LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING MATERIALS IN HOTEL REFURBISHMENT PROJECTS: A CASE STUDY IN ANKARA

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

BY

AYŞEM BERRĐN ÇAKMAKLI

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BUILDING SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE

JUNE 2007

Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Prof. Dr. Canan Özgen Director

I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Building Science.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Güven Arif Sargın Head of Department This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Building Science.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Soofia Elias Özkan Supervisor

Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Ömür Bakırer (METU, ARCH) Assoc Prof. Dr. Soofia T. Elias Özkan (METU, ARCH) Prof. Dr. Gülser Çelebi (GAZĐ Ünv., ARCH) Prof. Dr. Mutbul Kayılı (GAZĐ Ünv., ARCH) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arda Düzgüneş (METU, ARCH)

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I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last name : Ayşem Berrin Çakmaklı

Signature :

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many building products are discarded much before the end of their service life. Bills of quantities for iv .. which are unique with regard to operational schemes and the type of services offered that are highly resource-intensive. Ayşem Berrin Ph. In this investigation. especially hospitality facilities. Soofia Tahira Elias Özkan June 2007.D.ABSTRACT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING MATERIALS IN HOTEL REFURBISHMENT PROJECTS: A CASE STUDY IN ANKARA Çakmaklı. Department of Architecture in Building Science Supervisor: Assoc. The need for such projects is increasing because most buildings are not designed to accommodate changes in their functions and needs of their occupants. 176 pages Buildings generate millions of tons of greenhouse gases. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology for assessing the environmental performance of products over their life time. statistical data related to refurbishment and renovation projects in Turkey were analyzed to determine the percentage of refurbishment projects for hotels. This is particular to commercial buildings. especially as a result of refurbishment and renovation projects. toxic air emissions. water pollutants and solid wastes that contribute to negative environmental impacts. Dr. However. Prof.

solid waste. global warming potential and weighted resource use. ATHENA software. recommendations on the choice of materials were made. with an aim to reducing material waste and harmful emissions. was used to evaluate these projects according to the six environmental impact indicators: primary energy consumption. air pollution index. Renovations and Refurbishments. A system was formulated for evaluating materials according to each indicator by calculating their “eco-scores”. Finally. ATHENA.refurbishment projects of three five-star hotels in Ankara were obtained and evaluated with regard to the volume and type of material discarded as a result of the renovation works. Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment. Environmental Friendly Materials. v . Hotel Buildings. water pollution index. an LCA software. the total score is considered to be the yard-stick for comparing environmental appropriateness of these materials.

konaklama sektörü işlem şemaları ve önerdikleri servisler dolayısı ile oldukça yüksek doğal kaynak. Yapı Bilimleri Tez Yöneticisi: Doç. Dr. Ayşem Berrin Doktora. Tüm ticari binalar arasında. Mimarlık Bölümü. 176 sayfa Binaların sebep olduğu milyonlarca ton sera gazı ve toksik gaz yayılımı. pek çok bina malzemesi kendi servis sürelerini tamamlayamadan yenilenmektedirler. Yeni binalar inşa edilirken fonksiyon ve kullanıcı ihtiyacı gözardı edildiği için yenileme projeleri günden güne artmaktadır. Bu çalışmada. Hayat döngüsü değerlendirmesi ise bu noktada ortaya çıkan ve bir malzemenin tüm hayat döngüsü içindeki çevresel etkilerini değerlendirmeyi kapsayan bir metoddur. Türkiye’deki otellerde uygulanan yenileme projelerinin yüzdelerini belirlemek amacı ile yenileme projelerinin istatiksel verileri vi . Soofia Tahira Elias Özkan Haziran 2007. Ne yazık ki.ÖZ ANKARA’DAKĐ BĐR ÇALIŞMA BAZ ALINARAK YENĐLEME PROJELERĐNDEKĐ BĐNA MALZEMELERĐNĐN HAYAT DÖNGÜLERĐNĐN DEĞERLENDĐRĐLMESĐ Çakmaklı. su ve katı kirliliği çevre üzerinde negatif bir etki yaratmaktadır. su ve enerji tüketimi kapasitelidir.

hesaplanan toplam eko-puanlarına göre karşılaştırıldı. hava ve su kirlilik düzeyi. Malzemeler çevreye uyumlulukları ve çevre dostlukları bakımından birbirleri ile. Çevreyle Dost Malzemeler. Bu veri. hayat döngüsü değerlendirme programlarından ATHENA programı ile altı çevresel etki göstergelerine göre değerlendirildi. Herbir çevresel etki göstergesine göre ayrı ayrı değerlendirilen malzemeler için bir sistem formule edildi ve her malzemenin “ekolojik puanı” hesaplandı. Yenileme ve Tadilat Projeleri. Bu göstergeler. Ankara’daki üç tane beş yıldızlı otelin yenileme projelerinin hakediş malzeme listeleri elde edildi. birincil enerji tüketimi. Sonuç olarak. Otel Binaları. Anahtar Kelimeler: Hayat Döngüsü Değerlendirmesi. yenileme projelerinin kapsamı ve kullanılan malzemeler dikkate alınarak. vii .analiz edildi. ki çevreye verilen zarar. katı atık miktarı. enerji tüketimi. yenileme projelerinde kullanılan malzemelerin seçimi için bir öneri oluşturuldu. küresel ısınma potansiyeli ve doğal kaynak kullanımıdır. zararlı emisyonlar ve küresel ısınma potensiyelleri azaltılabilsin. katı atık miktarı. ATHENA programı.

TO MY DAUGHTER viii .

Dr. Prof. Prof. ix . I would like to thank my husband Serdar Çakmaklı and my little precious daughter Sıla for their endless love. Ömür Bakirer. Dr. I would like to thank the technical departments of the case-study hotels for their help and guidance in obtaining data for this investigation. Gülser Çelebi. Also to jury members Prof. Dr. Dr. Prof. Soofia Tahira Elias Özkan for her guidance. Finally.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude and special thanks to my supervisor Assoc. I am grateful to my mother and father for their generous support and encouragement throughout my life. support and great patience throughout this endeavor. Prof. Mutbul Kayılı and Assoc. Dr. patience and supporting suggestions throughout the study. Arda Düzgüneş for their valuable comments and support.

.. Life Cycle Assessment of Hotel Buildings.…...…………………………………….. 2....……….…..1.……………………………………. 1...……….4. LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………… LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . 2. Argument …….. Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings ……………... Life Cycle Assessment of Renovations and Refurbishments...….5.……………………………………..3.…. 2. Objectives……. 2... Sustainable Architecture…………………………... Procedure…….TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………....………………………………………………. ÖZ ………………………………………………………………. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………….3.….5.. 2... Life Cycle Inventory Databases . iv vi ix xii xiv xvi xvii CHAPTER 1. 1.. 2....….…………………………...1. Life Cycle Assessment.. Disposition...1...…..…………………………………..2.…………………………………….…... Life Cycle Costing ……. 2.1.………..….…... 1.. SURVEY OF LITERATURE ..……………………………………. 2....2.3...….…. Service Life Prediction . Life Cycle Assessment Tools …. LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………...2...5..…………………………………….….... 2...... 1 1 3 4 4 6 6 8 10 18 23 31 34 36 37 x .3.…………………………. 1.4. COPYRIGHT NOTICES .………………………….... 2....... INTRODUCTION ..2..….….

.………………….... MATERIAL AND METHOD .. Analysis of Materials According to Six LCA Indicators …………..2.………………………………..3.………………….3.......……..... 3.....2..1.………………….. 4.. APPENDIX A ………………………... LITERATURE CITED ……….. 3........ Further Investigations .. APPENDIX C ………………………. 3....... 5.................………………….... APPENDIX B ………………………. Statistical Data on Renovation and Refurbishment Projects ….. Discussion on Statistical Data for Refurbishment Projects ..1..1.…...….………………….…………………………………..........2. ……………………....……………………………….…………………... 3. Bills of Quantities of Three Refurbishment Projects ………….. 43 43 43 44 48 51 52 55 55 59 61 61 66 71 79 83 91 91 94 100 101 107 110 110 117 167 175 xi ..... Data Generated by Software .. CURRICULUM VITAE ……………………………………………......………………….5.... Material …………………………………………….………………. 3..…………………………………....2...…………………. LCA Software …………. CONCLUSION ………………….2.. Case Study Buildings …………………….....…. 3.….. 5...…. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . 4.. 4.. Data Compilation Process. Frequency of and Reasons for Hotel Refurbishment Projects .1.... 4...... BIBLIOGRAPHY …………….…...2.3.…………………. APPENDICES ………………..……..1.…..….1.……………………………………....………...1.……………………………….....2. Choice of Materials for Refurbishment Projects………………………...4.….…………………..1...….3. Hypotheses Tested …………..3.……….. 3...…………………....... 3.. Methodology……………………………………….. 4. Simulation ………….2.……………………………….……... 4... 5.. Hotel Refurbishment Projects ...……………………………….…. 5..3.. 3.. …………………….1..... Tests of Hypotheses ...

Possible impacts and mitigation measures at the maintenance.3 4.11 4.2 2. refurbishment and demolition stage…….1 4.. Turkey ………………… Air pollution index value and corresponding pollutant concentrations according to EPA ………………………...1 2.3 4. Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel C obtained from ATHENA software ……………………….7 4..9 4. Paired-sample t-test results – global warming potential. Paired-sample t-test results – water pollution index …... xii 25 32 42 49 58 58 72 73 74 74 76 79 80 81 81 82 82 83 . Paired-sample t-test results – primary energy consumption ……………………………………………….LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.5 4...10 4. BOQ of guestroom floors of three hotels included common materials in all cases and used in the software Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel A obtained from ATHENA software ………………………...6 4. Paired-sample t-test results – weighted resource use … The impacts of seven materials according to six indicators in three hotels …………………………………. Air pollution index and air quality grading regards to health ………………………………………………………... Paired-sample t-test results – solid waste ……………… Paired-sample t-test results – air pollution index ………. Derived bill of quantities for renovation works in the three five-star hotels in Ankara.. The comparisons of cases according to six indicators per m2 ………………………………………………………. Examples of factors.2 3.4 4. relevant to building services plant..8 4.12 Different sets of LCA parameters in ATHENA software for the “Wall” object ……………………………………….2 4..1 3. Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel B obtained from ATHENA software ……………………….3 3.

… Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2003 ………… Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2000 ……….6 B..9 B...2 C.2 A...….…………………………………....13 4.. An example budget list of Hotel B ………………………. Number of municipality licensed accommodation establishments in Ankara ……………………………….14 5. Completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building ………………………….2 B.………………….1 C.. Data related to the different types of alterations and renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara.. Air pollution profile of Turkey …………………………….5 B. Comparison of 5 LCA tools according to different topics ATHENA products …….…………………………………. Total bill of quantities of three case studies …………….2 B..4 B.1 B.List of Tables.11 C. (continued) 4.8 B. The impacts of seven materials during life cycle stages according to six LCA indicators …………………. Proposed Matrix ……….1 5. Buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by year and use of building ………………… Number of qualified and unqualified municipality establishments and rooms in Turkey by types and years ………………………………………………………. The paired-sample t-test tables ………………………….3 The mean values of impacts of materials according to six indicators ………………………………………………... Electricity profile of Turkey ………………………………. 84 88 96 98 110 114 117 119 122 124 125 127 B.7 129 146 164 165 166 167 168 171 B..3 xiii ..10 B.. Precautions versus impacts of LCA indicators………….1 A. during the 5 year period of 2000-2005…………………………………………………. Operating energy consumptions of hotels……………….. Calculated air pollution index value …..

5 2.1 Summary of life cycle assessment procedure proposed by the Royal Society of Chemistry …..1 2.4 2.2 3.. B.3.2……………………………………………. The relationships among the building data scheme.6 2.3 63 xiv . Data related to the number of tourism establishments in Turkey and Ankara derived from Table B.. The number of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B.3 2.. The four phases of LCA ………………………………….3 3.7 2.4..9 2. Total floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B.10 2.. the project database and the external databases ………….6…………………………………………………………… 12 13 16 18 20 21 23 27 30 33 35 40 45 46 47 54 62 4. Facility and material life cycle …………………………….11 2...4 4. B.5.. Lifecycle of a hotel ………………………………………… Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel A ………………… Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel B ………………… Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel C ………………… The methodology adapted by the author ………………..2 62 4.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 2. Different types ends-of-life scenarios …………………… Stages of building life cycle ……………………………….2 2.. B.…………………. Environmental interventions and economic flows……… Inputs to building data store ……………………………… Processes for developing a localized database ………..1 3.8 2. Global warming potential values and lifetimes from IPCC ……………………………………………………….12 3.2……………………………………………. Elements of the LCIA phase …………………………….

15 4..……………………...8 4.9 4. Data related to the different types of renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. Comparison of seven materials according to the API..….7..21 4.16 4.11 4..…………….2.12 4. Comparison of seven materials according to the weighted resource use……………………………………. Typical standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment…. Comparison of seven materials according to the solid waste ……………………………………………………….. Appendix B……………………………………. Comparison of seven materials according to the primary energy consumption ……………………………..20 4. The impacts of three hotels per m according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use……….6 4.19 4. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to WPI…. Typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment.22 . air pollution index and global warming potential………. xv 2 64 4.17 4. during the 6 year period of 2000-2006..………… The impacts of three hotels according to solid waste.5 65 67 67 67 70 70 75 75 76 78 78 78 85 86 87 88 89 90 4. Typical standard suit of Hotel A after refurbishment …. air pollution index and global warming potential.List of Figures..14 4.. Comparison of seven Materials according to the WPI…. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to solid waste.… The impacts of three hotels according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use ……… The impacts of three hotels according to WPI . (continued) 4. The faucet fittings and marble claddings in typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment………… Typical bathroom of a standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment ……………………………………………. Comparison of seven materials according to the global warming potential ………………………………………….7 4.18 4.13 4.10 4. derived from Table B.4 Number of buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by year and use of building derived from Table B..

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ISO LCA BOQ LCC ASTM AIA IEA SETAC LCI LCIA UNEP NREL EIE API WPI GWP IPCC RSLC ESLC USEPA EPA APAT : International Standards Organization : Life Cycle Assessment : Bill of Quantities : Life Cycle Costing : American Society for Testing and Materials : American Institute of Architects : International Energy Agency : Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry : Life Cycle Inventory : Life Cycle Inventory Assessment : The United Nations Environment Program : The National Renewable Energy Laboratory : Environmental Impact Estimator : Air Pollution Index : Water Pollution Index : Global Warming Potential : International Panel on Climate Change : Reference Service Life of Components : Estimated Service Life of Components : United States Environmental Protection Agency : Environmental Protection Agency : The Italian National Agency for the Protection of the Environment and for Technical Services TURKSTAT : Turkish Agency for Statistics xvi .

02 ® licensed to METU licensed to METU licensed to Ayşem Berrin Çakmaklı xvii .COPYRIGHT NOTICES Microsoft Office SPSS 11® for Windows® ATHENA EIE v 3.

Argument As the population of the world continues to expand.1.and long-term environmental and economic problems on local. and require attention to the life cycle effects of their design. the building sector. The term “sustainability” denotes an approach to the design. Sustainable. and the environment. as they consume significant quantities of energy at all stages of their life time. of environmentally friendly materials that have closed loops. Buildings should benefit humans. most buildings of today have.and are continuing to. or “green”.CHAPTER I 1. 1. construction and operation of buildings that improves their relationship with their environment and their occupants. the community. construction 1 . According to Li (2006: 1414). together with a precise of the procedure followed in its conduct and the disposition of the topics within the thesis. this causes both short.INTRODUCTION In this chapter are presented the argument for and the objectives of the study. as well as global scales.become unquestionable threats to environment. In turn. However. the need for including quality in environmental management and extending it in time on a sustainable basis has become vital. including housing. buildings include appropriate use of land and landscaping. comprises 30 to 40% of the world’s total energy demand and approximately 44% of total material use.

While examining the building construction data. Hence. On the other hand. Even though certain materials have a long life span. they are not required to live it through and some material is discarded regardless of its good condition. as far as possible. it seems that there is no relationship between structural materials and the service life of a building and that buildings are most likely to be demolished much before useful life of their structural systems end.and operation stages. the entire building process -from cradle to grave or even from cradle to cradle. it was seen that the number of renovation and alteration projects has increased significantly during the past few years for reasons other than the unsatisfactory condition of the spaces or change in their functions. The objective of service life planning according to ISO 15686-1 is: “to assure. When LCA methodology is applied to a building product. This assessment has to include the whole life of the building which is why ISO Standard 14040 evolved regarding Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of products. Service life planning aims at enabling designers to optimize resource use by ensuring that the building will last for the lifespan that the occupants determine. without incurring large unexpected expenditures. 2 . usefulness or life span such as in the case of the hospitality sector. that the service life of the component will be at least as long as its design life”. Defining sustainable materials and encouraging their use with a better integration of LCA techniques and LCA-based decision support tools are important to improve environmental quality. it is seen that an important parameter in LCA of buildings and building materials is the prediction of service life to make accurate comment about the environmental impact.in its relation to the environment due to its energy use and emission should be assessed.

LCA is a methodology that can be adapted to this end. there is a need to evaluate the environmental impact of hotel refurbishment projects. 1. To determine the types and amounts of material being replaced during hotel refurbishment projects. use and disposal. For this reason. 3 . To assess the environmental impacts of the materials most commonly replaced during refurbishment projects by using a life cycle assessment tool (ATHENA). especially in larger cities. Objectives The objectives of this study were: • • • • • To determine the volume of renovation works in Turkey.Hotels are one of commercial buildings which have the highest negative impact on the environment. from raw material acquisition through production. To determine the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects and to understand the necessity for such projects. They need to follow technological improvements and apply them to their design processes at appropriate intervals because maintaining high standards for customers are really significant if they are to remain competitive. To determine the volume of renovation works in the Turkish hospitality sector.2. Environmental management in hotels is an important step towards achieving sustainable tourism and contributing to sustainable development. It involves environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout the life of a product. Renovation or refurbishment in hotels offers opportunities for promoting energy-efficient measures and exploitation of renewable energy resources. and to classify the materials used for this purpose from the point of view of environmental impact indicators.

Ankara Chamber of Architects and the Ministry of Tourism. 1.• To analyze the data statistically in order to arrive at reliable conclusions. and a general outline of the procedure of the study. Disposition The study consists of five chapters. in terms of their environmental impacts. An analysis of these BOQ necessitated an environmental impact analysis of the various materials replaced during the refurbishment projects. Procedure This study focused on assessing the refurbishment projects of three fivestar hotels in Ankara. data on bills of quantities (BOQ) for renovation projects of the three hotels and their operating energy consumption were obtained. Based on findings. 1. These selected materials were assessed with an LCA software called ATHENA.3. At the second stage. the objectives of.4. along with their architectural drawings. data which were generated by the LCA tool were summarized in graphs and tables and statistically evaluated. At the first stage of the study. Administrative staff was also informally interviewed to gather information on the frequency of and reasons for these renovations. The first one is composed of the argument for. the importance of renovation / refurbishment projects in Turkey was assessed by examining official data available from The Turkish Agency for Statistics (TURKSTAT). a system was proposed for comparing environmental appropriateness of the materials used in three case projects. 4 . It concludes with the disposition of the thesis. At the third stage of the study.

Chapter 2 comprises of the literature survey in which 50 published works and 5 web sites are included covering topics of sustainable architecture. the grouped data derived from the bill of quantities for guestroom floors of the three hotel refurbishment projects. and the importance of renovations in the life cycle of hotels. life cycle assessment of buildings/hotels. which includes the statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey. Then data generated by the LCA software (ATHENA). further investigations and recommendations are stated in Chapter 5. a matrix which is derived from this investigation and can be used to enable designers to choose the suitable material in order to reduce damage to the natural environment. Finally. the statistical analyses of these data using paired-sample ttest and the comparative evaluation of the three case studies and seven common materials are given. 5 . life cycle costing. Chapter 4 presents discussion on statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey and the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects. simulation procedure and statistical tests. life cycle assessment. Chapter 3 is composed of the survey material. service life prediction. information on three five-star hotels in Ankara. and the LCA software and methodology that includes data compilation process. life cycle inventory databases and their importance.

and their importance. life cycle assessment of hotel refurbishment projects as systematically as possible. life cycle inventory databases. To render the presentation of the concept of life cycle assessment and. energy. industrial products. 1994: 5). life cycle costing. transportation shelter and effective waste management while conserving and protecting environmental quality and the natural resource base essential for future life“ (Bartelmus. 6 . food. general definitions have been given which are supported by examples. increased durability of buildings and components are important factors to be considered in sustainable architecture. for clarity. 2.SURVEY OF LITERATURE This literature review covers a total of 50 published sources and 5 websites. The world is faced with the problem of global warming. Reduced consumption of energy in use. life cycle assessment. specifically. It consists of topics related to sustainable architecture. life cycle assessment of buildings/hotels. and the importance of renovations in the life cycle of hotels. service life prediction. life cycle assessment tools.1. owing to the increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that have raised the temperature of the earth above its natural equilibrium level.CHAPTER 2 2. Sustainable Architecture Sustainable development is “the challenge of meeting growing human needs for natural resources.

should be the only choice. According to Osso et al. good waste management. and strengthened local economies and communities. landforms. ecologically and socially sensitive land use. and the ultimate reuse or recycle phase. which consisted of the planning phase. ventilation. wind. mostly non-renewable resources and this leads to resource depletion. construction and operation phase. benefits could include resource and energy efficiency. high indoor air quality. The authors asserted that key design issues regarding sustainable architecture which were in confirmation with the European Commission’s directives were: selecting materials with their environmental effects in mind. selecting environmentally preferable building materials was one way to improve a building’s environmental performance. 7 . energy conservation. to use renewable energy. loss of biodiversity and pollution. healthy buildings and materials. lighting. Sustainable principles were applied to buildings by using such natural resources as the sun. He classified the main cornerstones of green building as to supply thermal comfort.According to the Rocky Mountain Institute (2003). effective lighting. to be sufficient for themselves and to decrease site clearing costs by minimizing site disruption. if sustainable design principles were incorporated into building projects. Edwards (1998: 169) stated that the large section of the building sector generally use natural. Crosbie’s (1994) argument for sustainable architecture is based on the “green building’s” multidisciplinary approach to cradle-to-cradle understanding. water efficiency. ventilation. the design. (1996: 178). which use minimum energy during their life cycle assessment and cause no problem to the environment. designing according to the durability of materials and components. The building materials. transportation efficiency. destruction of valuable landscapes. and natural vegetation to provide heating. cooling.

2. allowing for change in building use over time.(including energy use). where C=investment costs. requiring contractors to use eco-friendly cleaning materials during construction and at final clean up. focusing on easy maintenance of components and systems for long life and low emissions. allowing replacement of facades and internal partitioning without structural disturbance. and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were determined as two complementary methodologies. 8 . sustainable According development required methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for the provision of goods and services. Life Cycle Costing to Hochschorner and Finnveden (2003). ASTM (E917: 83) formulates the following relationship for LCC on a ‘before-tax’ basis: LCC=C+R+S+A+M+E.2. The American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) defined the LCC method in terms of ASTM. which measure the performances of products or systems in the units appropriate to each emission type or effect category.designing for flexibility. E833: 84: “a technique of economic evaluation that sums over a given study period the costs of initial investment (less resale value). replacements. R=capital replacement costs. reusing or recycling building components at the end of their lifespan. and maintenance and repair of an investment decision (expressed in present or annual value terms)”. operations. Life Cycle Costing (LCC). incorporating a methodology for dismantling buildings.

and repair cost 9 . and E=energy costs. the operation cost comprises of the major cost items in this category which are energy cost and personnel salaries required to operate the facility and maintenance. salvage costs. these relevant costs were: Initial cost. The American Institute of Architects had established the following cost categories (AIA. operation cost. systematic and consistent basis for applying LCC technique in buildings and building systems.S=resale value of investment at end of study period. functional use costs. On the other hand. Costs included in LCC somewhat differed depending on the description of the method. Zhang (1999: 14-15) also states that the initial cost includes construction and project related costs which are the most critical of the costs associated with design alternatives. The general methodology for LCC is to study all relevant costs associated with the building at an appropriate time period in order to measure economic performance. Zhang (1999: 12) argues that there is a comprehensive. replacement costs. financing costs. M=non-recurrent operating. maintenance and repair cost. maintenance and repair costs. operation and maintenance costs. 77): initial capital investment cost. alteration and improvement costs. A=annually recurring operating and repair costs (except energy costs).

• toxic releases to air. “LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product. 10 . custodial care and minor replacement costs. by: compiling an inventory of environmentally relevant inputs and outputs of a system. According to Ehlen (1997). human health and environmental health.”. • nitrification / eutrophication of water bodies. • acidification and acid deposition (dry and wet). • water use. • ground level ozone (smog) creation. water and land. interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study.includes preventive and corrective maintenance costs. • other non-renewable resource use. • global warming potential. As defined by IS0 14040 (1997: iii). The general categories of the environmental impact to be considered include resource use. such as: • fossil fuel depletion.3. evaluating the potential environmental impact associated with those inputs and outputs. It was important to assess a given choice among alternative choices after considering all relevant economic consequences over its life cycle. 2. According to Trusty (2003) environmental performance is generally measured in terms of several potential effects. Life Cycle Assessment The philosophy of life cycle is the essence of ecological design which depends on the overall impacts of a product. the point was to be aware of the common tendency to focus only on the initial cost. • stratospheric ozone depletion.

operation or use during its lifetime. extraction of the relevant raw materials. final transportation. waste treatment. The ‘cradle’ is defined as the place where or moment when the raw materials or resources are taken from Nature into the technical system and the ‘grave’ is defined as the place where and/or the time when the products or used resources return to Nature. transportation and distribution at each stage. use and disposal of a product. manufacturing and packaging processes. 11 . and disposal at the end of its useful life. refinement and conversion of these to process materials.The same author points out that all of these measures are indicators of environmental loadings that could result from the manufacture. According to Paulsen (2001). The Royal Society of Chemistry (1998: 2) defines the LCA for a product as a summation of individual impacts from the stages listed below and defines the procedure of LCA as shown in Figure 2. The indicators did not directly address the ultimate human or ecosystem health effects. LCA is a dynamic and iterative assessment process which assesses the environmental impacts of products and services from a cradle-to-grave perspective.1. but provide good measures of environmental performance.

Figure 2. the goal and scope definition phase. the inventory analysis phase. In order to adapt the application of the assessment process to any product or system. seen in Figure 2. that involves four interrelated phases. 12 . the impact assessment phase and the interpretation phase which are explained in more detail in the following section.1. Summary of life cycle assessment procedure proposed by the Royal Society of Chemistry (1998: 3). ISO 14040 Standard (1997: 4) proposes a framework.2.

and a critical review process.2. Similarly Erlandsson. system boundaries.Figure 2. The choice of elements of the physical system was dependent on the definition of the goal and scope of the study. The overall objectives of the study should be given in a clear and concise statement with the reasons for carrying out the study and intended use of the results detailed. and Borg (2003) indicated that a well-defined goal was needed to motivate the choice of the most suitable system boundaries that identify the extent to which specific processes were included or excluded. and assumptions should also be clearly stated and so that they are easily understood. the first important step of any LCA was the definition of the goal and scope including functional units. 1997: 4). data quality requirements. data categories. (Source: ISO 14040 Standard. The methodology. The International Energy Agency (IEA) (2001) pointed out the importance of the scope of any study in Annex 31 and added that the scope of the 13 . i. Goal and Scope Definition Phase Paulsen (2001) determined that. The four phases of LCA.

