jeffrey s nesbit

as urban interventions

vol. 01

David Leatherbarrow for his earlier enlightened guidance. Andrew Vernooy. and most importantly the students who have dedicated sincere effort and time to the essays and work presented in this volume. All work is defined and under the direction of: Jeffrey S Nesbit Work completed by students of: Post-Industrial Landscapes Seminar. Daniel Garcia. Fall 2012 College of Architecture. Texas Tech University Cover design. and layouts by Jeffrey S Nesbit and Daniel Garcia Front photo by Katerina Paletykina and Vania Franco Special thanks to: Les Burrus and Frank Morrison of Link Ministries. Victoria McReynolds for our discussions on Detroit and decay. . page design.© 2012 Jeffrey S Nesbit All rights reserved No part of this volume may be used or repoduced in any manner without written permission from the author.

POST INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPES as urban interventions jeffrey s nesbit .


content 08 10 24 38 50 60 70 80 90 [ preface ] [ pier in the desert ] [ flexible terrain ] [ traces ] [ a stratified landscape ] [ the forgotten peanut ] [ ww steel ] [ asarco ] [ railway exchange ] PD FT TR SL FP WW AS RX .

grain. under the sign of which newly finished corners. meetings. therefore erasing its significance in relation with the historic context. energy and various other productions. For example. Many examples show that the communities are destroying the dormant industrial landscapes by completely erasing them. 8 post-industrial landscapes . weathering is a power of subtraction. and colors are ‘taken away’ by rain. He created an auditorium for a concert hall. and providing suggestions for new opportunities and strategies. new questions are being asked about the future state of their sites. But is weathering only abstraction. Why does the factory have to be converted. political. we see in Renzo Piano’s renovation of a sugar refinery in Parma Italy. the context of the field has been completely lost. The future of these aggressive components is a mandatory issue that must be not only addressed but also addressed appropriately. gas. which stretch into their adjacent regions. and cultural conditions from the past of the cities are defined and valued through their manufacturing productions such as sugar. evaluating. or activities such as conferences. economical. can it not also add and enhance?” . tx [ PREFACE ] Jeffrey S Nesbit “In the mathematics of the ministries (former cotton gin) lubbock. Although the renovation is well controlled. The importance of the social. Many have been and unfortunately are still lying inactive. the entire factory was demolished and only two sides of the warehouse remained. torn down. wind. we are looking into a deeper understanding of these incredible landscapes like Parma Italy by analyzing. No understanding of what the site was can be determined unless known otherwise. a ‘minus’. and sun. These factories and their decaying complexion describe powerful lessons of industry that once were so dominant. or ‘renovated’? In this course.David Leatherbarrow Due to the size and abandonment of decaying landscapes. The decaying industrial landscapes have strong direct heritage to the city. As the function changed the need to strip the insides seems to usually be the logical answer. As we are in the beginning of the 21st century many cities around the world are dealing with the similar issues. surfaces.

or transformed without any consideration for the inherent rooted cultural and contextual qualities brought forth towards the historic urban agendas. and Charles Waldheim new methods are determining development strategies through techniques of landscape and sub part-to-part relationships rather than strict functionalistic formations driven by unproductive Classical and Modern urban models. and ‘leftover’ anatomy. Within a graduate seminar in the College of Architecture at Texas Tech. Historically. The following chapters are the contribution and investigations of such inquires. manufacturing warehouses. Our understanding of cities. 9 . desiring strength through adjacent economic stimuli. refineries. including the evaluation though innovative methods of manipulating physical horizontal topography. located in dense urban centers provide incremental possibilities for contemporary activation. How do these new methods create or even determine the maintenance of sensible dualities of inter-workings between existing conditions of decay and progressive insertions of new network strategies? Throughout the course. From the works of authors Stan Allen. embedded structures. The reversal of industrial displacement has left large fields of palimpsest. many of these decaying places have been ignored. lectures and readings demonstrated various discourses ranging from the concentration of urban infrastructure into the organization of horizontal surfaces within the larger discipline of landscape urbanism. David Leatherbarrow. and fabric of the landscape which includes the physical horizontal topography. These once flourishing landscapes. students have investigated a series decaying industrial landscapes through a methodical research project. It is extremely important to initially evaluate and calculate relationships of contextual influences. embedded structures. This process of research is intended on firstly understanding the complexities and internal structure of the site itself. the relationship of its parts have transformed into a new ideological paradigm of intercomplexities. Simultaneously the research works through notions of landscape urbanism as a technique of inquiry. and ‘leftover’ anatomy. now has been flipped and is requiring elucidation due to internal growth. Previously performing as industrial distribution. or power plants. Cities around the world are still and will continue to be responding to the dramatic scale of abandoned landscapes. erased. in particular.

[ PD ] .


’ referring to the impurities found on molten metal. a professor at the Rice University School of Architecture. or can we divulge into a deeper understanding.PD [ PIER IN THE DESERT ] rail yards. agreeing with the leading English art critic of the Victorian era. not merely erase. how do we approach and solve the issue of post-industrial landscapes within the urban context? Do we simply do away with these landmarks of our rise as an economic and cultural entity. Simply put. something of a stamp of our history in which the next generation is to build upon. we find that these older technologies. There comes a point. awaiting its undoing. existing unattended. 200) These drosscapes thus create what Lerup post-industrial landscapes . unkempt.”(Berger. albuquerque. but applied to the urban context as “drosscapes. we find numerous instances of these now defunct landscapes nestled within the very fabric of urban conditions. these instances occur at a more profound speed and scale with every iteration of innovation. however. these landscapes become nothing more than inefficiencies and we seek to discard them. 334) Working toward the future of today’s ever-growing faster-paced civilization. scrutinize these instances. nm justin burns + daniel garcia The advancement of civilization hinges upon the development of new technologies and processes in which these phases of development begin to define and characterize progression throughout not only humankind but the use and adaptation of our natural landscapes. Lars Lerup. and even deeper into socioeconomic. John Ruskin. and in the eyes of many. an escalating issue as cities begin to look back inward for growth in opposition to “rapid horizontal urbanization (urban sprawl). (Ruskin. past 12 endure. when we.” they also provide an insurmountable opportunity for rejuvenation through activation. as a people. In which traces of our technological. and activate these profoundly opportunistic residuals? While these industrial ruins create voids within the fabric of their urban context. that these moments and residuals left behind tell a story about our civilizations past. created by de-industrialization of older city areas (the city core) and a rapid urbanization of newer city areas (herein referred to as the periphery). coined the term ‘dross. We observe that throughout history. As a progressive society.

(Fig. and interstate highways 25 and 40. and the connection between the neighborhoods severed. railroads PD pier in the desert 13 . a major steam locomotive repair station in which not only was the landscape a central hub for most steam-powered locomotives. Albuquerque became a major hub for built infrastructures. and dynamic system. describes as a “narrow isolation. the U. (Fig. Therein lies the question: What can we do about drosscape? These post-industrial conditions. Topeka. the landscape ceased productivity and began its decline into drosscape. and serve to remind us of rich historical fact. 6) The rails are still in operation but with very minimal traffic. but as they once signified socioeconomic prowess. These postindustrial landscapes are sewn throughout the land in practically every region. Wherein post-industrial sites are almost always an example of drosscape. living. objectifying the landscape as a byproduct of very specific processes no longer operating on a given site?” (Berger. including the major rail lines. (Fig. after introduction of the more efficient and less maintenance heavy technology in the diesel locomotive. situated between the Rio Grande and the Rocky Mountains. given it was near the division point of two major trans-continental rail lines (the Atchinson. Take. massive. + Santa Fe and the Atlantic and Pacific railroads) around its inception in 1880. 4) The Rail Yards are situated between two historic neighborhoods in Barelas (to the west) and San Jose (to the east). albeit rather counter-intuitive. 200) Albuquerque was chosen as an ideal location for the Rail Yards. But how do we tackle these ‘holey planes?’ A simple solution.s. for example. along with the longest commercial stretch of the of the classic Route 66. the yards practically closed down (the turn table still being used to rotate trains along the rails). Census listed a population of 2. fig. Placeholders in time that should not be taken for granted.S. 2) In 1880. the city of Albuquerque was allowed to develop. with which the yards provided most of the jobs and a strong connection between the two neighborhoods. would be to fill them in. in their most simple form they are landscapes. they can be adapted to once more become a beacon of operation with a sense of magnitude.000. where the Rail Yards were a hub for activity for the city. city. However. 5) Once the economic and production regime of steam engine repair were unnecessary. These drosscapes need to be activated. New Mexico. but also the epicenter of employment through what would become New Mexico’s largest. 3) From this point. by 1915 the population grew to about 13. the lack of production upon the landscape and rails seemingly tore a rift though a good portion of the city. we begin to further comprehend the imminence of these landscapes to the progression of the culture and context about them. maintain. 02: 1891 map of u. Professor of Urban Design and Landscape Architecture at MIT. in which the Rail Yards employed about a quarter of the workforce. with respect to the existing complex systems of the urban environments that they perforate. the Rail Yards at Albuquerque. (Fig.’ (Berger. where the city is a complex. wherein the drosscape thus becomes a complex system in and of itself. 201) in which these ‘holes’ are currently unused areas within the cityscape. Following these multifarious systems of scars and traces.theorizes as a ‘holey plane. as Alan Berger.665 people. (Fig. all commonly associated with the technology and utility at the time in which they were operated as well as interconnected through various forms of infrastructure. and capital. scar-tissue landscapes upon the urban surface that embrace.

but perhaps fig. we look at reactivation of the landscape.PD with one train that goes through the city between Chicago and Los Angeles. 04: regional diagrams 14 [interstate25] [south | LAS CRUCES.C st e O T [w ARS W [B [rail_runner| BELEN. A [inters GSTA A] | FLA . 03: effect on population [built | DENSITY] [high] [medium] [low] [very_low] [area | BOUNDARIES] [rio_grande] [soft_major] [hard_major] [rail_runner| SANTA FE. WY] 0] Z. We draw from Charles Waldheim. designing with a sense of flexibility and adaptability to not only accommodate for the needs of the present. and the Rail Runner (a New Mexico train system that connects many of the major cities in the state). but to be able to acclimate to the demands of the future.] [amtrak | CHICAGO. NM. in particular the Albuquerque Rail Yards. adaptation.] [amtrak | LOS ANGELES.000] = working at rail yards In order to decipher the issue with drosscape. Rejuvenation of the landscape starts with the premise of flexibility and adaptability. Professor of Landscape Architecture at Harvard GSD and forefather of landscape urbanism.700] = 500 [1915 | ABQpopulation | 13.] post-industrial landscapes . [1880 | ABQpopulation | 2. CO. who views “landscape as a medium.] [BUFFALO. IL.] ] fig.] tate4 FF.] [interstate25] [north | DENVER. CA. NM. Landscape is not only a formal model for urbanism today. uniquely capable of responding to temporal change.] [rioGRANDE] [route66] [int e [ea rstate st | 40] [W OKLA ILM HO ING MA TON CIT . and succession. NC Y. NM. transformation. OK .

05: landscape layers PD pier in the desert 15 .” (Waldheim. and ultimately a hub for people. we look at the notion of a Pier in the Desert. a model for process. Ultimately to achieve this sort of flexibility and activation. and create a hub for activity that unlike its previous landscape. infrastructure. isn’t necessarily defined. is ever changing. and exploration of juxtaposition of unplanned relationships between various programming. (in which the principles of organization of urban program as a landscape process. fig. A pier being a place of social gathering.more importantly. 39) Combine that with Koolhaas and OMA’s 1982 Competition entry for Parc de la Villette. and cultures. 06: concept diagram [directional l FORCES] [open + industrial | SPACE] [barelas + sanjose | NEIGHBORHOODS] [site | BOUNDARY] fig. allows the landscape to become malleable.

the Brooklyn Bridge creates a mean for new masses to access Coney Island. there are opportunistic residuals in order to combine and use old technology as well as new technologies. repair. the Rail Yards were at one time the pinnacle of industrial building technology. Similarly. 9. ceiling and 3 cranes that are operable. and similar in design and appearance to the machine shop. to make sure to recognize the past without running the danger of a faux restoration. ft. 11) In the case of the Rail Yards. 58. ft. and even fabricate replacement parts for steam locomotives. with the Rail Yards. Jorgensen and Keenan observe that “more profoundly. as well as a host of mega-volume buildings. special facilities are then brought onto Coney Island. 8) Between the two mega-volume structures lies a main eastwest axis through the primarily north-south landscape. the facilities were designed to be one of the few that could completely dismantle. to provide entertainment to the masses. on this axis lays a transfer table used to cart the locomotive engine between the machine and boiler shops. keeping in mind the need for flexibility and modularity. (Fig. explores the early evolution of Manhattan and more specifically Coney Island. With the further advancement of technologies. including criminals and misfits.PD Rem Koolhaas. Another quality of these ruins. (Koolhaas 32-35). (Fig. in his book Delirious New York. but abandon them more quickly than ever before. are a location for social practices. Because of the need for pleasure. Post-industrial landscapes. These residuals would be reused through adaptive techniques in order to create events within the landscape. 7) is a staple of the landscape. the need for escape becoming more prevalent. Detroit). promoting opportunities of activation on a multitude of levels. with a 60 ft. In order to develop a critical strategy. between Navy Pier in Chicago and Santa Monica Pier in Los Angeles. and Richard Keenan discuss the notions of ruins as it pertains to landscapes (an in particular. Coney Island is forced to continuously transform in a short amount of time. The turntable (Fig. Production procession upon post-industrial landscapes . First is the fact of incompleteness and customary human behavior to fill in those voids. clean. It was developed extremely fast. such as electricity in the 1890s. where we build bigger and more quickly than ever before. especially due to the unauthorized and improvisational activities that take place. that goes hand in hand with the use of opportunistic residuals. Coney Island’s scenery and isolation became extremely popular to those who could access the island. Manhattan was undergoing urban surgery transforming from a city into a metropolis. As a Pier in the Desert the Rail Yards would thus become a juxtaposing node in a sense. however. and abandoned just as quickly due to a change in socioeconomic conditions. (Jorgensen. destruction is of a different speed and scale. would be ruins boast material affordance. (Fig. Secondly. The second large building is the boiler shop. The notion of a Pier in the Desert begins to address a transformative strategy to an otherwise extinct landscape. Between the 1820s and 1860s. in which ruins of this nature contain three main features. The result of that ruin in the eyes of whomever sees it is subjective. Thirdly. the Rail Yards included. (Jorgensen. which boasts 165.000 sq. The first large building is the machine shop. 10) As with any industrial landscape (post or current) there is a production process. The twenty-seven acre landscape of the Rail Yards accommodate stunning machinery that either are still operable or aren’t very far from being restored to operable condition. and the island is forced to ‘mutate’ its natural form that strove to mirror the metropolis to that of its own artificiality. we began to look at the landscape more analytically. 67) Anna Jorgensen. By 1883. as it is the only machine currently in use. a suggestion of change overtime. Fig. 16 17) While studying Detroit. ruins represent that contrast between man and nature. lecturer of Landscape Architecture at the University of Sheffield. the point of juxtaposition.” Much like Detroit.100 sq.

