross passage tunnel • Possible cause of failure • Groundwater flowed into the tunnel • Consequences • Cave-in at the road.

17 Jan. China.Guangzhou Metro Line 5. 2008b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2008 • Remedial measures • Crater backfilled with concrete • Source • AD (2008a) • Sina (2008a.

Toronto.Langstaff Road Trunk Sewer. P (2009) . Canada 2 May 2008 Discharge through the screw conveyor of the EPBM Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Wallis.

Toronto.Langstaff Road Trunk Sewer. Canada 2 May 2008 • Background • Tunnelling by EPBM for the construction of the sewer tunnel • The failure • About 1.800 m3 of liquefied mud flowed into the tunnel over a 48hour period through the tail brushes causing the tunnel and the TBM to sink by more than 3m and collapse • A deep sinkhole formed at the ground surface • Possible causes of failure • Damaged wire brushes of the tailseal of the EPBM were the catalyst for initiating the whole sequence of the failure events • Highly saturated very fine sands and silts under 1.5 bars of groundwater pressure Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Toronto. P (2009) • Wallis. Canada 2 May 2008 • Consequences • The road above the excavated area closed • Major delay to the project • The TBM was buried • Emergency and remedial measures • Filling the sinkhole with unshrinkable fill (low strength concrete) • Areas of continuing subsidence were stabilized with sand infill • Bulkhead was built about 300m behind the TBM to control the infow • Water main repaired and road repaved • Source • Wallis.Langstaff Road Trunk Sewer. S (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Singapore. 23 May 2008 Property Highlights of Singapore (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Property Highlights of Singapore (2008) .Circle Line 4 Tunnel.

23 May 2008 • Background • Construction of Circle Line 4 tunnel by 6m diameter slurry mixshield TBM • The failure • Cave-in at Holland Road approximately 8m diameter x 3m deep Property Highlights of Singapore (2008) • Possible cause of failure • Loose ground Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Singapore.Circle Line 4 Tunnel.

Circle Line 4 Tunnel. Singapore. 23 May 2008 • Consequences • Temporary suspension of water supply • Remedial measures • Crater backfilled with concrete • Source • Property Highlights of Singapore (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

2008 AD (2008b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . China.Hangzhou Metro Tunnel. 15 Nov.

15 Nov.Hangzhou Metro Tunnel. China. 2008 • Background • Construction of Hangzhou Metro • The Failure • Failure of a series of continuous walls of 800mm thick constructed by cut-and-cover method forming a 21m wide x 16m deep excavated area • Consequences • A 75m long section of road collapsed and 11 vehicles fell into the 16m deep excavation • A 600mm diameter water main was broken • Water from the nearby river flowed into the collapsed area Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

2008) and 11 persons injured Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . China.Hangzhou Metro Tunnel. 13 persons missing (as of 19 Nov. 15 Nov. 2008 • Consequences • Three 3-storey buildings seriously damaged and needed to be demolished • Two 110kV cables were damaged • 8 persons died.

China. 15 Nov. 2008 CNS (2008) CNS (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region CNS (2008) .Hangzhou Metro Tunnel.

2008 XINHUANET (2008) XINHUANET (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region XINHUANET (2008) . China. 15 Nov.Hangzhou Metro Tunnel.

2008 XINHUANET (2008) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region XINHUANET (2008) . China.Hangzhou Metro Tunnel. 15 Nov.

Hangzhou Metro Tunnel, China, 15 Nov. 2008

• Source
• • • • • AD (2008b) Beijing Review (2008) CNS (2008) NCE (2008) XINHUANET (2008)

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Cologne North-South Metro Tram Line, Germany, 3 March 2009

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Wallis, S (2009)

Cologne North-South Metro Tram Line, Germany, 3 March 2009
• Background • Construction of a shaft using diaphragm walls • The failure • Collapse of the diaphragm walls
• Possible causes of failure • ‘Boiling’ of the shaft’s invert under high pressures, loss of ground due to inflow of groundwater, and creating a void outside the diaphragm walls into which the archive building collapsed • Protective measures such as compensation grouting not carried out for protection of the buildings adjacent to the excavation

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Cologne North-South Metro Tram Line, Germany, 3 March 2009
• Consequences • Collapse of the city’s historical archive building • Partial collapse of two apartment buildings • Evacuation of local residents (80 families in 10 buildings) • Two people killed
• Source • Wallis, S (2009)

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Wallis, S (2009)

A. 8 March 2009 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Wallis.. Seattle. S.Brightwater Tunnel. U. P (2009a) .