The data required for an LCA study are dependent on the goal of the study. 1997). The usefulness of a product and the actual function of the system in a measurable and quantitative way should be identified through its functional unit. it is important to refine the system boundaries for all stages of the product system life cycle including inputs. Inventory Analysis Phase ISO 14041 Standard (1998E) defines inventory analysis as the process of compiling the amount of natural resources and energy taken in by the system and the amount of wastes discharged to the environment from the system for each functional unit. and quantified by the same functional unit. which could be expressed by various measures. hence. spatial and temporal considerations. it may become necessary to revise both goal and scope during the analysis due to the lack of data or important findings and this causes LCA to be iterative. Comparisons between systems could be made on the basis of the same function. this phase is concerned with data collection and calculation procedures. The performance or service of the product could be comparable to the service or performance of another product. According to IEA (2001). in case there is a lack of data. ii. the system boundaries that define and structure the system under assessment identify the extent to which specific processes are included or excluded. According to The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC. Every activity in the process tree is divided into unit processes. Inventory data is related to reference flows for each 14 . during the inventory analysis. along with the justification for the assumptions. which is the smallest unit in an LCA. not the product itself.study should be defined in sufficient detail to enable the study to address the stated objectives. In short. Data quality goals and methodology should thus be clearly established and detailed. processing routes. The results of LCA are only valid for well-defined goals and scopes.

Process flow charts describing the complete system. the purpose of the impact assessment phase is to examine the product system from an environmental perspective using impact categories and category indicators connected with LCI results to better understand their environmental significance. These procedures should reflect the physical behavior of the system since allocation of building materials is complicated by the large time spans encountered in the lifetime of buildings. iii.unit process in order to quantify and normalize input and output to the functional unit being investigated. classification. Erlandsson and Borg (2003) determined that any allocation procedures related to inputs and outputs of the multifunctional system should be fully detailed and explained. Data would then be aggregated in order to prepare an input-output table for this product or service. which are: category definition. ancillary materials and energy/fuel production are then formulated. as seen in Figure 2. 15 . normalization. main production sequence. characterization as mandatory elements and calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference values.3. This phase could be subdivided into four steps. Impact Assessment Phase According to ISO 14042 Standard (2000: 2). grouping and weighting as optional elements.

for ease and clarity of 16 . while making an assessment. Elements of the LCIA phase. Paulsen (2001: 8-9) indicated that.3. the relative importance of the contributing substances can be modeled and quantified. The author points out that for each impact category. 2000: 3). the classification step is done to assign inventory input and output data to the pre-defined impact categories. firstly the categories and category indicators are used to provide guidance for selecting and defining the environmental categories.Figure 2. hence it is important to possess the ability to model the categories in terms of standardized indicators for the characterization step. This is a qualitative step. The indicator chosen is used to represent the overall change or loading in the category. Then. (Source: ISO 14042 Standard. therefore contributions to impact categories are expressed using an equivalency factor. which is based on scientific analysis or an understanding of the relevant environmental processes. Categories are ranked according to their relative importance to each other and numerical values are assigned to them to represent degrees of the significance.

evaluation of the underlying study. recommendations and reporting. Interpretation Phase According to ISO 14043 Standard (2000: 2). 17 . a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the reliability and validity of results with particular respect to key assumptions made in calculations. allocation methods or calculation of category indicator results. Consistency check: to determine whether the assumptions. Sensitivity check: to assess the reliability of the final results and conclusions by determining whether they are affected by uncertainties in the data. Such weighting is especially helpful when attempting to reduce LCA to a single score for the environmental impact and then making overall comparisons between alternative buildings and designs. These are: Completeness check: to ensure that all relevant information and data needed for the interpretation are available and complete. scope and boundary settings. iv. uncertainty or missing data and dependence on particular data sets. The ISO 14043 Standard (2000: 5-6) recommends three techniques using during the evaluation phase. According to SETAC (1997). If two product alternatives or systems are compared and one alternative shows higher consumption of each material and of each resource. the life cycle interpretation phase of an LCA study includes three elements. the whole analysis consists of discussions regarding data quality. an interpretation that is based purely on the LCI can be conclusive. and completeness and consistency of results. identification of the significant issues based on the results.decision-making. conclusions. Firstly. methods and data are consistent with the goal and scope.

2003). The author’s description of the facility and material life cycle is shown in Figure 2. consistency. for two reasons: firstly. Figure 2. 2002: 4). Facility and material life cycle (Source: Malin. Estimating the useful service life of any material can introduce a high level uncertainty in the results of any LCA study. as even durable products might be replaced quickly for aesthetic or economic reasons.4.4.3. second their service life is highly variable. According to Zhang et al. and availability of data on products and processes. the methods used to compile inventories. LCAs of building materials are different from those for disposable items like packaging. and especially the assumptions and systems used to translate inputs and outputs into measures of environmental impact.1. (2006). building materials tend to have a relatively long service life. 18 .2. Life Cycle Inventory Databases Life cycle assessment was originally developed in 1969 for internal use by manufacturers considering options for product development when a certain soft drink producer wanted to determine the environmental impact of switching from glass to plastic bottles (Ecobilan. Malin (2002: 3) classified the main problematic areas in LCA studies of buildings to be the quality.

A full product LCA requires the combination of several unit process LCI data modules (http://www. how to assess data quality. This process was the critical step that tracks and records the basic resource and waste flows to and from the environment. LCA methods varied but typically involve use of databases with LCA related data for various materials and building components and systems. First of all. At the heart of an LCA model lies the database. LCI of a product or process has to be analyzed from the point 19 . Data from any of these sources would vary in accuracy depending on how they were collected and compiled and how current they were. According to the ISO Standard 14042 (2000: 2). According to Ekvall (2005: 1). trade organizations.2007). Data collection requires many assumptions and it may be impossible at times to ensure that the inventories of inputs and outputs are compiled consistently. The LCI database contains data modules that quantify the material and energy flows into and out of the environment for common unit processes. which is developed and maintained through the LCI process. Ekvall (2005) further points out that key issues in data collection includes: improving the efficiency and quality of data collection.05. or from pre-existing databases. it is not the inputs and outputs that are the issue.Trusty (2003) argues that life cycle inventory data should come from manufacturers. last access 19.athenasmi.ca/papers/down_papers/. but the environmental impacts of these flows. how to facilitate LCI data exchange and presentation. one of the fundamental tasks in LCA procedures was the determination of the quantity and type of the materials in a building.

According to UNEP-SETAC (2003: 9). Whereas. This process. ecosystem toxicity. such as global warming. resource depletion. Impacts such as global warming and ozone depletion are estimated based on internationally established methods that convert emissions of a wide range of gases to a cumulative impact measurable on a single scale. known as life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA). while assessing a unit process or a product system. Environmental interventions and economic flows. (Source: Guinee 2002: 479). Guinee (2002: 479) showed the inputs and outputs of environmental interventions and economic flows in Figure 2. acidification. “aims to examine the product system from an environmental perspective using impact categories and category indicators connected with the LCI results”.5. However. and so on. an impact category like 20 . ozone depletion. Malin (2002) indicates that the LCA methods used to translate inventories into potential impacts. diminished human health.5.of view of environmental issues. the different types of environmental impacts are organized by LCA practitioners into a series of impact categories. Figure 2.

6. According to Paulsen (2001). Inputs to building data store. Most of the individual product data sets have been developed with the cooperation of associations or companies that operate in countries by using common 21 . it was important to add specific manufacturing and use-phase data to construct more complete LCAs. (Source: Chanter and Swallow. Chanter and Swallow (1996: 167) showed the inputs of this full life cycle of buildings in Figure 2.6. Figure 2. 1996: 167). based on knowledge of specific products and their applications. As stated in IEA Annex 31 (2001). the weighted life cycle inventory data for materials and processes could be used to perform simplified environmental assessments of different designs. The main difficulty encountered in the comparative data analysis can be due to the different data presentation formats encountered in the inventories.ecosystem toxicity is much more complex to quantify. Specific end-of-life data for products that represent recycling or other final disposition of product systems should be added in order to assess the full life cycle. and therefore the methodology used for impact assessment is less consistent.

proprietary LCI databases should be taken as the source for LCI model data by making appropriate adjustments to the process models. comprehensive LCI databases. critically reviewed. regional differentiation that properly reflects critical regional variations within and across industry sectors. ARUP Group (2004) insists that input data should reflect the impacts due to consumption of resources and environmental emissions of all functional units. Public availability of the LCI data would make LCAs easier to perform. uniform treatment of all materials and products.S. LCAs are generally considered to be too expensive and time consuming because of the lack of widely available. This localized process is presented in Figure 2. Localization of the data is essential in order to obtain LCA results that are relevant to the geographical region concerned. The quality of life cycle data and the easy access to the databases are prerequisites to establish LCA as a reliable tool for environmental assessment. The Importance of National Life Cycle Inventory Databases Trusty (2003) pointed out that. meet specific transparency criteria. 22 . and full accessibility in a format(s) designed to maximize use. According to NREL (2003: 1-2). Although there are a few LCI databases available in the market. the development of reliable LCI data typically required considerable expert time inputs and expense.7 below. Ultimately. access to the information contained in them is generally restricted or protected by copyright agreements.technologies. guidelines for LCA. such a database should have the following criteria: Consistency with ISO standards and U. a national database can then be established to serve the needs of the potential data users. or the data are not verifiable.

2004: 7). Consequently.Figure 2. (Source: ARUP. resulting in one or several overall scores of a building. indoor climate.. the need for environmentally related information has been increasing with the rising interest and demand from policy makers to achieve a sustainable society. Processes for developing a localized database. Qualitative methods are based on assigning a score to each investigated parameter. 2. building materials containing hazardous substances etc. Reijnders and Roekel (1999) divides environmental assessment tools into two classes: qualitative tools based on scores and criteria. many tools for the assessment of the built environment.3. Life Cycle Assessment Tools According to Trinius (1999).2. and quantitative tools using a physical life-cycle approach with quantitative input and output data related to flows of matter and energy. focusing on energy use in buildings.7. have been devised. On the other hand. hence interest in environmental assessments of the built environment is also rising. the sick building syndrome. quantitative approaches are based on a combination of calculation and 23 .

and a few combine more than one of these areas. SimaPro and TEAM assesses the materials individually. In this investigation. ATHENA has been used to assess the case study. databases are used to manage information on quantities involved in calculation methods. Level 3 tools used a mix of objective and subjective data that depend on Level 2 tools for the objective data. These tools are considered to be building decision support tools.evaluation methods. This classification is also accepted as qualitative method of whole building assessment frameworks or systems. and EcoEffect. GBTool (International). social. BREEAM (Canada/UK). ASHRAE. or national standards and guidelines. lighting. such as LEED (US). and other issues relevant to sustainability. BEAT 2000. Level 3 Tools provided a very broad coverage of environmental. Hence. Trusty (2000: 18-19) classifies LCA tools into 3 levels according to the level of outputs e. Envest. it can be valuable for building databases and for making comparisons and choices but can not be used to make whole building design decisions. economic.These were consistently data-oriented and objective. such as life cycle costs. In this process. EcoEffect (Sweden). Examples of level 2 tools are: ATHENA. and E10 . EcoQuantum.g. Level 2 Tools focuses on a specific area of concern. while base values and specific benchmarks are used for evaluation of the results. life cycle environmental effects. or operating energy.: Level 1 Tools such as BEES. and EcoProfile. Examples of popular qualitative tools are LEED BREAM. 24 . using bases compatible with formal ISO. BEES. and hold on. and those of quantitative tools can be listed as ATHENA. DOE2. GBTool. ASTM.

foundations and envelope systems of a building.athenasmi. 25 . As Trusty (2000) points out design teams can use ATHENA® directly to carry out assessments of the structural systems.1. Table 2.05. Object Wood Stud Wall Parameters Assembly name Length Height Openings (area) Stud size Stud spacing Insulation type Sheathing type Finish type Object Concrete Block Wall Parameters Assembly name Length Height Openings (area) Block size Rebar size Insulation type Finish type (Source: http://www. while the assembly-specificity of the data is derived from the bill of materials of any building project (http://www. Of these ATHENA Environmental Impact Estimator (EIE). last access 19. and not to the categories of building assemblies.1: Different sets of LCA parameters in ATHENA software for the “Wall” object. For example.2007).athenasmi.A comparison of the above mentioned tools is presented in Table A. the parameters for the "Wall" object in an LCA model are defined according to the type of assembly seen in Table 2. last access 19. The structure of life cycle information in the ATHENA model is specific to particular building assemblies and construction methods. Existing LCI provides the assembly-specific and site-specific data that is needed for the integrated simulation environment for an LCA analysis.1 (Appendix A).05.ca/. The site-specificity of the data is defined through basic project inputs such as the city location.ca/database. The expected life of a component can be input as expected life of the structure and the operating energy conversion calculator module can be used to enter the building’s annual operating energy by fuel type. is an LCA software developed by ATHENA Sustainable Materials Institute in Canada for life cycle assessment of buildings.2007).

or complete building assemblies. (2001) indicated that it is difficult to abstract or fit into common structural frameworks of building data modeling so the definitions of new building objects which were stored in external databases were used to create alternative options. 26 . Walls).8. External databases can be used to select options for building components and systems during the development of the project database. and/or by services and organizations.2 (Appendix A) (http://www. the project database and the external databases can be seen in Figure 2. Foundations. These databases can be dynamic and continuously updated by manufacturers of building components and systems. Floors and Roofs. The building elements are further divided into 2 kinds of products: structural and envelope products seen in Table A. without breaking the existing schema. in order to assess any building with ATHENA. last access 08.06. The data used in this software are designed to make the LCA task as easy as possible for architects and engineers who need answers about the environmental implications of their decisions.2006). Pal et al.ca/es/etb. The relationships among the building data scheme.nrcan. According to IEA-BCS (1999). each individual building assembly is added as a new building object to the building data schema. thus redefinition of existing building objects is not required. Extra Basic Materials. It had approximately 25 “Assembly Types” which are combination of elements / components in the “Assembly Groups” (Beams and Columns.gc.ATHENA is focused on the level of whole buildings.

8. 3)..Figure 2. 27 . (Source: Pal et al. global warming potential. solid waste emissions. 2003: 6): • • • Embodied primary energy consumption. region-specific implications of a design in terms of a detailed list of flows from and to nature in the following summary measures (Trusty. The relationships among the building data scheme. the project database and the external databases. After any building design is entered in the EIE using building assembly dialogues. 2001. the user can see the cradle-to-grave.

direct and indirect. blast furnace slag ( BFS). heavy fuel oil and feedstock fuels.• • • pollutants to air. coal. Solid waste is composed of recovered matter resulting from the production and delivery (packaging) process which were bark/wood waste (WFiber). simulated demolition energy and final disposition of the materials incorporated in a building at the end of building's life (http://www. The last stage. concrete solid waste (CSW). products or building components. blast furnace dust (BOF). LPG. diesel fuel. used to transform or transport raw materials into products and buildings. The construction stage includes product/component transportation from the point of manufacture to the building site and on-site construction activities. hydraulic energy. including inherent energy contained in raw or feedstock materials that were also used as common energy sources. construction. operations and maintenance and building end of life. The operation and maintenance stage comprised of life cycle maintenance and replacement activities associated with the structure and envelope components.athenasmi. last access 19. wood. resource transportation and manufacturing of specific materials. ii. These summary measures are obtained from four different life stages which are manufacturing. Manufacturing stage included resource extraction. It is measured in kilograms. Embodied primary energy consumption includes all energy. This indicator is measured in mega-joules.ca/. steel waste. 28 . end of life. and natural resource use. natural gas. pollutants to water. Definitions of the six indicators as formulated by Norris (2002) are given in the following paragraphs. The energy types are determined to be electricity. i.05.2007).

Air pollution is measured in grams. phenols. non-methane hydrocarbons (NMH). sulphates. phosphorus. Air pollution index (API) displays the emissions to air for each air emission type by life cycle stage inclusive of structural and envelope effects as well as annual operating energy. oil and grease. nitrous oxides (N2O). chemical oxygen demand (COD). sulphides. cyanide (Cyn). aluminum (Al). particulates and fumes. methane (CH4). chlorides (Cl). hydrogen chloride (HCl). phosphates. dissolved organic compounds. Water pollution index (WPI) displays the emissions to water and can comprise of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). acid gases. ammonium. suspended solids (SusSol). Global warming potential (GWP) is used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure. iv. Carbon dioxide is considered to be the common reference standard for global warming or greenhouse gas effects. Air emission types are composed of carbon monoxide (CO). sulphur oxides (SOx). It is measured in milligrams. polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).iii. dissolved solids (DisSol). nitrates. v. A gas which is quickly removed from the atmosphere might initially have a large effect but for longer time periods it becomes less important due to dissipation. acids. phenols. nitrogen oxides (NOx). 100-year time horizon figures determined by the International Panel on Climate 29 . non-ferrous metals (NFM). while a substance's GWP depends on the time span over which the potential is calculated. GWP is measured in kilograms. halogenated organics (HO). and metals. volatile organic compounds (VOC). All other greenhouse gases are referred to as having a "CO2 equivalence effect" which is simply a multiple of the greenhouse potential (heat trapping capability) of carbon dioxide. It captures the pollution or human health effects of groups of substances emitted at various life cycle stages. iron and heavy metals.

last access 19. ash. Global warming potential values and lifetimes from IPCC. fine aggregate. semi-cementitous material (SCM). iron ore (IOre). phenol form resins.9: CO2 Equivalent kg = CO2 kg + (CH4 kg x 23) + (N2O kg x 296). uranium and natural gas.Change (IPCC) are used in ATHENA as a basis for the equivalence index in Figure 2. Figure 2. (Source: http://people. coarse aggregate.2007). gypsum.05.cornell. clay and shale (ClSh). 30 .ccmr.gif. vi.edu/~plh2/group/glbwarm/potent.9. sand. These raw sources can be limestone (LStn). The weighted resource use is measured in kilograms. Weighted resource use includes the amount of raw resources used to manufacture each building product.

In ISO 15686-1 (2000). and consequently the total quantity of materials used throughout the overall service life of the building becomes important. This method is used to modify a RSLC to obtain an estimated service life of the components (ESLC) of a design object. these could rarely be used directly.4. Service Life Prediction Nunen et al. Saville and Moss (2002) insists on that even if certain service life data were available. on-site construction. the “Factor Method” is described as a means for addressing this problem. The reliable input about how many replacements need to take place. (2004: 1) indicated that LCA models are utilized according to a predefined linear-life-cycle that is known as technical service life. manufacturing. were usually different from those for which the service life data were valid. and is defined as the “service life that a building or parts of a building would be expected or predicted to have in a certain set of reference in-use conditions”.2. The concept of Reference Service Life of Component (RSLC) was firstly introduced in ISO 15686-1 (2000). The objective of service life planning is to provide reasonable assurance that the estimated service life of a new building on a specific site. Making changes to buildings or rebuilding or replacements are often not taken into account. because the project specific in-use conditions. This is carried out by adjusting the RSLC by a 31 . A designer involved in the service life planning of a building or other constructed object is faced with the problem of estimating the service life of each components. and is typically given in terms of raw material extraction. would be at least as long as it is designed for. with planned maintenance. by taking account of the difference between the project-specific and the reference conditions. to which the components would be subjected. operation including maintenance and end-of-life scenarios.

In its simplest form. detailing.function of a number of factors. protective coatings. micro and macro environment.2: Examples of factors. hours/frequency of use. sheltering. Factor Class A Quality of components B Design / detailing C Installation / workmanship D Indoor environment E Outdoor environment F In-use conditions G Maintenance Examples Manufacture. interfaces. F = In-use factor. category of users. transport. weathering factors. climatic conditions during installation Aggressiveness of environment. E = External environment factor. Location of building. materials. tear. the function is the product of the factors. accessibility for maintenance. each being from a particular factor class and reflecting a difference between the two sets of in-use conditions in the factor class. C = Workmanship factor. pollution levels. condensation. Quality and frequency of inspection and maintenance. G = Maintenance factor. Commissioning. 32 . Site management. relevant to building services plant. mechanical impact. storage. ventilation. B = Design factor. Incorporation into the building. 2002: 4). as summarized below: ESLC = RSLC * factor A* factor B * factor C * factor D * factor E * factor F * factor G where: A = Material / Component factor. standard of workmanship. (Source: Saville and Moss.2 below. These factors are described in Table 2. Table 2. system design. wear. D = Internal environment factor.

economical. the user decides that the service life of the product is over. Figure 2.10.. 2004: 5). “Trend” and “Related” factors should also be added while calculating the ESLC. The reference service life of components is the technical service life. when the component fails to meet the demand of people. if functional and economical criteria are included in the prediction of service life. Nunen et al. and functional end-of-life. (2004) mention that.According to ISO 15686-1 (2000).life occurs. The “Trend” factor 33 . which ends when the component can no longer sustain its performance. (Source: Nunen et al. namely: technical. In other words. while the functional endof. there are three kinds of end-of-life scenarios in the building sector. Different types ends-of-life scenarios. The economical end-of-life occurs when another component can be substituted with lesser costs.

The replacement of a complete building part. • • buildings are site specific and many of the impacts are local. LCA methods could be directly applied to the building sector but buildings have many characteristics that can complicate the application of standard LCA methods. construction. 2. use and demolition (Figure 2. frame without glass. Additionally. because: • The long and unknown life expectancy of a building can cause imprecision. Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings According to IEA Annex 31 (2001: 3-4).5. Buildings are difficult to assess. predictions of environmental loadings can not be precise because of the changing of the energy sources or the energy efficiency. buildings and their components are heterogeneous in their composition. more replacements can be made if it is possible to do so with much more ease. a building creates an indoor living environment. the associated product manufacturing processes can vary greatly from one site to another. the behavior of the users and of the services operators or facilities managers have a significant influence on energy consumption. • • a building is highly multi-functional.accounts for the sensitivity to fashion trends which can decrease the functional service life of any component due to the changing fashions. In the use phase. like fenestration. the “Related” factor includes two aspects: the accessibility of a product to be replaced in combination with the replacement of components. which makes it difficult to choose an appropriate functional unit. For example. that can be 34 . was easier than only any component. For example.11). • the building life cycle includes specific phases such as resource extraction.

2002).11. pipes. Additionally. wires. (Source: USEPA. green space and treatment facilities.assessed in terms of comfort and health. they are generally ignored. and • buildings are closely integrated with other elements in the building environment. Trusty (2004) emphasizes the greater difficulty in assessing the environmental effects of resource extraction in building life cycle. it can be highly misleading to conduct LCA on a building in isolation. He points out that since many of the environmental effects are very site specific and not easily measured. the energy required to operate a building over its life is much greater than 35 . Because building design characteristics affect the demand for these other systems. particularly urban infrastructure like roads. Stages of building life cycle. Figure 2.

The service then accounts for all activities related to the predicted service life. However. no set method is available for making reliable predictions of their service lives. buildings are constructed and utilized for the intended purpose for a defined period and finally demolished. The remaining life span of building elements is not only used as a decision criterion in renovation/refurbishment scenarios but also in life cycle energy or ecological assessments. to determine it correctly. However. other embodied effects such as toxic releases to water during the resource extraction and manufacturing stages are greater than during building operations. O’Connor (2004) determined that the service life approach allowed the analysis of renovation and refurbishment works. the service life cycle accounts for all activities that have to be performed so that all materials in necessary amounts and qualities is available as required for the specified service. The author asserts that.1. it is necessary to take into account the current deterioration state of the element. according to linear building perspective.5. 36 . On the other hand. the remaining life span of building elements is an important piece of information for financially and ecologically coherent renovation/refurbishment decisions. 2. Although most building and construction materials are expected to have service lives of several decades. according to the building service life cycle perspective. Knowledge of the probable residual life span of a building element can often be decisive for whether it should be replaced or not.the energy attributed to the products used in its construction. Life Cycle Assessment of Renovations and Refurbishments Erlandsson and Levin (2005: 1460) states that.

the type of services offered. are unique with regard to operational schemes.2. which are less toxic. whether it concerned energy. instead of dividing it in different phases). Life Cycle Assessment of Hotel Buildings According to Dascalaki and Balaras (2004). or environmentally certified. The authors suggest that this impact can be countered by making hotels more environmentally friendly by constructing them with environmentally sensitive materials. made of recycled materials. 2. as well as the resulting patterns of natural resource consumption.Nunen et al. water or raw materials. hotels are characterized to have the highest negative impact on the environment. hotels. such as: • • • Premature replacement (replacing products before it is a technical necessity). a model which could simulate the probable development in the deterioration of all building elements can be used to determine their probable date of replacement. As a consequence. Knowledge of this development for all building elements will make it possible to assess the global development in maintenance and refurbishment costs for the entire building. (2004: 5) pointed out some irregularities that can cause problems when performing service life calculations in the building sector. subdivision of environmental burden (regarding environmental burden as a linear process. According to Flourentzou (2000). 37 . sequential use (replacement of (identical) products within the overall service life of building). Many of the services to hotel guests are highly resource intensive. of all commercial buildings. accommodation facilities. with the exception of hospitals.5. more durable and stronger.