CA. WY] [barelasPARKS] [barelasNEIGHBORHOOD] [sanjoseNEIGHBORHOOD] [rioGRANDE] [albuquerq ueRAILYAR DS] N [industrialCOMPLEXES] [rail_runner| BELEN.] [amtrak | LOS ANGELES.] 40 80 [interstate25] [south | LAS CRUCES. NM. 07: turntable fig.] [interstate25] [north | DENVER. 09: landscape map pier in the desert 17 . IL.] [amtrak | CHICAGO. CO. NM.] 160 320 PD fig.fig. 08: boiler shop interior [rail_runner| SANTA FE. NM.] [BUFFALO.

(Fig. 11: repair process 18 post-industrial landscapes SCREEN + PLATE REMOVAL ENGINE COOLDOWN (begin process) DROP THE FIRE DROP ASH (smokebox) FILL WATER DEPARTURE FINAL INSPECTION CORROSION TESTS (hammer) FIRESTARTING WASHOUT scale + deposit removed REASSEMBLAGE REPAIRS AS NECESSARY STEAM TEST FOR LEAKS . 10: existing structures CHECK-IN + PRE-CLEANING COOLDOWN CLEANING + REPAIR FIRESTARTING PRESSURE BUILDING + FINAL CHECK EXAMINATION STAGE | 01 STAGE | 02 STAGE | 03 FILL WATER DROP ASH (smokebox) DROP THE FIRE ENGINE COOLDOWN (begin process) SWEEP TUBES FIRESTARTING BLAST OUT ASH steam lance | rod + cloth CLEAN FIREBOX PRESSURE BUILD-UP (begin process) SCREEN + PLATE REMOVAL BOILER EMPTIED (1500 gallons) washout plugs removed REASSEMBLAGE STEAM TEST FOR LEAKS CORROSION TESTS (hammer) PRESSURE BUILD-UP REPAIRS AS NECESSARY FILL BOILER FINAL INSPECTION DEPARTURE DECONSTRUCTION of PARTS to be REPAIRED WASHOUT scale + deposit removed FILL BOILER BOILER EMPTIED (1500 gallons) washout plugs removed CLEAN FIREBOX BLAST OUT ASH steam lance | rod + cloth SWEEP TUBES PRESSURE BUILD-UP (begin process) DECONSTRUCTION of PARTS to be REPAIRED PRESSURE BUILD-UP fig. A grid is extracted from the surrounding and existing conditions of the landscape. the strategy comes to fruition. within the Pier in the Desert strategy is embedded an ability of shifting programs regulated somewhat by the existing rail and machinery conditions. Similar to the capability to shift phases in the locomotive maintenance process. however not constrained to one single path. the proposal strategy takes [reassemblySHOP] [sheetmetalSHOP] [paintSHOP] [lockerROOM] [componentREPAIR] [blacksmithSHOP] [boilerSHOP] [machineSHOP] [smallrepairHOUSE] [powerHOUSE] [wheelsMUSEUM] [turnTABLE] fig. 13) Upon the grid interface. Dissecting the landscape opportunities further.PD the landscape is fairly linear. 12) The opportunity for the engines to shift from any part of the landscape to go to a [fireHOUSE] distinct area drives the notion of a pier with adaptable program. (Fig. a modular program organization is superimposed. In order for the program to be modular. not a set program but rather a possible variation of program within the landscape.


14: flexibility + adaptation 20 post-industrial landscapes .[programinMOTION] PD possibleARRANGEMENT blurringPROGRAM possibleARRANGEMENT fig.

[landscape |CIRCULATION] [residual |CIRCULATION] adaptedTRAINCARS transferTABLE tramSTATION transferTABLE turnTABLE in-useRAILLINE [oportunistic residual |INTEGRATION] raillineSTORAGE siteRAILS train/TRAM park/PUBLIC vendor/RETAIL service/RECREATION event/PERFORMANCE traincars/STORAGE fig. 15: residual reuse PD pier in the desert 21 .

utilizing the transfer table or cranes to move eastwest. as technology advances so do civilizations. while making a nod to the past and creating a trace for the present. 22 post-industrial landscapes . this strategy centers upon flexibility and adaptability for the future. It presents a solution not the solution. (Ruskin) The Pier in the Desert becomes a new hub. as the speed and scale of production increase. the premise of modularity and dynamic control in combination with unique mechanisms has permeated architectural practice at many points and through a diverse range of projects. Another proposed system for the landscape would be a tram system to help connect the city back to the Pier. Mohsen Mostafavi. programmatic features would be upon train car plates that use the rails to move north-south. a re-stitching. These unexpected performances become a sense of sublimity. and at certain moments could create unexpected performances. Dean and professor at Harvard GSD. (Fig. and provide precedence for similar future projects. It serves as an interesting notion. 14. past and future. a beauty as it exists rather than picturesque. Like a pier is ever changing. patching of the void created by the advancement of technology through adaptive activation. stated that “the notion that a building can move or reconfigure itself is not novel. 16) This tram would go throughout the landscape. Fig. the speed and scale of destruction also increases. The integration of multiple layers of infrastructure and transportation along with the ever changing program serve to activate the post-industrial landscape. a place for things to happen. 15) This allows existing conditions used in the same fashion as the previous landscape operation to be reprogrammed for a new utilization. ideal beauty. The Pier in the Desert concept serves to address speed and scale. on a multitude of levels.PD advantage of the opportunistic residuals upon the landscape.” (Mostafavi) In which Mostafavi states that modular systems have been utilized and explored throughout the architecture field and will continue to be explored. (Fig.

Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture. Rem. Lars Muller Publishers: 2011. Koolhaas. Routledge: New York. 2006. Seven Lamps of Architecture: Lamp of Memory. PD pier in the desert 23 . The Landscape Urbanism Reader. eds. 16: superimposed landscapes BIBLIOGRAPHY Berger. Ruskin. New York 2006. Princeton Architectural Press. Charles et. Waldheim. 2012. The MIT Press. Reprint in 2011. Alan. Lars. Princeton Architectural Press.. Drosscape. The Monacelli Press: 1997 Kwinter. Anna and Richard Keenan. New York 2006. 1849. Lerup. Ecological Urbanism. Smith Elder & Co: London. Jorgensen. Cambridge. Mostafavi and Gareth Doherty. After the City. Sanford. Mass. Delirious New York. 2002. John. MA. Urban Wildscapes. MIT Press: Cambridge.fig.

[ FT ] .



browning seed, plainview, tx
vania franco + katerina paletykina
Flexible terrain is a surface of potential that embraces the existing landscape and enhances the traces of history and culture of the landscape. It is a multi-layered surface that once housed flourishing production industry that is transformed into decaying infrastructure in the wildscape. The terrain sets a stage for meticulous research that leads into thematic interventions between the existing conditions of decay and new programmatic insertions and extensions. The multilayered surface introduces questions on how to approach the interactions between the embedded infrastructure and how to use it to create a new program within it. History and theoretic examples can be used to investigate and discover new possibilities within decaying flexible terrain. New possibilities become social event spaces that rekindle the relationship between community and the city, creating diverse sets of interactions within the decaying landscape. Browning Seed in Plainview, Texas became the starting point to investigate the idea of flexible terrain. The decaying

landscape was agriculturally important to the South Plains region due to its innovative research on seed hybridization in the 1950s, and was a good representation of agricultural importance to Texas. Upon site analysis, the proximity of Browning Seed, Inc. to another industrial site across the railroad was an interesting factor that further motivated research on this abandoned landscape. It is vital to recognize the historical impact that such sites have on the city and the community. The research led to a clear understanding of complexities of internal and external forces on the abandoned landscape. The abandoned landscape provided a foundation for establishing a conversation between the natural landscape and the artificial industrial infrastructure. This began a dialogue between the “Man vs. Seed” paths, flexible terrain, and opportunistic event spaces that emerge from program pockets. The research established groundwork for a design strategy which became a catalyst for creating new communal event spaces. The history of site and city begins the discussion

post-industrial landscapes

raised $75,000 to attract the Santa Fe Railway and the establishment of the railroad (Fig. 2 and 3). In 1981, Plainview was chosen by the Texas Main Street Program to be part of the program in an attempt to “resurrect a struggling town” (Macik 116). The first attempt was short lived and lasted from 1980 to 1983, due to lack of money and grants that were promised by the Main Street Program. Plainview withdrew from the program and decided to rely on itself fig. 01a: 1945 total population: 11,768 until 1992, when the economic hardships 1945 of the 90s led them to reconsider rejoining Main Street. It was a difficult task to promote the program a second time since the town did not see the need for it and many believed that the program did not work. There was lack of enthusiasm and promotional effort from the citizens to make the program successful at the beginning, but began to prosper slowly. This second time around, the town seemed to regain confidence in the program which started to create incentives for Plainview. Business owners and town officials took a greater interest in the program and took initiative to make the program successful. fig. 01b: 2000 total population: 22,336 Plainview focused to create a downtown 2000 that was not based on retail but rather creating individual business opportunities. of relationships between city, landscape and There were many industries flourishing in industry, that becomes the groundwork for the area of Plainview, especially along the future possibilities. railroad which disects the city. Plainview was the highest The industrial sites of Browning populated town on the South Plains until Seed, Inc. are located in Block JK2 of Hale Lubbock began to grow in the 1920’s (Macik County in Plainview, Texas. The block 40) and reached 11,768 people by 1945. belonged to one owner who divided the Slowly the population growth decreased piece of land into four for his children with and ultimately leveled off by 1950’s. In the railroad acting as the diagonal separator, 2000, the population was estimated to be according to the current owner James of 22,336 people where the population Browning. Aerial views of the site indicate became denser in already populated areas. that the orientation of infrastructure was As the city grew, the population extended dependent on factors such as the railroad towards the west demonstrating a typical and highway that cross the landscape. This urban sprawl pattern (Fig. 1). An issue division caused a hard edge separation to that Plainview faced early on was limited occur on site (Fig. 4). The railroad dissects transportation which prohibited economic site diagonally against the perpendicular development. In efforts to stimulate the lines that are formed by the city grid (Fig. town economic development, the citizens 5). There is a clear relationship between
Total Population: 11,768 Represents about 4 people Downtown District
Total Population: 22,336 Represents about 4 people Downtown District


flexible terrain



interstate highway 27 state highway 194 us highway 70 farm to market railroad system city limits


fig. 02: regional networks



farm to market

interstate highways

the history of city ordinance and the site infrastructure. The infrastructure within the chosen site was developed before city ordinances were enforced, creating a linear grid system within the site. In contrast, new development runs perpendicularly with the railroad and highway which shows a new generation of gridlines. The history of this currently abandoned landscape goes back to 1958 when it was a site dedicated to the research of open pollinated Sorghum. The facilities were primarily used for the cleaning of seed and the manipulation of hybrids and pollination without germination. During the height of exploration of hybrid seed production, the site contained from 55 to 60 individual silo tanks as well as four large tanks that could hold up to 3 million pounds of seed at once. For the next 50 years, Browning Seed began to excel in chemical processing and genetically modifying seeds including wheat, barley, sorghum, soybeans, corn, and cotton. The production of these seeds is a process that begins with the receiving of the product (Fig. 6). The seeds then progress through a series of laboratory testing, which



city limits

urban context

regional map

superimposed map

fig. 03: regional networks 28

post-industrial landscapes

Donkey: “Man walks in a straight line because he has a goal and knows where he is going. and maintain with ease. The idea of “Man vs. he zigzags in order to avoid the larger stones. The infrastructure is laid out in a linear manner so that the seed follows a certain production path on site (Fig. After these processes. Tempering and degerming the seed is a way of sanitizing the product to avoid contamination among seed types to prevent any cross contamination when the seed is being used by consumers. In such case man is likely to take a linear path due to past experiences of work have led him to understand. In the case of Browning Seed. or to gain a little shade. he takes the line of least resistance” (11-12). the seed is sorted by the use of sifters and gravity tables in order to be packaged for either distribution or storage on site. 04: hard edge separation fig. 8). The pack-donkey meanders along. or to ease the climb.fig. he has made up his mind to reach some particular place and goes straight to it. Seed” path begins a conversation between profitability and experience. providing an opportunity for successful productivity. In contrast. the seeds are thoroughly cleansed and remove external waste and debris by use of machinery techniques. the path of seed follows the path of Le Corbusier’s “Man” in its linearity due to the intervention of man. Man relies on experience and his actions are efforts to produce profitability as the seed follows the man-made path. Linearity brings forth a clear plan that is easy to monitor. The landscape of Browning seed provides a flexible terrain that fluctuates based on program needs and most importantly the relationship between the paths taken by Man and Seed. meditates a little in his scatter-brained and distracted fashion. 05: infrastructure grid system includes measuring. that results in a nonlinear procession of space. This profitability path is set up to emphasize the linearity of procedure in efforts to increase efficiency and productivity for the company. The seed follows a linear path on the landscape based on the production process that needs to occur on site. While donkey thinks of nothing except what might be easier. By studying the landscape with the embedded infrastructure it is important to recognize the variation of paths that are implied. There is perception that one takes a certain path based on reason and instinct. temperature balance. moisture testing. and a procedure of manual sifting as a first stage of cleaning. Moving into the next stage of preliminary cleaning. FT flexible terrain 29 . On site production of these various seeds follows the general process which is regulated by infrastructure on the landscape (Fig 7). In Le Corbusier’s The City of Tomorrow there is a discussion about Man vs. how linearity is both productive and essential. clean.

06: general production trash/lint cleaning research receiving BROWNING SEED INC. N 0’ 50’ 100’ 200’ 300’ 400’ 500’ recieving laboratory preliminary cleaning trash bins tempering degerming exporting storage packaging exporting testing sorting auger system storage research cleaning gravity table storage exporting fig. a dialogue of new possibilities and strategic opportunities emerge. A sense of community and community involvement is a vital component since it provides input from a FT DEGERMING SORTING sifter PACKAGING 3RD PARTY TESTING gravity table DISTRIBUTION STORAGE fig. It is important to consider the past initiatives that were taken by the local community and evaluate their impact before introducing new programmatic strategies in order to prevent the same mistakes to reoccur. BROWNING SEED INC.RECEIVING wheat barley LABORATORY sample measuring temperature balance PRELIMINARY CLEANING TEMPERING hot/ cold seed treatment moisture testing manual sifting sorghum corn soybean oat the experience path is one that relies on the fluctuating landscape and multiple path sequences . By studying both internal and external forces that impact the site. such as the failure of the Main Street Program of Plainview and the abandonment of the industrial infrastructure. TX 19 4W ES T ANDY TAYLOR RD. conveyor system hexane unit cleaning tempering degerming storage storage trash bins oil bins ANDY TAYLOR RD. 08: production process on site 30 post-industrial landscapes . 07: landscape plan fig.creating an interpersonal relationship between man and land.

accounting for a particular spatial form as merely a provisional state of matter. and the imaginary. Seed” path and the emergence of program pockets. the staging of surfaces. where the two act together and yet stay distinct. politics. According to Corner. James Corner discusses the new notion and discipline of Landscape Urbanism and how it is a focus on the fusion of urbanism and landscape. The urban landscape becomes a canvas where there is an interrelationship between landscape and building and the two become a continuous pattern with the urban fabric. social notions) should focus on the understanding of “how things work in space and time” rather than informal understanding of form (Corner 29). A successful Main Street Program is established by the involvement of its citizens and community at the highest level. “Thus. The pockets will be used as site activators and create the possibility of strategic events that the community can engage in. the resultant will be a more organic. Without the community leadership. economics. The idea of community generates the encouragement for a town to rehabilitate the downtown and in some cases the town as a whole. Operation or working methods is the third theme where the programmatic visions become conceptualized. society. the city becomes stronger as the relationship amongst the community made in the landscape comes back to the city. These paths generate an in-between space which becomes a node for the user to experience the landscape. on its way to becoming something new” and revealing a new set of rules and findings on how landscape urbanism works (29). Corner focuses on four ideas: process over time. The FT flexible terrain 31 . the operational or working methods. dynamic relationships and agencies of process become highlighted in ecological thinking. It becomes an armature that incorporates the idea of flexible terrain generated by “Man vs. the flexibility of the ground plane. This program relies on the townspeople involvement and the strong commitment to the program itself. The creation of an outside event node enables the relation between the center of community and the outskirts of the city to become stronger. The programmatic vision becomes a reality and the working surface of the future possibilities. Landscape urbanism expands the notion of multiple forces including culture. Process over time seeks to create the relationship between the urban spatial forms and the how they relate to the processes that flow through the space. This landscape acts as stitch between past and present programmatic spaces. In Terra Fluxus. By taking the attention away from the center of the city and focusing on the interaction with an outside space. working together in the urban setting where the forces create a continuous network of interrelationships. The extension sets the stage for thematic events and how these events can play themselves out. The flexibility within the landscape creates opportunities of conversation between the abandoned infrastructure and the strategic possibilities. The new notion provides the opportunity to further investigate urban fabrics in their natural states in relations to the site and explore the design relationships between these two terms. fluid urbanism. and ecology.non-governmental agent and establishes a citizen based program. The second theme is the horizontal surface. These processes (cultural. economic. That point provides an invitation for the city to step out and interact with the landscape (Fig. 9). The node becomes an extension of city and community activity within the city limits. The emergence of program pockets comes from the relationship between various paths within the flexible terrain. where the environment becomes the analytical agent to understand the complexities of the urban space. a community does not exist and there is no sense of togetherness and common interest. This fabric becomes a flexible surface for future manipulations and acts as the trace of past events – it is the surface of potential.

