LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING MATERIALS IN HOTEL REFURBISHMENT PROJECTS: A CASE STUDY IN ANKARA

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

BY

AYŞEM BERRĐN ÇAKMAKLI

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN BUILDING SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE

JUNE 2007

Approval of the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Prof. Dr. Canan Özgen Director

I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Building Science.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Güven Arif Sargın Head of Department This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Building Science.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Soofia Elias Özkan Supervisor

Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Ömür Bakırer (METU, ARCH) Assoc Prof. Dr. Soofia T. Elias Özkan (METU, ARCH) Prof. Dr. Gülser Çelebi (GAZĐ Ünv., ARCH) Prof. Dr. Mutbul Kayılı (GAZĐ Ünv., ARCH) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arda Düzgüneş (METU, ARCH)

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I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last name : Ayşem Berrin Çakmaklı

Signature :

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especially hospitality facilities. water pollutants and solid wastes that contribute to negative environmental impacts. many building products are discarded much before the end of their service life. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology for assessing the environmental performance of products over their life time. especially as a result of refurbishment and renovation projects. Prof. statistical data related to refurbishment and renovation projects in Turkey were analyzed to determine the percentage of refurbishment projects for hotels. In this investigation. Bills of quantities for iv .. Department of Architecture in Building Science Supervisor: Assoc. This is particular to commercial buildings. The need for such projects is increasing because most buildings are not designed to accommodate changes in their functions and needs of their occupants. Ayşem Berrin Ph. Soofia Tahira Elias Özkan June 2007.D.ABSTRACT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING MATERIALS IN HOTEL REFURBISHMENT PROJECTS: A CASE STUDY IN ANKARA Çakmaklı. which are unique with regard to operational schemes and the type of services offered that are highly resource-intensive. 176 pages Buildings generate millions of tons of greenhouse gases. However. toxic air emissions. Dr.

with an aim to reducing material waste and harmful emissions. air pollution index. A system was formulated for evaluating materials according to each indicator by calculating their “eco-scores”. Hotel Buildings.refurbishment projects of three five-star hotels in Ankara were obtained and evaluated with regard to the volume and type of material discarded as a result of the renovation works. global warming potential and weighted resource use. the total score is considered to be the yard-stick for comparing environmental appropriateness of these materials. Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment. recommendations on the choice of materials were made. ATHENA. Environmental Friendly Materials. water pollution index. an LCA software. ATHENA software. solid waste. v . Renovations and Refurbishments. Finally. was used to evaluate these projects according to the six environmental impact indicators: primary energy consumption.

Dr. Yeni binalar inşa edilirken fonksiyon ve kullanıcı ihtiyacı gözardı edildiği için yenileme projeleri günden güne artmaktadır. Bu çalışmada. Türkiye’deki otellerde uygulanan yenileme projelerinin yüzdelerini belirlemek amacı ile yenileme projelerinin istatiksel verileri vi . Hayat döngüsü değerlendirmesi ise bu noktada ortaya çıkan ve bir malzemenin tüm hayat döngüsü içindeki çevresel etkilerini değerlendirmeyi kapsayan bir metoddur. Soofia Tahira Elias Özkan Haziran 2007. Ne yazık ki. 176 sayfa Binaların sebep olduğu milyonlarca ton sera gazı ve toksik gaz yayılımı. Mimarlık Bölümü. su ve katı kirliliği çevre üzerinde negatif bir etki yaratmaktadır. Tüm ticari binalar arasında. su ve enerji tüketimi kapasitelidir. pek çok bina malzemesi kendi servis sürelerini tamamlayamadan yenilenmektedirler. Yapı Bilimleri Tez Yöneticisi: Doç. konaklama sektörü işlem şemaları ve önerdikleri servisler dolayısı ile oldukça yüksek doğal kaynak.ÖZ ANKARA’DAKĐ BĐR ÇALIŞMA BAZ ALINARAK YENĐLEME PROJELERĐNDEKĐ BĐNA MALZEMELERĐNĐN HAYAT DÖNGÜLERĐNĐN DEĞERLENDĐRĐLMESĐ Çakmaklı. Ayşem Berrin Doktora.