The Italian National Agency for the Protection of the Environment and for Technical Services (APAT. The Carbon Trust (2005) states that the operation of a hotel is the most resource intensive stage of the entire life-cycle. the corporate image is also improved. It also contributed to the depletion of resources. This phase defines the purpose of the hotel and typically lasts for 25 to 50 years. 38 . the efficiency of many end-users in a hotel is very low.Such material should also have low embodied energy and be produced and available locally. Furthermore. However. as well as improved comfort and productivity for the occupants. European palace and castle hotels). an environmentally responsible design generates a number of benefits including considerably lower resource consumption and operational costs. with proper maintenance. This has resulted in increased pressure on local utility systems (power and water supply). According to authors. both from an economic and environmental perspective. in order to avoid transport-related impacts. 2002) has estimated that 75% of all impacts exerted by hotel facilities on the environment are associated with the extensive use of resources. resulting in a relatively large impact. as people came to prefer the “green” alternative.g. regular refurbishment and renovation the lifespan of a hotel building can be significantly extended. Hotels utilize large quantities of energy. thereby attracting new customers. the operational stage of a hotel lifecycle is substantial. Hotels designed according to sustainability principles are considered to be as “sustainable hotels”. Some of the currently operating hotels are located in buildings erected centuries ago (e. According to Bohdanowicz (2003).. sometimes leading to shortages experienced by locals. Consequently. as compared to other types of similar sized buildings. water and various consumable materials in providing services and comfort to their guests.

in the second phase due to new competition the occupancy and average daily revenue declined over time.Bohdanowicz (2004) indicated that hotels generated large quantities of waste and sewage. and various detergents. deterioration of local air quality. use and disposal. as well as landfills. it is more popular and shows a strong performance. often released without proper treatment. 39 . enjoying higher occupancies and rates than its competitors. a number of substances and products used at hotel facilities are exceedingly environmentally harmful. the market changes make occupants demand new and different services and so during the third phase the hotel faces functional obsolescence. finally decision has to be made to either dispose of it or rehabilitate it to respond to current needs in the fourth phase. Hotels are also responsible for the release of various air pollutants. acid rain and global warming. Furthermore. However. there are four phases in the lifecycle of a hotel. contributed to eutrophication of surface water. excessive use of electricity. these four phases are presented graphically. thus increasing pressure on local sewer systems and plants. transportation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) still used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems contribute to ozone depletion. during the first phase when the property is new. In Figure 2. According to Stipanuk and Roffman (1992: 420).12. a hotel is constructed to meet the needs of a growing community and it can become the dominant force in the market for a number of years. Many of the goods purchased have environmental effects associated with their manufacture.

regular maintenance is crucial to ensure the proper performance of a building and its system. Refurbishment involves the generation of large quantities of waste. 1992: 421). replacing floor finishing and artwork. given current needs of the facility such as interior demolition of entire guestroom floors to reconfigure the mix of rooms and placement of bathrooms. (Source: Stipanuk and Roffman. Restoration (25 to 50 year cycle): the scope of a restoration is to completely gut a space and replace systems that are technically and functionally obsolete. drapery. minor painting. and bedspreads. as well as the safety of the occupants. bedding. Stipanuk and Roffman (1992: 421) classified renovations in three categories: • Minor renovation (6 year cycle): the scope of a minor renovation is to replace or renew the non-durable furnishings and finishes within a space without changing the space’s use or physical layout such as replacing carpets. and poses a risk involving the emission of various air 40 . Major renovation (12 to 15 year cycle): the scope of a major renovation is to replace or renew all furnishings and finishes within a space. wall coverings. Lifecycle of a hotel.Figure 2.12. • • According to The Carbon Trust (2005). and touching up the furniture. lighting. while restoring furnishing and systems that can still be used. and may include extensive modifications to the use and physical layout of the space itself like replacement of all furniture.

Making lifetime estimation in preliminary design stage is advantageous in refurbishing programming.3. besides initial costs and aesthetics. upholstery and curtains could limit the future replacements so it is not preferred. and mostly visual obsolescence define the life expectancy of finishes in relation to the maintenance policy concerning renewal cycles. 41 . windows and their components because frequent replacement is an expensive and time consuming work in a refurbishment project. for mattresses 12 years. For example. She also gave examples by referring to the Hilton International Engineering Manual where the lifetime expectancy for carpets in guestrooms is given as 6 years.pollutants (including lead and volatile organic compounds from paints. The user activities. Dascalaki and Balaras (2004) determined that durability and lifespan are also very important in material selection and detailing. for beds 15 years. Bohdanowicz (2003: 36) summarizes the impacts of the refurbishment and demolition process and also suggest preventive measures for their mitigation in Table 2. wallpapers. deterioration agents. for drapes and spreads as 5 years. ozone depleting substances from refrigeration and air conditioning installations). Özgurel (2001) pointed out that special designs for carpeting. Venetian blinds 8 years and furniture 10 to 12 years. long life expectancy is one of the main criteria in selecting doors.

refurbishment and demolition stage. Reduced safety of the on-site workers and locals. Limitation of engines idling. emissions from lead.3: Possible impacts and mitigation measures at the maintenance. Mitigation Consideration of resource saving measures. Construction materials and equipment should be chosen based on their life-time costs and good quality. Need for waste landfilling. Reduced safety of the on-site workers and locals. incorporation of controls and bioclimatic design. water. Prevention of unauthorized individuals accessing the construction site (fences and signs). as well as construction team. Prevention of moisture inside the building materials (covering the building during construction). 2003: 36). Specific working hours (e. Construction. Considerations for possible reuse or recycling of building materials. Prevention of unauthorized individuals accessing the construction site (fences. 8am to 6pm on weekdays and 10am to 4pm on weekends) Skilled personnel aware of possible dangers. Release of dust. signs). and impaired indoor air quality. 42 . Proper study of the materials used in the construction of the building.and organic-based paints.. not only initial costs (good quality products will last longer and require less maintenance in the future). equipment and furnishings. materials) and associated emissions and wastes. Increased noise levels. finishing and furnishing Decreased safety and well being of occupants due to low quality materials. (Source: Bohdanowicz. Good quality equipment. Demolition of the building. In case of possible asbestos presence skilled experts should perform the demolition and removal of asbestos. Skilled personnel aware of possible dangers. otherwise proper landfilling. Action Refurbishment Impact Excessive use of resources (energy. Vehicular traffic and heavy equipment operation. Possible moisture in building structure resulting in mould growth.g. asbestos. Excessive use of resources (energy) and associated emissions (impaired air quality).Table 2.

MATERIAL AND METHOD This chapter includes details on two aspects of the study: the research material and methodology. The methodology is comprised of data compilation process.1. specifically. 43 . especially in larger cities. Material This study was carried out on renovation projects in Turkey. the statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey. their refurbishment works and software are given in the following sections. Statistical Data on Renovation and Refurbishment Projects In order to determine the volume of renovation works in Turkey. information on three five-star hotels in Ankara. Also details about case study buildings. In order to fulfill the objectives of this study.1.1. which are explained in detail under Section 3.1.1. The first covers four subsections. 3. hotel refurbishment projects in Ankara. the grouped data derived from the bill of quantities for guestroom floors of the three hotel refurbishment projects. 3. information and data were collected from various sources. the following data were obtained.CHAPTER 3 3.1. and the LCA software. simulation procedure and statistical tests. • The number of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of buildings according to years (Table B.

Two of these hotels belong to chains of international repute while one is a local hotel of historical importance.1. ballroom. B.6.7. while the derived data is presented in Section 3. Although major renovations included such public areas as the lobby. Data related to the different types of alterations and renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. Appendix B). 44 . Appendix B). Raw data is given in Table B.Appendix B). the following data were obtained: • • Data related to the number of tourism establishments in Turkey and Ankara (Table B. during the 6 year period from 2000 to 2006 (Table B.4.3. as the design decisions for one room is repeated many times over. only data for guestrooms were analyzed in this study.5.1. In order to find out the types and amounts of material being replaced during hotel refurbishment projects the BOQ of three five-star hotels were obtained. • Total floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years (Table B. 3.. In order to verify the volume of renovation works in the Turkish hospitality sector. conference and meeting rooms.2. Case Study Buildings Data pertaining to refurbishment / renovation projects of the three subject hotels in Ankara was compiled in 2005 and photographs of the refurbished rooms were taken in 2007.8 (Appendix B). restaurants etc. B.1. B. The three subject hotels are described in more detail in the following sections. Appendix B).3.2. • Number of buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by years and use of building (Table B. Appendix B).

The major refurbishment in the guestrooms took place in 2002 in order to meet 45 . This hotel has 24 floors. 11 smart rooms. Figure 3. Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel A. 5 smart suits. 8 executive suits.1 below. which is one of the 730 hotels operated by its chain in 80 countries. The architectural layout of a typical guestroom floor is presented in Figure 3. 2 ambassadorial suits and one royal suit. one entire floor with extended-stay apartments. 26 suits and one royal suit. was finished in 1991. The hotel consists of 323 standard rooms.Hotel A belongs to an international chain which operates 2. The construction of Hotel B. 51 executive rooms and other leisure and business facilities.1. Guestroom floors are located on the upper 16 levels.700 hotels in 70 countries. It consists of 280 standard rooms. Its construction was completed in 1986.

customer demand for high/new technology. mezzanine and business centre was also started in order to achieve harmony with the design philosophy and style of the new annex building. special rooms were designed for disabled and left-handed guests in order to provide more comfort to them and broaden target clientele. Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel B. restaurants. At the same time. In 2003. The architectural layout of a typical guestroom floor is presented in Figure 3. Additionally. a renovation project encompassing the main lobby. 46 .2 below.2. Figure 3. clubhouse. construction of a new convention and cultural centre was begun adjacent to the hotel building.

The number of guestrooms was reduced. Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel C. there are 110 standard rooms. This project was an extensive one and major changes were made in the building. 26 suits and 23 executive suits. 14 of which have guestrooms. 14 rooms have been converted to club-rooms and 2 for the handicapped. this renovation was postponed because of financial problems and a change of management. The architectural layout of a typical guestroom floor is presented in Figure 3. Now. which was constructed in 1966.3. Figure 3. Although it was planned that in 2003 the hotel be completely renovated and not just refurbished. This refurbishment project is different from the other two projects.3. 47 . Standard rooms were also reduced in order to increase the number of suits.Hotel C is one of the oldest five-star hotels in Ankara. It has 22 floors. Recreational and business facilities have also been expanded by increasing the number of meeting rooms and ballrooms.

B and C. windows. doors. and Hotel C. such as vinyl wall coverings. 12. Quantities of refurbishment projects of three subject hotels for settled works are presented separately as Hotel A. 387. skirting and wall finishing works. The quantities of some works were not determined in the bill of materials of subject hotels.000 square meters in Hotel C.1. Most significant were the materials used for finishing the surfaces. floor and ceiling finishing works. most of this washable textile backed wallpaper was imported. The number of doors replaced with new ones was also significant. More variety and amount of material was used in Hotel C as a result of the volume of the refurbishment. B. In Table 3. These works are divided according to assembly groups such as: demolition works. which was replaced with new wallpaper to the tune of 20. Bills of Quantities of Three Refurbishment Projects The grouped data for the renovation of the three hotels was gathered from the BOQs of Hotels A. furniture and fixtures. the description of renovation works are given in the first column. 48 . The unit of wall. Additionally bathroom fittings and fixtures as well as doors (with frames) have been replaced in all the hotels.1 below. therefore it is presented as “not quantified” in Table 3. and 490 respectively. floor and ceiling finishing works is square meter.000 square meters in Hotel A.500 square meters in Hotel B and 15. Hotel B. windows. carpets and suspended ceilings. The walls were covered with embossed vinyl wallpaper.3. and C were 720. data for only the guestrooms and corridors on the guestroom floors has been analyzed. doors. furniture and fixtures are listed in set. the number of new doors in Hotels A. As mentioned earlier.1.3.

Table 3.1: Derived bill of quantities for renovation works in the three fivestar hotels in Ankara. Turkey. DESCRIPTION OF RENOVATION WORKS CIVIL WORKS DEMOLITION WORKS Demolition of brick wall Demolition of r/c Removal of suspended ceilings Scraping of existing wall plaster and ceramics Demolition of existing flooring and removal Demolition of piping and mechanical ducts Dismantling all electrical systems Removal of doors with frames Removal of bathroom fittings and fixtures E 1E1 1E2 1E4 1E7 1E8 1E9 1E10 1E11 F 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 G 1G1 1G2 1G3 1 A 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A7 1A8 UNIT Hotel A QTY Hotel B QTY Hotel C QTY M 3 3 2 2 Not quantified 1250 35 M M 106 20119 10054 7100 2680 8900 350 15000 M M 2 TON MT SET SET 2 2 2 480 360 186 FLOORING Levelling concrete Self levelling screed Ceramic flooring Heavy-duty board-room type fireproof carpet (80 wool/20 nylon 1st Quality walnut-finished parquet floor with varnish Mechanical polishing of existing marble floors PVC flooring for floor service rooms Solid walnut guestroom entrance door threshold SKIRTING Hardwood(walnut) veneered over mdf varnished skirting Hardwood skirting (varnished) Ceramic skirting Softwood skirting (varnished) CEILING Ceiling plastering Gypsum speckling Gypsum board(fire resistant) suspended ceiling M M M 2 2 M M M M M M M 5026 9615 2784 7272 26 1586 9500 2805 2 7560 7656 1100 2 2 2 504 800 980 150 MT MT MT MT MT 8093 4281 5400 970 2100 450 11097 7846 4413 563 1670 11170 6050 2 49 .

Table 3.6 2774 7 1128 500 4150 1500 500 500 2 2 2 2 M M M M M M M M 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 23181 27148 4366 83 12839 12839 12839 500 3250 240 320 200 M 21697 24476 15000 700 MT EA EA M M M M 2 720 387 250 178 100 120 20 710 2 2 2 SET SET EA EA SET 352 180 177 354 187 352 360 186 200 177 50 .1: (continued) 1G6 K 1K1 1K2 1K3 1K4 1K5 L 1L1 1L2 1L3 1L4 1L5 1L6 1L7 1L8 1L9 1L10 M 1M1 1M2 1M6 1M7 1M8 1M9 N 1N1 1N2 1N6 1N7 Satin finish acrylic paint (3 layers) PARTITION WALLS Hollow block brick wall(20 cm) Gypsum board wall (double sided water &-fire proof) Single sided gypsum board wall Gypsum board partition wall (double) Hollow block bims concrete wall (10*39*19) WALL COVERINGS&FINISHES Interior wall plastering Gypsum speckling Satin finish acrylic paint (3 layers) Oil paint(3 layers) Ceramic wall tiles Walnut finish wall panels (varnished) Marble wall covering(textured finish) Coloured back glass wall tiles Textile backed vinyl wall paper Mid-rail on corridor walls of guestroom floors (150 mm) DOORS & WINDOWS Walnut veneered solid wood fire resistant doors with frames and fitting Toughened glass shower door Executive suits fire resistant walnut doors including frame and fittings Solid core laminate facing wooden doors with frame Solid core sound proof wooden doors with frame and fitting Aluminium window frame replacement with (4+4 double glass) FURNITURE/ FIXTURES Guestroom furniture units including all accessories Upholsteries & linens & drapery & cushions Shelving units All mirrors Bathrooms M 2 12488 6275 8596 M M M M M 2 217.

a life-cycle assessment software called ATHENA® was used. which is produced by the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute in Canada. This tool also has an operating energy conversion calculator module which allows software users to enter their building’s annual operating energy by fuel type. Some general information about the project is entered into the software. and operating energy consumption. However. LCA Software To assess the environmental impacts of the materials most commonly replaced during refurbishment projects. Extra basic materials may also be added to augment any particular assembly selection. ATHENA® separately assesses and compares conceptual design options for structural systems and envelope alternatives. The Add Assembly menu is used to define foundations. In order to assess materials which are not found in its database. such as: location. the model's internal calculations and final results are computed in metric units. additional walls.4. in this program the properties of the material in the database can not be changed or added by the users. ATHENA® uses European databases which include materials that are commonly being manufactured with western technology.3. the EIE software calculates both the pre-combustion and direct combustion emissions associated with that fuel use.1. floors/roofs and column and beam assemblies to complete a three-dimensional building space. However. the author had to contact the ATHENA Institute to seek 51 . The SI (metric) unit designation is the default unit measure for entering assembly information. while inputs for the model can be specified in either imperial or (SI) metric. These emissions can be compared to those embodied in the materials making up the building. gross floor area. building type.

Generally speaking. Statistics on renovation/refurbishment projects in Ankara were obtained from the Ankara Chamber of Architects as the municipalities in Ankara did not have this kind of database. initiating a refurbishment project mainly depends on the financial situation of the building owners/management.2. are seen as a prestige symbol. 52 . Ankara was chosen as the location. However. On the other hand. in contrast to touristic cities where financial concerns are of prime importance. From this point of view. in order to present the volume of the refurbishment works and to assess the importance of renovation/refurbishment projects in Turkey. After comparing them. These data were used to analyze the volume of these works in Ankara between 2000 and 2006. it was found that approximately 53% of hotels were refurbished in Ankara in 6 years. 3.guidance with regards to a best match from the database for the material in question. renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey and specifically that on hotels were obtained from TURKSTAT and Ministry of Tourism. especially those belonging to an international chain. refurbishment is an obligatory requirement for the success of the hospitality sector. Methodology Statistical data on building types. hotels in a capital city. and five-star hotels that belong to international chain were chosen as the hotel type for which the refurbishment is inevitable. hotels were chosen as the building type whose service life does not depend on its physical condition. Also there is a stipulation for all hotels belonging to a particular international chain to refurbish between definite intervals determined in the agreements.

the BOQ for the renovation/refurbishment projects and data on their operating-energy consumption were obtained from the management of these hotels and photographs of refurbished rooms were taken in March 2007. The simulation of refurbishment works is given in Section 3. The contents of the refurbishment projects and the stages in their life cycle were assessed with the LCA tool. data related to refurbishments of only the guestrooms are obtained since refurbishments in other common spaces were different for each of these hotels. three five-star hotels in Ankara.2.2. The waste produced during renovations and its recycling capacity should also be considered.4. (Some of them are more extensive than the others). The architectural design projects. belonging to international chains were chosen as case studies for this investigation. Furthermore. The methodology adapted for this investigation is summarized in Figure 3.1. this stage was generally ignored and only a few parts were reused or recycled. From their bill of quantities.In accordance with the concerns mentioned above. However. The inventory analysis was made according to their bill of quantities for renovation projects. the hypotheses were formulated according to data generated from software and listed in Section 3. Finally. the phases of this LCA study and interpretations of six environmental impact indicators according to international standards.2. ATHENA. Also included are the simulation procedure. In order to fulfill the objectives of methodology of this investigation. the management was also interviewed informally to gather information on the frequency of and reasons for these renovations. 53 .2. the bill of materials of refurbishment works of three subject hotels are compiled and its process is stated in Section 3.3.

54 .Figure 3.4. The methodology adapted by the author.

Simulation This study consists of three different refurbishment projects. therefore. the variety and amount of material were more than the other two hotels. they were classified as guestroom floors and general spaces. gypsum board. the structural materials can be assessed but fixtures like bathtubs.2. this case study estimates the life cycle environmental impacts of material manufacturing. According to the phases of an LCA study. closets and beds can not be assessed. brick. Data pertaining to refurbishment/renovation projects of the three abovementioned five star hotels in Ankara was gathered in 2005. In scope.2. wallpaper. 3.2. The hotels are assessed one by one and then they are compared with each other. the bill of materials of refurbishment projects of hotel buildings are confidential files so the author is very grateful to the technical management of these hotels. These common materials were levelling concrete. the first phase is goal and scope definition as mentioned before. Data for only guestrooms and corridors on the guestroom floors has been analyzed and only those materials that were used in the refurbishment projects of all the three hotels were chosen for the analyses. In these data. Data Compilation Process First of all. 55 .1. In the computer program. seen in Table 3. The assessment procedure for Hotel A is explained as an example. there are structural materials and also the finishing materials.1.3. It should be noted that in Hotel C the rooms were converted to suits and more changes in the designs were made compared to Hotels A and B. hardwood (skirting) and paint. After grouping these data. stucco. maintenance.

building life expectancy. the summary tables and graphs about six indicators. The study is confined to effects on the natural environment.9. The building life expectancy was defined as 37 years for Hotel C. air pollution index. If operating energy consumption of building in a year is given. the materials which have the similar impacts are used instead of missing materials. project description and operating energy consumption is entered on the computer. beam. The ATHENA Institute offered Toronto location as best match for Turkey's grid according to the electricity profile of Turkey. These materials are put under the heading of extra basic materials because this project is a refurbishment project. building type. column roof and their materials are not changed.10. structure. The software database is used. General information about the project. the materials were quantified according to the bill of quantities. Appendix B). solid waste. global warming potential. because in this hotel major renovation was needed in this time period. location. gross floor area. units (SI or Imperial). which was obtained from TURKSTAT (Table B. So the yearly operating energy consumption data was found and average value was calculated that was derived from the data belonging to a twelve year period (Table B. After entering the materials as the input. The most important location factor for the use of the software is not climatic zone. while local indoor effects on human health are omitted. but rather how the electricity is generated in the region and the author must choose from the existing location options. which is: project name. water pollution index and weighted 56 . To define the system boundaries is very important. The goal of this study is to provide an interactive LCA case study which allows investigation of the life cycle impacts of a similar range construction. such as primary energy consumption. the location data can be ignored. so foundation. As a second step.repair and replacement effects of the refurbishment project of Hotel A. Appendix B).

2. For air pollution index. small.1. Appendix B (TURKSTAT). instead of using the actual concentrations of air pollutants. Only the amount of special gases such as sulphur oxide was determined seen in Table B. The limit conditions and specific benchmarks of these six environmental impact indicators can not be found.0.35 ton/person in Turkey (TURKSTAT). as a means for reporting the quality of air or level of air pollution. this project can be evaluated on the basis of these graphs and tables.0.0.40 0. the ranges of index values should be categorized. So the found international standards can be used and a comparison between all case studies will be more illustrative to the readers. the limit value is generally measured in ton/person and this limit was 1. But the results of this software about air pollution could not be correlated with these values for Turkey. very high.00. However.0.11.20 0. For Turkey. and also the found values can not be correlated with the software summary measures. So the EPA standards were used to assess the materials. high. it is developed in easily understood ranges of values. The corresponding pollutant concentrations and API value according to EPA is given in Table 3. For solid waste indicator. For water pollution.60 0. To reflect the status of the air quality and its effects on human health. Accordingly. the ranges of index values could be categorized as follows in EPA standards: very small.80 0. are obtained as the output.61 . there was not an index like this. the results of the software about water pollution could not be correlated with these values.41 .resource use. 57 .81 .3. 0 . medium. and the API values regards to the effects to human health are also given in Table 3.21 .

gov/ttn/oarpg/t1/memoranda/rg701.htm. last access 08.zhb. (Source: http://www.2007). 58 .06.2007).2: Air pollution index value and corresponding pollutant concentrations according to EPA.epa.pdf.3: Air pollution index and air quality grading regards to health.ca/english/airqualityinfo. last access 08. Table 3.Table 3. (Source: http://www.06.gov.

gov/ttn/oarpg/t1/memoranda/rg701.epa. = the maximum and minimum value of the API index range.3. C = the concentration of pollutants.Basic formula of the API calculation method according to EPA was given below (http://www. − H02: There is no difference in solid waste between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. Chigh and Clow = the maximum and minimum value of the concentration range. which the concentration of pollutants take place. 3. − H03: There is no difference in the air pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. which the concentration of pollutants take place.pdf): where I Ihigh and Ilow = Index value.2. The hypotheses were: − H01: There is no difference in primary energy consumption between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. 59 . Tests of Hypotheses Tests of hypotheses were formulated according to data derived from simulation modelling in order to determine whether or not any significant relationships existed between the life cycle environmental impacts of the same material per square meter in three refurbishment works.

− H06: There is no difference in weighted resource use between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.05) was prescribed.Hotel A. − H05: There is no difference in global warming potential between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.Hotel C. Hotel B . wherefrom significance is established on the basis of p-value outputs.− H04: There is no difference in water pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. The paired-sample t-test was used to analyze the refurbishment works of subject hotels. 5 % level of significance (α=0. 60 . Three pairs from three hotels were formed such as: Hotel B . These analyses were done using SPSS 11® software for Windows®. and Hotel A – Hotel C.

for commercial buildings in 1997. While the total floor area of construction increased. the statistical analyses of these data using paired-sample t-test are presented in the fourth section. The last section covers the comparative evaluation of the three case studies and seven common materials that were used in all three refurbishment projects. After gathering data generated by the LCA software (ATHENA). religious.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter includes details on five aspects of the investigation. cultural. administrative and other. there was a decrease in the floor area of cultural and administrative buildings (Table B.1.2. as elicited through informal interviews. it was observed that floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building in the last fifteen years reached its highest value for residential buildings in 1996. 4. Appendix B).CHAPTER 4 4.1. and for administrative buildings in 1991. Discussion on Statistical Data for Refurbishment Projects Building construction statistics that are prepared by TURKSTAT in 2003 were analyzed. 61 . industrial. residential. The buildings are classified according to their use. commercial. As shown in Figure 4. The first covers discussion of statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey and the second covers the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects.

Total floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B.000 Other building 80.000 100.2. social building Industrial building 40. (Source: TURKSTAT). The number of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B.000 Cultural building Medical.120.000 Administrative building Religious building 60.2. Figure 4.2.000 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Figure 4. (Source: TURKSTAT). 62 .000 Commercial building Residential building 20.1.

The statistics for tourism licensed facilities of Turkey and Ankara were obtained from T. B. If this data is analyzed.5.4. Although Ankara is not a coastal city. coastal cities rank the highest.6. B. As can be seen in Table B. it is the capital city and therefore hosts many delegations. B. 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Total Tourism Establishments in 2003 Hotel Buildings in 2003 73 66 4917 7637 7832 4523 Turkey Ankara 148 Total Tourism Establishments in 2000 34 Hotel Buildings in 2000 Figure 4. This being the case it needs to have world-class hotels to accommodate the official guests. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı (The General Directorate of Investment and Enterprises Ministry Culture and Tourism Republic of Turkey). (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism). nor a mountain resort. Ankara ranks twelfth amongst the 81 provinces in Turkey according to the number of tourism licensed facilities in 2003. This in turn means that the hotels in Ankara have to be kept up to date and must be renovated every how and then to meet the high standards of equivalent hotels elsewhere. which is why it has many hotels.3. 63 .5.3.C. Data related to the number of tourism establishments in Turkey and Ankara derived from Table B.

and old and new use of building.2. This affects to increase the number of all type of renovations and refurbishments. data about different types of alterations of buildings in Turkey would not be obtained so that for Ankara only is presented. 64 . (Source: TURKSTAT). Besides this. In Table B.C. Besides these. hence. the change of use of buildings is examined according to year 2002 to 2004. the rate of change of function of buildings is very high because users do not have much choice but to purchase what is on the market. 1999: 12). as the case studies were also conducted in Ankara. 350 308 300 250 200 150 100 58 50 4 0 2002 0 11 6 2003 53 4 2004 1 Number of buildings modified for different use in Turkey Number of buildings modified as hotel buildings Number of hotel buildings modified for different use Figure 4.4. These alterations are only large-scale alterations which include the change of function of the building. Number of buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by year and use of building derived from Table B. the need for additions and alterations to the spaces (T.The number of completed new buildings and additions decreases day by day and it becomes nearly the half of the peak value in 2003. even though the property does not meet their requirements.2. Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Başkanlığı.

major renovation projects that entailed an increase in the covered area. have totally different function and plan and also were regarded as new projects.7. • additions plus alterations contained additions to the building. structural system and also the function of the building. which do not reflect on the building’s structural system or its façade. derived from Table B. during the 6 year period of 2000-2006. 46 39 Small scale 325 213 Medium scale Large scale With additions Major Renovation 102 Figure 4. 65 . Data related to the different types of renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. the types of alteration/renovation works in buildings are as follows: • small-scale alterations that concerned only changes in internal partitions. • • • medium-scale alterations consisted of alterations in plans which reflected on the façade also but not in the building’s function. (Source: Turkish Chamber of Architects in Ankara). Appendix B. facades.According to The Chamber of Architects in Ankara.5. large-scale alterations that included changes in plans.