A.Brightwater Tunnel. 8 March 2009 • Background • Tunnelling by Mixshield slurry TBM • The Failure • 4.. S.5m x 9m sinkhole formed at a driveway of a house • Possible cause of failure • The inexperience TBM operator with the closed slurry system making it difficult to judge the amount of material being excavated during a shove • The presence of a large boulder in the face that stalled penetration without slowing extraction of material and caused over excavation • The high artesian water pressure and its influence on the excavation cycle Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Seattle. U.

. 8 March 2009 • Consequences • The driveway of a house damaged • Emergency and remedial measures • Filling the sinkhole with crushed rock and sand • Source • Wallis. Seattle. P (2009a) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Brightwater Tunnel. U. A. S.

P (2009b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . July 2009 Wallis.. S.Seattle’s Beacon Hill Light Rail. U. A.

July 2009 • Background • Tunnelling by EPBM • The failure • A 6.4m deep sinkhole formed at the ground surface • Six other large voids were found 6m to 18m below the ground surface and behind the segmental lining of the bored TBM running tunnels • Possible cause of failure • Over excavation when the EPBM hit pockets of sand in the stable clay stratum Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . A. U.Seattle’s Beacon Hill Light Rail. S..

. S.Seattle’s Beacon Hill Light Rail. P (2009b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . U. July 2009 • Consequences • Sinkhole in the front yard of a house near its foundation • Remedial measures • Filling the voids with 200 to 400 cubic yards of controlled density fill • Compaction grouting beneath the voids and the top of the running tunnels • Source • Wallis. A.

3 Sept.Cairo Metro Tunnel. Egypt. 2009 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Wallis. S (2009a) .

Egypt.4m diameter Mixshield slurry TBM • First failure • A segment fallen out of a ring subsequently forming a sinkhole on the ground surface • Second failure • Second ground collapse occurred after the pouring of concrete to attempt to arrest the first collapse • Possible cause of failure • First failure .a segment of the recently installed ring just leaving the tail shield fell and allowed water and soil to flow to the tunnel. 2009 • Background • Tunnelling by 9.Cairo Metro Tunnel. filling the interior of the TBM and the tunnel. Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 3 Sept.

Egypt. The weight of the concrete acting on soft ground under a high groundwater table caused a second ground collapse • Consequences • TBM buried • A parked car slid into the 15m-20m diameter x 20m deep sinkhole • Evacuation of local residents (80 families in 10 buildings) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2009 • Possible cause of failure • Second failure – More than 1.Cairo Metro Tunnel.000 m3 of concrete was used to fill the first sinkhole. 3 Sept.

vertically and on inclines. to strengthen the soil around the TBM and the tunnel to support the recovery excavation to uncover the TBM • Source • Wallis. 2009 • Remedial measures • First failure – Backfilled the sinkhole with concrete • Second failure – Injection of chemical grout.Cairo Metro Tunnel. 3 Sept. Egypt. S (2009a) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 • Background • Tunnelling by TBM at about 22m to 26m below ground • Several ground failures occurred in Xiameilin. 27 March 2011.Shenzhen Express Rail Link. Futian District (福田區上梅林) OD (2011) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . China.

from slight decomposed rock to completely decomposed rock • Remedial Measures • Backfill of the sinkhole with concrete Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region World Journal (2011) .Shenzhen Express Rail Link. China. 4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 • First failure (World Journal (2011)) • A sinkhole of about 7m diameter and 10m deep was formed at a football pitch on 27 March 2011 • The sinkhole was full of muddy water and air bubbles • Consequence • Evacuation of nearby residents • Possible cause of failure • Unexpected change in sub-surface materials encountered. 27 March 2011.

China.Shenzhen Express Rail Link. 4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 • Second failure (21CN (2011)) • A sinkhole of about 10m in diameter was formed near the location of the first failure on 4 May 2011 • Possible cause of failure • Heavy rainfall and the ground at the location of the previous failure had not been fully stabilized • Third failure (TKP (2011)) • A sinkhole of about 7m deep was formed at the ground surface during the changing of cutter discs on 10 May 2011 • Possible cause of failure • Loose fill layers with high water infiltration • Existence of a sub-layer drainage channel Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 27 March 2011.