10: fluctuating landscape 32 post-industrial landscapes .superimposition seed path man path flexible terrain program pockets FT superimposition seed path man path flexible terrain program pockets fig.

Browning Seed Inc. The convergence of ruins and natural scape establishes new experiential possibilities and programmatic event spaces. Keenan 17). is the surface of potential that allows the possibilities for the citizens to experience new events and new social memories (Fig. Flexible terrain. “A ruined structure compels the viewer to supply the missing pieces from their own imagination” and creates individual responses to the landscape. program pockets flexible terrain man path seed path FT superimposition fig. 10). being reworked in order to rich the optimum potential.opportunities are being shifted in time and space. The abandoned infrastructure and the landscape create continuous networks of inter-relationships and the surface of potential. 11: fluctuating landscape flexible terrain 33 . Imaginary is the catalyst of new creations. there is the theme of imaginary which is the prospect of new venture. The interrelationship becomes the language for the strategic planning and discoveries on how the landscape can morph and adjust to new programs by the users as they interact with the abandoned structures. Finally. emerging a new found enthusiasm of experiencing the programmatic events taking place (Jorgensen. which is the fluid state of a landscape that has the ability to morph over time allowing new possibilities and relationships of new activities and programmatic imaginaries (Fig. new events and new surface for new social memories. The combination of urban landscape and imaginary is the groundwork for speculation of what things can be. 11).

13: strategy through delicate insertion 34 post-industrial landscapes . 12: strategy of adaptation fig.FT fig.

As expressed in Ruskin’s Lamp of Memory. it serves as a generator and contrastingly sets forth the opportunity for external events and possibilities to happen. would be the key to restoring the links between architecture and both natural and urban life. The revealed infrastructure and machinery would begin to evoke personal memories and connections that agricultural industry had effect on Plainview. This provides an interchange of programs and events that the community can experience and be involved in. By removing the walls and replacing them with glass. John Ruskin describes parasitical sublimity as “sublimity dependent on the accidents or on the least essential characters of the objects to which it belongs” (344). The transparency acts as a continuation of passage from the building’s interior to the flexible terrain. The industrial infrastructure node acts as enabler to reestablish the strong sense of community and participation levels in the city that are currently insufficient. Exposing and revealing industrial machinery and incorporating the industry with the flexible terrain. there is an actual beauty in the marks caused by the effects of age and time. “Glass. The investigations of the relationship of paths that are present within the landscape create interpenetrating spaces which were used to establish program pockets. the performance of the building now relies on the process that occurs within – how it is a memory and trace of what used to happen in the landscape in a given point in time and the impact it had on the city of Plainview (Fig. A building has character that is expressed based not solely on materials and texture but rather on the performance of the architecture itself. the most immaterial of materials. such as public interest. as if the world-nature linkage were to occur within the world of the city” (Leatherbarrow 74). and experienced… building acts to “house” activities and experiences… known as operation or performances (Leatherbarrow 44. The blend between these two fabrics creates a continuous inter-relationship within the landscape and opportunistic creative experience for the user. 13).45). made. Infrastructure imprints not only on the landscape but also on the community history. While you can argue that time is never present and instead lives on in past and future. fairs and so forth (Fig. Attention to the ways buildings act will contribute to a new understanding of the manner in which they are imagined. David Leatherbarrow expresses how “the theme of performance is a key to the building’s internal definition or pre-predicated existence” in his writing of Unscripted Performances. and seasons. music festivals. children activities. The small defects and blemishes seen on site as the landscape interacts with its surroundings FT flexible terrain 35 . climate. Program pockets become generators of new event spaces and social memories. Program pockets will act as spaces that provide the possibility of multi-disciplinary events that can be held for the community of Plainview. When this building is now seen and valued for the operations that took place internally. Other variation of program pockets uses the abandoned infrastructure as a celebration of industry and its effect on the city. A type of beauty is developed on site due to passing time and its effects on the physical properties of industrial landscapes. The events can be programmed on the basis of monthly needs. generates the conversation between the two components. office spaces or the storage facilities can be redeveloped to house multiple events that can be based on different monthly themes. lectures. movie screenings. By creating a transparent layer between landscape and industry the viewer has an opportunity to experience two themes. time. 12). Program pockets become an external node that lets citizens come and gather to redevelop the community presence. The operations of the building both in the interior and exterior become dependent not on the building but on factors that are present in its surroundings. The grain silos. the effect of it does not go unnoticed. generating thematic events including art exhibitions.

These material conditions [and] engagement with materiality whether artistic. experimental and expressive engagement that can be appreciated in certain parts of the site. “[The landscape] is not characterized by velvety textures and polished surfaces. 14). The investigation of the Browning Seed Industry acted as a systematic research process that led to an understanding of the complexities of internal and external contextual forces.” (Edensor 67). 14: landscape of events become powerful generators of memory and a trace for designed possibilities (Fig. there is a constant dialogue between nature and landscape as they come together and feed off of each other. All of these imprints reveal the historical impact on the natural landscape as well as the development of the socioeconomics of Plainview. The abandoned landscape then. Picturesque occurs not only in the physical relationship between contrasting textures and surfaces but also in the responsive connection that are created between memory and possibilities. Instead it contains the rough. the much of moldering paper. Grass and concrete come together in a wildscape that is not designed nor premeditated. ceaselessly swept flooring or plush carpeting.which together created opportunistic possibilities of event spaces. This relationship creates the notion of a picturesque beauty that emerges from the two fortified with the agent of time that becomes the foundation for designing opportunities. Seed” paths. The relationship provides prospect for a more playful. The abandoned site 36 post-industrial landscapes . serves as a place of opportunity as with the link of past and future acting as the stitch. decomposing clothes. On the site. moss and saplings.“Man vs.FT fig. crunchy shards of glass. There is a respect that is paid toward aged materials as they act as a memory trigger taking the individual mind to a specific time and place. and program pockets -. Hidden relationships emerged -. splintery texture of rotting wood. experimental [or] creative occurs in a context…. flexible terrain. corroding steel. where neither is taking over the other but instead coexist in a landscape of their own. and the oil residues of industry.

2012. What makes main street? : A study of the main street programs in Plainview. Jorgensen. Dissertation. John. eds. Princeton Architectural Press: New York. and Littlefield. FT flexible terrain 37 . Texas Tech University. The City of Tomorrow and its Planning. 1994. The abandoned site becomes a flexible terrain that enhances the relationship of original infrastructure and new design strategies for communal events. 2009. Texas. David. Post. David. Urban Wildscapes. Seven Lamps of Architecture: Lamp of Memory. Gregory S. Chapter 2: Unscripted Performances.becomes an outside node that reestablishes a space for community gathering and activates not only the site itself but the community presence within the city. 2012.176) Ruskin. Architecture Oriented Otherwise. Leatherbarrow. 1929. Leatherbarrow. BIBLIOGRAPHY Browning. Smith Elder & Co: London. AC805 . 2009. Architecture Oriented Otherwise. James. Le Corbusier. Macik. revealing agricultural importance to the city and personal impact on the community of Plainview. Anna and Richard Keenan. Princeton Architectural Press: New York. Reprint in 2011. Personal interview. 1849. 1 Oct.T3 No. Chapter 3: Materials Matter. The designed thematic events use the existing infrastructure as traces. Routledge: New York. (Publication No.

[ TR ] .


Once. what was. We will choose the new and updated over the old and withered. rather it is being used a device to set the stage for a large power plant in central Texas. and decaying from nature’s merciless march are all that remain of the leviathan manufacturing leaders of our industrial existence. When. embracing the sublimity organizes a landscape that truly promotes the history and culture of the site’s past. Instead of being a part of a larger community of producers American’s have made the slow transition into a community of consumers. forth worth. tx bryan jacobsen + mike oler Detroit. However. These industrial landscapes are viewed as a scourge that must be eradicated in efforts to create a pseudo picturesque landscape not reminiscent of the sites true past. forerunners in innovation. and future. Washington and the TXU Power Plant in Fort Worth. the Rogue Complex in Dearborn. a desolate city that has become the victim of America’s manufacturing process. One must recognize the prevailing questions associated with these sties such as. these pivotal manufacturing facilities. is an attempt to manufacture a picturesque landscape. This is also not our focus. there in lies the trouble. Michigan. Detroit is just one of many cities enveloped by industrial sprawl. Therefore. what is the significance of this landscape? How can designers orchestrate the appropriate questions that led to justifiable conclusions for the site’s new event? How post-industrial landscapes . Once the home to unceasing commotion and progress the city now rests silent and bleak. this city is not as hollow and derelict as photographers seek to portray it as. There is life and interaction through the decay. in reality. Texas to be wiped from the face of the earth and forever sever the connection between our culture and powerful industrial past. and leaders in turning raw 40 materials into completed and refined products are now but ghosts of America’s growth and perseverance. This country has been tailored to a new mentality. covered in wild overgrowth.TR [ TRACES ] txu power plant. the attempt to create. However. we allow the potential for facilities like the Carry Furnace in Rankin Pennsylvania. weakened by rust. the Gas Works Facility in Seattle. present. void of interaction and human contact. or recreate. Hollow traces of the past. It is only our perception that leads us to believe it is a city beyond hope.

will the public interact with this new event and develop their own understanding of the site’s past through rationalizations of their own memories? Industrial sites of significant impact should be rehabilitated through a process of new events that are unique to each landscape. As Elizabeth Meyer states it. However. An understanding will be established through an in-depth look at varying theoretical interpretations of industrial preservation and convey this through different examples of facilities that were under duress and have since been repurposed. which terminates into the resorted Fort Worth Court House. 8) To better understand these mnemonic devices we will explore a few examples. it is not just the process inside the factory that is important to us. This is the TXU Power Plant constructed in 1910. the greater Dallas County area and parts of Abilene. Currently. the plant’s coal-to-energy processes. This is a series of manufacturer facilities within a close proximity to each other in the central North East portion of America. It’s one of the industries that propelled the US TR traces 41 . This neoclassical design housed a coal power plant that was in operation for almost one hundred years. that leads over the Trinity River. to most it is an eyesore. “Once the site of the nation’s largest steel mill and now big-box stores fill the expanse. “They are mnemonic devices that bring to mind changes initiated by humans’ need to harness nature for power production and building materials. specifically facilities such as Bethlehem Steel in Pittsburg and the Carry Furnace in Pennsylvania. A study of the landscape’s current conditions. The focus for this project lies in Fort Worth. diagrammatic analysis was conducted to establish a series of suggestion that organize events of interaction with the landscape and the surrounding populous to energize the site and establish a connection between downtown Forth Worth and the Historic Stockyards district. It also includes mining plants that worked in tandem to produce many of the products required to push America forward. Industrial progress was birthed in what is known as the rust belt. Rather. both of these landscapes are in a severe state of neglect and decay. These facilities have reached a state that is beyond desirable. once the target of much bustling noise and commotion now lays motionless with no attention. It is nested in a bend on the North Fork on Trinity River. The Landscape is located in a critical link between the growing downtown metropolitan area to the south and the Historic Stockyards District to the north. and information about the surrounding areas led to an understanding of how to suggest these new events within the landscape. Off of the bridge. surrounded by jogging trails and passed by many locals each day. now lays hollow and silent.”(Saunders. this is an opportunity. They are also subject to urban sprawl through rejected opportunities for renewal. However. The building that is apart of this landscape is worn by years of decay and plagued by vagrants and delinquents looking for shelter from the cold or a safe hiding place for unlawful activities. An experimental. a chance to create a connection to the past through a new experience now and give hope to tomorrow. is an iconic figure embedded in a rich landscape that represents the cities past. it is subject to much dereliction and neglect. The steel used to construct some of America’s most iconic buildings were refined in this area. It supplied power to Fort Worth.”(Surviving Steel. Texas. 34) The Carry Furnace was once a “key cog” in the production of US steel. our focus should be on the main ideology behind this facility. an ideology that links all industrial sites together. Located on the northern edge of downtown Fort Worth off of Main Street. Jan Dofner States “Carrie furnaces’ were the finest examples of smelting that made this valley the steelmaking capital of the world. Now. abused by time and weathered by nature. present. To them the building represents a detriment to progress and a constant reminder of time’s power over all things. and future. just north of the court house.

However. Therefore. the original state has already been altered. as Jeff Nesbit would state it. The conflict lies between the physical interaction of man and the naturally existing landscape that is boundless without man’s persistent maintenance. It must create a new natural event. there is an ever-present struggle on the landscape. she is too patient. 02: carrie furnace into global leadership. and personal. while not living entities. allowing the structure to maintain its current characteristics and continually post-industrial landscapes . (Nesbit) It is an environment we experience. what happens when man is no longer present? The building stands as a weak opponent to nature. How could it return to a state of being naturally wild? It cannot. As Christopher Woodward 42 states it. Consider that buildings are created to sustain events.” Nature has returned and the landscapes have reverted to their wild state. Typically. manicured. After this stage the landscape grows and the structure becomes damaged but also becomes more integrated into its surroundings. one that is void of any preexisting notions of how that environment should behave or appear. the landscape has now become a wildscape. “by the fact of it’s incompleteness. When a building or facility like the Carry Furnace or Bethlehem Steel has gone feral we must find a balance to allow the structure to continue its path. this decay can bring about holes or missing references in the structure. Figures 1 and 2 show the massive overgrowth as well as rust and stains with Bethlehem Steel and the Carry Furnace. and maintained. a conflict between man and nature. 01: bethlehem fig. These events are but instances in time. They now represent a new stage for the landscape. events of a day or the event of the building’s life. will eventually become feral. She will wait until the inevitability of her out living man and the time comes to slowly regain the upper hand on the structures. that nature is no longer being hindered. this is a direct link to what has occurred from the conflict.” (Surviving Steel. and our interaction and our experience of these events are altered by our own past.TR fig. Our response is creative. As noted by Elizabeth these sites show man’s needs to harness or control nature. 38) However. Without the constant interaction from man. A path to decaying and overgrowth. for example. These events will change over time. It cannot return to a preexisting state on its own. these structures. a ruined structure can compel the viewer to supply the missing pieces from their own imagination. (Nesbit) It is now a designer’s obligation to transform these into domesticated wildscapes. It is the removal of our normality. meaning. They can also be scaled. Meaning.