If we compare this number with the total number of hotels in Ankara in the year 2000 (Figure 4. 18 out of 725 projects i. Meanwhile. 66 . as well as plugs suitable for both 110 & 220 V. conference call availability photocopy/printer machines. major renovation of rooms took place also because there was a need to provide extra and different facilities to the guests. which was 34 only. Frequency of and Reasons for Hotel Refurbishment Projects Renovation of guestrooms. rooms for the disabled had to be equipped with special features and fixtures.e. and to understand the necessity for such projects. whereas. disabled or left-handed guests. 4. Apart from guestrooms. while some were knocked down and the space was used to build self-contained apartments for extended stay.2. For example. the percentage of hotels renovated in the six year period is almost 53%. data-port. In view of the market demand some rooms were combined to make extra suits and some were converted into special guest rooms for non-smokers. approximately 2. to keep up with new technologies.According to data taken from Ankara Chamber of Architects. between 2000 and 2006. fax machine. Rooms for left-handed guests required replacement of all fixtures. satellite TV. major renovation works included the creation of theme restaurants and bars.5 % belong to hotels in Ankara. the electrical wiring system had to be replaced in order to provide high-speed internet connection. bathrooms and common/entertainment areas was mostly done to keep up with new fashion dictates on style and colorschemes. Informal interviews were conducted with the technical managers of hotels and the general manager of construction company of Hotel B to determine the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects. hi-tech conference and meeting rooms.3).

6.8. (Source: Ozgurel. 67 . Typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment. Figure 4.Figure 4. Typical standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment. 2001: 85). Typical standard suit of Hotel A after refurbishment. Figure 4.7.

the refurbishment decision depended on their board of directors. 4% of the annual budget of Hotel B was assigned to all types of refurbishments apart from the day-to-day maintenance. Mr Birkan. The aim was also to find out whether the guests were bored with the decor or not. According to their refurbishment program. Some of the questions were posed to determine those aspects which impressed the guests most. especially in Ankara. Unless there was a sudden change in fashion trends.1. The hotels. Appendix C. were a prestige symbol for the directors and being seen as up-to-date and luxurious was more important for them than being feasible. gave an example from Istanbul where a hotel was excluded from their international chain because of non-compliance with the agreement concerning refurbishment periods. On the other hand. The 68 . the general manager of the construction company of Hotel B. this was one of the reasons of refurbishment. Mr.Renovation works in hotels were undertaken mostly from the point of view of customer satisfaction. the guestroom floors of this hotel have to be refurbished every ten years and the general spaces must be refurbished every twelve years. According to Mr Birkan. Birkan added that besides the agreement. waste and raw materials and purchasing efficiency. The budget of the hotels was planned for one-year and five-year periods. their financial situation and prevailing fashions. their main environmental issues were energy. According to Mr. and these issues were their main concern in their refurbishment projects. The guests were asked to fill up a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction. Çalışkan who was the technical manager of Hotel A. An example of the budget is given in Table C. The franchising and management agreement for Hotel B was similar to that. This is a stipulation for all hotels belonging to this particular international chain.

Because of this. Also. Also.10. is undertaken. the materials such as carpets. while hard refurbishment was undertaken every 8 to 10 years. the wooden pelmets were disassembled and replaced with gypsum pelmets. the refurbishment of guestroom floors of Hotel A was started in 2002 and finished at the end of 2004. partition walls. Although these fittings and fixtures were in good condition. they were replaced with darker new marble cladding and fittings only because of the changing fashion trends.refurbishment activities are divided into hard and soft refurbishments. Yasav. gypsum boards. fabrics. comprising of a convention and cultural centre and above them the guestroom floors. 69 . and cladding were replaced and marble and wood surfaces are polished. as seen below in Figure 4. according to their budget. Mr. There were lightcolored marble tiles and vanity basin with matching faucet fittings in the bathroom of the guestrooms before refurbishment.9 and Figure 4. Ash veneered chip-board panels were disassembled and gypsum-board panels were used for the suspended ceiling. Çalışkan stated that. In soft refurbishment. Hotel B had an extension built in 2006. the guestroom floor refurbishment mostly depended on this extension in order not to be labeled as old. replacement of the wall and floor materials. the existing ballroom. The period of soft refurbishment was generally fixed for every 3 to 4 years. suspended ceilings. wallpaper. whole lobby and the theme-restaurants and bars were refurbished in order to have the same design theme as that of the new annex building. According to Mr. In hard refurbishment. etc. bathroom walls. curtains. who was the technical manager of Hotel B. The rooms were decorated in light colors to offer a comfortable and spacious working environment. The guestroom floors were divided into four sections. Vinyl wallpaper on walls was renewed and timber beading used as wall trimming.

Typical bathroom of a standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment. 70 . 2001: 92). (Source: Ozgurel. Figure 4.Figure 4.9. The faucet fittings and marble claddings in typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment.10.

the projects were evaluated according to six indicators. On the other hand. all the locks were changed and electronic door locks were installed.The technical managers of these hotels said that the furniture should be utilized as much as possible. The management generally has agreements with suppliers of electronic equipment and electrical parts to replace old equipment with new ones. such as discarded beds. In Hotel B. • • • Solid Waste: Recovered matter resulting from the production and delivery (packaging) process. As an output of this software. 71 .3. According to these graphs and tables. In Hotel A. Water Pollution Index: Inflows and outflows that contribute pollutants to the water. the room furniture. Data Generated By Software After entering the BOQ of guestrooms as the input to the software. the beds and room furniture were sold to their personnel by private auction. 4. The old locks were sent to be used in another 3 star hotel near the airport in Ankara. these projects could be evaluated and comparisons could be made between three case studies and the common materials that were used in all case guestrooms. These were: • Primary Energy Consumption: Absolute primary energy consumption by fuel type for each life cycle stage as well as annual operating energy. the summary tables and graphs were obtained as the output. In this refurbishment. was donated to Çocuk Esirgeme Kurumu (child protection agency) and Huzurevi (old people’s home). the faucet fittings and marble claddings could not be utilized so they were either scrapped or auctioned. Air Pollution Index: Inflows and outflows that contribute pollutants to the air.

Screed 1/2" Fire-Rated TypeX Suspended Unit m3 m2 HOTEL A 1576.8815 619.30 9565. gypsum spackling Oriented Strand Board Vinyl Solvent based paint tones l m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 l Firstly.1: BOQ of guestroom floors of three hotels included common materials in all cases and used in the software.3 1240. construction. the hotel guestroom refurbishment projects.30 1193.1080 424. The output was divided into 4 stages: manufacturing. after these stages the total embodied of this project was given by adding of all impacts of these four stages.6 6765 9.999 247. during the processing or manufacturing of the product.1.48 76199.3395 91. operations and maintenance. Material Levelling Concrete .5629 1719. Table 4. • Weighted Resource Use: The quantities of raw materials or intermediary products consumed.608 3051. so this stage was ignored. including water.3006 639.488 13.024 HOTEL B HOTEL C 27.425 525 42369.305 15. which include the materials seen above in Table 4.8735 7. because the materials database of the software did not include the knowledge about this stage. The operations and maintenance stage has the value zero for all indicators. In summary tables.3765 2186. and end of life.8825 228.6 51 5/8" Fire-Rated TypeX Gypsum Board m2 Wallpaper Tape Water Based Latex Paint Hardwood Skirting (Modular) Brick Wall Plaster.8 1155 1048. The 72 .7357 4854.37 586.• Global Warming Potential: How much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming over a specific time interval. were evaluated with the software.

And as a total life cycle impact was given by adding of the impacts of all stages seen in Table 4. The raw data of these consumptions were seen in Table B. in Table 4. Table 4. Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Manufacturing Material: Transportation: Total: Construction Material: Transportation: Total: End-Of-Life Material: Transportation: Total: Total Embodied Material: Transportation: Total: Operating Energy Annual Operating Energy: Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 3895168 177714 4072882 0 388409 388409 183 300512 300695 3895351 866635 4761986 Solid Waste (Kg) 125957 2 125959 0 4 4 0 3 3 125957 9 125966 Air Pollution Index 65263 57 65320 0 125 125 4 96 100 65267 278 65545 Global Warming Water Pollution Potential (kg) Index 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 379395 321 379716 0 699 699 13 541 554 379408 1561 380969 Weighted Resource Use (kg) 5395879 4396 5400275 0 8814 8814 4 6819 6823 5395883 20029 5415912 75708212 2801203827 2805965813 350905 12983498 13109464 1189069 43995544 44061089 54 2004 2006 3145474 116382542 116763511 9271680 343052159 348468071 73 .3 for Hotel B and in Table 4.4 for Hotel C.2: Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel A obtained from ATHENA software.2 for Hotel A.impacts of the operating energy of the projects was calculated according to the electricity and natural gas consumption of them in output tables as the last raw.10.

4: Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel C obtained from ATHENA software. Annual Op. En. Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Manufacturing Material: Transportation: Total: Construction Material: Transportation: Total: End-Of-Life Material: Transportation: Total: Total Embodied Material: Transportation: Total: Operating Ener.: Total Life Cycle: 4261159 136604 4397763 0 290922 290922 144 197653 197797 4261303 625179 4886482 Water Solid Waste Air Pollution Pollution (Kg) Index Index 125912 1 125913 0 3 3 0 2 2 125912 6 125918 68626 44 68670 0 93 93 3 63 66 68629 200 68829 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 25 917 Global Warming Potential (kg) 338714 246 338960 0 524 524 11 356 367 338725 1126 339851 Weighted Resource Use (kg) 4072072 3371 4075443 0 6601 6601 3 4485 4488 4072075 14457 4086532 41034340 199619 611292 1518270563 7385911 22617808 1523157045 7511829 22686637 920 1668179 5411003 61722607 200207100 62062458 204293632 74 .3: Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel B obtained from ATHENA software.Table 4. Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Manufacturing Material: Transportation: Total: Construction Material: Transportation: Total: End-Of-Life Material: Transportation: Total: Total Embodied Material: Transportation: Total: Operating Ener. Annual Op. En.: Total Life Cycle: 645033 8421 653454 0 13956 13956 3 4489 4492 645036 26866 671902 48463215 1793138937 1793810839 Global Warming Potential (kg) 28331 15 28346 0 25 25 0 8 8 28331 48 28379 1937695 71694723 71723102 Solid Waste (Kg) 13773 0 13773 0 0 0 0 0 0 13773 0 13773 244106 9031928 9045701 Air Pollution Index 10110 3 10113 0 4 4 0 1 1 10110 8 10118 692567 25624988 25635106 Water Pollution Index 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 27 982 983 Weighted Resource Use (kg) 150122 197 150319 0 317 317 102 102 150122 616 150738 6732178 249090594 249241332 Table 4.: Total Op. En. En.: Total Op.

The comparisons of three hotels according to the absolute values of six indicators in total stages -excluded operating energy.13. 6000000 5000000 4000000 4761986 4886482 5415912 4086532 Hotel A 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 671902 150738 Hotel B Hotel C Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (KG) Figure 4.5 2 1.5 3 2. this stage should be ignored.were shown in Figure 4.11.12. The impacts of three hotels according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use.11.5 0 3 2 1 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C Water Pollution Index Figure 4. and Figure 4. This was not changed due to the magnitude of the project. 3. The impacts of three hotels according to water pollution index 75 . So if only the impacts of the refurbishment and the materials used in the refurbishments were wanted to analyze. The operating energy stages were ignored while discussing the results in graphs because the impacts of these stages were calculated according to only the area of the hotels.12. Figure 4.5 1 0.

13. were made according to base project.873 31.5: The comparisons of cases according to six indicators per m2. per m2.758 4813. On the next step.946 24..379 5116.137 55.312 4402.118 302. air pollution index and global warming potential.223 0524.5. the last analyses shown as comparisons of all indicators -excluded the operating energy stage.921 4927.215 21.374 4138. In Table 4.308 4195.450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 13773 125966 125918 65545 68829 28379 10118 380969 339851 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C Solid Waste (KG) Air Pollution Index Global Warming Potential (KG) Figure 4.233 HOTEL A HOTEL B HOTEL C 76 . so its total impacts were lower than the other projects. INDICATORS Primary Energy Consumption 2 (Gigajoules / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Operating Energy Total Sub-Total 258. Hotel B was chosen as base project because in this hotel it was seen that this refurbishment included only the soft renovation.694 19.799 1.in %.682 471. Table 4. the comparisons between three hotels were made according to the six categories of impacts.192 000.384 57. The impacts of three hotels according to solid waste.

755976 0.845045 1148.288688 0.039328 36.510261 0.000000 0.369968 0.884479 12.007160 7.000007 0.510754 21.423311 165.708328 0.513203 2675.000000 100.287689 2.592147 1019.070751 77 .000140 0.418830 34.008600 22.963892 0.000004 1.007925 0.333023 589.000000 100.983044 224.926927 482.kg) Manufacturing Construction Operations and Maintenance End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total 2 Weighted Resource Use (kg /m ) Manufacturing Construction Operations and Maintenance End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total Comparisons of all (%) Primary Energy Consumption Solid Waste Air Pollution Index Water Pollution Index Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource use 527.000000 913.314811 258.808161 2.5: (continued) INDICATORS 2 Solid Waste (kg / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total 2 Air Pollution (Index / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total 2 Water Pollution (Index / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total Global Warming Potential (CO2 .000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.844397 22.027042 0.444364 3.176132 20.010018 0.744691 854.465507 178.780408 3406.598647 79.135037 3.458466 437.138808 60.992959 215.008188 0.000203 13.929584 7.006398 4.240292 999.481588 438.000002 0.000000 0.000182 8.000000 0.000177 0.478604 580.560352 0.433806 344.000129 0.157329 75.052291 2.000710 2.000000 100.863496 0.318757 HOTEL C 13.863600 59.835846 0.659070 2.318470 4.373201 65.152916 0.008704 12.287388 0.176117 0.590691 72.044467 0.000000 100.020529 0.420455 0.000230 0.461168 167.368108 0.000290 0.134786 0.000124 0.475138 933.266466 2.946759 24.002146 0.737060 36.221312 199.166052 1504.056210 0.002408 0.000111 0.871592 574.139325 100.000000 100.560831 HOTEL A 8.309870 30.770565 550.000382 0.141584 0.035261 24.Table 4.688832 680.052282 0.000011 0.338865 0.579401 HOTEL B 1.204356 343.865468 587.

864 13.466 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C GWP (C02-kg / m2) Figure 4.423 24.511 7.479 344.14.312 438.374 524. 78 .872 Primary Energy Consumption (MJ / m2) Weighted Resource Use (kg / m2) Figure 4. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to solid waste.25 0.35 0.373 2.10 0. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use.15.176 0.157 1. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to WPI.221 36.30 0. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Solid Waste (kg / m2) API (Index / m2) 8.009 4.052 0.15 0.05 0.600 500 400 302.00 Water Pollution (Index /m2) 0. air pollution index and global warming potential. 0.758 300 200 100 0 57.20 0.135 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C 0.333 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C 12.16.288 Figure 4.

157331 .232 . at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0.HOTEL_C Mean -.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A . (2-tailed) . (2-tailed) value for 79 .847 -2. Three pairs from three hotels were formed. The paired-sample t-test was used to analyze.073985401 . the statistical analysis of the seven materials in three hotels was made in order to find if there is any difference between the impacts of them per m2 in three cases.067684 -.037155 -.6. While comparing these materials.329 -1.05) in regard to the primary energy consumption. If the refurbishment type changes from soft to hard.4.096931049 .105580 .03127008 -. Deviation . This was the result of the volume of the refurbishment project. Because of this.039774216 Std. the mean values of the impacts of them in three cases were decided to use. Hotel B had the minimum impacts for every indicator and Hotel A was the second.02196184 -. the impacts will increase.030529 Std.031 df 6 6 6 Sig.114 . 4.067314 .HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .6: Paired-sample t-test results – primary energy consumption Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -.089 According to Table 4.According to the figures above. These seven materials wanted to analyze according to six indicators in three hotels as a third step. H01: There is no difference in primary energy consumption between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. the sig.00625559 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B . Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1. Hypotheses Tested In these refurbishment projects seven common materials were used. Table 4.

HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .05.413924681 Std. (2-tailed) .05. for pair2 0. All these values were above 0.114).232 (p=0.7: Paired-sample t-test results – solid waste Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -3. Deviation 2. H03: There is no difference in air pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.185 (p=0.185 .826876 Std.547 df 6 6 6 Sig. so the null hypothesis was accepted and it can be said that there was no difference between three hotels in case of primary energy consumption according to seven materials.7 in the significance interval of 95 % (α=0. Table 4.499 -1. Therefore.114 (p=0.13454 .297 (p=0.48078652 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .85796 -.089).173 The sig.178444 -4.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .389082382 3.297 .279146649 1. and for pair3 0.pair1 was 0.185).HOTEL_C Mean -1. for pair2 0.174741 -2.297). The null hypothesis was accepted because all significance values were above 0.89067 1. 80 .173) in Table 4.232).142 -1. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0. there was no significant difference between three hotels in case of solid waste according to the impacts seven materials per m2.089 (p=0.173 (p=0. This was because of the materials were made the same impact per m2 for three hotels.05) in regard to the solid waste. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.24062 1.03109 -1. H02: There is no difference in solid waste between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. and for pair3 0.

164 -1.681 -1.9: Paired-sample t-test Results – Water Pollution Index Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .059531 .HOTEL_C Mean -. Table 4. All these values were above 0.02021871 -.098 According to Table 4.098).HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .461361 Std. Like the other four indicators. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0.289 .132). at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0.019656 -.54800 .744 -1.273 (p=0.132 (p=0.01096215 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B . so H04 was accepted.511524733 .688 df 6 6 6 Sig. H03 was accepted at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0. and for pair3 0.142).01776136 -. (2-tailed) . Deviation . 81 .959 df 6 6 6 Sig.43762637 -1. hence H03 was accepted. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0.9.55012083 -2.144 (p=0.8. the impacts of the material per m2 had no significant difference between three hotels.043115288 . All these values were above 0.273).289). H04: There is no difference in water pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.498940 -.273 .134308817 1.144).142 (p=0.05.03756 .HOTEL_C Mean -.044033 -.066815859 .05.132 . Deviation 1.098 (p=0.05) in regard to the solid waste.105827 .142 According to Table 4. The sig. and for pair3 0. (2-tailed) .059716 .623025806 Std. for pair2 0.35823 .289 (p=0. for pair2 0.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A . Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.960301 -.8: Paired-sample t-test results – air pollution index Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -1.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B . the sig.05).024377 Std. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.11484177 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .206 -1.Table 4.038210547 Std.144 .

(2-tailed) .443760617 Std. Deviation 100.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .79742 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B . for pair2 0.235 . (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0. (2-tailed) .331 -1.8220 4.5132 4.262 df 6 6 6 Sig.329).HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .72037 Std.10: Paired-sample t-test results – global warming potential Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -10.82913 -181.9534837 28.158476274 10.254 According to Table 4. Table 4.246 (p=0.246 .98048 .063 -1.329 (p=0. and for pair3 0.05) in regard to the solid waste.6232 Std.05.112 The sig.53972762 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B . Deviation 8.6438329 126.285 -1. Table 4. The sig.99701 -1.567566060 Std.2509 -63. H05 was accepted because all significance values were above 0.863 df 6 6 6 Sig.53832 -40.231 .289448418 2.112 (p=0.11: Paired-sample t-test results – weighted resource use Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -143.0438 12.321 -1. H06 was accepted at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.286 53.329 .11.519139 -3.HOTEL_C Mean -3.HOTEL_C Mean -50.10 in the significance interval of 95 % (α=0.268692 -14.235 82 . (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0. H06: There is no difference in weighted resource use between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.05).HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .27664 -4.246). Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.331 42.112) in Table 4.8741 -13.H05: There is no difference in global warming potential between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.

1.235). The mean values of the impacts of the materials in three case projects were derived from Table 4. Table 4.12: The impacts of seven materials according to six indicators in three hotels.5.13. for pair2 0. From that list.254).231 (p=0. the mean values of the impacts of materials in three hotels could be gotten as derived data from software.(p=0.4. This statistical analysis was made because of while comparing the materials with each other. there was no significant difference between the impacts of materials per m2 used in three cases.05.12 for every indicator and listed in Table 4. MATERIALS Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (KG) Solid Waste (KG) API WPI GWP (KG) Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water-Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Levelling Concrete 3244607 647917 402919 50739 21128 246331 433034 56178 161316 454541 18889 102758 22922 6210 53 89 1263 4 1779 5827 7005 20 48898 10324 6223 497 199 3304 139 846 2569 7020 185 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350177 24763 14914 944 610 8933 781 6064 6167 16824 351 4332806 106365 41270 3343 12495 26757 1223392 75019 26718 46559 1245 Hotel A Hotel B Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint 83 . the material list of three projects was given. the seven common materials that were used in all projects were gotten as data for this section.231). and for pair3 0. Analysis of Materials According to Six LCA Indicators In Table 4. the results of paired-sample t-test showed that there was no significance difference between the six impact categories of used materials per square meter in cases. Consequently.254 (p=0. According to Section 4. 4. All these values were above 0.

12: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (KG MATERIALS Hardwood Brick Plaster Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Solid Waste (KG) API WPI GWP (KG) 12326 7913 519 52 41 0 116 106 0 0 0 0 356 286 0 7289 860 1466 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Hotel B Hotel C 2456770 1346202 278551 64531 29162 566018 240785 77807 47733 4293 68 122 2903 2 37024 21449 4302 632 276 7591 78 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 265150 51450 10310 1200 843 20526 434 3280739 221207 28532 4252 17244 61484 680257 Table 4. MATERIALS Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) 1919185 718478 378670 44720 20872 273421 224779 Solid Waste (KG) 60781 25494 5836 47 88 1402 2 API 28923 11447 5848 438 197 3667 72 WPI 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 GWP (KG) 207130 27460 14016 832 603 9915 405 Weighted Resource Use (KG) 2562855 118097 38787 2947 12343 29700 635038 84 .13: The mean values of impacts of materials according to six indicators.Table 4.

occurred especially during the manufacturing stage. the consumption of wallpaper was almost nearly the half of gypsum board. 85 .17.17. While the energy consumption of gypsum board was nearly the half of leveling concrete. Comparison of seven materials according to the primary energy consumption.2500000 1919185 2000000 1500000 MJ 1000000 718478 Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) 500000 378670 273421 44720 20872 224779 0 Levelling Gypsum Wallpaper Concrete Board Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Figure 4. According to Figure 4. so it should be chosen in order to decrease energy consumption. levelling concrete created more primary energy consumption than the others.3 was analyzed. Hardwood had the minimum value among the others. When Table C. the total stage primary energy consumption of the other materials was less than the consumption of leveling concrete in the manufacturing stage. This consumption mostly depended on the cement manufacture. Therefore alternative energy sources and processes should be found during manufacturing cement.

18.18.35 ton/person. In this example if the number of population was gotten as 500 according to the number of guestrooms. The leveling concrete had the most solid waste like the first indicator but the last one was plaster not hardwood.12152 ton/person which was reasonably high. only the amount of the solid waste of leveling concrete was 0. Comparison of seven materials according to the solid waste. According to Figure 4. The limit value for solid waste was generally measured in ton/person and this limit was 1. In order to decrease the amount of solid waste. 86 .70000 60781 60000 50000 40000 KG 30000 20000 10000 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Wallpaper Board Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster 25494 Solid Waste (KG) 5836 47 88 1402 2 Figure 4. levelling concrete also created more solid waste than the others. This indicator was nearly arranged in order like the primary energy consumption. the recycling and reuse strategies should be applied to the refurbishment projects.

The filtering measurements during manufacturing were more important to decrease air pollution. The graph showed to us.2. According to the formula given in section 3. The first four ranks were nearly the same for all indicators.2.2. Comparison of seven materials according to the air pollution index. all materials were in safety side. the plaster had the least effect. The places of the last three ones were changed indicator by indicator.14. the limit values stated in section 3. the total emission of all these materials should be thought in any project because they were not 87 . the API values of seven materials were calculated and the results were given in Table 4. the leveling concrete emitted maximum pollution or human health effects of groups of substances at various life cycle stages.19. According to these results.2. therefore the daily activities were not affected with that much emission. except the resource use.35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 11447 Air Pollution Index 28923 10000 5848 5000 438 197 Hardwood 3667 72 Brick Plaster 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Figure 4. The manufacturing stage was also the most important stage in this indicator. At that point. For air pollution.

Hotel A Total .7 13 0.3 106 35 107 MATERIALS Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Total .Hotel B Total .used by one by.000 Plaster Figure 4.000 Water Based Paint 0. Total emission of Hotel A had 106 API values which were categorized as slightly polluted and also Hotel C was in the same category with Hotel A.000 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper 0.000 Brick 0. Table 4.14: Calculated air pollution index value API obtained from software 28923 11447 5848 438 197 3667 72 65545 10118 68829 API value calculated by the given formula 75 40 20 2 0.667 Water Pollution Index 0.000 Hardwood 0. 88 .Hotel C 2 1.000 1 0.20: Comparison of seven materials according to the water pollution index.

only the absolute values of summaries were given such as the amount of each type of emissions to water listed in section 2.2. the levelling concrete had maximum global warming potential impact. phenols. The graph showed to us. However. In Section 3. the amount of emission of chlorides.3. only levelling concrete and gypsum board created emissions to water. The ATHENA Institute did not give any limit conditions about the indicators.1 and this was depended on the different data presentation formats encountered in the inventories.2. 250000 207130 200000 150000 KG Global Warming Potential (KG) 100000 50000 27460 14016 832 603 Hardwood 9915 Brick 405 Plaster 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Figure 4.21: Comparison of seven materials according to the global warming potential.20. The leveling concrete had the maximum emissions. specific benchmarks for water pollution due to EPA were given. this categorization could not be correlated with the software absolute results. the manufacturing stage was the 89 . Additionally. This type of correlation problems were also stated in section 2.According to Figure 4.3.2.

22. The levelling concrete was also in the first rank for this indicator. the impacts of concrete. 90 . This indicator becomes very important especially in these days when the main environmental problem is the global warming and its effects. Plaster was the best choice among these materials listed above for global warming potential. 3000000 2562855 2500000 2000000 KG 1500000 1000000 635038 Weighted Resource Use (KG) 500000 118097 38787 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Wallpaper Board 2947 Water Based Paint 12343 Hardwood 29700 Brick Plaster Figure 4. cement should be thought in details and unnecessary use of this material should be taken care in order not to deplete natural resources.22: Comparison of seven materials according to the weighted resource use.stage which was the reason of that much amount of the greenhouse gas emissions. however it caused more weighted resource use seen in Figure 4. So while designing. And the results showed us levelling concrete had 4 times more impacts than the plaster in the second rank. and nearly 21 times more than gypsum board in the third rank.