Ankara’daki üç tane beş yıldızlı otelin yenileme projelerinin hakediş malzeme listeleri elde edildi. Herbir çevresel etki göstergesine göre ayrı ayrı değerlendirilen malzemeler için bir sistem formule edildi ve her malzemenin “ekolojik puanı” hesaplandı. Malzemeler çevreye uyumlulukları ve çevre dostlukları bakımından birbirleri ile. Yenileme ve Tadilat Projeleri. Bu göstergeler. hayat döngüsü değerlendirme programlarından ATHENA programı ile altı çevresel etki göstergelerine göre değerlendirildi.analiz edildi. hava ve su kirlilik düzeyi. vii . birincil enerji tüketimi. yenileme projelerinin kapsamı ve kullanılan malzemeler dikkate alınarak. zararlı emisyonlar ve küresel ısınma potensiyelleri azaltılabilsin. hesaplanan toplam eko-puanlarına göre karşılaştırıldı. Otel Binaları. enerji tüketimi. ATHENA programı. katı atık miktarı. küresel ısınma potansiyeli ve doğal kaynak kullanımıdır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Hayat Döngüsü Değerlendirmesi. katı atık miktarı. Bu veri. yenileme projelerinde kullanılan malzemelerin seçimi için bir öneri oluşturuldu. Sonuç olarak. ki çevreye verilen zarar. Çevreyle Dost Malzemeler.

TO MY DAUGHTER viii .

Dr. Prof. I would like to thank the technical departments of the case-study hotels for their help and guidance in obtaining data for this investigation. Finally. Dr. Prof. Soofia Tahira Elias Özkan for her guidance. Dr. I would like to thank my husband Serdar Çakmaklı and my little precious daughter Sıla for their endless love. I am grateful to my mother and father for their generous support and encouragement throughout my life. Gülser Çelebi. Ömür Bakirer. Prof. Arda Düzgüneş for their valuable comments and support. Dr. patience and supporting suggestions throughout the study. Mutbul Kayılı and Assoc. ix . Prof. Also to jury members Prof. Dr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude and special thanks to my supervisor Assoc. support and great patience throughout this endeavor.

.. Procedure……. ÖZ ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………..….... 2... LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………….2.…. Sustainable Architecture………………………….3..…………………………………….5. 2.….. LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………… LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....... 1...…. 2...... Objectives……....…………………………........5.…………………………………..3..…. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………...... 2. Disposition.1. 1 1 3 4 4 6 6 8 10 18 23 31 34 36 37 x . 1..….. Argument ……..1.4. COPYRIGHT NOTICES . Life Cycle Costing …….….….4. 2. Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings ……………. INTRODUCTION .………………………………………………. SURVEY OF LITERATURE .………………………….... Life Cycle Assessment of Hotel Buildings..….1..….….2..…………………………………….…..3.. 2.…………………………………….....…. Life Cycle Assessment of Renovations and Refurbishments.…………………………. 1... Service Life Prediction .. 2. Life Cycle Inventory Databases ...……………………………………..…..………. 2..1.. 1.…. Life Cycle Assessment..……….TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………….2.. 2. Life Cycle Assessment Tools ….2..……………………………………...5.... 2.3.………... iv vi ix xii xiv xvi xvii CHAPTER 1...

3.. 3.. BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………...... 4.. 3.....…….…….. CONCLUSION ………………….. Hotel Refurbishment Projects ......5... Simulation ………….4.. Data Compilation Process..2........…... APPENDIX A ……………………….….…………………....... …………………….3.….1...……………………………………... APPENDICES ……………….......1.……………………………….. LITERATURE CITED ………... APPENDIX B ………………………... APPENDIX C ……………………….…………………. 4.. 5..1.....1.. 3. Hypotheses Tested …………... RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .. Frequency of and Reasons for Hotel Refurbishment Projects .1. LCA Software …………..……………………………….………………….. Analysis of Materials According to Six LCA Indicators ………….…...…..………. 3.. 4.………………...…………………...………...…...1.…………………. CURRICULUM VITAE ……………………………………………. Statistical Data on Renovation and Refurbishment Projects …..…...……………………………….... MATERIAL AND METHOD ..1...1. ……………………...………………………………….... Discussion on Statistical Data for Refurbishment Projects . Material ……………………………………………. Data Generated by Software ...3.……....3.……………………………….…………………........ Methodology………………………………………. 3.2....2....... 3.....3..…………………..…………………..3.... Bills of Quantities of Three Refurbishment Projects …………. Case Study Buildings …………………….…………………..... Choice of Materials for Refurbishment Projects………………………... 5..3. Further Investigations ....2. 3. Tests of Hypotheses .... 5...…………………..2....………………………………..…... 43 43 43 44 48 51 52 55 55 59 61 61 66 71 79 83 91 91 94 100 101 107 110 110 117 167 175 xi .…..2...…... 3.....………………….. 4.….2.... 4.………………………………….... 4..2.1.... 5.