4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 • Fourth failure ((SD(2011)) • A sinkhole of about 1. 27 March 2011.Shenzhen Express Rail Link.5m in diameter and 7m deep formed at football pitch where previous three ground collapses occurred on 18 May 2011 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region SD (2011) . China.

Shenzhen Express Rail Link. China. 4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 • Fifth failure (21CN (2011)) • A sinkhole of about 5m deep in plan area of 100m2 was formed on a road on 30 October 2011 • Possible causes of failure • Existence of soft and hard lens of soil above the tunnel • Leakage of compressed air • Remedial Measures • Backfill of the sinkhole with soil Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 27 March 2011.

Shenzhen Express Rail Link. 4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 2home (2011) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 27 March 2011. China.

China.Shenzhen Express Rail Link. 27 March 2011. 4 May 2011 and 10 May 2011 • Source • 2home (2011) • 21CN (2011) • OD (2011) • SD (2011) • TKP (2011) • World Journal (2011) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

19 July 2012 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region MD (2012) . Macau.Hengqin Tunnel.

Macau.57km long road tunnel constructed by the cut-andcover method • Failure • The lateral support wall collapsed resulting in caving of the surrounding ground surface • Possible cause of failure • Existence of a weak geological structure in the sub-surface • Rising of groundwater levels due to heavy rainfall causing the weak soil between the interlayer to slip • Failure of the construction of support structures to keep pace with the excavation Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 19 July 2012 • Background • Four-lane 1.Hengqin Tunnel.

Hengqin Tunnel. Macau. 19 July 2012 • Possible cause of failure • Weak ground with high groundwater levels increasing pressure acting on the foundation pit pile • Consequences • Five heavy machines buried • Programme delayed Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

19 July 2012 • Source • MD (2012) • MDT (2012) • OD (2012) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Macau.Hengqin Tunnel.

Hong Kong Cases Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Prince Edward Station.MTR Modified Initial System. 12 Sept. 1977 • Background • A running tunnel (5m in diameter) being constructed from Prince Edward Station by the drill and blast method • Ground above the tunnel strengthened • The failure • A wall section of the running tunnel under Nathan Road collapsed • The subsidence did not affect the road surface Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Nathan Road.

MTR Modified Initial System. Nathan Road. 1977 • Possible causes of failure • Gap existed between the ground treatment above the station tunnel and that above the running tunnel allowing the soil to flow into the tunnel Nathan Road Water table Annular Ground Treatment Annular Ground Treatment Station Tunnel Running Tunnel after Clay & Takas (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 12 Sept. Prince Edward Station.

MTR Modified Initial System. Nathan Road. 1977 • Consequences • Nathan Road between Argyle Street and Arran Street closed as a safety measure • Three buildings (Nos. 745. 12 Sept. 745A and 745B Nathan Road) involving 100 people evacuated • Closure Order issued for nearby shops and a petrol station • Source • Clay & Takacs (1997) • SCMP (1977) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Prince Edward Station.

22 Hennessy Road.MTR Island Line. 1983 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 1 Jan.

22 Hennessy Road. 1983 • Background • Tunnelling from Admiralty to Causeway Bay for MTR Island Line using the drill and blast method • Tunnel formed by the drill and blast method • The failure • Water-bearing fill flowed into the tunnel.MTR Island Line.500m3 of material flowed into the tunnel creating a void of an area of 100m2 and 30m deep beneath the road surface Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 1 Jan. opening a hole at the road above • 1.

22 Hennessy Road. resulting in the tunnel penetrating the rock into soft ground Hennessy Road Water table Rock Soft Ground Shield Chamber after Clay & Takas (1997) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 1983 • Possible cause of failure • Misinterpretation of the geology by the Contractor • Blasting went too far. 1 Jan.MTR Island Line.

1983 • Consequences • Cracks found in the granite masonry of the outside wall of a building at 22 Hennessy Road • At least 21 timber piles beneath an adjacent building of 22 Hennessy Road exposed • More than 150 people in 18-22 Hennessy Road evacuated • The building at 18-20 Hennessy Road reopened 3 hours after the incident and the building at 22 Hennessy Road 6 days later Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 22 Hennessy Road.MTR Island Line. 1 Jan.

22 Hennessy Road.MTR Island Line. 1 Jan. 1983 • Remedial measures • The void was backfilled by grout • The floor slab of the building at 22 Hennessy Road pushed up by the grouting works by 50-75mm • Sources • Clay & Takacs (1997) • SCMP (1983) SCMP (1983) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

Shau Kei Wan. Shing On Street.MTR Island Line. 23 July 1983 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region MP (1983a) .