CHAPTER 5 5. At the end of this study further investigations are proposed and recommendations have been made for establishing a database. Hotel Refurbishment Projects Increasing awareness of the scarcity of conventional energy sources mandates the need to take measures for energy conservation in buildings. and this influence is often negative. The operational stage of a hotel life-cycle is substantial. Moreover. both from an economic and environmental perspective. they interact with the environment at every stage of their life cycle. the ever-growing global environmental concerns are dictating the adoption of a “green” policy. They are designed to provide multi-facetted comfort and services to guests. even in the hospitality sector.1. which require the consumption of substantial quantities of energy. Hotels rank highest amongst building types according to the levels of energy consumption. water and non-durable products.CONCLUSION After generating LCA data for the three refurbishment projects with the help of the software the results were interpreted. The refurbishment materials were compared with each other according to the six LCA impact indicators and a matrix was formed to enable designers to choose the suitable material in order to reduce damage to the natural environment. especially since this stage also 91 . 5.

water pollution. In order to determine life-spans correctly. so as to quantify it. air pollution. either directly from on-site heat and power generation. the amounts of primary energy consumption. it is necessary to take into account the current deterioration state of the element. which is mostly carried out as a result of the decision to give updated service to customers.includes refurbishment works. Within the scope of this study. and ozone depleting substances from refrigeration and air conditioning installations). or indirectly by the use of electricity and heat/cold produced at power plants. The remaining life span of building elements is an important piece of information for financially and ecologically coherent refurbishment decisions. in hotel buildings the service life span of materials is usually ignored because of the strategies of refurbishment. refurbishment involves the generation of large quantities of waste. the refurbishment stage is an excellent opportunity in making the facility more environmentally friendly by introducing many energy and water efficiency measures. These data show the damage to 92 . which were produced by three hotel refurbishment projects. hotels generate large quantities of waste. More environmentally benign construction materials and furnishings can be used during refurbishments. or even changing to renewable energy sources. As a result of these works. and poses a risk involving the discharge of various air pollutants (including lead and volatile organic compounds from paints. as well as landfills. They are also responsible for the release of various air pollutants. solid waste. global warming and weighted resource use indices were calculated. It is also necessary to define a yardstick to measure deterioration. As mentioned earlier. However. thereby contributing to the deterioration of local air quality. acid rain and global warming. thus increasing pressure on waste disposal systems. However.

fabrics. generally fixed for every 3 to 4 years. wallpaper.nature caused by these projects. was shorter than hard refurbishment undertaken every 8 to 10 years. etc. The results of Hotel B for the six indicators were less than the others but the period of soft refurbishment. These results mostly depend on the magnitude of the refurbishment project. are given every 3 to 4 years. it can be said that the decision for and design of refurbishment should be considered more carefully because the impacts of Hotel B refurbishment. gypsum boards. which is considerably high. suspended ceilings. the 93 . the minimum impacts belong to Hotel B refurbishment works. according to six indicators. On the other hand. bathroom walls. as stated in Section 4. For primary energy consumption it is nearly one fifth of Hotel A and one ninth of Hotel C. For solid waste. the rates were one sixth of Hotel A and one eleventh of Hotel C. Hotel A refurbishment produced ten times more CO2 emission than Hotel B and Hotel C produced fifteen times more than Hotel B. The air pollution produced by Hotel B refurbishment works was one fifth of Hotel A and one eighth of Hotel C. which included replacement of wall and floor materials. Consequently.3. The difference between the volumes of the projects can also change the amount of damage. curtains. refurbishments made in Hotel A and C can be defined as hard refurbishments. cladding and fittings etc. Although such a refurbishment decision adds considerably to the financial burden of the hotel in addition to its negative environmental impacts. partition walls. For water pollution the rate is slightly less: one third of Hotel A and one sixth of Hotel C. The project applied to Hotel B can be considered as soft refurbishment which includes only the replacing of carpets. According to the comparison tables and charts presented in the previous chapter. depending on their budget.

Some objectives for environmentally sustainable design can be achieved by taking into consideration the six LCA indicators which are: reducing energy consumption and embodied energy by specifying products made with local materials and labor. 5. combines with droplets of water in the air it can 94 . Reuse represents the best and highest level of resource efficiency for the buildings. Designers can specify materials made from waste in preference to virgin materials. let alone before the end of its expected lifetime.2. in addition to decreasing the transportation costs. Consequently. so that negative impacts of solid waste and weighted resource use can be reduced. and reducing clean water use in buildings. preferring non-renewable energy sources should be the only choice in order to prevent scarcity of raw materials. The increasing complexity of materials and products has made recycling more difficult in many cases so more efficient technologies for separating materials have to be developed.managements of these hotels pointed out that renovations are on-going in the system in order to maintain excellence in appearance and accommodation. reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution which directly affects global warming potential. recycling is another strategy which considers not only the sources but also by-products and waste disposal. Choice of Materials for Refurbishment Projects The choice of materials and components has an important role in determining energy performance. which is accounted for in the air pollution index indicator. When a pollutant such as sulfuric acid. Moreover. If reusing is not possible. reducing construction waste production. reducing use of excessive amount of materials. material is sometimes dumped as waste even before it has started to deteriorate due to wear and tear.

95 . Based on the findings of this study some precautions have been recommended for their mitigation. fish. It damages plants by destroying their leaves. it poisons the soil. Water pollution due to human activities causes adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes. This build-up acts like a blanket and traps heat close to the surface of the earth. affect the ozone layer which protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Damage due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals. thus causing global warming. Organic wastes such as sewage impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. causing holes. oceans. The negative environmental impacts of the six LCA indicators for building construction works are presented in Table 5. to open up in this layer and allowing the radiation to reach the earth. Chemicals released by activities. and other wildlife. rivers. and groundwater. one of greenhouse gases.1 below. This ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has damaging effects on plants and wildlife. cooling systems and refrigerator equipment removes some of the ozone. from aerosol cans. Increase of even a few degrees in temperature will affect the eco-balance through changes in the climate and the possibility of polar ice caps melting.cause acid rain which has serious environmental implications. Release of chlorofluorocarbon. such as construction and renovation works. these precautions are listed for each impact separately in the last row. and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams.

Table 5.1: Precautions versus impacts of LCA indicators 96 .

The largest amount of impact of any material for each indicator was denoted as the maximum eco-score of 7 and the least amount was denoted as 1. primary energy consumption. which were common to all the three projects were analyzed. leveling concrete. there were other common materials. emissions to air and water) with the LCA software ATHENA. textile backed wallpaper. they could not be analyzed because the database of the software does not include information on these materials. water pollution index. which had no known impact.In Section 4. Hence. namely. hardwood. the total eco-score for any 97 . gypsum board. 0 was assigned to a material. Hence. materials and process selection databases of the CES V4 software. The evaluation was done by assigning ecological scores to each material. the selected materials were evaluated on the basis of the seven LCA indicators. such as: wall and floor ceramic tiles.13) were used to calculate the related eco-scores. it does not include information that is required to evaluate the material (such as the impacts of indicators according to life cycle stages. by calculating their “Ecoscores”. water based paint. which is used in Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering in METU.5. global warming potential and weighted resource use. ranging from 1 to 7 where 1 indicates the least damaging and 7 the most. marble claddings and carpet. the intermediary range was divided into 5 equal grades. brick and plaster. the analyses comprised of only the seven materials mentioned above. Although. were consulted. air pollution index. Mean values for each environmental impact indicator for the material (listed in Table 4. solid waste. LCA of the seven materials. As shown in the proposed matrix below. While information about C02 emission and the amount of embodied energy could be taken from this database. For this reason. The author formulated a system to evaluate building materials according to the six LCA environmental impact indicators.

1. wallpaper fifth and gypsum is ranked sixth. in order reduce the damage to the ecosystem. is the least damaging material. brick fourth. In other words. materials with lesser scores will indicate least LCA impact and will be more desirable for the project. As indicated in Table 5. especially in refurbishment projects. which is 10 for hardwood.2: Proposed matrix for calculating “Eco-scores” for building materials according to the six LCA environmental impact indicators. plaster third. Cement in leveling concrete consumes more energy and raw materials in 98 .material was obtained by adding all the individual indicator scores. while the minimum score. which in turn helped to determine its environmental appropriateness. the maximum score. Paint is ranked second.2. Table 5. means it is the most damaging material in these refurbishment works. which is forty-two for levelling concrete. use of levelling concrete should be minimized in refurbishment projects. MATERIALS Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Primary Energy Consumption Solid Waste Air Pollution Index Water Pollution Index Global Warming Potential Weighted Ecological Resource Scores Use 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 7 6 5 2 3 4 1 7 6 5 3 2 4 1 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 5 3 2 4 1 7 5 4 1 2 3 6 42 35 24 11 10 19 12 7 points = Most damaging 1 point = Least damaging 0 point = No damaging According to Table 5.

Additionally. which are replaced in bulk just after a few years. called pozzolana. However. the recycling. Mineral admixtures. From these examples it can be seen that sometimes good quality and durable materials are replaced with those of poorer quality and strength. dangers of deforestation should not be ignored and regeneration of eco-balance can be assured through re-plantation in forests. 99 . or fly ash. anchors and glues. Even the wooden pelmets were replaced with gypsum ones. blast-furnace slag. Industrial by-products produce the most readily available pozzolana. it would be prudent to use replaceable material and components with de-mountable joints. As mentioned earlier. For these two materials.the manufacturing phase due to high temperature in the kiln where it is produced. which also have worse impacts on nature. gypsum and concrete. ground blast furnace slag and silica fume. The kilns must be strictly controlled not to cause smoke emissions and atmospheric pollution. are finely ground mineral substances to form compounds with cement-like properties. including aluminum ore refuse. Since the hotel maintenance and renovation guideline dictate a shorter useful life than their expected life. reducing and reusing strategies are most significant.e. i. Hotel A had 4500 square meters of wooden suspended ceiling replaced by gypsum board false ceilings. Hardwood has the minimum ecological score so wood should be preferred while refurbishing. these materials and components. Usage of gypsum board should also be reconsidered and alternatives should be evaluated carefully. are incorporated into the structure with permanent joints. which are not as durable as wood. Use of these materials increases the strength of concrete while reducing the amount of cement required and recycling industrial waste. including fly ash. The cement industry should use industrial by-products as raw materials to mitigate its environmental impact.

While assessing the hotels and materials in this study. The limit conditions for all indicators and air and water pollution index tables correlated with the software generated results can be prepared in order to make the assessment according to the local index values. such as wall mounted headboards or night stands. 5. and rugs were used instead of wall to wall carpeting. assessments are made on a comparative basis. in order to assess whole buildings. the limit values for the impact indicators could not be found. therefore. Moreover. international standards were used instead. which attracts dust and stains easily. which is limiting to the assessment process. Further Investigations LCA methodologies used so far have been developed for individual products only. 100 . whereas ATHENA is a software that has been developed specifically for evaluating whole buildings. It would also be more economical and healthy if floors were covered with wooden parquet or marble tiles depending on the climatic region. It is therefore essential to add information regarding more types of materials with varied specifications.3. On the other hand this software does not include database for all types of material. Ecological scores similar to the ones formulated by the author and proposed in this dissertation can be determined and tabulated for other materials also. These rugs can be washed or replaced at considerably lesser costs. since benchmarking is not available. it is advisable not to use fixed furniture or parts thereof.Since furniture is changed after every 8 to 10 years.

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1: Comparison of 5 LCA tools according to different topics. 2003: 933-936).APPENDIX A Table A. 110 . (Source: Erlandsson & Borg.

1: (continued) 111 .Table A.

Table A.1: (continued) 112 .

Table A.1: (continued)

113

Table A. 2: ATHENA Products. (Source: http://www.athenasmi.ca/database/, last access 19.05.2007).

Structural Products

Wood Products 16 products available in various length, thickness, and load carrying designations. Some available in a number of combinations for both Canada and the United States. Data initially developed in 1993; softwood lumber database updated in 1999. US data developed between 2000 and 2002. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Softwood Lumber (Green & KD) Plywood Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Glulam Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Parallel Strand Lumber PSL Wood I - Joists Lumber or LVL flange Plywood or OSB web Light Frame Trusses Pitched Roof Parallel Chord Truss Composite wood/steel trusses Lumber flange(s) and steel tubing web

Steel Products 17 products available in various length, thickness (ga.), and load carrying designations produced in virgin (integrated), electric-arc (mini-mill) and in combination integrated and mini-mills. Data initially developed in the period 1992-1995. Data updated 2002 for both Canada and the United States. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Galvanized C-studs and tracks Galvanized C-joists Wire Mesh Ladder Wire Fasteners screws nails nuts and bolts Open Web Joists Rebar and Rod Light sections Hollow Structural Steel Tubing and bracing Hot rolled sheet

114

Table A.2: (continued)

Concrete Structural Products 8 products in various mixes, sizes and structural strength designations. Data first developed in 1993 / 94, updated in 1999. • • • • • • 20 MPa ready-mixed with industry average, 25% and 35% fly ash concentrations 30 MPa ready-mixed with industry average, 25% and 35% fly ash concentrations 60 MPa ready-mixed Precast double T beams Precast hollow deck Concrete block Mortar

Envelope Products

Cladding Products 14 products in various sizes, species (wood), types and firing regimes (e.g., brick products), gauges as well as mortar and stucco products. Data developed between 1995 and 1998. • Wood bevel siding Wood tongue and groove siding • Wood shiplap siding • Sheet steel cladding • Common brick • Modular brick • Face brick • Glazed face brick • Fire brick • Thin veneer brick • Concrete brick • Silicate (sand lime) brick • Vinyl siding

Gypsum Wallboard and Finishing Materials 10 products available in various thicknesses and sizes. Data developed in 1996. • Regular paper faced gypsum board • Type X (fire resistant) gypsum board • Moisture resistant gypsum board • Mobile-home gypsum board • Gypsum fiberboard • Shaft liner board • Drying type ready-mixed joint compound • Setting type dry joint compound • Paper joint tape

115

expanded and updated in 1999.various weights and shapes • Concrete tiles .2: (continued) Insulation and Vapor Barriers 7 products in various densities and thicknesses (R-values). Double Glazed Systems • Standard • Tin-coated glass • Tin coated glass. expanded and updated in 1999. • Rockwool(mineral) batt • Fiberglass Batt • Cellulose • Polystyrene Rigid • expanded (XPS) • extruded (EPS) • Polisocyanurate foam board • Polyethylene vapor barrier Residential Roofing • • #15 and #30 building paper (felt) Organic (paper) and fiberglass based asphalt shingles of various durability weights • Clay tiles . • Latex acrylic (water-based) • Oil alkyd (solvent-based) • Oil alkyd varnish (solvent-based) 116 . First developed in 1998 and verified. argon filled Window Frame Materials • Wood • PVC • PVC clad wood • Aluminum Paint Finishes • 3 paint types developed in 1998. argon filled Silver-coated glass. Data first developed in 1998 and verified.various weights and shapes Commercial Roofing Type III & IV fiberglass underlayment felt metal roofing Asphalt Built-up roofing Modified Bitumen (2-ply) roofing EPDM & PVC single-ply roofing membranes • • • • Windows & Glazed Curtain Wall 4 double pane sealed glazing unit types using 4 different frame materials in various combinations and dimensions plus a curtain wall application with viewable and opaque glazing as well as spandrel panel.Table A.

APPENDIX B Table B. 1: Coted New Buildings and Additions by Use 117 .

118 .

2: Buildings Modified for A Different Use after Alterations and Repairs By year and Use of Building.Table B. 119 .

120 .

121 .

Type of Establishment Total Number of Years Establishments Qualified Number of Establishments Unqualified Number of Establishments 2003 2002 2001 HOTEL 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 MOTEL 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 BOARDING HOUSE 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 HOLIDAY VILLAGE 2000 1997 1992 1987 4 917 4 964 4 446 4 523 4 632 4 279 3 363 542 556 755 788 804 750 397 2 037 2 109 2 284 2 330 2 353 2 304 1 689 26 28 17 21 18 13 8 3 527 3 598 3 494 3 498 3 297 2 248 930 447 457 653 679 669 595 267 1 139 1 191 1 688 1 689 1 633 1 045 354 25 27 17 21 18 13 8 1 390 1 366 952 1 025 1 335 2 031 2 433 95 99 102 109 135 155 130 898 918 596 641 720 1 259 1 335 1 1 - 122 . 3: Number of qualified and unqualified municipality establishments and rooms in Turkey by types and years.Table B. (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism).

Table B.3: (continued) Total Number of Establishments 79 75 118 129 126 84 73 36 40 41 41 42 14 6 7 637 7 772 7 661 7 832 7 975 7 444 5 536 Qualified Number of Establishments 60 56 93 98 87 50 38 31 35 36 35 30 12 2 5 229 5 364 5 981 6 020 5 734 3 963 1 599 Unqualified Number of Establishments 19 19 25 31 39 34 35 5 5 5 6 12 2 4 2 408 2 408 1 680 1 812 2 241 3 481 3 937 Type of Establishment Years 2003 2002 2001 CAMPING 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 THERMAL RESORT 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 TOTAL 2000 1997 1992 1987 123 .

124 . 4: Number of Municipality Licensed Accommodation Establishments in Ankara.Table B.

MARAŞ 24 KOCAELĐ 25 SĐVAS 26 TEKĐRDAĞ 27 YALOVA 28 ISPARTA 29 SAKARYA 30 HATAY 31 ORDU 32 KAYSERĐ 33 ERZĐNCAN 34 KASTAMONU 35 ARDAHAN 36 TOKAT 37 KARABÜK 38 AMASYA 39 DÜZCE 40 125 . (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism). Qualified Number of Establishments 652 577 294 376 141 103 71 65 57 48 28 36 30 49 45 47 29 28 18 37 31 24 37 27 13 17 28 18 25 13 25 15 18 16 15 20 15 20 16 14 Unqualified Number of Establishments 287 58 113 22 90 27 47 50 52 41 41 30 36 4 8 5 22 20 28 9 14 17 4 12 25 18 7 17 8 20 5 15 11 11 12 6 10 5 8 10 Total Number of Establishments 939 635 407 398 231 130 118 115 109 89 69 66 66 53 53 52 51 48 46 46 45 41 41 39 38 35 35 35 33 33 30 30 29 27 27 26 25 25 24 24 Rank Provinces ANTALYA 1 MUĞLA 2 ĐSTANBUL 3 AYDIN 4 ĐZMĐR 5 BALIKESĐR 6 BURSA 7 MERSĐN 8 TRABZON 9 ÇANAKKALE 10 ARTVĐN 11 ANKARA 12 KONYA 13 NEVŞEHĐR 14 RĐZE 15 ERZURUM 16 DENĐZLĐ 17 MANĐSA 18 GAZĐANTEP 19 SAMSUN 20 AFYON 21 ADANA 22 DĐYARBAKIR 23 K.Table B. 5: Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2003.

5: (continued) Rank Provinces AĞRI 41 KÜTAHYA 42 SĐNOP 43 VAN 44 YOZGAT 45 ZONGULDAK 46 EDĐRNE 47 KARS 48 MALATYA 49 BARTIN 50 BOLU 51 KIRKLARELĐ 52 ÇORUM 53 IĞDIR 54 ELAZIĞ 55 ŞANLIURFA 56 BURDUR 57 UŞAK 58 GĐRESUN 59 ŞIRNAK 60 BĐLECĐK 61 BĐTLĐS 62 ÇANKIRI 63 TUNCELĐ 64 ESKĐŞEHĐR 65 AKSARAY 66 NĐĞDE 67 ADIYAMAN 68 GÜMÜŞHANE 69 KIRŞEHĐR 70 HAKKARĐ 71 MARDĐN 72 SĐĐRT 73 MUŞ 74 KARAMAN 75 KIRIKKALE 76 OSMANĐYE 77 BĐNGÖL 78 BAYBURT 79 BATMAN 80 KĐLĐS 81 Qualified Number of Establishments 13 19 13 15 13 17 15 10 11 18 15 16 17 10 5 14 16 10 9 11 9 7 11 8 10 6 6 5 6 8 5 3 7 5 5 4 6 4 3 2 2 Unqualified Number of Establishments 10 4 10 8 10 6 7 12 10 3 5 4 2 9 12 3 6 6 4 5 4 3 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 1 2 - Total Number of Establishments 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 11 11 11 10 10 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 4 3 2 2 TOTAL 3 527 1 390 4 917 126 .Table B.

MARAŞ HATAY ADANA MANĐSA SAKARYA ISPARTA KASTAMONU SĐVAS AFYON SAMSUN DĐYARBAKIR KOCAELĐ ORDU SĐNOP KÜTAHYA GAZĐANTEP ERZĐNCAN ÇORUM ZONGULDAK BARTIN BOLU 127 . Qualified Number of Establishments 145 154 54 259 85 106 31 42 55 34 46 34 45 42 31 26 12 18 21 22 32 18 30 3 18 30 24 19 13 6 4 23 18 17 8 8 10 13 14 5 Unqualified Number of Establishments 1217 952 561 257 384 341 200 165 96 114 97 101 89 54 64 58 71 61 55 48 37 45 31 54 37 24 30 34 39 43 40 20 25 2 28 24 21 18 16 25 Total Number of Establishments 1362 1106 615 516 469 447 231 207 151 148 143 135 134 96 95 84 83 79 76 70 69 63 61 57 55 54 54 53 52 49 44 43 43 37 36 32 31 31 30 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Provinces MUĞLA ANTALYA AYDIN ĐZMĐR ĐSTANBUL BALIKESĐR MERSĐN DENĐZLĐ ÇANAKKALE ANKARA BURSA TRABZON NEVŞEHĐR KONYA ERZURUM TEKĐRDAĞ YALOVA ARTVĐN RĐZE K. (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism).Table B. 6: Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2000.

Table B.6: (continued) Qualified Provinces DÜZCE EDĐRNE KAYSERĐ AMASYA KARABÜK TOKAT KIRKLARELĐ MALATYA VAN AKSARAY ELAZIĞ IĞDIR ŞANLIURFA ARDAHAN AĞRI GĐRESUN UŞAK KARS YOZGAT ADIYAMAN BĐTLĐS BĐLECĐK BURDUR ÇANKIRI TUNCELĐ BĐNGÖL ESKĐŞEHĐR ŞIRNAK MARDĐN SĐĐRT KIRŞEHĐR NĐĞDE KARAMAN GÜMÜŞHANE MUŞ BAYBURT KIRIKKALE OSMANĐYE BATMAN HAKKARĐ KĐLĐS Number of Establishments 4 17 8 13 9 14 12 10 4 11 5 7 15 3 2 11 8 8 11 10 6 7 7 6 4 9 13 4 3 3 7 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 2 3 2 Unqualified Number of Establishments 26 12 21 15 19 14 15 17 21 12 18 16 8 18 18 9 12 9 6 6 10 8 7 8 10 4 0 7 7 6 1 4 3 2 3 2 2 0 2 1 1 Total Number of Establishments 30 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 25 23 23 23 23 21 20 20 20 17 17 16 16 15 14 14 14 13 13 11 10 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 TOTAL 1859 5958 7835 128 .

ISYERI+KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT 129 .HALDUN ERDOĞAN METĐN TAMER EMĐN ALPER GÜNER METĐN AYGÜN METĐN TAMER M.MALĐ END. ÇARŞI BURO KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT TĐC. KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT EĞĐTĐM YAPILARI KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT ATOLYE KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK. 7: Data related to the different types of alterations and renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara.CEMAL ÖZER PROJECT TYPE ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT DUKKAN IS MERK.TAR.ALĐ YAPICIOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL SEVĐM NOYAN CELAL ÇAMLIBEL HALDUN ERTEKĐN ALĐ RAGIP BULUÇ MUSTAFA ÜMĐT KALELĐOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ADEM KOÇ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYŞE GÜLDER TAŞÇIOĞLU ALTAN ERSOY ATĐLLA ŞENGONCA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ZĐYA TANALI B.Table B.YP.ĐMRAN KARAMAN M. PROJECT DATE 15-Feb-00 23-Dec-00 9-Jan-01 10-May-01 4-Jun-01 15-Jun-01 3-Aug-01 25-Oct-01 10-Jun-02 2-Oct-02 4-Oct-02 10-Oct-02 15-Oct-02 17-Oct-02 18-Oct-02 18-Oct-02 24-Oct-02 8-Nov-02 14-Nov-02 27-Nov-02 29-Nov-02 29-Nov-02 9-Dec-02 9-Dec-02 11-Dec-02 11-Dec-02 24-Dec-02 24-Dec-02 26-Dec-02 30-Dec-02 30-Dec-02 31-Dec-02 31-Dec-02 6-Jan-03 13-Jan-03 13-Jan-03 21-Jan-03 21-Jan-03 27-Jan-03 3-Feb-03 NAME SURNAME FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR CELAL ÇAMLIBEL MEHMET FUAT KARAOĞLU NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL MEHMET FUAT KARAOĞLU REFĐK ERDOĞAN NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN A. during the 5 year period of 2000-2005.

Table B. NAME SURNAME SEMRA TEBER YENER SERCĐHAN MADEN MUSTAFA ZÜHTÜ BAYER ATĐLLA ŞENGONCA ABDÜLHALĐM BÜYÜKBAY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN CELAL ÇAMLIBEL ÖZGÜR ECEVĐT MURAT LALECĐ ÖNDER ÇOLAK MUSTAFA ARSLAN ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ METĐN TAMER AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SAĐT OĞUZHAN ÖZTURAN HÜDAVERDĐ GÖKÇEN LÜTFÜ KOCAOĞLU HALĐME ÖZSÜT ŞENOL ERKUT ŞAHĐNBAŞ MĐTAT KARA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN SEVĐM NOYAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐRFAN ÇAKALLI ERHAN KOCABIYIKOĞLU MUSTAFA MÜRŞĐT GÜNDAY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ALPER AYLAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐRFAN SEZER FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL MEHMET GÜNER MUZAFFER IŞIK AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT TĐCARĐ VE SANAĐ DUKKAN KONUT KONUT GENEL HASTANE KONUT KONUT OZEL ISLEVLI OKUL BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT GUNDUZ BAKIM EVI KONUT DEPO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DEPO KONUT OTEL PROJECT DATE 3-Feb-03 3-Feb-03 20-Feb-03 26-Feb-03 27-Feb-03 27-Feb-03 27-Feb-03 10-Mar-03 11-Mar-03 25-Mar-03 28-Mar-03 31-Mar-03 2-Apr-03 4-Apr-03 7-Apr-03 7-Apr-03 8-Apr-03 8-Apr-03 10-Apr-03 16-Apr-03 17-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 22-Apr-03 1-May-03 10-May-03 12-May-03 12-May-03 13-May-03 15-May-03 16-May-03 16-May-03 16-May-03 16-May-03 21-May-03 27-May-03 28-May-03 2-Jun-03 130 .7: (continued).