... BOQ of guestroom floors of three hotels included common materials in all cases and used in the software Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel A obtained from ATHENA software ……………………….1 3.. Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel B obtained from ATHENA software ………………………..11 4.5 4.10 4.3 4.1 4. Paired-sample t-test results – weighted resource use … The impacts of seven materials according to six indicators in three hotels …………………………………. refurbishment and demolition stage……. Derived bill of quantities for renovation works in the three five-star hotels in Ankara. Possible impacts and mitigation measures at the maintenance...8 4. relevant to building services plant.. Paired-sample t-test results – water pollution index ….. Examples of factors.9 4... xii 25 32 42 49 58 58 72 73 74 74 76 79 80 81 81 82 82 83 .2 3.LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.3 4.6 4. Turkey ………………… Air pollution index value and corresponding pollutant concentrations according to EPA ……………………….7 4. Air pollution index and air quality grading regards to health ………………………………………………………. Paired-sample t-test results – solid waste ……………… Paired-sample t-test results – air pollution index ………...3 3. Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel C obtained from ATHENA software ………………………..2 2. Paired-sample t-test results – global warming potential..12 Different sets of LCA parameters in ATHENA software for the “Wall” object ……………………………………….1 2. The comparisons of cases according to six indicators per m2 ………………………………………………………. Paired-sample t-test results – primary energy consumption ……………………………………………….2 4.4 4.

Comparison of 5 LCA tools according to different topics ATHENA products …….8 B.. Number of municipality licensed accommodation establishments in Ankara ………………………………. Operating energy consumptions of hotels……………….13 4..1 C..…. Completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building ………………………….9 B.2 A... Air pollution profile of Turkey ……………………………..1 A.List of Tables.11 C.6 B..1 5....… Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2003 ………… Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2000 ………. An example budget list of Hotel B ……………………….2 C..3 xiii .7 129 146 164 165 166 167 168 171 B.3 The mean values of impacts of materials according to six indicators ………………………………………………. during the 5 year period of 2000-2005…………………………………………………. The paired-sample t-test tables ………………………….... The impacts of seven materials during life cycle stages according to six LCA indicators ………………….………………………………….…………………..1 B.2 B... (continued) 4. Proposed Matrix ………. Total bill of quantities of three case studies ……………. 84 88 96 98 110 114 117 119 122 124 125 127 B..………………………………….10 B..14 5. Precautions versus impacts of LCA indicators…………. Data related to the different types of alterations and renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara.2 B. Calculated air pollution index value ….5 B. Electricity profile of Turkey ……………………………….4 B. Buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by year and use of building ………………… Number of qualified and unqualified municipality establishments and rooms in Turkey by types and years ……………………………………………………….

The four phases of LCA …………………………………..4 2.………………….. B. B.3 3.1 Summary of life cycle assessment procedure proposed by the Royal Society of Chemistry ….2…………………………………………….. The number of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B.7 2.2 3.2 62 4.3. Elements of the LCIA phase …………………………….3 2.5.2…………………………………………….1 2.5 2.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 2.. Environmental interventions and economic flows……… Inputs to building data store ……………………………… Processes for developing a localized database ……….1 3.4 4. Facility and material life cycle …………………………….. Different types ends-of-life scenarios …………………… Stages of building life cycle ……………………………….6 2.. Data related to the number of tourism establishments in Turkey and Ankara derived from Table B.2 2.6…………………………………………………………… 12 13 16 18 20 21 23 27 30 33 35 40 45 46 47 54 62 4. B.3 63 xiv .10 2.8 2.... the project database and the external databases …………. Lifecycle of a hotel ………………………………………… Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel A ………………… Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel B ………………… Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel C ………………… The methodology adapted by the author ………………..11 2..12 3.4.9 2. The relationships among the building data scheme. Global warming potential values and lifetimes from IPCC ………………………………………………………. Total floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B..