Washington lays a 19. certainly. “Minimal intervention”. This can be seen in Peter Latz’s Landshaftspark in Germany and Richard Haag’s Gas Works Park in Seattle. is not the appropriate action. to do “something with it”. 116) Our interaction is necessary to hold significance to these industrial complexes. In Seattle. 13) These facilities are interruptions with the natural flow of events. “Gas Works [Park] and Blondel reflect histories of both human actions modifying natural rhythms and natural events modifying human rhythms. Resorting. “do something to the place”. In a report to understand this landscape. The picturesque landscape attempts to alter reality with perfection in man’s understanding. 9) This must be explained through the ideas of picturesque and sublime. in the industrial preservation sense. this is the act of memory. they disturb the progress of nature while at the same time allowing nature to affect them. 108) Its unique characteristics led the city of Seattle to purchase the site and commit to repurposing it as a public space. it lies in dedicating structure to play host to a new series of events that hold a sublime significance.”(Saunders. “The sublime escapes one’s physical control”.adapt and change in accordance to nature’s will. The events can certainly take place without the presence of man but their action and implementation is all by man and for man’s benefit. Meyer stated that two of Richard’s projects share a similar pattern. allowing them to create a new event. (Gas Works Park) The facility is the last gasification plant remaining in the United States. Memory does not align itself fully with the ideologies of preservation rather it suggests an implementation of one’s own experiences to understand a re-representation of the past. You can recreate it. He states. and using minimal intervention of the site. The project was given to Richard Haag. There is a delicate balance of domesticating feral landscape to a position that the public can be reintroduced and interact with the structure in a new way. one that requires a new interpretation from the viewer. He noted his intentions changed from.1-acre facility that was paramount to the infrastructure of Seattle for 50 years. It is the imperfections that naturally occur around us. such as cuts to reveal the surface of the lake from the park entrance and fill to exaggerate the mass of the burial mound of toxic soil. This is how the industrial site must progress. Peter Latz would state. Just as you cannot restore the building to its original design and form. Elizabeth K. however. “consisted of selectively editing the machinery. the experience. Therefore.”(Saunders. John Ruskin would consider this a farce. (Saunders. in the sense of landscapes. Elizabeth noted that Haag thought of these engineered machines and tanks on the site as “unselfconscious assemblages” and Haag’s method of assembling. but using ‘espace propre’ (clean space) carefully. (Weilacher. modifying them with extraordinary restraint for recreational use. To which Peter Latz’s refers to this amalgamation of domesticated landscape and facility as “Memory”. Lucious Burckhardt explains this as. We must experience them and supply our own interaction derived from TR traces 43 . has an ephemeral quality. 8) Haag made a claim that his intentions about design where modified through the design processes. by this Elizabeth is referring to the necessary action between the mind and the event. This is the creation of the new event. It is important to understand that not only does the interaction of man allow for the structure or facility to be maintained but also signifies the relevance or importance of the events within the facility. (White) It has reached a new state. both can be understood as disturbed. You cannot return a building to its original state in a given time frame any more than you can raise the dead.” (Weilacher. you cannot restore the building to its natural landscape. Sublimity exists in reality. Memory. “Minimal intervention doesn’t mean not wanting to do anything.

as in early modernism. Here I am interested in a possible congruence within the ecological concept. ever present to bring a since of wonder and hope to our society. (Weilacher. Instead allow the decay to be the experience of the building and create a new experience of the technologically sublime. into a development opportunity for more commercial and multifamily use. the technical idea is the try to interact the natural sequences as much as possible. holds are only valid through the interaction of man in a sublime representation of what was.COWTOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT COWTOWN INTERACTION MAIN STREET TR SITE SITE INTERACTION DOWN TOWN FORT WORTH n Miles 0 50 100 50 100 DOWN TOWN FORT WORTH n DOWNTOWN INTERACTION fig. no. Saving these structures is vital to the growth of our culture and these are necessary experiences that can greatly impact our future. Allowing the site to take advantage of those already accustomed to its presence. A building in operation for ninetyfive years has had the opportunity to affect the lives of so many and with its location most of those through a direct connection.CURRENT TRINITY RIVER TRINITY RIVER VISION STOCKYARDS . post-industrial landscapes . Now. Remnants of power stations and other industrial sites represent an ideology in America. “ So [to bring] technology and nature not as a contrasting pair. With this understanding of memory applied to the TXU plant we can see that a deeper interaction will only occur through the use of existing infrastructure. This has nothing to do with the need for harmony. This figure 3 also shows 44 the strategy to introduce new events found from the stockyards and the downtown. These are defined links that tell us how we got to where we are and contain insight to where we have yet to be. With Latz’s park he wanted to develop systems that were both artificial and ecological. By tying into the surrounding jogging and bike trails the site opens up to what already exists. the land between the Stockyards and Down Town. The importance that this. This plan includes the introduction of a bypass canal connecting varying parts of the Trinity River to take the Uptown area out of FEMA regulated flood zones. but technology and nature in accord. The context diagram shows the current layout of the Trinity River as well as the sites position from the Historic Stockyards and Down Town Fort Worth which includes the Trinity River Vision plan with the new canal. to attempt to bring that to light would not be an appropriate act. and other buildings like it. they are but traces of our past. one of growth and perseverance. Thus the key to our future lies in the culture of our past. With this interaction we blend the lines between the events of the past and the newly found events experienced by our interaction.COWTOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT STOCKYARDS . The past is the past. 03: context diagram expanded our personal past to envelope ourselves into a greater experience and transcend our current culture. the city of Fort Worth has a decade long plan to transform Uptown. 128) He continues with this idea of conforming the rigid and planned layout of the industrial park and the continued insurgence from nature. Also.

TR fig. 05: stockyard + downtown superimposed traces 45 . 04: stockyard diagrams fig.

one that has never existed in the Plant’s lifetime. The building will be viewed from a new perspective. These diagrams also depict the graphical manipulations to superimpose them appropriately on the TXU power plant. A dining experience can also be implemented into the great hall. It is done through the minimal intervention or selective modification of the site. The designers use minimal intervention allows from them to create this stage and allow separate and personal events to take place with every individual interaction. Paths can seamlessly be integrated through the building allowing for joggers and park goers to wonder into the building and create a new event from their own past experiences. This event will be a more prolonged exposure to the landscape. This allows for a different form of interaction. and shopping. rather it is due to a varying level of interaction amongst the sites. not recreation. Figure 5 shows a 46 TR map locating similar events in Down Town Fort Worth. is now hollow and void. This is also where the coal spent the majority of its time completing the majority of the process of creating electricity. It is not the events alone that keep this consistent interaction developing. It holds a sense of grandeur for visitors whose experience is now the event. one where the building itself is not the focus but rather the backdrop for new events that post-industrial landscapes . 128) There is an overwhelming sense of awe and wonder when one experiences the massive scale inside these decadent and neglected structures. This establishes an environment that is relatively stationary allowing for more time to focus on the largest space within the facility. safety. These paths will consist of a single level of interaction. both of these facilities were aimed at creating a stage for new events to take place. There are commercial shopping facilities. auctions. or is.And to let nature be nature. Another will be reminiscent of a nightlife experience. of platforms at varying levels on the north end of the building will play host to this last level of interaction. it is not what the power plant was. Figure 6 and 7 shows the implentation of these traces onto the sites. When comparing the site to the Historic Stockyards and Down Town it can be understood that the continued presence of man is from the persistent interaction from locals and tourists. It will be stabilized to protect the health. and welfare of the visiting public but will not be a preservation project. shifted.” (Weilacher. They can wander throughout the building not following any specific path. The strategy is to use existing infrastructure to tie into the site and implement a series of varying events reminiscent of those found in the Stockyards and Downtown. a personal form. the only indication of directionality will be from the linear path derived from the refining processes shown in figure 8. Therefore. Figure 4 shows a map locating these varying events in the Stockyards such as dining. nightlife. These events are derived from a visitor’s personal experience. rather what it can become. Much like these events those that will be applied to the site must contain varying levels of interaction. entertainment functions. This will provide another level of interaction that will be more disconnected. A new creation. This will be a project that requires a re-representation of the events of the past through a new event. Here visitors are allowed time to reflect on the structure and understand the past through visible decay found on the surface. as well as nightlife and dining experiences. Much like we explored in the Latz’s Landshaftspark and Haag’s Gas works. and much like those in Detroit. scaled and superimposed onto the TXU landscape. At one point these walls were ever accustomed to an unceasing event of activity and occupancy. rodeos. The building can be repurposed as a functioning facility that allows for patrons to view the building itself as an artifact of the past. Interaction is the key to implementing a series of events to energizing the site. These ideas found are similar in technique and will lead to the successful implantation of our new events.


In the design world we must not view these as husks of their formal selves.are created and experienced by the patrons alone. we must remember and hold on to these examples of the great steel mills in the rust belt. This will be the most unique and diverse experience. rather derive the inspiration from within. The Designer must set their ego and agenda aside and allow for a new creation to structure input and understanding from its viewers. However. There are voids throughout our country that are charged with potential to become something more than they are. The revolution of manufacturing process has led to a new beginning for similar methods in other facilities. a new paradigm must be formed to the public. This “throw-away” mentality is hazardous to preserving critical links to our past. From the neglect of their creators these facilities have become something to despise. one that will vary the most from the others. the constant evolution of these processes has lead to their inevitable termination. TR 48 post-industrial landscapes . to what it can become. and those plants that brought us power. Unfortunately. They have been transformed by time and become a product of natures manufacturing process. Not because the old is no longer functional but because of its characteristics. They are waiting for new events to be created. old. They served as a pivotal importance to America’s early life. It inhibits our desire to maintain established connections to where we came from. It is the designer’s obligation to look beyond what the facility currently is. Designers can only achieve this through the careful and restrained adaptation of these sites. rather they are full of life. We purchase products and then after a few years we buy new ones. These dormant facilities are not dead.

National Park Service. Weilacher. Web. 1983. Web. “Surviving Steel. <http://www. 26 Sept. Nesbit. Andrews. 13 Sept. “Preservation History. Lubbock. Jeffery. Lecture. TR traces 49 . 1995. Patrick M. Gary R. Print. N. William S. United States. 2012. “Gas Works Park. John. <http://www.asp?id=293>. and Elizabeth K. City of Seattle. 06 Oct. 01 Jan. 1012. Lubbock. 2012. Department of the Interior. Condon. 6 Sept. “Post Industrial Landscapes.. Andrews. 2012.” Post Industrial Landscapes. National Park Service. 08: production process as path sequences BIBLIOGRAPHY Home Page. David. Udo. Basel: Birkhäuser. Texas Tech University. “Altar of Industry. Web. Print. Web. <http://www. White. 1 Sept. 2008.” Preservation Lecture. Hilderbrand. Texas Tech University. 2004: 21-33. Rebirthing Bethlehem.seattle. Department of the Interior. Lecture.nps. “A Steel Town Seeks New Life. “Latz Partner. Web. New York: Princeton Architectural. Richard Haag: Bloedel Reserve and Gas Works Park.”>. David. Print.Action Reaction Based Process Water Action Raw Coal Reaction Raw Syn-gas Slags & Ash Puri ed Syn-gas Exhaust Heat Recovery Delivery Crushed Burned Puri ed Generation Generation Electricity Puri ed Generation Puri ed Syn-gas DN DN UP DN Water Burned Exhaust UP DN DN DN DN Slags & Ash DN UP Crushed Delivery Raw Syn-gas DN UP UP DN DN fig.” Common Ground 1 June 2005: 33-45. 2006: 35-45.” Common Ground 1 Mar. 1998.latzundpartner. n.” LATZ PARTNER. Meyer.. By Ken Salazar. David.p. 06 Oct. Syntax of Landscape: The Landscape Architecture of Peter Latz and Partners.htm>.” Common Ground 1 Sept.

[ SL ] .


middle.As we prepare to respond to a forgotten not abandoned post-industrial site. tx cristina castanon + william cotton “Wence things have their origin. and dross) that define the spirit of the postindustrial landscape existing at the Amarillo Helium Plant (Fig. David Leatherbarrow says that events are unanticipated “Because events arise out of a past that we do not know. amarillo. cultural understanding. organized. and the present is a non-consequential floating point between the two. according to necessity. one can begin to better understand how a stratum forms through the sedimentation of events. and regeneration to describe time along with the apparent impact of speed and scale. one must understand the forces acting upon it in the past present and future. 3). These forces are constituent of events throughout time from the Cambrian world to the Anthropocene. (industrial process. We categorize these events in time using the metaphor of a stratum in 52 order to understand their force upon the landscape. Events are the physical and metaphysical phenomena caused by forces that do not await one another. Beginning with a unique geological prehistory of substrata decomposing and changing into gasses later trapped under another strata. for they must account for and pay penance to one another according to the ordinance of time” . and end resist objective comprehension. 1 and 2).” Because of this events are considered temporally mobile.Anaximander To understand the landscape surrounding the Amarillo Helium Plant. this becomes most apparent when observing the site through elevation (Fig.SL [ A STRATIFIED LANDSCAPE ] helium production. it is the coalescence of this geology and the events of the 20th century ie.” One can only see how an event plays out “Events cannot be defined. politics. morphogenesis. The future and the past are reciprocally referential. there they must pass away. which is characterized by striations of non-defined spaces that permit the flexible inception post-industrial landscapes . we choose to focus on events and how they are multi-temporal and symbiotic. or scripted because their beginning. logistics. This ideology can be seen in Rem Koolhass’ Parc de la villette. Using analogies of dynamism.

and its high helium content. 01: regional strata fig. and culture of Amarillo. the Navy’s previous stock of Helium. perpetually tied to the geology. The Amarillo Federal Helium Plant is located on the fringe of a city of 190. infrastructure. energized the Federal Bureau of Mines to build a refinery four miles west of town. Texas. industry. 02: timeline a stratified landscape 53 . This was principally because of the depletion of the Petrolia gas field near Fort Worth. In 1928 the discovery of the Cliffside gas field. From its geographic proximities spawned the railroads. The community of Amarillo organized in 1887 as a freight terminal for cattle on the Ft Worth to Denver Railroad. Rock Island and Pacific Railroad established services to and from Amarillo.of event.695 people centrally located in the Texas panhandle. Shortly there after the Atchison. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway and Chicago. Koolhass uses these striations horizontally. economy. SL fig. The Helium Plant represents the local and regional past present and future. we plan to use the analytical qualities of strata vertically.