Shau Kei Wan. 23 July 1983 • Background • Tunnelling from Tai Koo Station to Sai Wan Ho Station for MTR Island Line • The failure • 13m x 1m void formed Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Shing On Street.MTR Island Line.

MTR Island Line. Shing On Street. 23 July 1983 • Consequences • Section of Shau Kei Wan Road closed • Building at 122-124 Shau Kei Wan Road settled more than 100mm and tilting observed • More than 80 families (400 people) evacuated & a woman injured • Water main damaged due to the settlement • Water and gas supplies stopped • Source • MP (1983a) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Shau Kei Wan.

140-168 Shau Kei Wan Road 16 Dec. 1983 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region MP (1983a) .MTR Island Line.

140-168 Shau Kei Wan Road 16 Dec. 1983 • Background • Construction of Sai Wan Ho Station for MTR Island Line • The failure • More than 40mm of ground settlement • About 150m3 of soil flowed into the tunnel leaving a void between Shau Kei Wan Road and the tunnel Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .MTR Island Line.

MTR Island Line. 1983 • Consequences • Section of Shau Kei Wan Road closed • Water supply stopped • Source • MP (1983b) Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 140-168 Shau Kei Wan Road 16 Dec.

2006 GEO File Information Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200. Canton Road. 21 Oct.

Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200. Canton Road. 21 Oct.5m(L) x 3m(D) sinkhole formed reaching the ground surface • Possible cause of failure • Slurry leakage and loss of slurry support pressure Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 2006 • Background • Twin railway tunnels between Jordan Road and East Tsim Sha Tsui Station constructed by a slurry TBM • Incident of ground loss occurred at TBM launch area • The failure • 3m(W) x 3.

2006 • Consequences • Crater formed at the ground surface closed to a busy road and a gas main • Remedial measures • Backfilling of the sinkhole with stockpile materials and sub-base materials • Source • GEO File Information Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Canton Road. 21 Oct.Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200.

Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200. 3 June 2007 Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Salisbury Road.

Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200. resulting in loss of face support and subsequent formation of sinkhole Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 3 June 2007 • Background • Twin railway tunnels between Jordan Road and East Tsim Sha Tsui Station constructed by a slurry TBM • The failure • 2m x 3m sinkhole reaching the ground surface • Possible cause of failure • Sudden air pressure loss through the interface between CDG/HDG and overlying marine sand during a compressed air intervention. Salisbury Road.

Kowloon Southern Link Contract KDB 200. with associated settlement • Temporary closure of a busy road lane • A low pressure gas main and a 1200 mm stormwater drain were affected • Remedial measures • Backfilling of sinkhole with granular fill • Source • GEO File Information Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 3 June 2007 • Consequences • Crater formed at the ground surface. Salisbury Road.

Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .html> (31 October 2011).com/collect/2011/10/31/9615710. AD (2008b). 珠江橋口塌半邊馬路.appleactionews.php?&iss_id=20081 116&sec_id=10793096&art_id=11853290&dis_type=ss&media_id= 1>.cn/article/article_4190. Apple Daily Newspaper. 杭州地鐵地盤塌陷增至2死19傷 <http://www. <www. 19 January 2008.21cn.com/site/art_main.htm> (19 Nov 2008).References 2home (2011). <http://house. 21cn (2011). AD (2008a). pp A22. Death Toll Could Reach 21 in Tunnel Collapse.com.bjreview.com.2home.shtml> (31 October 2011). <http://www. Beijing Review website (2008).cn/headline/txt/200811/19/content_165283. Hong Kong.

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2 November 2005. 2007). p 6. <http://www. London NATM controversy.References Golder (2005). Ground Engineering.gov. Government of Singapore (2005). Ground Engineering (2000). November Issue. pp 10-11. Ground Engineering. Land Transport Authority. Government of Singapore. Catalogue of disaster. Ground Engineering (1994). Ground Engineering (2005). Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 52p. Sydney NSW. Causes of Subsidence.lta. December Issue. Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Incident at the MRT Circle Line Worksite That Led to the Collapse of Nicoll Highway on 20 April 2004.sg/home/index_home_nicoll. Australian tunnel collapse raises doubts over NATM. August Issue. Lane Cove Tunnel Project.htm> (31 Jan. Ground Engineering. p 6.