7: (continued).TOLGA DĐKER AYTEN KART HĐKMET ÇENGEL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MEHMET GÜNER MAHĐR AYDUĞAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN VELĐ AKTÜRK ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ MUZAFFER IŞIK HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MEHMET TURHAN KAYASÜ PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD OTEL KONUT BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT FABRĐKA KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN DUKKAN KONUT OTEL ĐŞ-TĐCARET MERK. NAME SURNAME MUAMMER AYDIN SERCAN ÜNAL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ALP KAĞAN DURAN ATĐLLA ŞENGONCA ERHAN KOCABIYIKOĞLU CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER HASAN ER DENĐZ AYBARS AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN COŞKUN ÜREYEN CEMAL BAYSAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HALĐL OĞUZ ARIK HAKAN BÜLBÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ Y.Table B. DUKKAN DEPO DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT FABRĐKA DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO GENEL HASTANE PROJECT DATE 4-Jun-03 5-Jun-03 11-Jun-03 13-Jun-03 13-Jun-03 17-Jun-03 19-Jun-03 23-Jun-03 26-Jun-03 1-Jul-03 7-Jul-03 11-Jul-03 17-Jul-03 21-Jul-03 22-Jul-03 31-Jul-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 15-Aug-03 15-Aug-03 18-Aug-03 21-Aug-03 25-Aug-03 25-Aug-03 28-Aug-03 28-Aug-03 1-Sep-03 3-Sep-03 3-Sep-03 5-Sep-03 18-Sep-03 29-Sep-03 3-Oct-03 3-Oct-03 6-Oct-03 6-Oct-03 9-Oct-03 9-Oct-03 131 .

BURO IMALATHANE OTEL KONUT ĐDARĐ BĐNA PROJECT DATE 14-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 24-Oct-03 30-Oct-03 3-Nov-03 10-Nov-03 12-Nov-03 17-Nov-03 17-Nov-03 17-Nov-03 19-Nov-03 2-Dec-03 11-Dec-03 12-Dec-03 15-Dec-03 15-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 24-Dec-03 13-Jan-04 13-Jan-04 19-Jan-04 26-Jan-04 26-Jan-04 5-Feb-04 6-Feb-04 6-Feb-04 9-Feb-04 19-Feb-04 27-Feb-04 27-Feb-04 1-Mar-04 2-Mar-04 3-Mar-04 5-Mar-04 5-Mar-04 5-Mar-04 9-Mar-04 132 .Table B. NAME SURNAME MEHLĐKA MIHOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SEVĐM NOYAN MURAT LALECĐ COŞKUN TORUN HALĐL OĞUZ ARIK FATMA CEBECĐ OKTAY AKDUMANLI MUSTAFA ARSLAN MUSTAFA ARSLAN ZEHRA TÜRKCAN AKSU MEHMET ILGIN AYSUN COŞAR METĐN TAMER MĐTHAT AKMAN MEHLĐKA MIHOĞLU MUSTAFA ÖZKARAKAYA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐLKAY TAVLI ĐLKAY TAVLI MUSTAFA ZÜHTÜ BAYER AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖNDER ÇOLAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR SEMRA TEBER YENER AYLA TÜFEKCĐOĞLU SUAT ZOBU MEHMET AYDIN ERHAN KORKMAZ MEHMET KĐBAR YUSUF AYGAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HASAN ÖZBAY HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HAKAN BÜLBÜL MUSTAFA ARSLAN AHMET ENGĐN FIRAT PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BENZIN ISTASYONU KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT MARKET KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT ÇOK AMAÇLI SAL. KONUT ĐDARĐ BĐNA APARTMAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK.7: (continued).

NAME SURNAME ĐRFAN ÇAKALLI AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MURAT LALECĐ MURAT LALECĐ MURAT LALECĐ ABDULLAH EMRE ÖZĐKĐNCĐ MEHMET ALTUNTAŞ A. KONUT PROJECT DATE 10-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 19-Mar-04 19-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 23-Mar-04 24-Mar-04 24-Mar-04 24-Mar-04 26-Mar-04 26-Mar-04 26-Mar-04 29-Mar-04 5-Apr-04 6-Apr-04 13-Apr-04 19-Apr-04 20-Apr-04 20-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 28-Apr-04 28-Apr-04 29-Apr-04 29-Apr-04 30-Apr-04 30-Apr-04 7-May-04 7-May-04 7-May-04 10-May-04 14-May-04 20-May-04 133 .CAN ERSAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYKUT SONOL TOLGAY RÜSTEM CANTÜRK HASAN AKYÜZ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY FATMA CEBECĐ TURGUT YURT HASAN ER MUSTAFA ŞAHĐN SAĐT OĞUZHAN ÖZTURAN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU AHMET ENDER EROL ĐHSAN BĐGE AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN YUSUF AYGAR ALĐŞAN BAYRAKDAR ALĐŞAN BAYRAKDAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK ALP KAĞAN DURAN MEHLĐKA MIHOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN M.Table B.7: (continued).ALĐ YAPICIOĞLU HADĐ EMĐROĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT HASTANE BENZIN ISTASYONU KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DUKKAN BURO KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT KONUT LOKANTA DUKKAN KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT IMALATHANE IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT SHOWROOM DUKKAN KONUT KONUT APARTMAN IS HANI IS HANI KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK.

HÜSEYĐN KEÇECĐ AZĐZ SERDAR CEYHAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN FATMA CEBECĐ LEYLA MERAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MAHĐR AYDUĞAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN PROJECT TYPE KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO APARTMAN APARTMAN KONUT KONUT ĐDARĐ BĐNA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT GENEL HASTANE MAĞAZA DEPO DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 20-May-04 20-May-04 20-May-04 20-May-04 31-May-04 1-Jun-04 3-Jun-04 3-Jun-04 3-Jun-04 15-Jun-04 15-Jun-04 18-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 22-Jun-04 22-Jun-04 28-Jun-04 30-Jun-04 1-Jul-04 1-Jul-04 8-Jul-04 12-Jul-04 13-Jul-04 14-Jul-04 14-Jul-04 2-Aug-04 2-Aug-04 5-Aug-04 12-Aug-04 13-Aug-04 18-Aug-04 23-Aug-04 24-Aug-04 24-Aug-04 26-Aug-04 2-Sep-04 2-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 134 . NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN NURĐ KURTULUŞ KONUR MĐTHAT DEMĐRCĐ MĐTHAT DEMĐRCĐ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ AYSUN COŞAR NURĐ KURTULUŞ KONUR MURAT LALECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MEHMET TURHAN KAYASÜ FERHAT ERDEM KARAORMAN ÖNDER ÇOLAK MURAT LALECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN EROL USTA MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU GÜNERĐ IRMAK MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN H.7: (continued).Table B.

CAN ERSAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BENZIN IST.BERKAY YALIN DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR H.Table B.ALĐ ULUSOY ĐBRAHĐM TEVFĐK PARABAKAN MUSTAFA YÜCESAN SERDAR AKÜNAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MAHĐR AYDUĞAN ÖNDER ÇOLAK HAZELĐ AKGÖL METĐN TAMER MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ MURAT LALECĐ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK ONUR BAYER ONUR BAYER A.7: (continued). NAME SURNAME MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MEHMET GÜNER T. ISYERI+KONUT IMALATHANE ISYERI+KONUT BENZIN ISTASYONU DUKKAN OTEL KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS HANI KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 14-Sep-04 22-Sep-04 24-Sep-04 27-Sep-04 29-Sep-04 4-Oct-04 4-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 6-Oct-04 8-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 15-Oct-04 15-Oct-04 18-Oct-04 20-Oct-04 20-Oct-04 21-Oct-04 22-Oct-04 25-Oct-04 25-Oct-04 135 .

7: (continued). NAME SURNAME REFĐK ERDOĞAN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU AHMET YILMAZ MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN CANAN KAÇAR MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN AHMET ENGĐN FIRAT YENER GÜRAN ĐSMAĐL ÇAĞLAR SERCĐHAN MADEN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD OTEL KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 25-Oct-04 28-Oct-04 5-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 18-Nov-04 30-Nov-04 2-Dec-04 6-Dec-04 7-Dec-04 7-Dec-04 7-Dec-04 136 .Table B.

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN M.ALĐ YAPICIOĞLU ERGĐN DĐLSĐZ AYDIN ÖZDEMĐR ÖNDER ÇOLAK VELĐ AKTÜRK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ HASAN ER MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MEHMET YALÇIN EMMĐLER SEVĐM NOYAN TURAN TEKĐN YAVUZ ÖNEN MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ AYŞE ERGÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BORA TUBAY DÜRRĐYE MĐNE KARATAŞ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TAHSĐN TAŞKIRAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN FAHĐRE SAATÇĐ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY ĐHSAN BĐGE DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR MUSTAFA YÜCESAN KEMAL MÜKREMĐN BARUT AYŞE ERGÜL PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT YURT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BANKA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT HASTANE DÜKKAN+KONUT EĞĐTĐM YAPILARI DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT PROJECT DATE 7-Dec-04 9-Dec-04 10-Dec-04 14-Dec-04 14-Dec-04 14-Dec-04 15-Dec-04 15-Dec-04 16-Dec-04 16-Dec-04 20-Dec-04 20-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 23-Dec-04 23-Dec-04 23-Dec-04 24-Dec-04 27-Dec-04 28-Dec-04 30-Dec-04 30-Dec-04 31-Dec-04 7-Jan-05 7-Jan-05 7-Jan-05 10-Jan-05 13-Jan-05 19-Jan-05 24-Jan-05 27-Jan-05 28-Jan-05 1-Feb-05 10-Feb-05

137

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ERKUT ŞAHĐNBAŞ MUSTAFA AYTÖRE TURAN TEKĐN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU BÜLENT BĐROĞLU HASAN ÇINAR HASAN ÇINAR ERKUT ŞAHĐNBAŞ KALĐP HERGÜL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR RÜSTEM CANTÜRK ALĐ TEPE HÜLYA HANCI CENGĐZ DÖNMEZ MUZAFFER IŞIK ADNAN KÖPRÜLÜ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK SEVĐM NOYAN REFĐK ERDOĞAN SERVER TUNÇAY ERHAN KOCABIYIKOĞLU MURAT ARTU SONER GÖKDEMĐR SERCĐHAN MADEN MURAT ARTU MUSTAFA YÜCESAN TANER DEMĐRDAĞ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ GÜROL AYDIN ĐSMET BAYAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT HASTANE BURO DÜKKAN+KONUT ĐŞYERĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO ISYERI+KONUT ĐŞ-TĐCARET MER. DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT IS HANI DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT SHOWROOM BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 11-Feb-05 11-Feb-05 11-Feb-05 11-Feb-05 18-Feb-05 21-Feb-05 21-Feb-05 21-Feb-05 22-Feb-05 24-Feb-05 24-Feb-05 7-Mar-05 8-Mar-05 14-Mar-05 14-Mar-05 21-Mar-05 7-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 12-Apr-05 20-Apr-05 20-Apr-05 21-Apr-05 26-Apr-05 26-Apr-05 27-Apr-05 28-Apr-05 28-Apr-05 3-May-05 5-May-05 6-May-05 6-May-05 6-May-05 6-May-05 9-May-05 21-May-05 25-May-05 26-May-05 26-May-05

138

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME KEMAL MÜKREMĐN BARUT BURHAN ÖZÇELĐK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN FATMA CEBECĐ HACER AYRANCIOĞLU YETĐŞ HACER AYRANCIOĞLU YETĐŞ HÜDAVERDĐ GÖKÇEN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN YĐĞĐT GÜLÖKSÜZ FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL SEVĐM NOYAN MUZAFFER IŞIK RASĐM ÖZVEREN ORHAN GÖNÜLAL YENER GÜRAN YENER GÜRAN HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN MEHMET GÜNER CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER ESER ÖNAL DANYAL TEVFĐK ÇĐPER FATMA CEBECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MELTEM MIZRAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ADNAN CEYHUN YAVUZ TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN NAMĐ HATIRLI BÜLENT BĐROĞLU CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR AHMET AKIN AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK ARZU BAŞAL HAKAN BÜLBÜL PROJECT TYPE KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT IS MERK. KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT LOKANTA KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT APARTMAN KONUT KONUT KONUT LOKANTA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT PROJECT DATE 27-May-05 30-May-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 3-Jun-05 3-Jun-05 6-Jun-05 7-Jun-05 9-Jun-05 14-Jun-05 16-Jun-05 16-Jun-05 16-Jun-05 17-Jun-05 17-Jun-05 20-Jun-05 4-Jul-05 6-Jul-05 6-Jul-05 15-Jul-05 15-Jul-05 18-Jul-05 21-Jul-05 26-Jul-05 26-Jul-05 27-Jul-05 29-Jul-05 2-Aug-05 2-Aug-05 3-Aug-05 4-Aug-05 9-Aug-05 10-Aug-05 11-Aug-05 12-Aug-05 16-Aug-05 19-Aug-05 23-Aug-05

139

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HAKAN BÜLBÜL ÖNDER ÇOLAK CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR MUZAFFER IŞIK TURAN TEKĐN NAMĐ HATIRLI TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK HALE EREN BAŞAL ĐHSAN BĐGE MUZAFFER IŞIK CANAN KAÇAR DÜRRĐYE MĐNE KARATAŞ AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU ÜNAL KARA TURAN TEKĐN HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ ALĐ TEPE CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR MĐTHAT DEMĐRCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AZĐZE MANAP TURAN TEKĐN MUAMMER KOÇ HĐKMET ÇENGEL PROJECT TYPE ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD LOKANTA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK. DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 23-Aug-05 23-Aug-05 23-Aug-05 23-Aug-05 24-Aug-05 26-Aug-05 26-Aug-05 29-Aug-05 29-Aug-05 31-Aug-05 01-Sep-05 05-Sep-05 05-Sep-05 06-Sep-05 06-Sep-05 08-Sep-05 09-Sep-05 13-Sep-05 14-Sep-05 16-Sep-05 22-Sep-05 22-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 29-Sep-05 04-Oct-05 04-Oct-05 06-Oct-05 06-Oct-05 06-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 12-Oct-05 20-Oct-05 20-Oct-05 25-Oct-05 08-Nov-05 11-Nov-05

KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞ MERKEZĐ

140

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TURAN TEKĐN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU ÖZGÜR TOP HAKAN BÜLBÜL HAKAN BÜLBÜL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYŞE ERGÜL ALĐ TEPE TÜMAY KORUCUOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MEHMET KĐBAR MELTEM MIZRAK ALĐ OSMAN ÖZTÜRK SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖNDER ÇOLAK ĐLKNUR ÇOPUR ÇAĞLAR ĐLYAS DOĞAN ARZU BAŞAL HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SEVĐM NOYAN ESER ÖNAL ÖNDER ÇOLAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BURHAN ÖZÇELĐK HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN ALPER AYLAN ERHAN KORKMAZ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER RÜSTEM CANTÜRK RÜSTEM CANTÜRK MĐTHAT AKMAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK ERHAN KORKMAZ BEKĐR CĐNCĐOĞLU PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT TĐCARĐ VE SANAĐ KONUT KONUT IS MERK. KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT APARTMAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT K.SAN. SIT. KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT PROJECT DATE 11-Nov-05 14-Nov-05 14-Nov-05 14-Nov-05 16-Nov-05 17-Nov-05 17-Nov-05 18-Nov-05 21-Nov-05 22-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 01-Dec-05 01-Dec-05 02-Dec-05 02-Dec-05 05-Dec-05 09-Dec-05 12-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 14-Dec-05 15-Dec-05 15-Dec-05 19-Dec-05 20-Dec-05 20-Dec-05 20-Dec-05 22-Dec-05 22-Dec-05 26-Dec-05 26-Dec-05 26-Dec-05 28-Dec-05 30-Dec-05 05-Jan-06 06-Jan-06 16-Jan-06

141

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MUAMMER KOÇ MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TURGUT YURT AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU MAHMUT NEDĐM DĐKMEN YÜKSEL ODABAŞI AHMET AKIN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ ĐSMET BAYAR VELĐ AKTÜRK H.ALĐ ULUSOY H.ALĐ ULUSOY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN FATĐH AÇIKALIN ÜNAL AKPINAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ŞÜKRÜ DĐKĐCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYŞE BOZYEL HACI MEHMET TEZEL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÜNAL AKPINAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER ALĐ RAGIP BULUÇ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK MUZAFFER IŞIK PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD DUKKAN KONUT KONUT IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK. KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KÜLTÜR MERK. DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT KONUT APARTMAN APARTMAN KONUT KONUT SAĞLIK VE SOS. HĐZ. KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT SAĞLIK VE SOS. HĐZ. KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT IS MERK. ĐŞYERĐ BENZIN ISTASYONU BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 18-Jan-06 26-Jan-06 26-Jan-06 27-Jan-06 27-Jan-06 31-Jan-06 01-Feb-06 01-Feb-06 01-Feb-06 02-Feb-06 07-Feb-06 09-Feb-06 09-Feb-06 10-Feb-06 10-Feb-06 14-Feb-06 14-Feb-06 14-Feb-06 15-Feb-06 17-Feb-06 20-Feb-06 20-Feb-06 24-Feb-06 27-Feb-06 28-Feb-06 28-Feb-06 01-Mar-06 01-Mar-06 03-Mar-06 04-Mar-06 04-Mar-06 07-Mar-06 09-Mar-06 23-Mar-06 04-Apr-06 05-Apr-06 07-Apr-06 07-Apr-06 07-Apr-06 10-Apr-06 10-Apr-06 10-Apr-06

142

DÜKKAN+KONUT DUKKAN DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT MAĞAZA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞ MERKEZĐ KONUT BURO KONUT ĐŞ VE TĐCARET MERKEZĐ KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 10-Apr-06 10-Apr-06 12-Apr-06 13-Apr-06 13-Apr-06 13-Apr-06 20-Apr-06 25-Apr-06 26-Apr-06 28-Apr-06 28-Apr-06 03-May-06 05-May-06 08-May-06 12-May-06 17-May-06 17-May-06 24-May-06 24-May-06 26-May-06 26-May-06 31-May-06 31-May-06 31-May-06 01-Jun-06 06-Jun-06 07-Jun-06 13-Jun-06 14-Jun-06 16-Jun-06 19-Jun-06 19-Jun-06 20-Jun-06 21-Jun-06 21-Jun-06 22-Jun-06 22-Jun-06 22-Jun-06 27-Jun-06 29-Jun-06 29-Jun-06 143 . NAME SURNAME MEHMET GÜNER ERDAL ALTUN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYŞE ERGÜL ÖZGÜR YAKIN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU ÖZKAN ÖZGÜR MUZAFFER IŞIK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN OSMAN SADIKOĞLU ERCĐHAN KORKMAZ HAKAN BÜLBÜL MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MĐTHAT AKMAN HAKAN BÜLBÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ERCÜMENT YAĞMUR ŞÜKRÜ DĐKĐCĐ SONER GÖKDEMĐR MUSTAFA ÜMĐT KALELĐOĞLU ALĐ OSMAN ÖZTÜRK METĐN BOZBOĞA SEFA GÖRGÜN MUZAFFER IŞIK MUZAFFER IŞIK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN GÜNERĐ IRMAK GÜNERĐ IRMAK DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR TURAN TEKĐN TURAN TEKĐN SALĐH KOÇAK YENER GÜRAN HALĐME ÖZSÜT ŞENOL PROJECT TYPE ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD FABRĐKA BENZIN ISTASYONU KONUT ĐŞ VE TĐCARET MERKEZ K.SAN. SIT.Table B.7: (continued).

NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TURAN TEKĐN MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ALĐ OSMAN ÖZTÜRK HASAN KILIÇ CELAL ÇAMLIBEL ŞERĐFE MERĐÇ B.Table B.7: (continued).HALDUN ERDOĞAN ERCÜMENT YAĞMUR MUZAFFER IŞIK MUZAFFER IŞIK TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ MUZAFFER IŞIK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐHSAN BĐGE HASAN ÇEVĐK ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK REFĐK ERDOĞAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HĐKMET ÇENGEL HÜSNÜ CEYHAN ESER ÖNAL FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL HASAN AKYÜZ METĐN BOZBOĞA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL GÜRKAN DEMĐRCĐ TÜLĐN ÇETĐN PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO+MAĞAZA KONUT ĐMALATHANE KONUT BENZĐN ĐSTASYONU DÜKKAN+KONUT ĐŞYERĐ ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT KONUT BÜRO KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BENZĐN ĐSTASYONU KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT+DÜKKAN DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 30-Jun-06 30-Jun-06 30-Jun-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 07-Jul-06 10-Jul-06 10-Jul-06 11-Jul-06 11-Jul-06 12-Jul-06 14-Jul-06 20-Jul-06 20-Jul-06 21-Jul-06 21-Jul-06 24-Jul-06 26-Jul-06 27-Jul-06 31-Jul-06 31-Jul-06 01-Aug-06 01-Aug-06 02-Aug-06 03-Aug-06 03-Aug-06 07-Aug-06 09-Aug-06 10-Aug-06 11-Aug-06 11-Aug-06 16-Aug-06 16-Aug-06 16-Aug-06 17-Aug-06 18-Aug-06 22-Aug-06 144 .

7: (continued). LOKANTA PROJECT DATE 23-Aug-06 24-Aug-06 25-Aug-06 29-Aug-06 01-Sep-06 01-Sep-06 04-Sep-06 07-Sep-06 08-Sep-06 19-Sep-06 21-Sep-06 22-Sep-06 29-Sep-06 05-Oct-06 09-Oct-06 12-Oct-06 13-Oct-06 16-Oct-06 18-Oct-06 19-Oct-06 01-Nov-06 02-Nov-06 02-Nov-06 03-Nov-06 07-Nov-06 07-Nov-06 13-Nov-06 13-Nov-06 15-Nov-06 15-Nov-06 20-Nov-06 22-Nov-06 28-Nov-06 28-Nov-06 29-Nov-06 30-Nov-06 30-Nov-06 30-Nov-06 07-Dec-06 07-Dec-06 08-Dec-06 12-Dec-06 ESER ÖNAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖZLEN ÇAĞIL AZĐZ SERDAR CEYHAN AHMET NECATĐ KÜÇÜKKÖMÜRLER KAAN ÖZER AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL ERCÜMENT YAĞMUR AHMET HALĐS TURGAY ALĐ TEPE HĐKMET ÇENGEL ŞAKĐR MERAKĐ HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HACI CANATAN FATMA CEBECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖZLEN ÇAĞIL TÜLAY ASLAN SAĐT OĞUZHAN ÖZTURAN ĐSA PARLAK MEMET YILMAZ HELVACIOĞLU CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER ĐSMET BAYAR NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL GÜRKAN DEMĐRCĐ ĐSMET BAYAR ALĐ TEPE HAYRĐYE KORHAN ALTAN ERSOY BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK 145 .BURO.Table B. NAME SURNAME MURAT ARTU HALĐL OĞUZ ARIK BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK SERCĐHAN MADEN SERCĐHAN MADEN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU PROJECT TYPE ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL ALIŞVERĐŞ KOMPLEKSĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KRES KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT APART OTEL KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT APARTMAN DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞMERKEZĐ OTEL SHOWROOM.

2.506.08 336.753.96 5. A.00 16.4. POZ A. A.2.827.76 15.17.7.2.2.00 800.20 2.7 A. A.088.2 A.2. A.14.992. A. A.00 6.00 7.20.Table B.2.00 6.2.21. (Source: The technical departments of three hotels).1.6 A.11 A. A. A. A.11.00 336.1.00 352.2.1. 1: Bill of quantities of Hotel A. A.641.651.652.580.00 16.1. A.1.2.006.12 A.3 A.24 17.00 7. A. A.22. A.56 121.580. A.18 A. A.2.4 A.5 A.19.2.2.2.1.9 A.2. A.32 7.1 A.8 A. Table B.2.00 146 . AÇIKLAMA ODA SÖKÜM ĐŞLERĐ ODA GĐRĐŞ KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ CONNECTING KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ SIUTE ARA KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ GARDROP SÖKÜMÜ YATAK BAŞI SÖKÜMÜ KORNĐŞ PERDE KAFESĐ PERDELĐK SÖKÜMÜ SÜPÜRGELĐK SÖKÜMÜ HALI 0 KEÇE SÖKÜMÜ TAVAN AHŞAP ÇITA SÖKÜMÜ AHŞAP ASMA TAVAN SÖKÜMÜ TUĞLA DUVAR YIKILMASI DUVAR KAĞIDI SÖKÜLMESĐ ODA ĐMALATLAR ŞAP YAPILMASI SELF0LEVELLING YAPILMASI FEB0CLEAR SÜRÜLMESĐ TAVAN ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI ALÇIPAN ASMATAVAN ĐMALATI TAVAN SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI ALIN ALÇIPAN ĐMALATI ALÇIPAN PELMET ĐMALATI HAZIR KARTONPĐYER VE MONTAJI TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI ÖNCESĐ MACUN0SATEN0ASTAR YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI KAPLAMA (MALZEME HARĐÇ) DUVAR BOYA YAPILMASI MENFEZ ĐMALATI VE MONTAJI (LĐNEER) TUĞLA DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ ĐKĐ KAT ALÇIPAN DUVAR YAPILMASI ODA GĐRĐŞ KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ BANYO KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ CONNECTING KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ SUIT ARA KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ SAÇ KAPI KASA BOYA YAPILMASI BĐRĐM TOPLAM adet adet adet adet adet adet mt m2 mt m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 mt m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad m2 m2 ad ad ad ad ad 352.1.2.00 416.3.12.6. A.15.1. A.1.60 13. A.12 2.272.2.92 17.00 16.5.1.1.8.9.10.2.139.8.56 1.13.1. A.1.32 7.2.182.2.278.1. 8: Total bill of quantities of three case studies. A.10 A. A.00 336.2.00 16.2.005.68 8.2.2.16.20 7.

14.656.2.1 B.424. B. B.00 320.1.1.1.12 B.2.1. B. B.10. B.1. B.424.13 B.3 B. B.8.00 320.1.2.00 1.00 320.16 B.1.00 336.17. B. B.8 B.1.3.17 AÇIKLAMA BANYO SÖKÜM ĐŞLERĐ BANYO KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ BANYO AYNA ÇERÇEVE MDF ARKALIK IŞIKLIK SÖKÜMÜ ALÇIPAN DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞLERĐ TUĞLA DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞĐ DUVAR KAĞIDI SÖKÜMÜ BANYO ALÇI ASMA TAVAN SÖKÜMÜ KÜVET SÖKÜMÜ LAVABO SÖKÜMÜ KLOZET SÖKÜMÜ BANYO PERDE SÖKÜMÜ LAVABO TEZGAH SÖKÜMÜ ANKASTRE BANYO BATARYASI SÖKÜMÜ LAVABO BATARYA VE ARAMUSLUK SÖKÜMÜ TAHARET MUSLUĞU SÖKÜMÜ MAKYAJ AYNASI SÖKÜMÜ SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI SÖKÜMÜ HAVLU ÇUBUĞU SÖKÜMÜ TUVALET KAĞITLIĞI SÖKÜMÜ HAVLU RAFI SÖKÜMÜ BANYO ĐMALATLAR GRANĐT TEZGAH ĐMALAT0MONTAJ (BALTIC BROWN) GRANĐT TEZGAH ALTI KARKAS VE PROFĐL MERMER DERZ ARASI DOLGU0TADĐLAT MEVCUT BANYO DÖŞEME MERMER CĐLA MEVCUT BANYO DUVAR MERMER CĐLA BANYO KAPI GRANĐT EŞĐK ĐMALAT0MONTAJ ALÇIPAN ASMATAVAN ĐMALATI TAVAN SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI DUVAR BOYA YAPILMASI DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI (KAZIMA0YOKLAMA DAHĐL) DUVARKAĞIDI ÖNCESĐ MACUN0SATEN0ASTAR YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI KAPLAMA (MALZEME HARĐÇ) ALÇIPAN MÜDAHALE KAPAĞI ĐMALAT VE MONTAJI ĐKĐ KAT ALÇIPAN DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ TUĞLA DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ SĐLĐKON ÇEKĐLMESĐ (RENKLĐ VEYA ŞEFFAF) BĐRĐM TOPLAM ad ad m2 m2 m2 m2 ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad oda m2 m2 ad m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad m2 m2 mt 336.00 336. B.12.2.00 320.2. B.1.92 320.1. B.1.1.2.64 105.00 336.00 217.1.2.2.1.Table B. B.14 B.424.1: (continued). B.2. B.6.2. B.15.1 B.00 1.16. B.11 B.2.5.7 B.8. B.9 B.9.1.2. B.2.10 B.7.662.2.00 336.1.19 B.4 B.2.2.1.13.00 336.08 147 .6 B.1.18.00 1.2.2.60 2.5 B. B.15 B.2 B.11.00 336.4.1.1.00 1.00 672. POZ B.2.