” producing an estimated 95% of the world’s recoverable helium in a 250 mile radius. unorganized street grid system. cul de sac neighborhoods. national defense needs until 1943. Its focus shifted towards research of natural gases and the science of their uses. Amarillo Helium Plant received much attention throughout its existence. In the 1980’s Interstate 40 bypassed Route 66. and became a shipping terminal to serve the remaining two plants. the industry privatized and its real-estate was sold off. and Valero Mckee Refinery. 03: landscape sediment fig.The following year the Fort Worth Federal Helium Plant was closed and the Amarillo Helium Plant became the principle helium production facility serving U. 2) which would then go on to mandate private industry to meet all further demands for Helium. three other helium plants were opened and Potter County was considered the “Helium Capital of the World. (Fig. and commercialized shopping centers. came the development of the southwestern part of Amarillo separated by I-40. With Pantex also came Bell Helicopter. 04: helium production and maintenance 54 post-industrial landscapes . By 1968. Earth works funded by fig. In 1934 Amarillo became the sole commercial producer of helium in the world. (Fig. During World War II the military industrial complex of Amarillo grew and Pantex. Helium being a critical commodity of its operation. In 1970 the Amarillo Helium Plant stopped producing Helium. From this triumph the infrastructure for the natural gas industry constructed. in response to the proliferation of the Cold War. From industry spawned new networks and wealth. From wealth came cultural response to the land with spawned all that proceeds. full of the characteristics of post WWII urbanism ie. Excel.S. the nations only nuclear weapons assembly SL facility was established. Predeceasing the Helium Privatization Act of 1996. With the ending of WWII in 1945.(Fig 4 and 5) Due to its prime location on Route 66 with rail access and its proximity to Cliffside Dome. In 1990 the national helium program was ended. there was a significant expansion to the Amarillo Helium Plant. 6) Also.

such as Cadillac Ranch. 6) (These all together become the events that we want to try to bring to our space. much like the earths crust was in the process diagram alone. The crude Helium separated in this process is then stored by BLM in the Cliffside bush dome to be conserved.the forces that we are using to frame the next event that will take place on our site) Beginning in the Terra Infra. The BLM then rations the crude helium to refineries for further purification. as the helium when stored would have mixed with other natural gases all over again. must be removed in order to prevent them from plugging up the cryogenic piping. 7) Once this is done the element is distributed in either its gaseous state or liquefied state under very high pressures in tightly sealed cylinders. the simplified process diagram was inverted onto the existing site plan according to where each event took place. (Fig. An elevation view of the process overlaid onto a birds eye view of the site really begins to uncover certain qualities not easily visible before. 05: site + production Stanley Marsh 3. the buoyant Helium travels upwards through porous sedimentary rocks. Floating Mesa. This is usually a multistage process involving several different separation methods depending on the purity of the crude Helium and the intended application of the final product. This is the point at which it is decided to begin to think of the space correlating with our specific Post-Industrial Landscape SL a stratified landscape 55 . All impurities that solidify after being cooled through a cryogenic section... and Amarillo Ramp are also in proximity to the plant. The Natural Gas Industry then extracts this raw gas. In this way the two roads become defining barriers. This process is multi-leveled thus making it very easy to relate it to the site in context of its elevation. The natural gas is then separated in its major components through a process known as fractional distillation. where it is met with other raw gasses. This move is literal and can be very well understood when looking at the site of Amarillo Helium Plant in elevation. When diagramming this characteristic. The purifying process is where remaining materials are removed from the Crude Helium. that is a move across the natural axis of the earths crust. (Fig.fig. For example the way the process moves from Terra Infra to Terra Supra. This is where the process travels across to the Terra Supra is which natural gas is refined and sold after being pretreated and separated.

Morphogenesis: Greek morphē ‘form’ + genesis ’origin’ Sanford Kwinter is sensitive to time and its affect on things in “The Complex and the Singular. while testifying to event time scales and the varying conditions that they present. Ultimately we conceptualize future sedimentations post-industrial landscapes . the emergence and evolution of form. wedding to the ever evolving participation of time”. thus it begins to take on the quality of layers. to create the next strata. We acknowledge that these strata will conflict with one another. might. The future strata will be a result of the forces acting upon it (urban. which we will go on to define as a strata. and the physical scale of Route 66 infrastructure reflects this. It catered to a pace devoid of urgency. 5) Dynamism: Greek dynamis ‘power. and a monopoly of natural resources that helped secure America’s global status. and how these different variables are constantly responding to one another. In contrast I-40 is a contiguous body of movement. The temporal shifts of technology.” a chapter from his book Architectures of Time. Dynamism is especially apparent when contrasting Interstate 40 to Route 66. It was dotted with tourist stop. Umberto Boccioni used dynamism to express speed and the simultaneity of his own age. The time scale and speed of the Earth’s regeneration cycle is less finite than that of the human body. optimized by bridges and ramps that allow it to function uninterrupted. Time is the most consequential force as it is characterized by “relentless fluidity. We seek to deal with the ultimate problem. (Fig. This confliction is addressed by Bernard Tschumi programing strategy of Dis-programing. We rationalize this as the fusion of Dynamism ‘forces’ and Morphogenesis ‘results’. which is used to create the next the horizontal view. which itself is morphing in response to time (time being made up of response to force). Route 66 has an intermittent speed of circulation. We see the Amarillo Helium Plant’s temporal position as the confluence of a regional event panoply. This helps to define a strategy that is sensitive to the past. 3) Regeneration: Latin regenerare ‘create again’ The cellular structure of the human body regenerates approximately every seven years. restaurants. strength’+ ism ‘a philosophical system’ Dynamism is a theory that all phenomena can be explained as manifestations of force. cultural) and the conflict of its substratum (the helium plant). and curio shops. but their similarities are inextricably linked. This acknowledgment to force is inherently morphogenic. The phenomenon of planetary Helium is the force of radioactive decay of thorium and uranium in a substratum of an impermeable super-stratum of halite or anhydride. in Kwinter’s words is “the very principle of life that is creation itself. For future development we propose a philosophical approach that integrates a response to its proximity. He begins to discuss how forces correlate with change. The Earth’s crust is perpetually in motion and reforming through the process of plate tectonics. present and future events of the Amarillo Helium plant. economy and society are physically manifested by the typologies of the roads. These are the forces of the network society as described by sociologist Manuel Castells. On I-40 the exterior environment is little more important than the information that describes it on your smart phone. characterized by perpetual instability. So whatever even spawns from the coalescence of event stratum must dis-program the space that it physically and metaphysically occupies .(Fig. The Amarillo Helium Plant in essence is a response to the growth of Amarillo. industry. numerous motels. by introducing surprise and removing ideas of specific outcomes from how designers codify an environment.” Morphogenesis. This definition characterizes our 56 SL strategy.

SL dynamic chimeras of event that are temporally multivalent. 06: event program hub a stratified landscape 57 . As a visual abstract of what we want our landscape to become we reference Umberto Boccioni painting. “concurrence of lines and the real conflicts of planes”. Dynamism of a Soccer Player. which he describes as physical transcendentalism.

07: helium process 58 post-industrial landscapes .SL fig.

Kwinter. Print. Cambridge.” 391. N.00001a/>. Print. Selling the Nation’s Helium Reserve. 2009. N. David. pag. N. MA: MIT. pag. Prints and Photographs Division. Historic American Engineering Record. Tschumi. Helium Activities Recording Project.BIBLIOGRAPHY Boccioni. N.loc. “Unscripted Performances. SL a stratified landscape 59 .C: National Academies. D.” Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture. Print. Umberto.” Architecture & Disjunction. 1996. New York: Princeton Architectural. David.” Architecture Oriented Otherwise. Lib. 20 November 2012 <http://www. Print. Washington. pag. of Congress. Todd Delyea. Boston: MIT. Leatherbarrow.” Topographical Stories: Studies in Landscape and Architecture. Washington. 2010.p. 2001. Comp. <http://www. “The Complex and the Singular. pag. Leatherbarrow. 2012. Web. “The Architectural Paradox. United States.391. N.htm>. 20 Nov.d. 2004. Print.. Sanford. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Bernard. “Plastic “Leveling the Land. Cover Sheet.sheet.

[ FP ] .


Water was an energy source and transportation.FP [ THE FORGOTTEN PEANUT ] peanut plant. The Industrial Revolution was a major part of the development of cities in the United States. The society must recover. These industrial remains can be seen on the landscape as “…urban population concentrations. cotton and milling industries. New York and other cites with access to the water routes. When the industry fails. along the rivers. railroads lines were laid beside the water routes. comanche. tx daniel budke + shawnda rixey The United States’ history of industry has left a legacy of wealth and prosperity. Society leaves behind remnants of its industries. The railroad was able to reach out into the American heartland where new resources and opportunities awaited. the culture it created is left without its foundation. Landscape for this purpose does not refer to the greening of a space or the outdoor gardens. The survival of city no longer relies on the industry. However this is a cautionary tale. Industries serve as the main economic source to cities and towns like the automobile industry in Detroit. Eli Whitney and Francis Lowell are memorialized as the grandfathers of steel. These industrial cites are identified by their association with the industry. Industry established itself around the waterfronts of Boston. landscape is more of a domesticated wildscape. It has no use. The industries invigorated creation and growth of cities like Paterson. the shipping industry in Houston and the peanut industry in Comanche. patterns of transportation networks. What should be done with these post- post-industrial landscapes . The reliance of industry as a model of growth and success has a fatal flaw. Industry followed the railroad as 62 a system of production and distribution stretched over the continental United States. Great industrialists like Gerald Ford. it is out dated or relocated. voids when compared to their past levels of activity. Texas. and the evocative ruins of factory and warehouse buildings” (Berens 3). New Jersey. Industry defines America as much as the Constitution and American Dream. These once active and vital industrial landscapes have become shells. As the Industrial Revolution progressed. This industry made the United States a superpower in the World. The voids created by the loss of industry create a special problem in architecture.

there was no period of decay to create a new culture. This termination forces a reaction from the people: exodus or adaption.industrial landscapes that at one time served a region. The people of Paterson were able to recover their industry due to the continuation of their activity on the site. that describe two contests and two different victories. seeking to create a culture grown from the decay. one better known than the other. enveloping them in growth and vegetation The empty neighborhood blocks and civic building in Detroit serve as a stage for new undefined activities such as urban exploration. society becomes a regulator. Paterson earned the moniker. Nature had won the battle but the city is being reactivated. Conversely. The city’s population depleted as an exodus of around half its citizens fled the failing industry (Woodard 18). Tim Edensor divides the type of play in ruins into four categories: destructive play. These voids are connected by rail and road to other industries and important places for the city and community. it was the people who activated the city. artistic photography and other forms of ‘play’. the activity attributed to industrial production ceases. Once called ‘Motor City. “Silk City” (Berens 6). Unlike Detroit and Paterson. Being a child gives you the natural permission to play. so the industrial society continued to support the city. People are returning to the neighborhoods. The milling operation failed but the water ways and canals continued to be leased for the next one hundred years until the demand of the growing numbers of mills overwhelming the system. a supervisor. There are two case studies. each resulting in the filling of a void left by an industry or industry supported society and culture. also. One of these industries being the silk industry which would go on to be so successful. unsupervised form. Christopher Woodard states that the ruin that is created by the exodus reaction becomes a “contest between people and nature” (17). Paterson. Some people explore. left to decay. create artistic additions and even sneak into these ruins and host catered dinner parties. The last example we have to present is the combination of these two circumstances. A void is created by each industry’s failure. In the case of Detroit. artistic play and adventurous/expressive play. New Jersey was an experiment for Alexander Hamilton’s Congressional Report on Manufactures. This scenario is where the industry is abandoned but there is no exodus of society or new industry to use its buildings and land. Nature found root in the destruction and reclaimed buildings. there is no reactivation of these FP the forgotten peanut 63 . an unsupervised freedom. Entire sections of the once glorious city sit abandoned and decaying. hedonistic play. trying to explain why American needs to become independent from Britain’s Industrial support. Adults have found a stage where they are given permission to perform. As an adult. We have seen two different set of circumstances. They are bypassed in favor of the progression of society and industry. a state or the nation? While industry helped create and finance these cities. Unlike in Detroit. The original use for SUM (Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures) at Paterson was to control the water for the cotton mill along the water (Berens 4). Industry can only serve as a catalyst for society providing funds and means for culture and growth. A hydroelectric power plant was installed to help power the mill and SUM sold off their holdings soon after. Edensor rationalizes that adults need play. Edensor infers that “play is the antithesis of production” (73) using this idea to further explain society’s condemnation of post-industrial sites as “blots on the landscape”.’ Detroit is now referred to as a “playground of ruins” (Nesbit). instead of accepting them as places awaiting their new purpose. the focus on the decaying city paints a false picture of the city. when the industry is relocated or terminated. The town of Paterson purchased the water ways and new manufacturing industries replaced the mills. The current activity within the ruins of Detroit is play at its purest.

Comanche was hailed as the Peanut Capital of the World. cotton. No play happens here. Located in the Eastern Prairie Country of Texas. pecans. Located at the corner of Mill Avenue and State Highway 16. When the authors visited Comanche [Fig. the city of Comanche must be proud of their peanut history. 1] on a research trip. Towns situated along the routes served as nodes of production and distribution to Texas industries such as cattle. we were shocked to find that no one seemed to know of the factory and company that achieved this notoriety or even where the abandoned factory was located. no work either. peanuts and. The railroad sustained the rural cities and for a period they thrived. the Gold Kist Peanuts Growers Factory served as one of the supporting industries in this area since the early 1930s when boll weevils devastated the cotton FP hig hw ay 1 6 hi y wa gh 36 6 ate rst e t in 7 67 & 33 interstate 7 highway 36 highway 16 fig. It is simply forgotten. These towns and cities flourished as long as the railroad brought activity and support to the local businesses (Werner). 01: comanche. tx 64 post-industrial landscapes . A forgotten void can be found in the larger industry of rural production in Texas. the system served the state since its foundation in 1836 (Werner). These rural nodes abandoned save for the infrequent freight trains used for shipping have lost their catalyst of activation. The system’s interconnectivity extended across the state and reached into its neighbors. the rural industries must find new connections to support distribution. The impact of activation on a rural industry is best understood with an example: Comanche. Connected by the railroads to larger metropolises and distribution centers.sites. As the major production center of peanuts and peanut products since 1940. mere two blocks from the city’s historic bustling downtown. New more direct routes were added to the system and these smaller rural areas which formed nodes along the route were bypassed in favor of larger nodes with more products to offer. Without the support of the railroad. most recently. TX.

Alfa toxin. like in the railways that helped create the rural community. The peanut industry is FP Industry Nodes Community Nodes Green Space Nodes Active Connections Inactive Connections fig. The peanut industry he created would expand into other rural industries and grow as the word’s peanut production focused on Comanche (Langley). The rural industry established by Durham continues to produce pecans. He purchased the Comanche Depot properties from the St. water and diseaseresistant air produced bumper crops of peanuts. local farmers had begun experimenting with peanuts in 1907 as a way to diversify (Leffler) and the loss of the cotton industry did not have a larger impact. The city of Comanche grew around this industry. The peanut industry would thrive in Comanche until the mid-1990s when a fungus. one void does not cause a retreat as in Detroit nor is it filled like in Paterson. Louis and San Francisco Railway in 1935 because he thought the new factory’s proximity to the tracks would ease distribution (Dollins).industry. the Golden Peanut Company. This relocation left the peanut factory abandoned and the current owners. He formed the Durham Peanut Company to provide jobs for the citizens of Comanche during the hard times following the failure of the cotton industry and exacerbated by the collapse of the stock market leading to the Great Depression. the void is bypassed [Fig. In Comanche. 2]. As home based operation. The industry relocated to West Texas where fresh fields. 02: nodes of activity the forgotten peanut 65 . Fortunately. The system of interconnected nodes of industry blends with the activity of the city. This early diversification led to the area’s leadership in the production of peanut products. and overworked land depleted the region’s peanut crops (Babineck). its success is linked to the factory buildings and sheds. seem content for it to remain that way. The first peanut factory was established in 1926 by Walter Durham. One failed node. process food and manufacture goods. Durham paid local families three cents a pound to shell peanuts in their kitchens (Dollins).