Ground Engineering.com. pp 3-4. p 4. UK. The Collapse of NATM Tunnels at Heathrow Airport. Rock bolts used instead of steel girders may have contributed to Lane Cove collapse. Sydney tunnel collapse triggered by under-designed rock bolts. Desenvolvimento e diversão. UK. Gulp (2007). Safety of New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) Tunnels. 116p. Ground Engineering (2006b). Health & Safety Executive.References Ground Engineering (2006a). Ground Engineering. May Issue. HSE (1996). Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 86p. February Issue. ICE (1998a). HSE (2000). <http://gulp. p 4. February Issue. Institution of Civil Engineers. Bulkhead location blamed for DLR blast.br/imagem/acidente-no-metro-de-sao-paulo> (17 January 2007). Health & Safety Executive. New Civil Engineer.

Institution of Civil Engineers. HSE signs up QC Carlisle for HEX prosecution. pp 4-5. <http://www. Heathrow Express court cases kicks off.com>. ICE (2004). pp 6-7. ICE (2006). Institution of Civil Engineers. Australian tunnel collapse raises new NATM doubts. March Issue. New Civil Engineer. January Issue. Institution of Civil Engineers. Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Institution of Civil Engineers. January Issue. pp 8-9. ICE (1999).References ICE (1998b). January Issue. New Civil Engineer. says judge. New Civil Engineer. September Issue. Docklands tunnel blowout down to “elementary error”. pp 6-7. February Issue. New Civil Engineer. ICE (2003). Institution of Civil Engineers.imia. Ground failure linked to well collapses. Heart of darkness. New Civil Engineer. pp 14-15. New Civil Engineer. IMIA. ICE (2008). Institution of Civil Engineers. p 6.

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7 Dec. Fourth land collapse in Xiameilin. South China Morning Post.References OD (2005). Oriental Daily. Oriental Daily. SCMP (1983). <http://propertyhighlights. SCMP (1977). Hong Kong. 橫琴澳大新校區隧道坍塌. Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . 20 May 2011. 21 July. MTR tunnel collapses. Hong Kong. 2 Jan. Shenzhen. Hong Kong. 高捷洞陷.html> (25 May 2008). 1977.blogspot. 2012. South China Morning Post. Shenzhen Daily. 1983. 2005.com/2008/05/circle-line-workcauses-cave-in-off. OD (2012). SD (2011). Hong Kong. 13 Sept. Property Highlights of Singapore (2008). MTR tunnelling may be to blame.

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<http://www.com/> (4 April 2004). Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .com/view/full_news/12536326/article%E9%AB%98%E9%90%B5%E6%83%B9%E7%A6%8D%EF%BC% 9F-%E6%B7%B1%E5%9C%B3%E5%9C%B0%E9%99%B7%E9%A9%9A%E7%8F%BE10%E7%B1%B3%E6%B7%B1%E5%9 D%91?instance=news_pics> (29 March 2011).worldjournal. 2005. XINHUANET.xinhuanet. WWP (2005). Wen Wei Po Newspaper. 高鐵惹禍? 深圳地陷 驚現10米深坑 <http://www. 6 Dec. Hong Kong.References World Journal (2011).

Moh.General References Brand. Geotechnical Engineering Office. Some tunnel failures and what they have taught. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 1996. Hong Kong. E. London.N. Bibliography on Settlements Caused by Tunnelling to March 1996 (GEO Report No. (1996c).W. (1975). Jacobs J. D. Sudbury. 80 p. Hazards in Tunnelling and on Falsework. pp 121-137. (2007). Safety of New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) Tunnels.C. pp 37-46. (HSE) Books. December 2009. Institution of Civil Engineers. A review of sprayed concrete tunnels with particular reference to London Clay. 51). 70 p. & Hwang. cases already included in the catalogue? Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . Z. Lessons learned from recent MRT construction failures in Asia Pacific. Journal of the Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society. R.

org/cms/fileadmin/filemounts/general/pdf/ItaAssociation/Produc tAndPublication/Thesis/ThesisSeidenfuss.itaaites. Masters Degree in Foundation Engineering and Tunnelling: Collapse in Tunnelling. Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences. Germany.pdf>some the failure cases already included in the catalogue? Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region . <http://www. T. (Note: 109 numbers of failures of all types of tunnels). (2006). 194 p.General References Seidenfub.

End Civil Engineering and Development Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region .

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