….5 65 67 67 67 70 70 75 75 76 78 78 78 85 86 87 88 89 90 4.9 4.. (continued) 4. Comparison of seven materials according to the weighted resource use……………………………………. Comparison of seven materials according to the solid waste ………………………………………………………. Typical standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment….2.. air pollution index and global warming potential……….8 4..6 4...14 4.. air pollution index and global warming potential.20 4.List of Figures. Appendix B……………………………………. xv 2 64 4. The impacts of three hotels per m according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use……….17 4.19 4. Comparison of seven materials according to the primary energy consumption …………………………….21 4.………… The impacts of three hotels according to solid waste. Comparison of seven materials according to the API. during the 6 year period of 2000-2006.10 4.11 4. The faucet fittings and marble claddings in typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment………… Typical bathroom of a standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment …………………………………………….… The impacts of three hotels according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use ……… The impacts of three hotels according to WPI .……………………. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to solid waste. Comparison of seven materials according to the global warming potential …………………………………………..16 4..7 4..22 .. Typical standard suit of Hotel A after refurbishment ….18 4. Comparison of seven Materials according to the WPI….12 4.15 4.13 4.7.4 Number of buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by year and use of building derived from Table B. Data related to the different types of renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to WPI…. derived from Table B. Typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment..……………..

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ISO LCA BOQ LCC ASTM AIA IEA SETAC LCI LCIA UNEP NREL EIE API WPI GWP IPCC RSLC ESLC USEPA EPA APAT : International Standards Organization : Life Cycle Assessment : Bill of Quantities : Life Cycle Costing : American Society for Testing and Materials : American Institute of Architects : International Energy Agency : Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry : Life Cycle Inventory : Life Cycle Inventory Assessment : The United Nations Environment Program : The National Renewable Energy Laboratory : Environmental Impact Estimator : Air Pollution Index : Water Pollution Index : Global Warming Potential : International Panel on Climate Change : Reference Service Life of Components : Estimated Service Life of Components : United States Environmental Protection Agency : Environmental Protection Agency : The Italian National Agency for the Protection of the Environment and for Technical Services TURKSTAT : Turkish Agency for Statistics xvi .

02 ® licensed to METU licensed to METU licensed to Ayşem Berrin Çakmaklı xvii .COPYRIGHT NOTICES Microsoft Office SPSS 11® for Windows® ATHENA EIE v 3.

become unquestionable threats to environment. most buildings of today have. the building sector. and the environment. as well as global scales. construction and operation of buildings that improves their relationship with their environment and their occupants. including housing. However. construction 1 . the community. 1.and are continuing to. the need for including quality in environmental management and extending it in time on a sustainable basis has become vital. of environmentally friendly materials that have closed loops. together with a precise of the procedure followed in its conduct and the disposition of the topics within the thesis.1. The term “sustainability” denotes an approach to the design. Buildings should benefit humans. Sustainable.INTRODUCTION In this chapter are presented the argument for and the objectives of the study. buildings include appropriate use of land and landscaping. comprises 30 to 40% of the world’s total energy demand and approximately 44% of total material use.and long-term environmental and economic problems on local. this causes both short. Argument As the population of the world continues to expand. According to Li (2006: 1414). In turn.CHAPTER I 1. and require attention to the life cycle effects of their design. as they consume significant quantities of energy at all stages of their life time. or “green”.