It is without use. 3]. it needs the building to remember. and worship without her. this forgetfulness created a void. but we cannot remember without her” (Ruskin 324). This residue can be found in the structures. Carol Berens’s book. Within the city. Our solution is to infuse activity into the void thus filling it and reestablishing the forgotten connections to the landscape. there is little evidence of the ‘play’ that is seen on the factory buildings. “Redeveloping Industrial Sites”. explains that this forgetfulness is attributed to “the vacant land and abandoned property of long-gone factories and failed projects stifle growth and effectively seal off sections of the town”(x). “Architecture is to be regarded by us with the most serious thought. It is worth questioning how the people of Comanche forgot the peanut industry and in turn the factory. 4]. 04: storage sheds for drying forgotten. The power of the void negated the first type of activity to begin to reactivate the site as seen in Detroit. The on-site nodes of production and process exist as traces on the landscape. These reminders can serve post-industrial landscapes . 03: storage decay FP fig. The only graffiti is found on the outer edge of the landscape [Fig. unfortunate economic residues” (Lerup 58).fig. The landscape is currently being underutilized as storage for dilapidated machinery and recycling [Fig. In contrast to the graffiti and vandalism seen at other abandoned sites. A void holds no memories. 5]. undervalued. People were not affected by the landscape and they did not affect the landscape with their activity. Despite its proximity to the main centers of activity within the city. The activity of production which promoted interaction with the landscape has been stilled [Fig. Ruskin in his “Lamp of Memory” explains that while society can continue to exist without the building. machinery and other physical remains of the production and joint activities. the landscape has been made dross-“the ignored. This bypass of the history of the community is troubling. a no man’s land where no human 66 activity occurs. without purpose and reason. We may live without her.

This experience of the landscape is the goal. The rules of architecture blend with the pleasure of the sublime ruin (Tschumi 50). The physical attributes of the site fortified a line of procession through the site. The beauty the forgotten peanut 67 .In-shell processing separate wash w/sand Shipped Out drying powder unloading unloading Harvesting mow invert thrashing hopper storage storage storage storage storage clean separate powder curing storage cleaned wash w/sand screening screening dryer bagged bagged bagged blanching cooling roast Shipped Out size crushing separating size/grading Shelling process Dry roasting Oil roasting start of process on site missing buildings process on site In-shell peanut process Shelling peanut process millstone peanut shells peanut shell and sand dryer door identification tags fig. 06: conditions of sublimity + juxtaposition as a basis for the redevelopment of nodes on the site to create new connections along the linear production processional. The procession. The landscape is without boundaries and allows for unexpected events to occur. has no final destination. 05: production traces FP fig. unlike the production on the site. This procession intersects with several of the nodes and connections existing on the site and bypasses others. Voids are created within buildings and new spaces are created as seen by the dark blue sections of the diagram.


fig. 07: activation into decay

and sublimity of the site is created by the juxtapositions of the site’s past and future in the present [Figure 6]. This move allows the user to define the level of activity he/ she with have with the landscape. The space is user defined (Tschumi 30). The user definition creates a dialogue of the city’s interest with the site, leaving the successful reactivation up to the people. We choose to leave the final success of the reactivation of the landscape to the people of Comanche because we believe they have demonstrated a desire to be “a community where history is celebrated and the present is progressive” (Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture). There are two recent instances of this desire that have proven fruitful and reassuring. In early 2012, Comanche’s Main Street Program, part of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, was named as one of the year’s National Trust Main Street Center Accredited Programs on PreservationNation, the official website for the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The Main Street Program seeks to revitalize the commercial downtown neighborhoods

of towns and cities. Comanche’s efforts in creating a lively historic downtown were rewarded and expanded to another historic preservation project. The restoration of the historic Comanche Train Depot celebrated the centennial anniversary of the building in August 2012 (Jones). This project is of special interest to us as the Depot is located on the site of the abandoned peanut factory. The node that has been left empty is activated by inserting the Chamber of Commerce offices into the building. This inserting of activity now needs to happen with the rest of the site, filling the forgotten node with activity [Fig. 7]. These completed projects should be seen as only the beginning to the much greater task of remembering the peanut industry. The landscape and its buildings are there. Utilize it.  


post-industrial landscapes

“2012 National Trust Main Street Center Accredited Programs.” PreservationNation. National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. Babineck, Mark. “West Texas leading state’s peanut boom as north-central Texas declines.” Abilene Reporter-News Archives. Abilene Reporter-News, 21 Dec. 1997. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. Berens, Carol. Redeveloping Industrial Sites: A Guide for Architects, Planners, and Developers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011. Print. Bernard, Tschumi. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Print. Comanche Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture. City of Comanche, TX. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. Comanche Chamber of Commerce and Agriculture. Comanche Chief 2 Aug. 1973: B5. Print. “Comanche, TX.” Wikipedia. MediaWiki. n.d. Web. 4 Nov 2012. Dollins, Sharon Durham. “How It All Began.” Comanche, Texas: Durham’s Pecan Outlet. Texans United, 2011. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. Edensor, Tim, et al. “Playing in industrial ruins: Interrogating teleological understanding of play in spaces of material alterity and low surveillance.” Urban Wildscapes. Ed. Anna Jorgensen and Richard Keenan. New York: Routledge, 2012. 65-78. Print. Jones, Fredda. “Comanche Unveils Its Newly Restored Train Depot.” Comanche, Texas: Durham’s Pecan Outlet. Texans United, 9 Aug. 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. Langley, B.C.. “Peanut Culture” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. Leffler, John. “Comanche County.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. Lerup, Lars. After the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001. Print. Nesbit, Jeffrey. Texas Tech University. College of Architecture, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. n.d. Class lectures. Ruskin, John. Seven Lamps of Architecture: Lamp of Memory. 1849. London: Smith Elder & Co, 2011. Print. Werner, George C.. “Railroads.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association, n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Woodard, Christopher. “Learning from Detroit of ‘the wrong kind of ruins’.” Urban Wildscapes. Ed. Anna Jorgensen and Richard Keenan. New York: Routledge, 2012. 17-31. Print.


the forgotten peanut


[ WW ]


the city begins to develop around and with it. John Ruskin supports this idea. Cincinnati and the rust belt of midwest America in the mid 20th century. These factories and sites become snapshots of a place and time. in cities such as the manufacturing industry of Detroit. The industrial landscape creates a solid connection with the area and the people invested in it. railroads in the American West spawned small towns at different stations and stops. But what happens to these places when they are abandoned? What happens to them when political. while providing jobs and opportunities for the community surrounding it . these workers live and breathe their work. Key ports along rivers and shipping routes like New Orleans created thriving and exciting new cities. As the place of industry continues in operation. saying “better the rudest work that tells a story or records a fact.[ WW STEEL ] steel manufacturing and distribution. Because of location. than the richest without meaning” . This effect is strengthened even more in instances of multiple industries. or economical strains force people outward and away from the community they once supported and helped create? What happens when land’s real estate value has become more post-industrial landscapes . The draw of a new population then stimulates sources of revenue for new smaller businesses to support this community foundation underneath. tx WW harris briggs + michael reed As industries and infrastructures grow. these networks of infrastructure pinch together in tension at these industrial 72 production sites. in-between. determined by local mining and any other goods needing shipment. in harmony and individually as demands rise. and next to each other. and solidifies the places’ importance in its moment in time to society by becoming an activational network. This connection between the landscape and the community is established with the city. Different infrastructures layer on top of. natural. lubbock. In the 19th century. bustling with possibility. Factories and industrial sites were built according to need and whatever current technological innovations allowed. engaging in a reciprocating process. in that they tell a story of our society and give conversation between the past and present. These places were necessary for further technological progress. so do the local economies surrounding them.

the infrastructure of the past still lays in place. had been the cause of public complaints. for the most cost-effective and efficient distribution to any project location. and transportation importance of the Texas South Plains. This idea gives a different kind of “value” to the site. creating yet another dimension of economic and schedule-based versatility. along Clovis Highway and University Avenue. Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railroads. location. Located north of the city. The major rail along W&W Steel includes shipping via common carrier. However. The city of Lubbock is known as the “Hub City. or network. “Hazardous substances have overflowed the vats and flowed off the Site into nearby WW ww steel 73 .” Imagine a place or thing that formed the effective center of an activity. The destruction left in the tornado’s wake drove people away from the area. the land is now cheap because it is deemed “unusable” and “undesirable”. sits W&W Steel (Fig. and river transportation routes. the task of both current thought and creative work is to develop new function and purpose that free us from the existing conditions by showing that “a condition of reciprocal determination is more productive and revealing. a hub within a hub. The location of W&W Steel within Lubbock hosts an enormous possibility to create such a hub. The site can become an activational agent within the city through the systems of infrastructure already in place. interstate. Local residents were informed. We examine W&W Steel as a case study because of this proximity to multiple layers of infrastructure (Fig. the abandoned and the developing. but now in function. In 1970. In addition. Care for existing conditions is the first premise of creative work. Once it has superseded its function. the northern residential neighborhoods of Lubbock surrounding W&W Steel experienced a disastrous F5 tornado causing a rift in the state of the socio-economic demographic. even if the industrial site is still in production? Such an idea holds a sense of parasitical sublimity. 2). also located north of the city. to inject a new life into the area through these very methods of connection. 1). but what happens with the existing landscape when near its perceived end? A postindustrial landscape is soon forgotten to most. the area has pockets above 24% poverty rate among residents (Fig. Today. or a new function and purpose within an already existing network.” To reiterate. a privately owned barrel recycling company. to put it more simply. with multiple unrelated “accidental events” of infrastructure usage culminating together in a place of tension and harmony at what was once the very reason for their existence. socioeconomic demographics of Lubbock. the company was strategically placed in close proximity to Lubbock’s major steel mill (General Steel). close in proximity to the detached residential neighborhoods of northern Lubbock. perhaps even more basic. Can there be a slippage of function in the infrastructures at the same time. The US 84 highway and Yellow Canyon Lake are located parallel to the property. not in aesthetic purely. region. As one of their six fabrication production facilities. able to be fully utilized with the possibility to stitch back together the old and the new. David Leatherbarrow best explains in Leveling the Land: “Renewed attention to the things themselves is to be welcomed and encouraged insofar as it challenges ways of working that neglect hidden potentials. Or.” a term derived from its economic.valuable than the property that lies upon it? “Location. location” has become the slogan that drives the economy. The potential cost to wipe away these empty memories off of the property is in many cases more expensive than the real estate value itself. and committed numerous environmental violations since the 1970’s . yet not to all. leaving it in a state of dilapidation and decay. and its potential to become a connective tissue between it all as a catalyst for conversation with the city. 3). educational. Their facility provides direct access to major rail. a landscape is often times too expensive to demolish or renovate. other than monetary.

and the park’s wildlife. all that is noticeable is a dilapidated corrugated metal roof overhang that covers stockpiles of rusted steel waiting to be relocated. and to suggest otherwise would be foolish. The landscape has three buildings and warehouses located on the center of the site. welding. all schedules were to be met in the most cost-effective manner value fig. At 24 acres of land. 5).Yellow Canyon Lake Interstate region Landscape Clo vis 8 p2 9 hig hw ay Hig 1 ay hw 14 Lo o M ars ha fig. 01: regional map University Ave Sh arp river bike path bike lane Blackwater Draw and subsequently through Mackenzie recreational park. Upon first glance at W&W Steel. Although the city was somewhat divided even before the tornado and pollution according to some maps from 1954. and we see W&W Steel as a place for re-assemblage. and cutting (Fig. running north to south creating one of two defined axes. each pile leaving its own traces upon the site. away from the history and past of what was the original city. the landscape places heavy emphasis on circulation to and from designated stations of milling. 03: socioeconomic information + zones 74 post-industrial landscapes . known as the “sprawl”. The biggest warehouse on the site runs perpendicular to the south of these buildings and supplies an exhausted cart rail or track system to and from the other warehouses. Traumatic events like these change people and the way they think. the city from that point on had been fragmented. 4). river railroad bike path bike lane bike trail (proposed) Poverty and Minority Areas . Downtown or “Depot.southwest expansion . according to Lebbeus Woods . surrounding the entire landscape are piles of finished steel product. The southern border of the landscape runs parallel with the existing rail and highway system towards downtown Lubbock. Nearly the WW fig.3 miles away and the only open source of regional public transportation by land. After the initial glance and further discovery. golfers. The runoff is easily accessible to children at play in the park.” is home to Lubbock’s Greyhound station 2. 02: lubbock primary infrastructure Avenue Q.” These two events of trauma were “the perfect storm” to the northern area of Lubbock and led to a major southwestward expansion for new developments. The landscape has more open space than enclosed spaces and the rhetoric of movement implies the primary goal being off-site distribution (Fig. Using their adaptable multi-plant method and the various transportation options available to each facility.

This idea of W&W Steel being a hub within the “Hub City” is important to rejuvenate the area and increase the efficiency of the inner workings of the city. lies Texas Tech University. stimulated economic development. These ideas of circulation and distribution in and out of the site can be emphasized and expanded to include that of people. 6). bridging areas of the city together that were once almost disparate. Some of the economic benefits of parks and recreation facilities. 04: on-site infrastructure fig. The school has succeeded in increasing property value. As previously stated. and solidify Lubbock as the hub city it is known to be. we propose an idea to transform the existing industrial landscape and simultaneously provide a new function that could bridge the gap between a polarized local economy. rather than the smear of unrelated zones over time. This modern industry of education brings about an abundance of student living and social gathering areas nearby (Fig. W&W Steel has direct access to yellow canyon lake. but it possesses its own framework of transportation of the steel product itself within the plant. Parks and Recreation released a Lubbock area bike trail development plan in 2007. becoming a place of interaction and transportation. 05: on-site production process same distance away. Texas Tech supplies its own public transit system as well as bike and pedestrian paths all around the state property. stimulating economic development and public social interaction in nearby neighborhoods. To prolong the inevitability of abandonment. which runs directly through Mackenzie park on toward the south east of the city. include increased property value. away from the southwestward sprawl.Factory region Catogorized steel Yellow Canyon Lake Highway region Landscape fig. existing in close proximity to the landscape. and stabilization of WW ww steel 75 . southwest of the landscape. Not only does W&W Steel possess connection to the rest of Lubbock through infrastructure.