4 C.00 - m2 m2 m2 m2 ad mt m2 ad ad m2 m2 ad ad m2 1.28 48.34 C.420.1. C.29 B.96 363.00 148.3 C.2.33 B.00 336.00 336.64 32.8.31 B.2.2.20 3.2.028.28 B.20 B.1.14 AÇIKLAMA KÜVET MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) LAVABO MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) KLOZET MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) BANYO PERDE MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) LAVABO TEZGAH MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) ANKASTRE BANYO BATARYASI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) LAVABO BATARYA VE ARA MUSLUK MONTAJI (MALZ.2.1.1.953.1.2.23 B.26 B.30 B.9 C.1 C. C.00 320.24 B.25 B.2.2.1.00 16.2.1: (continued).5 C.16 16.8 C.13 C.7 C.00 320.1.2.1.12 C.2.2.2.00 1.1.2.2.10 C.32 148 .1.784.00 2.19 B.6 C.Table B.1. POZ B.1.32 B.00 336.11 C.00 320.2 C.21 B.27 B.1.22 B.1.HARĐÇ) TAHARET MUSLUĞU MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) MAKYAJ AYNASI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) HAVLU ÇUBUĞU MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) TUVALET KAĞITLIĞI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) YEDEK TUVALET KAĞITLIĞI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) HAVLU RAFI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) KAPI ARKASI ASKI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) TUTAMAKLI SABUNLUK MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) ÇAMAŞIR ĐPĐ MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) KORĐDOR SÖKÜM ĐŞLERĐ ALÇIPAN ASMA TAVAN SÖKÜMÜ DUVAR AHŞAP PANEL SÖKÜMÜ DUVAR AYNA SÖKÜMÜ DUVAR KAĞIDI SÖKÜMÜ ŞAFT KAPAK SÖKÜMÜ SÜPÜRGELĐK SÖKÜMÜ HALI KEÇE SÖKÜMÜ YANGIN MERDĐVENĐ KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ BUZ ODASI KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ ALÇIPAN DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞLERĐ TUĞLA DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞLERĐ SERVĐS HOLÜ KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ SERVĐS HOLÜ WC KLOZET SÖKÜMÜ SERVĐS HOLÜ DUVAR DÖŞEME SERAMĐK SÖKÜMÜ BĐRĐM ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad TOPLAM 336.1.18 B.2.2.

C. POZ C.22 C.2.2.8. YANGIN MERDĐVEN DUVAR BOYA YANGIN MERDĐVEN TAVAN ALÇI SIVA YANGIN MERDĐVEN TAVAN BOYA YANGIN MERDĐVENĐ KORKULUK ZIMPARA+MACUN+BOYA BĐRĐM m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad mt m2 ad ad m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad m2 m2 m2 m2 mt TOPLAM 2.56 4.2.25 C.2.20 C.56 1.20 567.034.40 2.11 C. (LAYSAN) SERVĐS HOLÜ WC KLOZET MONTAJI YANGIN MERDĐVEN DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAP.37 C.1 C.40 64.2.139.2.2.10 C.034.26 C.2.534.00 16.2.48 1.252.12 C.00 32.40 2.2.12 1.8 C.2.3 C.39 AÇIKLAMA KORĐDOR ĐMALATLAR ŞAP YAPILMASI SELF0LEVELLING YAPILMASI FEB0CLEAR SÜRÜLMESĐ DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI ÖNCESĐ MACUN0SATEN0ASTAR YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI KAPLAMA (MALZEME HARĐÇ) DUVAR SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI DUVAR BOYA YAPILMASI ALÇIPAN ASMATAVAN ĐMALATI TAVAN SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI SERVĐS HOLÜ KAPISI METAL TEKMELĐK VE MONTAJI YANGIN KAÇIŞ YÖNLENDĐRME LEVHASI VE MONTAJI ASANSÖR YÖNLENDĐRME LEVHASI VE MONTAJI SERVĐS HOLÜ KAPI SAÇ KASA (ĐM+MONTAJ) YANGIN MERDĐVEN KAPISI SAÇ KASA BUZ MAKĐNA ODA KAPISI SAÇ KASA (ĐM+MO) SAÇ KAPI KASA BOYA YAPILMASI YANGIN MERDĐVEB KAPISI ĐMALAT0MONTAJ SAÇ KAPI BOYA YAPILMASI YANGIN DOLABI ĐMALAT VE MONTAJI ŞAFT KAPAKLARI ALÇIPAN DARALTMA HAZIR KARTONPĐYER VE MONTAJI TUĞLA DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ MENFEZ ĐMALATI VE MONTAJI ANEMOSTAD ĐMALATI VE MONTAJI SERVĐS HOLÜ TAVAN SATEN SIVA SERVĐS HOLÜ TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI SERVĐS HOLÜ DUVAR SERAMĐK ĐMALATI SERVĐS HOLÜ DÖŞEME SERAMĐK ĐMALATI SERVĐS HOLÜ DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI SERVĐS HOLÜ+MĐNĐBAR DEPO DUVAR BOYA SERVĐS HOLÜ+MĐNĐBAR DEPO DÖŞEME VĐNĐL KAPL.457.18 C.2.00 32.00 32.2.4 C.12 567.00 144.21 C.2.2.00 16.27 C.20 403.2.2.034.00 456.5 C.14 C.32 456.2.2.19 C.00 16.2.00 96.28 2.33 C.2.252.2.00 48.2.2.2.2.7 C.6 C.20 149 .36 C.32 C.Table B.2.2.48 1.2.32 1.2 C.2.17 C.2.00 48.31 C.29 C.2.2.28 C.30 C.9 C.2.24 C.2.518.68 4.2.2.2.35 C.901.15 C.38 C.40 5.13 C.34 C.034.16 C.23 C.457.1: (continued).2.2.

8.6 150 .1 276 138 138 2691 717.pelmet and side panels) KAPI KASA FINISHING GĐRĐŞ TAVAN FINISHING YENĐ PERDE PANELĐ MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING ĐLAVE KARTONPĐYE QUAN. AÇIKLAMA QUEEN – MOBĐLYA YATAK BAŞI KOMODĐNĐ YATAK BAŞI ÇALIŞMA MASASI SMART ÇALIŞMA MASASI SMART MASA ÜNĐTESĐ ORTA SEHPA TV-MINIBAR ÜNĐTESĐ TV-MINIBAR ÜNĐTESĐ ÇALIŞMA MASA SANDALYESĐ KOLTUK KOLTUK OTTOMAN DEKORATĐF AYNA DEKORATĐF AYNA YATAK ÖRTÜ DĐKĐM BAZA DĐKĐM YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK DĐKĐM PERDE-TÜL-BLACKOUT DĐKĐM BANYO PERDESĐ DĐKĐM PORTATĐF BAVULLUK LAMP @ TV ARMOIRE QUEEN – ĐMALAT GĐRĐŞ KAPI KANADI BANYO KAPI KANADI SÖVE GARDROP GARDROP (KAYAR KAPAKLI) GARDROP ĐÇĐ ÜNĐTE AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK PENCERE CEPHE (wd. 138 138 132 6 6 138 132 6 132 132 6 6 135 3 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 135 3 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 UNIT adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet set set adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet mt m2 adet adet adet mt mt TOTAL 276 138 132 6 6 138 132 6 132 264 6 6 135 3 138 138 414 138 138 138 0 138 138 138 135 3 138 2511.6 752.Table B. 2: Bill of quantities of Hotel B.

5 1848 51 3. 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 UNIT m2 m2 m2 adet adet adet m2 m2 MAKTU ADET adet adet MAKTU MAKTU SET MAKTU TOTAL 3643.2 7479.4 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 151 .8.2: (continued).Table B.6 3312 276 138 138 207 386. AÇIKLAMA TAVAN BOYASI DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ BANYO LAVABO TEZGAHI AHŞAP AYNA ÇERÇEVESĐ AYNA ARKASI HAZIRLAMA BANYO ZEMĐN CĐLASI MERMER DUVARLARIN TEMĐZLĐĞĐ TEZGAH ALTI SÜPÜRGELĐK DOĞRAMA YANI ALÇIPAN TAMĐRATI BANYO SPOT KAPATMA ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ TESĐSAT ĐŞLERĐ ELLE ÇEKMELĐ PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI REMOVAL QUEEN .6 552 276 138 138 138 138 QUAN.BĐYE KUMAŞI SANDALYE KUMAŞI YASTIK KUMAŞI (bej kareli 2 adet) YASTIK KUMAŞI (lacivert kareli 1 adet) KOLTUK KUMAŞI (2 ADET) KOLTUK + OTOMAN KUMAŞI KOLTUK YASTIK KUMAŞI DUŞ PERDESĐ KUMAŞI SĐLĐNDĐRĐK MASA LAMBASI SĐLĐNDĐRĐK LAMBADER YATAK (160 cm) YATAKBAŞI RESĐM + ÇERÇEVE KASA 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 132 6 6 138 138 138 138 138 138 m2 m2 mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt MT mt adet adet adet set adet 4140 3450 138 2484 1656 1656 1104 621 132 207 103.TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE YATAK BAŞI KUMAŞI PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI BLACKOUT KUMAŞI YATAK ÖRTÜSÜ KUMAŞI BAZA .

AÇIKLAMA SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI TRAŞ AYNASI ÇALIŞMA MASA LAMBASI ODA DUVAR KAĞIDI BANYO DUVAR KAĞIDI LAVABO ARMATÜR ELEKTRĐK PRĐZ+ENERGY SAVER+VB.2 68 24 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet SET SET adet adet 42 84 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 84 84 84 42 42 42 0 QUAN.ĐMALAT GĐRĐŞ KAPI KANADI BANYO KAPI KANADI BAĞLANTI KAPI KANADI SÖVE GARDROP (nişsiz) GARDROP ĐÇĐ ÜNĐTE AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK PENCERE CEPHE (wd.pelmet and side panels) KAPI KASA FINISHING KAPI KASA FINISHING 42 42 8 42 42 42 34 8 42 34 8 adet adet adet adet adet adet mt mt m2 adet adet 42 42 16 42 42 42 618.8 138 229.Table B.2: (continued). 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 UNIT adet adet adet m2 m2 takım MAKTU adet TOTAL 138 138 138 5658 1794 138 138 414 152 .8.MOBĐLYA YATAK BAŞI KOMODĐNĐ YATAK BAŞI ÇALIŞMA MASASI ORTA SEHPA TV-MINIBAR ÜNĐTESĐ ÇALIŞMA MASA SANDALYESĐ KOLTUK OTTOMAN DEKORATĐF AYNA YATAK ÖRTÜ DĐKĐM BAZA DĐKĐM YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK DĐKĐM PERDE-TÜL-BLACKOUT DĐKĐM BANYO PERDESĐ DĐKĐM PORTATĐF BAVULLUK LAMP @ TV ARMOIRE TWIN . DOWNLIGHT TWIN .

4 1108.2 357 25.2 168 QUAN.2: (continued).8 420 1008 68 24 42 42 63 117. AÇIKLAMA GĐRĐŞ TAVAN FINISHING YENĐ PERDE PANELĐ MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING ĐLAVE KARTONPĐYE TAVAN BOYASI DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ BANYO LAVABO TEZGAHI AHŞAP AYNA ÇERÇEVESĐ AYNA ARKASI HAZIRLAMA BANYO ZEMĐN CĐLASI MERMER DUVARLARIN TEMĐZLĐĞĐ TEZGAH ALTI SÜPÜRGELĐK DOĞRAMA YANI ALÇIPAN TAMĐRATI BANYO SPOT KAPATMA ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ TESĐSAT ĐŞLERĐ ELLE ÇEKMELĐ PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI REMOVAL TWIN .8.8 1842. 42 42 42 42 42 34 8 42 34 8 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 UNIT adet adet mt mt m2 m2 M2 m2 adet adet adet adet m2 m2 MAKTU adet adet adet MAKTU MAKTU SET MAKTU TOTAL 42 42 819 218.BĐYE KUMAŞI SANDALYE KUMAŞI YASTIK KUMAŞI (45754) YASTIK KUMAŞI (01157) KOLTUK + OTOMAN KUMAŞI KOLTUK YASTIK KUMAŞI DUŞ PERDESĐ KUMAŞI 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 m2 m2 mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt MT mt 1260 1050 84 756 504 504 630 336 42 126 25.6 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 153 .Table B.TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE YATAK BAŞI KUMAŞI PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI BLACKOUT KUMAŞI YATAK ÖRTÜSÜ KUMAŞI BAZA .

DOWNLIGHT HOTEL SUIT .MOBĐLYA YATAK BAŞI KOMODĐNĐ TV DOLABI @YATAK ODASI YUVARLAK SEHPA @ YATAK ODASI TV-ARMUAR @OTURMA ODASI ÇALIŞMA MASASI ÇALIŞMA MASA ÜNĐTESĐ MERMER TABLALI KAHVE SEHPASI KARE SEHPA @ OTURMA ODASI YUVARLAK SEHPA @OTURMA ODASI KOLTUK OTTOMAN BAVULLUK SOFA PORTATĐF BAVULLUK DEKORATĐF AYNA YATAK ÖRTÜ DĐKĐM BAZA DĐKĐM YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK DĐKĐM PERDE-TÜL-BLACKOUT DĐKĐM ABAJUR @TV ARMUAR HOTEL SUIT .ĐMALAT GĐRĐŞ KAPI KANADI BANYO KAPI KANADI 3 3 ADET ADET 3 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET SET ADET 6 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 3 3 9 6 3 QUAN.2: (continued). 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 UNIT adet adet adet set adet adet adet adet m2 m2 takım MAKTU adet TOTAL 42 42 84 42 42 42 42 42 1722 546 42 42 126 154 .8. AÇIKLAMA SĐLĐNDĐRĐK MASA LAMBASI SĐLĐNDĐRĐK LAMBADER YATAK (100 cm) YATAKBAŞI RESĐM + ÇERÇEVE KASA SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI TRAŞ AYNASI ÇALIŞMA MASA LAMBASI ODA DUVAR KAĞIDI BANYO DUVAR KAĞIDI LAVABO ARMATÜR ELEKTRĐK PRĐZ+ENERGY SAVER+VB.Table B.

Table B.8.2: (continued).
AÇIKLAMA BAĞLANTI KAPI KANADI GARDROP PENCERE CEPHESĐ KUMAŞ-AHŞAP YATAKBAŞI DUVAR KAĞIDI UYGULAMA AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK MEVCUT KAPI KASA FINISHING MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING TAVAN BOYASI ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ TESĐSAT ĐŞLERĐ YENĐ PERDE PANELĐ ELLE ÇEKMELĐ PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ KAPI ĐPTALĐ VE YERĐNĐN KAPATILMASI GĐRĐŞ HOLU TAVANI YAPILMASI ODA ĐLAVE KARTONPĐYE YAPILMASI ŞAP TAMĐRĐ VE SU ĐZOLASYONU YAPILMASI REMOVAL HS BANYO - ĐMALAT MEVCUT BANYO DUVARLARI YIKIM ĐLAVE BANYO DUVARI YAPIMI ALÇIPAN ASMA TAVAN ALÇI KARTONPĐYE MERMER YER DÖŞEME (AMASYA) MERMER BORDÜR (SIVRIHISAR) MERMER DUVAR KAPLAMA (AMAS+SIVRI) MERMER BANT (GIALLO) MERMER SÜPÜRGELĐK (SIVRIHĐSAR) MARBLE BATH TUB SET (SIVRI) MERMR SET @WC ARKASI(GIALLO) MARBLE SET @SHOWER MERMER DUŞ TAŞI CAM DUŞ KAPISI DUŞUN CAM YAN PANELĐ LAVABO TEZGAHI 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ADET m2 m2 mt m2 mt m2 mt mt ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET 3 86,25 21 35,25 9,75 45,75 54 31,5 16,5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 QUAN. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 UNIT ADET ADET m2 m2 m2 mt ADET mt m2 MAKTU MAKTU ADET SET m2 ADET M2 M2 MT M2 MAKTU 3 33 36 192,75 78 12 51 172,5 3 3 6 6 165 12 6,99 18 66 9 3 TOTAL 3

155

Table B.8.2: (continued)
AÇIKLAMA LAVABO AYNASI TAVAN BOYASI HS KÜÇÜK TUVALET - ĐMALAT MERMER YER DÖŞEME (AMASYA) MERMER DUVAR DÖŞEME (AMAS+SIVRI) MERMER BANT (GIALLO) MERMER SÜPÜRGELĐK (SIVRIHĐSAR) S-03 ĐLE AYNA NĐŞĐ (SIVRIHĐSAR) LAVABO TEZGAHI LAVABO AYNASI ALÇI KARTONPĐYE TAVAN BOYASI YIKMA-KIRMA WALLS CEILING HOTEL SUIT - TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE YATAK BAŞI KUMAŞI PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI BLACKOUT KUMAŞI YATAK ÖRTÜSÜ KUMAŞI BAZA KUMAŞI SANDALYE KUMAŞI YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK KUMAŞI YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK KUMAŞI BĐYE KUMAŞI KANEPE KUMAŞI KANEPE YASTIK KUMAŞI (gold) KANEPE YASTIK KUMAŞI (laci) KOLTUK + OTOMAN KUMAŞI KOLTUK YASTIK KUMAŞI YATAK (200 cm) YATAKBAŞI RESĐMLERĐ KASA SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 adet adet m2 m2 mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt adet 180 150 12 39 72 72 36 12 3,6 6 3 3 52,5 6 3 16,5 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 m2 m2 mt mt ADET ADET ADET mt m2 MAKTU m2 m2 7,5 28,5 15 15 3 3 3 21 9 3 27 9 QUAN. 3 3 UNIT ADET m2 TOTAL 3 21

156

Table B.8.2: (continued)
AÇIKLAMA TRAŞ AYNASI PANTALON PRESĐ ÇALIŞMA MASA LAMBASI ABAJUR @ YATAK BAŞI AYAKLI LAMBA ABAJUR @KARE SEHPA DUVAR APLĐĞĐ @ OTURMA ODASI ODA DUVAR KAĞIDI LAVABO ARMATÜR ELEKTRĐK PRĐZ+ENERGY SAVER+VB. SEALED DOWNLIGHT KORĐDOR - MOBĐLYA KONSOL SEHPA KOLTUK TORCHIERE PERDE-TÜL DĐKĐM KORĐDOR - ĐMALAT PERDE-TÜL DĐKĐM HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA MEVCUT SÜPÜRGELĐK FINISHING MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING TAVAN BOYASI MEVCUT KAPI TAMĐR-BOYAMA AKSES KAPILARI FINISHING AHŞAP LAMBRĐ ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ KORĐDOR - TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE KOLTUK KUMAŞI (2 KOLTUK) PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI DUVAR KAĞIDI ARTWORK ACCESSORIES 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 M2 M2 MT MT MT M2 1980 1188,88 66 176 99 2520,804 0 0 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 SET M2 SET M2 MT MT M2 ADET ADET M2 MAKTU 11 1210 11 2090 935 1595 1320 55 22 22 0 11 11 11 11 11 ADET ADET ADET ADET SET 0 0 0 0 0 QUAN. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 UNIT adet adet adet ADET ADET ADET ADET m2 takım maktuen adet TOTAL 3 3 3 6 3 6 6 210 3 3 9

157

5 1250 35 7100 2680 8900 415 350 15000 158 .8. MILLENIUM HOTEL ANKARA ESTIMATED COST BREAKDOWN TASKS DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY 1 A 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A6 1A7 1A8 1A9 B 1B1 1B2 1B3 1B4 1B5 1B6 C 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 1C6 1C7 D 1D1 1D2 1D3 1D4 CIVIL WORKS DEMOLITION WORKS DEMOLITION OF BRICK WALL DEMOLITION OF R/C REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED CEILINGS SCRAPING OF EXISTING WALL PLASTER AND CERAMICS DEMOLITION OF EXISTING FLOORING AND REMOVAL REMOVAL OF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS IN LOWER FLOORS DEMOLITION OF PIPING AND MECHANICAL DUCTS DISMANTLING ALL ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS TRANSPORTATION OF DISMANTLED AND DEMOLISHED MAT.Table B. DEMOLITION OF STEEL MEZZANINE FLOOR EARTH WORKS EXCAVATION ( GENERAL ) DITCH EXCAVATION TOP SOIL EXCAVATION BY HAND REMOVAL OF EXCAVATED EARTH TOP SOIL REFILL ASPHALT REPAIR INFRASTRUCTURE LEAN CONCRETE( 300 KG/M3) READY MIX CONCRETE ( B 225 ) LAYING GRAVEL ON BASE REINFORCEMENT STEEL BASEMENT WALLS WATER INSULATION( PVC JEOMEN BRANE 2 mm) BASEMENT FLOOR WATER INSULATION Ф 15 PVC DRAINAGE INSTALLATION ROOFING LEVELLING CONCRETE SELF LEVELLING SCREED PVC BASED JEOMEMBERANE WATER INSULATION 2 mm ROOF HEAT INSULATION WITH EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE M2 M2 M2 1800 2805 2805 2805 M3 M3 M3 TON M2 M2 MT 250 500 80 5 1050 770 450 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 MT 250 1590 50 450 1590 20 M3 M3 M2 M2 M2 M2 TON MT LS TON 4. 3: Bill of quantities of Hotel C.

Table B.3: (continued) DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY E 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8 1E9 FLOORING LEVELLING CONCRETE SELF LEVELLING SCREED ANTIACID CERAMIC FLOORING WITH EPOXY GROUT CERAMIC FLOORING PVC FOR MEDICAL AREAS AND PATIENT ROOMS PVC FLOORING FOR FLOOR SERVICE ROOMS (3 mm) HEAVY DUTY BOARD ROOM TYPE FIRE PROOF CARPET (80 wool/20 nylon) WITH FELT UNDERLAYER FOR SOUND INSULATION 1st QUALITY WALNUT FINISHED PARQUET FLOOR WITH VARNISH w MECHANICAL POLISHING OF EXISTING MARBLE FLOORS M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 1586 9500 770 2805 100 980 M2 M2 M2 MT MT M2 M2 M2 M2 7656 1100 800 150 150 1190 190 300 400 1E10 BATHROOM DOOR THRESHOLD 1E11 SOLID WALNUT GUESTROOM ENTRANCE DOOR TRESHOLD 1E12 TERAZZO FLOOR IN STORAGE AREAS&MACHINE ROOMS 1E13 TEAK DECKING ON ROOF TERRACE 1E14 NYLON CARPET 1E15 CARPET TILE F 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 G 1G1 1G2 1G3 1G4 1G5 1G6 H SKIRTING HARDWOOD(WALNUT) VENEERED OVER MDF VARNISHED SKIRTING HARDWOOD SKIRTING (VARNĐSHED) CERAMIC SKIRTING SOFTWOOD SKIRTING (VARNISHED) CEILING CEILING PLASTERING GYPSIUM SPACKLING GYPSIUM BOARD(FIRE RESISTANT) SUSPENDED CEILING METAL PLATE (HEAT CURED PAINTED) SUSPENDED CEILING FIRE RESISTANT ACOUSTICAL GYPSIUM BOARD SUSPENDED CEILING SATIN FINISH ACRYLIC PAINT (3 LAYERS) EXTERIOR WORKS THE DISASSEMBLY OF THE TREE WHITE VERTICAL PRECAST TERRAZZO MEMBERS ON THE LOAD BEARING WALLS AND THE BLACK PRECAST TERRAZZO MEMBERS COVERING THE MAIN BEAM THE MONTAGE OF NEW PRECAST FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS WITH INSULATION WITH AISI 304 STAINLESS STEEL MEMBERS OF MECHANICAL ANCHORAGE MT MT MT MT 5400 970 2100 450 M2 M2 M2 1670 11170 6050 400 M2 M2 2246 8596 1H1 1H2 M2 3050 M2 1400 159 .8.

3: (continued) DESCRIPTION THE MONTAGE OF NEW PRECAST FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM COVERS WITH AISI 304 STAINLESS STEEL MEMBERS OF MECHANICAL ANCHORAGE THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PRECAST TERRAZZO MEMBERS ON THE REAR FACADE SCAFFOLDING SATIN FINISHED STAINLESS STEEL CANOPY WITH TOUGHED GLASS TOP COVER DISMANTLING AND REINSTALLING ALUMINIUM SHADING PANELS EXTRIOR HANGING SCAFFOLDING NEW RAMP & CANOPY CONSTRUCTION UNIT QTY 1H3 1H4 1H5 1H6 1H7 1H8 1H9 I 1I1 1I2 1I3 1I4 1I5 1I6 J 1J1 1J2 1J3 1J4 1J5 1J6 K 1K1 1K2 1K3 1K4 1K5 1K6 1K7 L 1L1 M3 M2 M2 LS LS EA EA EA 1650 1510 5907 1 1 2 1 1 1H10 SERVICE ENTRANCE .8.GOOD RECEIVING AREA CANOPY STAIRCASES STEEL FIRE STAIRS REPAIR OF EXISTING HAND RAILS AND STUDS SATIN (BRUSHED) FINISHED STAINLESS STEEL HANDRAIL WITH SECURIT GLASS PANELS STAIR IN ROOF FROM STEEL PROFILES GRANITE SATIR THERADS COLORED GLASS PROECTIVE BALUSTRADE RAINWATER DRAINAGE WORKS PVC RAINWATER DRAINAGE(VERTICAL) Ф 40 REINFORCED PVC RAIN WATER DRAIN PIPE MANHOLE WITH CAST IRON COVERTOP COPPER GUTTERS Ф 30 REINFORCED PVC WASTE WATER DRAIN PIPE CONCRETE MANHOLE WITH CAST-IRON COVER TOP PARTITION WALLS HOLLOW BLOCK BRICK WALL(20 CM) GYPSIUM BOARD WALL (DOUBLE SIDED WATER PROOF-FIRE PROOF) SINGLE SIDED GYPSIUM BOARD WALL GYPSIUM BOARD PARTITION WALL ( DOUBLE PANEL ) HOLLOW BLOCK BIMSCONCRETE WALL (10*39*19) ACOUSTICAL WALL GENERAL TOILET CABINS WITH DOORS FROM LAMINAT CONSTRUCTION WALL COVERINGS&FINISHES INTERIOR WALL PLASTERING TON LS MT TON MT M2 4.5 55 2.5 35 20 MT MT EA MT MT EA 480 122 4 200 90 7 M3 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 EA 100 4150 1500 500 500 640 49 M2 12839 160 .Table B.