When LCA methodology is applied to a building product. as far as possible. On the other hand.in its relation to the environment due to its energy use and emission should be assessed. that the service life of the component will be at least as long as its design life”. 2 . Hence. it is seen that an important parameter in LCA of buildings and building materials is the prediction of service life to make accurate comment about the environmental impact. without incurring large unexpected expenditures. Even though certain materials have a long life span. The objective of service life planning according to ISO 15686-1 is: “to assure. it was seen that the number of renovation and alteration projects has increased significantly during the past few years for reasons other than the unsatisfactory condition of the spaces or change in their functions. they are not required to live it through and some material is discarded regardless of its good condition. While examining the building construction data. Service life planning aims at enabling designers to optimize resource use by ensuring that the building will last for the lifespan that the occupants determine. This assessment has to include the whole life of the building which is why ISO Standard 14040 evolved regarding Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of products. Defining sustainable materials and encouraging their use with a better integration of LCA techniques and LCA-based decision support tools are important to improve environmental quality. the entire building process -from cradle to grave or even from cradle to cradle. it seems that there is no relationship between structural materials and the service life of a building and that buildings are most likely to be demolished much before useful life of their structural systems end. usefulness or life span such as in the case of the hospitality sector.and operation stages.

3 . LCA is a methodology that can be adapted to this end. To determine the types and amounts of material being replaced during hotel refurbishment projects. Environmental management in hotels is an important step towards achieving sustainable tourism and contributing to sustainable development. from raw material acquisition through production.2. To determine the volume of renovation works in the Turkish hospitality sector.Hotels are one of commercial buildings which have the highest negative impact on the environment. To determine the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects and to understand the necessity for such projects. To assess the environmental impacts of the materials most commonly replaced during refurbishment projects by using a life cycle assessment tool (ATHENA). 1. For this reason. and to classify the materials used for this purpose from the point of view of environmental impact indicators. They need to follow technological improvements and apply them to their design processes at appropriate intervals because maintaining high standards for customers are really significant if they are to remain competitive. Objectives The objectives of this study were: • • • • • To determine the volume of renovation works in Turkey. It involves environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout the life of a product. Renovation or refurbishment in hotels offers opportunities for promoting energy-efficient measures and exploitation of renewable energy resources. use and disposal. there is a need to evaluate the environmental impact of hotel refurbishment projects. especially in larger cities.

Procedure This study focused on assessing the refurbishment projects of three fivestar hotels in Ankara. 1. At the third stage of the study.4. along with their architectural drawings. 4 . data on bills of quantities (BOQ) for renovation projects of the three hotels and their operating energy consumption were obtained. and a general outline of the procedure of the study. 1. At the first stage of the study. These selected materials were assessed with an LCA software called ATHENA. a system was proposed for comparing environmental appropriateness of the materials used in three case projects. the objectives of. data which were generated by the LCA tool were summarized in graphs and tables and statistically evaluated.3. It concludes with the disposition of the thesis. Ankara Chamber of Architects and the Ministry of Tourism. Disposition The study consists of five chapters. the importance of renovation / refurbishment projects in Turkey was assessed by examining official data available from The Turkish Agency for Statistics (TURKSTAT). Administrative staff was also informally interviewed to gather information on the frequency of and reasons for these renovations. An analysis of these BOQ necessitated an environmental impact analysis of the various materials replaced during the refurbishment projects. The first one is composed of the argument for.• To analyze the data statistically in order to arrive at reliable conclusions. Based on findings. At the second stage. in terms of their environmental impacts.

life cycle costing. simulation procedure and statistical tests. life cycle assessment. Then data generated by the LCA software (ATHENA). the statistical analyses of these data using paired-sample ttest and the comparative evaluation of the three case studies and seven common materials are given. Finally. life cycle assessment of buildings/hotels. further investigations and recommendations are stated in Chapter 5. 5 . service life prediction.Chapter 2 comprises of the literature survey in which 50 published works and 5 web sites are included covering topics of sustainable architecture. and the importance of renovations in the life cycle of hotels. which includes the statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey. life cycle inventory databases and their importance. information on three five-star hotels in Ankara. Chapter 4 presents discussion on statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey and the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects. Chapter 3 is composed of the survey material. and the LCA software and methodology that includes data compilation process. a matrix which is derived from this investigation and can be used to enable designers to choose the suitable material in order to reduce damage to the natural environment. the grouped data derived from the bill of quantities for guestroom floors of the three hotel refurbishment projects.