Colorado. the socio-economic demographic of the northwest area has yet to fully recover from the traumatic events of the 1970’s. We propose an alternative function for W&W Steel if for some reason left abandoned: A site that becomes an activational agent within the city by combining and utilizing the existing systems of surrounding infrastructure to slow the southwestward sprawl and encourage citizens to re-invest in the area. This could not only be a revitalization and benefit to the Lubbock area. W&W Steel is the “end of the line” for all inter-city rail and water service. community centers. much like Lebbeus Wood’s model of ‘The Field’ (Fig. 8) in which he explores the idea of systems in crisis: “the order of the existing being confronted by the order of the new”. 7). which also does not currently have passenger rail service of any kind. and bike and walking paths. the Caprock Chief or Caprock Xpress was a proposed Amtrak inter-city rail service which would run from Fort Worth. The city of Lubbock Parks and Recreation has strived to reconnect the public via new park additions. Lubbock currently does not provide inter-city rail service and although various proposals have been presented over the years. Initially proposed between 2000-2001. As of present day. W&W Steel does not have a direct connection to the city’s parks and recreational facilities but it lies in a location equidistant from all the nearest parks (Fig. As of now. the project hasn’t seen significant progress and seems unlikely to be implemented. but the fig. passing through the Texas Panhandle. improving local socio-economic growth and small business revenues. 06: social gathering WW neighborhoods. W&W steel marks a quality location to begin to bridge and blend the gap between the socio-economic demographics of the city. For example. openly displaying the disconnection between the northeast and Lubbock as whole. Texas to Denver.fig. 07: park locations 76 post-industrial landscapes . none have succeeded.

08: strategy WW fig.Transit Industry Transit Components fig. 09: route to bus terminal fig. 10: route to park ww steel 77 .

simultaneously but without relation. Fig. all while telling a story of Lubbock’s history. 11). an important notion signifying the strength of the steel industry through time. W&W Steel can offer a portion of land for the relocation and usage of the station as well as direct access to the rail and lake transit options (Fig. W&W Steel can become a place of heterotopia where certain transportation events occur at a tension point close in proximity to each other. as well as the railroad and streets. the slippages of transportation methods begin to create a conversation with each other and with the city. Because the facility is still in operation today. allowing for affordable travel other than airborne. Proposed bike and pedestrian paths layer next to each other. 78 post-industrial landscapes . as citizens navigate through this pressure point at W&W Steel. there is still a possibility to utilize the site for the same reasons above.WW South Plains and Texas Panhandle regions as a whole. 9 and 10 illustrates the route through the city into the nearest park and bus terminal.

11: before + after WW BIBLIOGRAPHY 1954 Geographical Map of Lubbock. Texas. Print. 2004. Ruskin. Television. Lubbock. “The Field. 2012. Lubbock Officials Backing Plans for Amtrak Rail Service. Web. Leo. Print. John. 2012. Michael. www. New York: Oxford UP. 12 June 2009. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. <http://2009. Wyatt Little. Lubbock.>. City Removes Scrub-A-Dubb Land from Proposed Zoning Change. 2012. Van Wagenen. 2000. 2001. Chris. Woods. 2012. Lubbock. Poetry of Architecture. Amarillo Globe News. Lebbeus. Leatherbarrow.fig.field. Texas.. New York: Fred DeFau. 31 Aug. 2011. Print. KCBD News. 2008. Lecture: Experimental Space and Architecture.p. Texas. Ann. Woods. 2009. Philadelphia: University of Seven Lamps. Web.egs. Web. David.” N. KCBD News. ww steel 79 . 2 Aug. www. EPA Takes Charge of Hazardous Waste Site in North Lubbock. Lebbeus. Topographical Stories: Studies in Landscape and Architecture.usgc.

[ AS ] .


one thing is clear. the University of Texas at El Paso. and has been located along a major trade artery for North America. And even after the demise of ASARCO and smelter town. Such contrast is clearly reflected in the small town of Anapra. namely Ciudad Juarez.[ ASARCO ] asarco smelting plant. The strategy of the rail system gave the smelter and refining company not only an important bi-national relationship. 2 and 3). The border town location was ideal for the process because the lead and copper ores could be purchased and brought from Mexico. Defined & sculpted by the river. and with this. but it is also located a few yards from the United States &Mexico borderlines (Fig. Five months later. On one side is downtown El Paso. the smelter continued to dominate the city’s industrial landscape. Much of the smoke left by the facility has not fully been cleared. There is an explosion of diverse cultures near the remnants of the ASARCO facility. the 100 foot smoke stack was built. Mexico. but it was central to El Paso’s economy. ASARCO was one of the first transnational corporations 82 in the world and its extraordinary growth depended on the complex relationships that bound Mexico to the United States. el paso. The American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) at El Paso has caused a major impact to El Paso area. which is a small area of the city of Juarez. Towne purchased 1. Not only is ASARCO located in one of the most important trade routes of North America. tx daniel nunez + alejandra robles AS Since its establishment. 1). yet on the other hand is the remnant town of Anapra (Fig. The company was able to develop their own rail system. upper Westside of El Paso. the border between the United States and Mexico is the busiest and amongst the most contrasting borders in the world. Even as other businesses started to settle into and within the city. In 1966 a 828 foot smokestack was built to post-industrial landscapes . Towne was ordered from the Kansas City consolidating smelting and Refinery Company to construct a smelter and refining facility in El Paso Texas. History of ASARCO In 1887 Robert S.158 acres along the Rio Grande. The railroads played an important part in the development of ASARCO.

UTEP MEXICO Downtown EL Paso. 02: concept diagram definition [Production Process] Site To Am ari llo El Paso TX STATION 6 Gas Handling System STATION 4 STATION 5 STATION 3 and Contop Cyclone Charging STATION 2 Unloading and Bedding STATION 1 Weighing and Sampling AS Fro m Me o xic CD.S. 01: stacks + el paso beyond fig. 03: production process diagram asarco 83 . Juárez México fig.Concept Diagram Definition U. TX fig.

and illegal immigrants crossed everyday by the hundreds. considerably the world’s most dangerous city. a serious condition called Devon colic. Landriga. The company kept running only producing cooper until 1999. In 1969 El Paso had the highest concentration of lead in the air. a man passing by the scene. from people that are part of the cartel. They leave everything behind and start a new beginning even when they have to start from virtually nothing. but also families are divided between two cities. In 1985 the ASARCO Zinc and Lead plants were forced to be shut down. discovered that people within 4 mile radius of ASARCO had dangerously high traces of lead in their blood streams. the 828 foot smoke stack did not make a difference. As time passes by. to pay the legal fees associated with this project. What happened to Juarez? The cartels rule the city and you never know that morning that you leave home if you will come back to your family. In 1970 the city of El Paso sued ASARCO for violating the 1967 Air Safety code and Texas clean Air Act. or a family with children killed by mistake. ages 1 through 9 living less than a mile from Asarco had high blood lead levels. Dr. in February 2012 a much needed and painstaking demolition process began (Fig. The State of Texas joined El Paso in the suit. The group currently wants to keep the 828 foot tall smoke stack as a monument or landmark in El Paso and vicinity. How is the family? Will I ever see it again? Some of these questions roam Mexican’s minds. there was no steel barrier between Mexico and the United States along the border highway. It is not easy to be away from those you love and wonder how everything back home is. a stone’s throw away. Murphy Strong quantities of El Pasoans were against ASARCO because ASARCO and its smokestacks had proven to cause respiratory and cancer deaths in the area.S is El Paso while there is Cuidad Juarez. there are less people that are able to follow their dreams in that land of prosperity. Culture plays an important role in this border region. and their death becomes a mystery. some do not. Years ago. In order for this group to keep the stacks they need to gather 14 million dollars. 4). Unfortunately. The city of El Paso has given the resolution to leave the lower 20 feet of the 828 foot tall base. “Undue lead absorption in a high percentage of area schoolchildren and adults eventually led to the closing of ASARCO and smelter town’s demolition”… (10) -James R. Even after many years of ASARCO being closed. Many make it. However there is also a group of people called “Save the Stacks”. Is it worth risking your life? Or by living in Mexico you are on the expectation of being a part violence rage? The safest city in the U. People from Mexico see the United States as a possible land of opportunity and a better life for them and their family. not only do Juarez and El Paso share traditions and resemble one another socio-economically. Every single person in Juarez has being affected by this terrible situation. It was intended to disperse a majority of the smoke and gas waste at higher attitudes.fig. where Copper fell to 60 cents a pound forcing ASARCO to shutdown due to the lack of revenue. 04: demolition phasing AS alleviate air pollution from the facility. An average of fifty-three percent of children. out of all the cities in Texas. It seems people from Juarez have to be aware of the government and police 84 post-industrial landscapes . Rosenblum and Dr. two influential doctors at the time. who have proven to play devil’s advocate on the matter.

Mexicans have resentment and are trapped between the violence and malfunctioning government in Mexico and the negativity in the United States deporting them. 05: leveling the land of asarco fig. The large empty area that lies between the east and the west side of El Paso. 5). Texas Juarez. “The building out of the horizontal city has formed a new frontier across American landscapes”. The ephemeral nature of the Mexican’s dreams to leave their homes and cross the treacherous border is endearing. and it has created a mega void between the city (Fig. The law in Arizona is the strictest anti illegal immigration measure in the United State’s history.” -Benito Juarez Benito Juarez was able to state clearly. 06: stitching the boundaries asarco 85 . 1). best described as the landscape existing between node urbanization” (Berger 27). may leave the land vacant until conditions are met to develop it.because they have the power and it is not run efficiently. creates a void that will now have to be stitched to create a better bounding relationship between Mexico and the AS Stitching Diagram El Paso. sustainability that restrict the ways landscape can be incorporated into development” (Berger 26). Arizona’s SB 1070 law made even more intense the barrier between two countries. Ultimately ASARCO seemed to fuel the political fire in this dynamic area. “This frontier has evolved into what we called today as fragmented entity. The factor can be things such planning and zoning codes. Some spectral buildings will remain as an abstract memory of what ASARCO was. as a waste of land (Fig.Mexico fig. they are humans and have the same value. that is how undermined politicians see most abandoned industrial landscapes. that a key for peace is to respect the rights of others. “Entre los individuos. Not only these factors come into play but the public and private sectors that speculate about how this land can be used. The demolition of ASARCO was influenced by these conditions. Respect others because no matter their race. como entre las naciones. el respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz--Among individuals. Although the outcome might seem like another common patchwork. Americans want illegal immigrants out of their territory without any consideration for whom in may affect. respect for the rights of other is peace. as among nations. but the scar left by the demolition will stay in the memories of those who wanted ASARCO to stay open and those who were physically damaged by the dangerous contaminants the smelter produced.

The post industrial landscape will act as the interlocking and the stitching between the two countries. “The scar is a deeper level of reconstruction that fuses the new and the old. to help the skin become a homogeneous surface. to render the architecture of the day. the depth of the wound needs stitches. “A former vast and unruly wilderness is captured and domesticated” (Lerup 75) The wilderness of the site must be captured to evoke a sense of AS 86 post-industrial landscapes . The structure itself guides people to the past and how ASARCO looked when it was still functional. a mutant tissue. and worship without her. The physical landscape is actually recuperating with the site cleanup and demolition. it will heal just as flesh tends to bond after a deep wound. The scar is a mark of pride and of honor. which can give strength to present exertion. but it leaves behind a scar. the scar will assuage. by the fact of its incompleteness. Even when flesh tries to reconnect the physical properties of the skin layers. Like said on the book by Jorgensen and Keenan. People will never forget ASARCO they will still have a memory of it. it’s visage ruined forever. The stitching will create a stronger political relation between the two countries and will allow closing the wound (void) caused by the demolition of ASARCO (Fig. and. a ruined structure compels the viewer to supply the missing pieces to their own imagination. It cannot be erased. a void that can’t be filled but stitched. or patience to present endurance. the second. except by the most cosmetic means.Unites States. reconciling. the border between Mexico and the United States.” (Ruskin 324) Without architecture the structure of ASARCO could not be recognize. The scar will remain as an enduring mark. both for what has been lost and what has been gained. Born from necessity. but we cannot remember without her. The landscape flesh has been seared. If in the past theses cities where dividedand ASARCO mended a wound leading to a better after-life. Healing is not an illusory. the rail road systems that once lead to and from the ASARCO ores now transport ideas and cultures. that of past ages. the precursor of unpredictable regenerations.both deeply divides and joins together. historical. Now that the site is under demolition the site will become a void. To accept the scar is to accept existence. If a memory remains of ASARCO it needs to have a precious intent. and El Pasoan’s nor the world may not be prepared for the disgusting after effects. This transcends the physical distance between Mexico and the United States playing as an important role in the process of events that will take place along the gashed landscape. 6). After being a successful site for many years. must allow ASARCO to embody the stitching of the two cultures harmoniously. The remaining fragments of the site will become eternal interpretation of what the structure once was and its relevance to the site. the site of ASARCO became waste and wasted land where many dreams dissipated into the air much like the smoke. yet it will develop into an unrelenting memory. or any joy in the thought of being remembered here after. cosmetic process. ASARCO affected a vast quantity of people creating a scar in people’s memories. to preserve as the most precious of inheritances.never fully healed. ”We may live without her. Strategy In order to alleviate the political pressure intensified by Arizona’s new law. It cannot be elevated beyond what it is. the interlocking will be created by the buildings and proximity. without compromising either one in the name of some contextual form of unity. “And if indeed there be any profit in our knowledge of the past. there are two duties respecting national architecture whose importance it is impossible to overrate: the first. but something that -by articulating differences.” (Lebbeus Woods) The site has potential for being a bound created by the landscape. (Ruskin 324-325) The site cannot be considered dross on the region anymore. coalescing them.

[Interlocking Diagram] Interlocking Diagram To the United States To Mexico fig. 08: event diagram asarco 87 . 07: interlocking edges [Interlocking Diagram] Interlocking Diagram To the United States AS Monument Cultural Center Student Center Linking Path To Mexico fig.

With this transportation. 6). 88 The smoke stacks. (Building the unfinished_Lerup78) The “Tranvia”. present. The strategy presented to reinvigorate this former industrial landscape is to restore its original process and create a stitch between Mexico and the United States (Fig. At the same time the site must be domesticated and purified of all lethal contaminants. but once they unify the only method to remain connected is the fundamental stitching (Fig. This is done to reclaim the hovering memories between the history. giving people of the area the opportunity of encounter and sharing cultures. and even the development of smelter town were all a means to even grander end. railroad system. and political boundaries that the landscape has left behind by the erasing of the smelter. Mexico and the United states are able to attract more citizens to their history and culture. 8).history. and future. culture. a source of transportation between Juarez and El Paso. The production-driven topography and the foot prints of the buildings must be preemptively identified. in our way of thinking. Since ASARCO’s inception. and restoring it will continue to alleviate the existing political pressures. 7) There is no way of disregarding its all-encompassing impact. not only in a material sense but even. insidiously. (Fig. is a move toward domestication. That end will come once the smoke has cleared. and shall be addressed to not become a drosscape. it has been an important and dynamic industrial landscape. AS post-industrial landscapes . This form of vernacular transportation evolved and was intensely exercised between the 1884 and 1974. Just like the Tanvias were able to share a route between Juarez and El Paso. Based on nuances from the area’s past. ASARCO is situated in one of the most contrasting border cities in the world. Cultures in the area are linked. Restoration of the primary railroad system used by the smelter will be among the main functions of the strategy. This site has become one of the first international Tranvias in the world. it can be anticipated that prolonged perception of the ASARCO Stitch will be assimilated into the culture. ASARCO has the potential of becoming a route that links the two countries.