Table B.3: (continued) DESCRIPTION UNIT M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 MT M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 QTY 12839 12839 500 3250 240 320 200 15000 700 60 45 8 800 30 1L2 1L3 1L4 1L5 1L6 1L7 1L8 1L9 1L10 1L11 1L12 1L13 1L14 1L15 M 1M1 1M2 1M3 1M4 1M5 1M6 1M7 1M8 1M9 GYPSIUM SPACKLING SATIN FINISH ACRYLIC PAINT (3 LAYERS) OIL PAINT(3 LAYERS) CERAMIC WALL TILES WALNUT FINISH WALL PANELS (VARNISHED) MARBLE WALL COVERING(TEXTURED FINISH) COLOURED BACK GLASS WALL TILES TEXTILE BACKED VINLY WALL PAPER MIDRAIL ON CORRIDOR WALLS OF GUESTROOM FLOORS (150 MM) WALNUT VENEER OVER MDF+VARNISHED FROSTED GLASS PARTITION WALLS IN RESTAURANT BLACK GRANITE WALL COVERING IN THE RECEPTION TRANSLUCENT ONYX SHEET WALL (20 MM) SATINLESS STEEL DECORATIVE ACRYLIC PLASTER SWIMMING POOL AREA BACK ILLUMINATED PLASTIC WALL COVER DOORS & WINDOWS WALNUT VENEERED SOLID WOOD FIRE RESISTANT DOORS WITH FRAMES AND FITTINGS TOUGNENED GLASS SHOWER DOOR ALUMINIUM FRAMED GLASS REVOLVING DOOR FIRE RESISTANT WOODEN DOORS(WITH GLASS)&FRAME AND FITTINGS FIRE RESISTANT STEEL DOORS EXECUTIVE SUITS FIRE RESISTANT WALNUT DOORS INCLUDING FRAME AND FITTINGS SOLID CORE LAMINANT FACING WOODEN DOORS WITH FRAME SOLID CORE SOUND PROOF WOODEN DOORS WITH FRAME AND FITTING ALUMINIUM WINDOW FRAME REPLACEMENT WITH (4+4 DOUBLE GLAZING GLASS) 1/4 OF GUEST ROOMS ALUMINIUM SLIDING FENESTRATION IN RESTAURANT WITH EA EA EA M2 KG M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 EA M2 250 178 2 56 400 100 120 20 710 200 1 3350 1M10 4+4 MM DOUBLE GLAZING 1M11 AUTOMATIC(RADIO CONTROLLED) GARAGE DOOR SOLAR CONTROL WINDOW FILM COVERING (EXTERIOR 1M12 WINDOW) N 1N1 1N2 FURNITURE GUESTROOM FURNITURE UNITS INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES UPHOLSTERIES & LINENS & DRAPERY & CUSHIONS SETS SETS 177 354 161 .8.

8.3: (continued) DESCRIPTION PUBLIC AREAS FURNITURE UNITS INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES STAINLESS STEEL-GLASS RECEPTION.HARDWARE .Table B. UPPER LOBBY AND 1O21 CONFERENCE CENTER ENTRANCES P 1P1 EARTHQUAKE REINFORCEMENT B 225 RC CONCRETE WITH GRANUMETRIC SAND AND CRUSHED STONE M3 29 162 .STOPPERS & ACCESSORIES) SAUNA INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES STEAM ROOM INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES SATIN FINISH+TOUGHED GLASS CONFERENCE CENTER ENTRANCE CANOPY STEEL WATER TANK (3 COAT PAINTED) FIRE STOPERS SAFES (GUESTROOMS) CENTRAL SAFE CORNER GUARDS FROM STAINLESS STEEL IN ALL SERVIS AREAS EA EA EA EA EA EA LS EA EA EA LS LS LS EA EA EA EA LS EA 178 180 2 2 1 25 1 180 1 4 1 1 1 7 5 1 20 1 3 1O10 GALVANISED STEEL FLAGPOSTS 1O11 1O12 INTERIOR SIGNAGE 1O13 EXTERIOR SIGNAGE WITH BACKLIGHT 1O14 FAX MACHINES 1O15 SMALL PHOTOCOPY MACHINES 1O16 PROFESSIONAL PHOTOCOPY MACHINE 1O17 DESKTOP COMPUTERS 1O20 SWIMMING POOL MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SERVICE AND REPAIR METAL DETECTORS IN LOWER LOBBY.CONSIERGE DESKS INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES CHANGING ROOM LOCKERS SHELVING UNITS ALL MIRRORS POTS WASTEBIN-ASHTRAY UNIT LS EA EA EA EA LS EA LS LS SETS QTY 1 5 175 187 200 1 22 1 1 64 1N3 1N4 1N5 1N6 1N7 1N8 1N9 1N10 EXTERIOR FURNITURE AROUND POOL AREA 1N11 FITNESS CENTER EQUIPMENT 1N12 OFFICE FURNITURE O 1O1 1O2 1O3 1O4 1O5 1O6 1O7 1O8 1O9 MISCELLANEOUS IRONMONGERY (SATIN STAINLESS STEEL CARD CONTROLLED DOOR LOCKS) IRONMONGERY (DOOR KNOB .

Table B.055 216 216 216 1P2 1P3 1P4 1P5 1P6 1P7 1P8 1P9 1P10 POURING OF CONCRETE WITH PUMP STEEL MESH ENVELOPE OVER OLD COLUMN FOR ADHERENCE CONCRETE FORMWORK WITH TONGUE&GROVE JOINTS AND FINE FINISHED SURFACE Ф 8-12 MM REINFORCING BAR Ф 14-18 MM REINFORCING BAR SCRAPING THE EXISTING PLASTER SCRAPING FLOOR CONCRETE AROUND THE COLUMN AND CORNERS CLEANING THE COLUMN SURFACE WITH AIR COMPRESSOR CARBONFIBER SIKA CARBODUR ENVELOPE WRAPPED AROUND COLUMN WITH FIXING TYPE AND SIKADUR 30 ADHESIVE SCAFFOLDING AROUND THE COLUMN TO SUPPORT THE M2 M3 115 1000 1P11 BEAMS AND FLOORSLAB 1P12 EPOXY RESIN GROUT APPLIED TO CARCKS AND THE ENDS OF REINFORCEMENT BARS AND AROUND THE OLD COLUMN SURFACES Kg 450 TO PROVIDE FOR CONTINGENCIES FOR TEN YEARS PERIOD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 For ceramic tiles for walls and floors For telecommunication apparatus For drapery For carpets For magnetic door locks For window hardware For paint material For wallpaper For parquet flooring For textile (Table cloth) For lighting fixtures For bathroom fixtures For furnishings 7% For each specific type 2% 2% 5% For each class 5% 5% 10% For each type and color 2% For each type 2% For each type 5% For each type 10% For each fixture 5% For each fixture 5% For each loose furniture 163 .3: (continued) DESCRIPTION UNIT M3 Kg M2 TON TON M2 M2 M2 QTY 29 500 216 2.46 7.8.

29 oranında artmıştır. 2006 Yılı III. döneminde %46.12’si su.74'ü doğal gaz.81'i meskenlerde. döneminde. 2006 yılı III.78.81’i şantiyelerde ve %7. 2005 yılı III. %4. hidroelektrik enerjisi üretiminde ise %2.11 oranında üretim artışı görülmüştür. DÖNEM (Temmuz – Ağustos – Eylül) Sayı:204 21 Aralık 2006 10:00 Elektrik enerjisi üretimi 2006 yılı III.71 artmış.394. (EÜAŞ) ve EÜAŞ'a bağlı ortaklıklar. 2006 yılı III. linyit santrallerinde %8.64’ü Elektrik Üretim A.72 oranında artmıştır. %3. 36. Brüt elektrik enerjisi üretiminin. enerji kaynaklarına göre 2005 yılı III. ELEKTRĐK ÜRETĐM VE DAĞITIMI 2006 III.2 GWh’ı da rüzgar enerjisi olarak gerçekleşmiştir. dönemine göre termik elektrik enerjisi üretiminde %11.66‘sı üretim şirketleri. Elektrik enerjisinin %41.5 GWh'ı hidrolik ve 46.059.0 GWh'ı hidrolik ve 11. %22. döneminde.4 GWh olarak gerçekleşmiştir. 2006 Yılı III. %1. %23. 10.66'sı su.31. döneminde bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre %11.043.23'ü sanayide. döneminde elektrik enerjisinin % 49. 9: Electricity profile of Turkey. %23. Elektrik enerjisi üretimi 2006 yılı III.20'si linyit. 2006 yılı III. %2.52’si resmi dairelerde. %18. 32. %8. bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre % 9. dönemine göre elektrik dağıtım şirketlerinin elektrik satış gelirleri cari fiyatlarla %15. döneminde. %18.5 GWh'ı termik. % 41. 2005 yılı III.döneminde ise.7 GWh'ı termik. doğal gaz santrallerinde %9. Elektrik üretimi bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre EÜAŞ ve EÜAŞ’a bağlı ortaklıklarda %8. 164 .360.58’i ise diğer ve doğrudan satışlar olarak tüketilmiştir.Table B.9 GWh’ı da rüzgar enerjisi iken.84'ü doğal gaz. döneminde ise %46.70’i otoprodüktörler tarafından gerçekleştirilmiştir. Üretilen elektriğin 2005 yılı III. 10.306 GWh olarak gerçekleşmiştir.62 artarak 34. 2006 yılı III. üretim şirketlerinde %12.14’ü tarımsal sulamada. otoprodüktörlerde ise %2.95 artmıştır.21 artarak 46.254. Bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre elektrik üretimi. döneminde. döneminde bir önceki döneme göre % 10.85’i ticarethanelerde. %15.05’i linyit ile çalışan santrallerden sağlanmıştır.06’sı sokak aydınlatmasında. Elektrik tüketimi.99 oranında azalmıştır.Ş.

790 5.704 81.2: Operating energy consumption of Hotel B for 2006.783 75.475 75.029.070 4.218 643.975 88.750 4.005. 10: Operating energy consumptions of hotels.848 636.828. Months Natural Gas Consumption (m3) 2963 3346 4200 5203 4847 5863 8806 656 5919 3982 3928 3529 53242 Eletricity Consumption (KWh) 493185 497494 494266 528928 594827 782335 826988 926762 721124 531827 524015 530134 7451885 Water Consumption (m3) 80526 83061 61077 38461 35434 31331 33688 27771 29184 33620 62763 68747 585663 January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual Consumption: 165 .909.983.331.144 4.688 586. (Source: Technical departments of hotels).783.938.655.679 61.934.083 65.898 74.167 648.Table B.209 5.666 612.356 82.984.046 4.542 Table B.290 5.1: Operating energy consumption of Hotel A by years.632. Table B.540 4.752 5.621 71.288 664.401 Water Consumption (m3) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average Annual Consumption: 454.706 84.623 523.10.779 622.10.147.344 619.230 5.180 660.333 4.410 5.967 675.834 4. Year Natural Gas Consumption (m3) Eletricity Consumption (KWh) 5.462.576 4.498 612.285.760 60.145.341 4.723 91.279 4.160 4.099 67.824.020.

bir önceki yılın Şubat ayına göre Gaziantep’de %193. Antalya.Table B. Uyarı Kademesi Sınır (1. Kayseri. Kütahya. Đzmir (Merkez) ve Đzmir (Ödemiş)’de %56. Karaman’da %79 ve Malatya’da %55 oranında artarken. Trabzon ve Karaman’da aşılmıştır. Malatya ve Sivas’da %31 oranında artmıştır. aynı dönemde Trabzon’da %73. 11: Air pollution profile of Turkey. Elazığ. Duman ortalamalarında Hedef ve Kısa Vadeli Sınır değerleri aşıldı. 2007 yılı Şubat ayında il ve ilçe merkezlerinde ölçüm yapılan istasyonlardan elde edilen kükürtdioksit ortalamaları incelendiğinde. Zonguldak’da %32. Bilecik (Merkez)’de %67. Malatya. Bilecik (Bozüyük)’de %63 ve Đzmir (Merkez)’de %54 oranında azalmıştır. Hedef Sınır (HS) değeri Amasya. Manisa. Diyarbakır. Burdur. Uyarı Kademesi Sınır (1. Erzurum. Samsun. Sağlık Bakanlığı tarafından hava kalitesi ölçümü yapılan il ve ilçe merkezlerinden elde edilen sonuçlara göre 2007 yılı Şubat ayı kükürtdioksit (SO2) ortalamaları. Burdur. Gaziantep’de %127. Bayburt ve Karaman’da aşılmıştır. 2007 yılı Şubat ayı partiküler madde (duman) ortalamaları ise Bilecik (Bozüyük)’de %157. Karaman’da %58. Bursa (Đnegöl) ve Kocaeli (Gebze)’de %43 oranında azalmıştır. HAVA KĐRLĐLĐĞĐ. Bilecik (Merkez)’de %88. Hedef Sınır (HS) değeri Amasya. Uyarı Kademesi Sınır Değeri 166 . Antalya’da %64. Gaziantep. 1. Kısa Vadeli Sınır (KVS) değeri Isparta’da aşılırken. Kocaeli (Gölcük)’de %45. Manisa. Kayseri. SO2 150 µg/m3 400 µg/m3 700 µg/m3 Partiküler Madde 150 µg/m3 300 µg/m3 400 µg/m3 Hedef Sınır Değeri Kısa Vadeli Sınır Değeri 1. Aynı dönemde Bayburt’da %88. Zonguldak.UKS) değeri ölçüm yapılan hiçbir istasyonda aşılmamıştır. Aynı dönemde partiküler madde ortalamaları incelendiğinde. Elazığ‘da %71. Sivas.UKS) değeri ölçüm yapılan hiçbir istasyonda aşılmamıştır. Konya. Kısa Vadeli Sınır (KVS) değeri ve 1. Isparta. Malatya. SO2 ortalamalarında Hedef Sınır değeri aşıldı. Kütahya. Gaziantep. Bayburt’da %54. ŞUBAT 2007 Sayı:69 27 Nisan 2007 10:00 Bir önceki yıla göre SO2 ve duman ortalamalarında artışlar görüldü.

1 1. Exp.Maint.6 18.0 0.1 1.7 16.5 93118 100. -827 24644 -279 7753 1715 330006 -5595 2550 9678 480 845 -1037 250 -6299 -1555 -642 1077 1567 -6462 60 -1279 -143 276 976 -1512 -1075 323 816 6 -1209 1000 -168 8 914 7941 5869 1740 5039 0.8 Sale of Utilities Electricity Fuel-oil Water Gas Misc.2 2.7 8. 5 745 4134 5.3 0.3 2.1 54. Communication Exp. Exp.7 1.0 1.6 1.0 34.2 0. Current Period ENERGY EXPENSES Actual 15773 45356 279 18247 34585 82694 31961 2550 14978 1520 1155 1237 7549 1855 892 173 433 10462 2501 7779 143 324 1024 1612 1075 677 484 646 1409 268 411 % -19.2 2.0 Total 167 .8 0.8 4.6 0.2 32.1 2.7 0.1 1.3 26.8 100.5 11.3 600 2000 100 1000 1300 652 200 1000 100 419 223 1281 2158 2647 1662 641 96 1056 31 516 0. Cleaning Exp.1 1. & Air Cond. & Mec.3 100.2 0.1 0.9 8. Signs Heat.0 80954 -12164 96865 100.5 0.4 0. Vent.0 0.0 27.4 Budget 16600 70000 26000 36300 115700 26366 24656 2000 2000 200 250 1250 300 250 1250 2000 4000 2561 6500 Var. Training Exp.2 1.3 2.3 8.7 0.3 1.4 2.7 1. Equipment Data Proc.2 6.APPENDIX C Table C.2 Last Year 19580 61633 556 15667 27800 86076 26506 2266 25916 % -22.7 0.2 1.1 41.3 22.7 0. Six Sigma Exp. Operating Exp.8 5. (Source: Technical Department of Hotel B). Elevator Building Landscaping Swimming pool Electric Bulbs Removal of Waste Water Treatment Misc.7 71.5 0. Cargo Exp. Kitchen Equipment Laundry Equipment Refrigeration Boiler Room Office Equipment Plumbing Elec. Uniform Exp.2 0. Total PROPERTY OPERATIONS Salaries & Wages Overtime Benefits Furniture Floor Covering Paint & Decoration Radio & TV. 1: An example budget list of Hotel B.7 1.

. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean .003 Table C. Deviation . .259079185 3.940 .931 Sig. Table C.04583671 . Deviation .405120221 . 1: Paired-sample t-test – primary energy consumption Paired Samples Statistics Std.405120221 3.17961243 HOTEL_C 2.2. 2: Paired-sample t-test – solid waste Paired Samples Statistics Std.04583671 .035 -.521 .2.014117677 .021 .095601641 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation -.07636614 .259079185 2.17961243 HOTEL_A 1.116 .805 .210701 HOTEL_C 2.002 168 . Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Mean HOTEL_B .072128832 .072128832 .346088660 2.210701 HOTEL_B .964 .014117677 .037577 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.295 .925 Sig.00868171 . 2: The paired-sample t-test tables.037577 HOTEL_A 1.346088660 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .00868171 .095601641 .Table C.07636614 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.

973 .041944442 .63118071 . Deviation . 4: Paired-sample t-test – water pollution index Paired Samples Statistics Std. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean .929 Sig. .799 .220062660 1.13224086 .116234869 1.852 Sig.015 169 .016 .041944442 .944 .00811443 .05214743 .033 .05214743 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.116234869 .014511885 .2.Table C.502638136 1.220062660 1. 3: Paired-sample t-test – air pollution index Paired Samples Statistics Std. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean .014511885 .119 .002 Table C. Deviation .846 .066975546 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation . .13224086 1.63118071 1.02777071 .02777071 .2.502638136 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .066975546 .00811443 .092542 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.092542 .091 .

992 Sig.81554 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.365103857 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .718 .066 .000 Table C.230690916 .Table C. .995 Sig.36657300 HOTEL_A 3.365103857 8. .643213 HOTEL_B .8037514 102.8037514 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .941474 65.36657300 HOTEL_C 5.4061927 128.527770405 10.2. Deviation 2.19237 65.724 .230690916 10. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean 1.941474 52. Deviation .452265062 102.452265062 128.2.363587 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.4061927 2.000 170 . 6: Paired-sample t-test – weighted resource use Paired Samples Statistics Std.168 .19237 1.168 .759 .363587 HOTEL_A 3.527770405 8.81554 52.048 . 5: Paired-sample t-test – global warming potential Paired Samples Statistics Std.643213 HOTEL_C 5. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Mean HOTEL_B .718 .

Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 2938312 218645 87650 3244607 2801203827 2804448434 50875 3786 1517 56178 1793138937 1793195115 2224848 165555 66367 2456770 1518270563 1520727333 627510 14427 5980 647917 2801203827 2801851744 156170 3638 1508 161316 1793138937 1793300253 1303743 30017 12442 1346202 1518270563 1519616765 Solid Waste API 102755 2 1 102758 12983498 13086256 1779 0 0 1779 9031928 9033707 77804 2 1 77807 7385911 7463718 22922 0 0 22922 12983498 13006420 5827 0 0 5827 9031928 9037755 47733 0 0 47733 7385911 7433644 48796 70 32 48898 43995544 44044442 845 1 0 846 25624988 25625834 36947 53 24 37024 22617808 22654832 10317 5 2 10324 43995544 44005868 2568 1 0 2569 25624988 25627557 21435 10 4 21449 22617808 22639257 WPI 2 0 0 2 Global Warming Potential 349612 394 171 350177 Weighted Resource Use 4325856 4961 1989 4332806 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 2004 116382542 343052159 2006 116732719 347384965 0 0 0 0 982 982 1 0 0 1 917 918 1 0 0 1 6054 7 3 6064 74899 86 34 75019 LEVELLING CONCRETE Manufacturing Construction HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71700787 249165613 264722 298 130 265150 3275476 3757 1506 3280739 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 61722607 200207100 61987757 203487839 24726 26 11 24763 105902 327 136 106365 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing 2004 116382542 343052159 2005 116407305 343158524 0 0 0 0 982 982 1 0 0 1 917 918 6157 7 3 6167 26601 83 34 26718 GYPSUM BOARD Construction HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71700890 249117312 51374 54 22 51450 220244 681 282 221207 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61774057 200428307 171 .Table C. 3: The impacts of seven materials during life cycle stages according to six LCA indicators.

3: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 396285 5555 1079 402919 2801203827 2801606746 447058 6266 1217 454541 1793138937 1793593478 273965 3840 746 278551 1518270563 1518549114 50502 137 100 50739 2801203827 2801254566 18801 51 37 18889 1793138937 1793157826 64230 174 127 64531 1518270563 1518335094 Solid Waste 6210 0 0 6210 12983498 12989708 7005 0 0 7005 9031928 9038933 4293 0 0 4293 7385911 7390204 53 0 0 53 1298349 1298402 20 0 0 20 9031928 9031948 68 0 0 68 7385911 7385979 API 6221 2 0 6223 43995544 44001767 7018 2 0 7020 25624988 25632008 4301 1 0 4302 22617808 22622110 497 0 0 497 43995544 43996041 185 0 0 185 25624988 25625173 632 0 0 632 22617808 22618440 WPI 0 0 0 0 Global Warming Potential 14902 10 2 14914 Weighted Resource Use 41120 126 24 41270 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116397456 343093429 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 0 0 0 0 16811 11 2 16824 46389 142 28 46559 WALLPAPER HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71711547 249137153 10302 7 1 10310 28428 87 17 28532 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 61722607 200207100 61732917 200235632 944 0 0 944 3338 3 2 3343 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116383486 343055502 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 351 0 0 351 1243 1 1 1245 WATER BASED PAINT Manufacturing Construction HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71695074 249091839 1200 0 0 1200 4245 4 3 4252 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61723807 200211352 172 .Table C.

3: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 19694 1183 251 21128 2801203827 2801224955 11490 690 146 12326 1793138937 1793151263 27183 1633 346 29162 1518270563 1518299725 238686 4865 2780 246331 2801203827 2801450158 7668 156 89 7913 1793138937 1793146850 548451 11179 6388 566018 1518270563 1518836581 Solid Waste 89 0 0 89 12983498 12983587 52 0 0 52 9031928 9031980 122 0 0 122 7385911 7386033 1263 0 0 1263 12983498 12984761 41 0 0 41 9031928 9031969 2903 0 0 2903 7385911 7388814 API 199 0 0 199 43995544 43995743 116 0 0 116 25624988 25625104 275 1 0 276 22617808 22618084 3301 2 1 3304 43995544 43998848 106 0 0 106 25624988 25625094 7585 4 2 7591 22617808 22625399 WPI 0 0 0 0 Global Warming Potential 608 2 0 610 Weighted Resource Use 12462 27 6 12495 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116383152 343064654 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 0 0 0 0 355 1 0 356 7270 16 3 7289 HARDWOOD HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71695079 249097883 839 3 1 843 17199 37 8 17244 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 61722607 200207100 61723450 200224344 8919 9 5 8933 26584 110 63 26757 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116391475 343078916 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 286 0 0 286 854 4 2 860 HOTEL B BRICK End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71695009 249091454 20494 20 12 20526 61085 254 145 61484 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61743133 200268584 173 .Table C.

Table C.3: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 33098 171401 228535 433034 2801203827 2801636861 40 205 274 519 1793138937 1793139456 18404 95306 127075 240785 1518270563 1518511348 Solid Waste 0 2 2 4 12983498 12983502 0 0 0 0 9031928 9031928 0 1 1 2 7385911 7385913 API 11 55 73 139 43995544 43995683 0 0 0 0 25624988 25624988 6 31 41 78 22617808 22617886 WPI 0 0 0 0 Global Warming Potential 60 309 412 781 Weighted Resource Use 1214317 3889 5186 1223392 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116383323 344275551 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 0 0 0 0 1455 5 6 1466 PLASTER HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71694723 249092060 33 172 229 434 675210 2163 2884 680257 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61723041 200887357 174 .

GPA: 2. Name Nationality Date of Birth Place of Birth Marital Status email EDUCATION Expected date of Comp. Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture. Ankara. Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture.2001 Fall and Spring Semesters 1998 . Research Assistant in “ARCH 281 Environmental Design I” Research Assistant in “ARCH 282 Environmental Design II Research Assistant in “ARCH 461 Computer Literacy in Architecture” 1998 .68 BS. Research Assistant in “ARCH 488 Solar Control and Utilization in Architecture”. 2007 : Çakmaklı (Zeytun). Ankara. METU.89 CISCO Networking Academy CCNA Certificate.CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONEL INFORMATION Surname.2005 Spring Semesters 1998 . MS.2005 Fall Semesters 1998 . GPA: 3.01 June 2003 June 2000 June 1997 June 1992 WORK EXPERIENCE Dec. Research Assistant as a Computer Coordinator of Faculty of Architecture. METU. Ayşem Berrin : Turkish (TC) : 05.74 High School. 2000 – 2005.com PhD. GPA: 9. Meram Anadolu Lisesi.2005 Fall and Spring Semesters 175 . Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture. Konya. GPA: 3. June. Ankara. 1997 – July 2005 METU Faculty of Architecture. Ankara.. METU.1974 : Konya : Married : zeytunberrin@yahoo..11. METU SEM.

Instructor. 2003 18-20 January 2006 23-25 March 2006 176 . Oct. 1999 Presenting a paper named as “Sürdürülebilir ve Ekolojik Yüzey Malzemeleri” in “Mimari Biçimlendirmede Yüzey Sempozyumu” that was organized by Gazi University Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Department of Architecture and Chamber of Architecture in Ankara.Computer Aided Drawing I IMB 220 – Physical Environmental Control I IMB 313 . Presenting a paper named as “Hotel Renovation Projects and LCC in “CIB W107 International Symposium on Construction in Developing Economies: New Issues and Challenges” that was organized by CIB in Santiago.Technical Drawing ARCH 282.October 2005 . IMB 111. Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design. CHILE.2007 Spring Semesters FOREIGN LANGUAGES Advanced English. Taking task in organizing committee of ““CIB W62 2003 29th International Symposium on Water Supply and Drainage for Buildings” at September 11-12. 2002 – Sept.present Başkent University GSTMF. Presenting a paper named as “Designing Living Spaces In Contemporary Architecture” in “18th International Building and Life Congress” that was organized by Bursa Chamber of Architects in Bursa. Intermediate German CONFERENCES Sept.2007 Fall Semesters 2005 .Computer Aided Drawing II MUH 122. 2003 in Ankara .Physical Environmental Control II IMB 112.Environmental Design I (as Part-time Instructor) 2005 .

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