SURVEY OF LITERATURE This literature review covers a total of 50 published sources and 5 websites. To render the presentation of the concept of life cycle assessment and. The world is faced with the problem of global warming. life cycle assessment of buildings/hotels. owing to the increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that have raised the temperature of the earth above its natural equilibrium level. 2. life cycle inventory databases. Sustainable Architecture Sustainable development is “the challenge of meeting growing human needs for natural resources. It consists of topics related to sustainable architecture. industrial products. life cycle assessment tools. food. increased durability of buildings and components are important factors to be considered in sustainable architecture. 1994: 5).1. life cycle costing. and the importance of renovations in the life cycle of hotels. Reduced consumption of energy in use.CHAPTER 2 2. for clarity. general definitions have been given which are supported by examples. transportation shelter and effective waste management while conserving and protecting environmental quality and the natural resource base essential for future life“ (Bartelmus. service life prediction. and their importance. energy. life cycle assessment. life cycle assessment of hotel refurbishment projects as systematically as possible. 6 . specifically.

The authors asserted that key design issues regarding sustainable architecture which were in confirmation with the European Commission’s directives were: selecting materials with their environmental effects in mind. which consisted of the planning phase. benefits could include resource and energy efficiency. water efficiency. lighting. high indoor air quality. landforms. the design. loss of biodiversity and pollution. good waste management. (1996: 178). which use minimum energy during their life cycle assessment and cause no problem to the environment. Edwards (1998: 169) stated that the large section of the building sector generally use natural. if sustainable design principles were incorporated into building projects. effective lighting. to be sufficient for themselves and to decrease site clearing costs by minimizing site disruption. Crosbie’s (1994) argument for sustainable architecture is based on the “green building’s” multidisciplinary approach to cradle-to-cradle understanding. Sustainable principles were applied to buildings by using such natural resources as the sun. and natural vegetation to provide heating. designing according to the durability of materials and components. healthy buildings and materials. to use renewable energy. According to Osso et al. ventilation. wind. and the ultimate reuse or recycle phase. mostly non-renewable resources and this leads to resource depletion. ecologically and socially sensitive land use. selecting environmentally preferable building materials was one way to improve a building’s environmental performance. The building materials. should be the only choice.According to the Rocky Mountain Institute (2003). destruction of valuable landscapes. construction and operation phase. cooling. 7 . energy conservation. transportation efficiency. and strengthened local economies and communities. ventilation. He classified the main cornerstones of green building as to supply thermal comfort.

reusing or recycling building components at the end of their lifespan. and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were determined as two complementary methodologies. ASTM (E917: 83) formulates the following relationship for LCC on a ‘before-tax’ basis: LCC=C+R+S+A+M+E. Life Cycle Costing (LCC). where C=investment costs. The American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) defined the LCC method in terms of ASTM. allowing for change in building use over time. allowing replacement of facades and internal partitioning without structural disturbance. 2.designing for flexibility.2. requiring contractors to use eco-friendly cleaning materials during construction and at final clean up. and maintenance and repair of an investment decision (expressed in present or annual value terms)”. 8 . replacements.(including energy use). R=capital replacement costs. Life Cycle Costing to Hochschorner and Finnveden (2003). operations. E833: 84: “a technique of economic evaluation that sums over a given study period the costs of initial investment (less resale value). focusing on easy maintenance of components and systems for long life and low emissions. which measure the performances of products or systems in the units appropriate to each emission type or effect category. sustainable According development required methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for the provision of goods and services. incorporating a methodology for dismantling buildings.

S=resale value of investment at end of study period. Zhang (1999: 12) argues that there is a comprehensive. functional use costs. alteration and improvement costs. 77): initial capital investment cost. M=non-recurrent operating. Zhang (1999: 14-15) also states that the initial cost includes construction and project related costs which are the most critical of the costs associated with design alternatives. The general methodology for LCC is to study all relevant costs associated with the building at an appropriate time period in order to measure economic performance. replacement costs. Costs included in LCC somewhat differed depending on the description of the method. operation and maintenance costs. systematic and consistent basis for applying LCC technique in buildings and building systems. and repair cost 9 . maintenance and repair costs. financing costs. maintenance and repair cost. these relevant costs were: Initial cost. salvage costs. the operation cost comprises of the major cost items in this category which are energy cost and personnel salaries required to operate the facility and maintenance. and E=energy costs. On the other hand. A=annually recurring operating and repair costs (except energy costs). operation cost. The American Institute of Architects had established the following cost categories (AIA.