Sage Publication. Smelter’s Shut. Murphy. Recasting The Smelter. Visuals. Robert. New York. Jorgensen. Recasting The Smelter. “Panorama taken from south stack. Now What?. Penguin Group. 2012. Picture taken from the 828’ smokestack looking into the city and the city.2011”. Keenan. Playing in industrial ruins Gray. Before and After Photos. Illustrated. Drosscapes (pp. Campboy. Recasting The Smelter. After”. Print Recasting The Smelter. Picture from I-10. Visuals. “Oblique Aerial”. James. The Lamp of Memory. Tim. Urban Wildscapes. New York. Ruskin. Aerials and Maps. Postscript by Lars Lerup. (2006). 2012. Recasting The Smelter. Chapter 4. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2012. Can an earthquake topple the stacks?. The Wall Street Journal. John. “Demolition Time Lapse Video”. Building the Unfinished: architecture and human action. 2012. asarco 89 . “Before. El Paso 1850-1950. Lerup Lars. 2009. Print. Videos. 1977. Alan. Visuals. Ana. Edensor. 2010. Visuals.44).April 25. Charleston SC: Arcadia Publishing. 1 .AS BIBLIOGRAPHY Berger. Photographs.

[ RX ] .


[ RAILWAY EXCHANGE ] depots and railway along the llano estacado landscape geoffrey brown + brandon montfort Railways have been the key to economic and socioeconomic trends since their inception into society in the 19th century. These roads typically ran parallel to major railways one highway in particular was endearingly referred to as the Mother Road or the Main Street of America. The most archetypical examples of this route is the Santa Fe Railroad commissioned to connect the east to the west that throughout Oklahoma Texas and New Mexico extended along the Ozark Trail. The significance of the Santa Fe’s Transcon Railway railroad has only increased over the past 131 years and the route that passes through Amarillo and Albuquerque is projected by 2035 to be the busiest transcontinental railway in North America . and in 1925 the United States commissioned the building and maintain of roads across the United States. During this time there was a feverish pace to build and develop spurred on by Americans insatiable love for land money and freedom. The pursuit of the west propelled many railroad companies to try and find an effective passage through the Rocky Mountains. The dichotomous relationship of the Transcon Railway and Route 66 is a symbiotic relationship that has helped facilitate an exchange of both goods and ideas across America and has a heritage rooted in speed. From the economy to pop culture each method of travel while categorically different maintains a many RX 92 post-industrial landscapes . Route 66 is the road that extends from Chicago to Santa Monica California and for most of its 87 year life has run parallel to Santa Fe’s Transcon Railway. Many Americans viewed the pathway to freedom as Route 66. The crossing of the Rocky Mountains was a significant accomplishment for the Santa Fe Railway and placed them as the primary competitor to the Union Pacific Railway. The railroad connected Chicago to Los Angeles in 1881 becoming the United States second trans continental railroad. Due to Ford’s success with the Model T in the beginning of the 20th century automobiles were becoming prevalent throughout the United States. This is no more evident than the American’s pursuit for the Pacific Ocean. which connected Chicago to San Francisco north of the Santa Fe line through Denver Colorado.

The secondary lines therefore should be considered as armatures extending outward to serve. For instance the Siberian route mimics the Russian Trans Siberian Railway and is held to the same esteem in Russian history as Route 66 is in American history. The inseparability of the Route 66 and the Transcon carry many similarities of other transpathways throughout the world. and the possibility that the response rendered along these lines could be seen as the prototype in areas that have been impacted by the increased dependence on regional automotive shipping. There are many examples of megalines throughout the world and it is for this reason an analysis was done in order to stratify and codify the different conditions along the mega-line. The stratification revealed that a pathway that resulted in a terminus that was not at a major body of water would incontrovertibly be at or near abandonment (Fig. 01: llano estacado regional rail similarities. In the United States RX railway exchange 93 . The resulting abandonment of the tertiary lines can best be attributed in the United States to the expansive growth in regional automotive shipping. meaning a line that is significant in both volume and impact to a specific region or country. The primary lines are the mega-lines and are such because of the volume they receive either from international trade or through the coalescence of secondary lines. stimulate. and support the megaline. The categorization of these transcontinental passageways that are infusing goods and people throughout a country can be best described as a megaline. The analysis also revealed that other than abandonment the pathways separated themselves what will be referred to as both primary and secondary lines. 1).LLANO ESTACADO_RAIL DISTINCTIONS PRIMARY PRIMARY_MEGALINE SECONDARY SECONDARY_AMARILLO LUBBOCK CLOVIS TERTIARY INTERSECTING RAIL LINES TERITARY_ABANDONED RAILS LLANO ESTACADO LLANO ESTACADO fig. it also allowed for the separation and annotation of the different types of nodes along each path. The process of stratification not only allowed for the categorization of pathways. Two paths and their correlating nodes were chosen due to their secondary relationship with the Santa Fe Transcon mega-line.

2) The towns along the secondary paths to the mega-line serve the line as a series of nodes and can best be analyzed by discovering the similarities the towns share in their relationship to one another and the rail line. (Fig. This decrease has put into question what to do with the tertiary rail lines and the secondary rail lines. (Fig. or Connective Industrial Tissues. The connection of the secondary lines that extend northward from Lubbock occur in the greater Amarillo Texas area (Fig. 4) • Connective Industrial Tissues. As Passenger Depots.2) area and is where the unification of the secondary lines with the mega-line occurs. The polarization of train usage is only expected to continue to increase over the next 30 years increasing the nations dependence on the transportation of goods across freeways instead of railways. Many secondary lines increases are projected to be marginal in comparison. as well as the greater Clovis New Mexico (Fig. 4) 94 post-industrial landscapes .PASSENGER DEPOT CIT. (Fig. which created the modern day Interstate Highway. 02: bnsf railways RX the decrease in rail transportation along tertiary routes is in large part due to the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. 4) • Industrial Production. A CIT would be best implemented as away to repair a region that has effectively severed itself into separate regions based on affluence vs poverty by the use of rail line.a tissue that is an open wound that if stitched has the potential to facilitate connectivity between two socioeconomically different sides. These relationships compose themselves in one of three ways. 2) The prototype of these events begins with the analysis of towns or nodes along the secondary lines that extend northward from Lubbock Texas connecting to two locations along the Santa Fe Transcon Railway.CONNECTIVE INDUSTRIAL TISSUE fig. 3. (Figure 2) • Passenger Depot.DUMAS TYPE: PD Amarillo AMARILLO TYPE: CIT CANYON HEREFORD TYPE: IP TYPE: CIT/PD Albuquerque DIMMIT CLOVIS TEXICO LARIAT PORTALES MULESHOE SUDAN AMHERST LITTLEFIELD TYPE: IP TYPE: CIT TYPE: CIT TYPE: IP TYPE: IP/PD TYPE: PD TYPE: IP TYPE: IP TYPE: PD ABERNATHY SHALLOWATER WHITEFACE TYPE: IP TYPE: PD TYPE: IP Clovis TULIA KRESS TYPE: PD TYPE: PD PLAINVIEW HALE CENTER TYPE: PD/IP TYPE: IP Lubbock LUBBOCK SLATON TYPE: CIT/IP TYPE: PD POST TYPE: PD IP.An area that does posses or possesses the capacity to grow or manufacture goods. The usage in the Santa Fe Transcon mega-line is expected to jump 400% between now and 2035 . 3. Industrial Production.An enclave that will operate as a point of departure/arrival within an interwoven system of human and information transit.INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PD . (Fig. (Fig.1). This coupled with less demand for passenger trains has left many rail routes across the United States facing a decrease in demand for rail services.


the focal point of the analysis turned to adding value to these nodes. 04: depot typologies RX With the categorization of nodes along secondary paths in to three specific types. Where Tschumi intentionally created a 96 post-industrial landscapes . This creation and exhibition of mirco-farms (Fig. therefore the convergence of information and goods is ultimately the fundamental source for value adding. The value along railways has historically been linked to the increase or decrease of commerce through towns along the railway . There support for the system could also be expressed through their art. food. 7-9) allows for individual communities to choose what they grow in order to support the many layers of the secondary lines. dance or language. 2) A value increase is most evident when multiple paths converge into a particular node. (Fig. and information. This was a process where the implementation of both would ultimately yield a dynamic that would create a place for people to dialogue without reprisal (Fig. This has linked the population change rate to the tonnage of goods that travel through the node . The idea that one path can lead to many events was inspired by Tschumi’s Park De Villette. The idea of bringing together both information and goods stimulated a new process that could be developed. 5 and 6) and a place to express themselves through the arts. These connections are critical and the more connections a node has within the network the more value it has inside that network. or industrial production zones all serve to infuse and initiate conversation between multiple communities each within their own unique microcosm. Meaning that in order to increase the value of the node (town and population respectively) you must first increase the throughput along the path that connects the node to the network.ABERNATHY CANYON DUMAS LARIAT SLATON TULIA KRESS CLOVIS AMHERST LITTLEFIELD PLAINVIEW Buildings Production Residential Freeway Highway Rail Line Abandoned RailLine TEXICO SUDAN MULESHOE POST SLATON LUBBOCK AMARILLO SHALLOWATER HALE CENTER PASSENGER DEPOT CONNECTIVE INDUSTRIAL TISSUES INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION fig. The nodes whether they are passenger depots.

This allows for each point along the path to facilitate a multitude of actions that serve to reactivate these once dormant nodes.GARVEY MILLS PROPOSAL AMARILLO TX PUBLIC ART WITH A LOCAL IDENTITY fig. It is this intersection where the railway separates socioeconomic classes by the creation of an edge. nodes. causing the event to be different from many different approaches. The apex of the entire process of events occurs when the secondary lines intersect the primary line or the mega-line. The idea to use architecture as a way for healing was inspired by Lebbeus Woods paintings of Sarajevo. Every type of event whether it be growing the produce in the industrial production zones or getting on and off along the rail lines at the different passenger depots. The actualization of this divide can best be explained by the idiom “the wrong side of the tracks”. edges. This simple phrase is collectively expressed throughout America and refers to the steep divide between socioeconomic classes and is indicative of how a railway can be used as an economic divide separating an affluent from an impoverished neighborhood. Lebbeus approached healing as if it was not a matter of mimicking what was there before but instead by creating a multifaceted image projecting the layering of time and events on a building. is a response linked to that specific person and region. In the same way the notion of mindful healing emerges from the railway exchange 97 . The railway as a physical barrier is artificial and self-imposed but by the creation of a connective industrial tissue neighborhoods can begin to repair the damage inflicted on them by Euclidian zoning. In which he depicts the formation architecture as a scab over the bombed out communities of the war torn city. Lebbeus Woods referred to this approach as “secure dissolution” where the streets of Sarajevo could begin to facilitate the conversation of democracy saying that “the post war city must create the new from the damaged old”. 05: public art interventions RX series of path.

RX fig. but in order for the crossprogramming of the connective tissue to begin a kernel of hope is planted in the area that has been historically divided by these physical edges. This is a fulfillment of the original purpose of the railway because the essential nature of the Santa Fe Transcon was to increase the speed with which information and goods could travel and with it bringing Americans opportunities to seek new horizons like moving west towards the Pacific Ocean and settling along the pathways that got them there. “Women are Heroes” 2010. 06: cinema art projections connective industrial tissues as a way to connect and activate opposing layers with one another (Fig. It is along these railways that purpose the implementation of public artwork. and information have always followed the railroad from its very inception. inspiration. With special consideration given to the famous artist J R who has enveloped the world with his public exhibitions “Portrait of a Generation” 2006. This reintegration would promote healing along those divided communities. “Face to Face” 2007. The railroad was the country’s first information superhighway and it’s this interchange of ideas both culturally and socially that can begin to repair decades of frustrations felt equally behind both sides of the railway. These once vibrant industrial centers can now begin the process to reestablish themselves as centers for recreation and the interchange of ideas. It is this style and scale of work that is pivotal in the successful event making along the secondary lines. Throughout these aging post industrial zones where we propose the implementation of a connective industrial tissues to eliminate the edge that divided neighbors for so long. This 98 post-industrial landscapes . The implications of these strategies extend past the Llano Estacado past the crashing oceans of the Atlantic and Pacific and manifest themselves as opportunities to transform once vibrant communities by bringing them simple GARVEY MILLS PROPOSAL TX conversation but its ideas likeAMARILLO food and PUBLIC ART WITH A LOCAL IDENTITY these things that help transform a society divided into a society that is fused respect and admiration for one another. 6). Ideas.

LITTLEFIELD PASSENGER DEPOT LITTLEFIELD TX A PASSENGER DEPOT N fig. 07: passenger depot prototype RX N Water cisterns for the collection of water for the micro farm “We are Shallowater” installation A micro farm to assist in providing locally grown produce for the Food Train “The Food Train” Food Train gathering area SHALLOWATER PROPOSAL N fig. 05: shallowater prototype railway exchange 99 .

but are the critical elements for the building of our society.” RX 100 post-industrial landscapes .interchange of society is a complex idea that has made this country such a dynamic force. Art has fueled society since its inception and it is by utilizing that power and the conversations that take place over food that these railways will truly become an event that focuses on the free exchange of ideas and information. but in order to facilitate this dialogue it becomes necessary to infuse these nodes along the secondary rail lines with multiple yet complementary events. These events of food trucks and public art are merely underlays to the larger context. and hence more powerful than the fragmentary dissections of rational concepts. being more universal. As Jonathan Hale describes it “Art is the highest expression of human consciousness.

1993. Building Ideas. N. Princeton Architectural Press: New York. Bernard. Mass.SHALLOWATER PROPOSAL SHALLOWATER TX INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION N RX BIBLIOGRAPHY National Freight and Railway Capacity and Investment Study. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Cambridge Systems Inc.” Census Bureau Homepage. Association of American Railroads. 2 Oct. Web. Pg 6.d. 2000.. MIT Press: Cambridge. 2012. Tschumi. Kwinter.. Architecture and Disjunction. Urban Ecology: Detroit and Beyond.census. Map Book Publishers: Hong Kong. 2007. Baffins Lane. <http://www. MIT Press: Cambridge. 59. MIT Press: Cambridge..p. Jonathan A. Pamphlet Architecture 15: War and Architecture. Mass. Texas Department of Transportation. 1993. railway exchange 101 . Kyong. Mass. 1996. Austin TX. 2002. n. Mass.. Hale. 2007. Leatherbarrow. 2005.. Architectures of Time: Toward a Theory of the Event in Modernist Culture. Cambridge.. David and Mohsen Mostafavi. Woods. Sanford. Texas Rail Plan. LTD. “United States Census Bureau. Ch 3. On Weathering: The Life of Buildings in Time. Park.>. 30-33.

lubbock. tx Special thanks to Les Burrus and Frank Morrison at Link Ministries for allowing our group to venture into the landscape of decay and witness the intervention of newly activated programs.[ INTO THE DECAY ] site visit to former cotton gin. (Photos by William Cotton) 102 post-industrial landscapes .

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edu . assistant professor college of architecture texas tech university mail stop 42091 lubbock. tx 79409 jeff.nesbit@ttu.all work is defined and under the direction of: Jeffrey S Nesbit all work produced in this volume is credited to the students of: ARCH 5301 Post-Industrial Landscapes Seminar in the College of Architecture at Texas Tech Unversity Harris Briggs Geoffrey Brown Daniel Budke Justin Burns Cristina Castanon William Cotton Vania Franco Daniel Garcia Bryan Jacobsen Brandon Montfort Daniel Nunez James Oler Katerina Paletykina Michael Reed Shawnda Rixey Alejandra Robles for more information contact: jeffrey s nesbit.

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