• ground level ozone (smog) creation.”. human health and environmental health. evaluating the potential environmental impact associated with those inputs and outputs. • toxic releases to air. • global warming potential. water and land. As defined by IS0 14040 (1997: iii). “LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product. According to Trusty (2003) environmental performance is generally measured in terms of several potential effects. According to Ehlen (1997). such as: • fossil fuel depletion. • stratospheric ozone depletion. 2. by: compiling an inventory of environmentally relevant inputs and outputs of a system. 10 . It was important to assess a given choice among alternative choices after considering all relevant economic consequences over its life cycle. • nitrification / eutrophication of water bodies. the point was to be aware of the common tendency to focus only on the initial cost.3. Life Cycle Assessment The philosophy of life cycle is the essence of ecological design which depends on the overall impacts of a product. interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study. • acidification and acid deposition (dry and wet). • water use.includes preventive and corrective maintenance costs. • other non-renewable resource use. The general categories of the environmental impact to be considered include resource use. custodial care and minor replacement costs.

refinement and conversion of these to process materials. use and disposal of a product. transportation and distribution at each stage. The Royal Society of Chemistry (1998: 2) defines the LCA for a product as a summation of individual impacts from the stages listed below and defines the procedure of LCA as shown in Figure 2. manufacturing and packaging processes. and disposal at the end of its useful life. The ‘cradle’ is defined as the place where or moment when the raw materials or resources are taken from Nature into the technical system and the ‘grave’ is defined as the place where and/or the time when the products or used resources return to Nature. The indicators did not directly address the ultimate human or ecosystem health effects.The same author points out that all of these measures are indicators of environmental loadings that could result from the manufacture.1. extraction of the relevant raw materials. waste treatment. 11 . According to Paulsen (2001). but provide good measures of environmental performance. LCA is a dynamic and iterative assessment process which assesses the environmental impacts of products and services from a cradle-to-grave perspective. final transportation. operation or use during its lifetime.

the inventory analysis phase. the impact assessment phase and the interpretation phase which are explained in more detail in the following section. Summary of life cycle assessment procedure proposed by the Royal Society of Chemistry (1998: 3). 12 .2.1. that involves four interrelated phases. ISO 14040 Standard (1997: 4) proposes a framework.Figure 2. seen in Figure 2. In order to adapt the application of the assessment process to any product or system. the goal and scope definition phase.

data quality requirements. The four phases of LCA. and a critical review process. 1997: 4). The International Energy Agency (IEA) (2001) pointed out the importance of the scope of any study in Annex 31 and added that the scope of the 13 .Figure 2. (Source: ISO 14040 Standard. system boundaries. and Borg (2003) indicated that a well-defined goal was needed to motivate the choice of the most suitable system boundaries that identify the extent to which specific processes were included or excluded. The overall objectives of the study should be given in a clear and concise statement with the reasons for carrying out the study and intended use of the results detailed. Similarly Erlandsson.2. and assumptions should also be clearly stated and so that they are easily understood. data categories. The methodology. i. the first important step of any LCA was the definition of the goal and scope including functional units. Goal and Scope Definition Phase Paulsen (2001) determined that. The choice of elements of the physical system was dependent on the definition of the goal and scope of the study.

Comparisons between systems could be made on the basis of the same function. hence. The results of LCA are only valid for well-defined goals and scopes. which is the smallest unit in an LCA. it may become necessary to revise both goal and scope during the analysis due to the lack of data or important findings and this causes LCA to be iterative. Data quality goals and methodology should thus be clearly established and detailed. In short. 1997). during the inventory analysis. processing routes. According to The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC. ii. The data required for an LCA study are dependent on the goal of the study. along with the justification for the assumptions. in case there is a lack of data. this phase is concerned with data collection and calculation procedures. the system boundaries that define and structure the system under assessment identify the extent to which specific processes are included or excluded.study should be defined in sufficient detail to enable the study to address the stated objectives. The performance or service of the product could be comparable to the service or performance of another product. spatial and temporal considerations. and quantified by the same functional unit. The usefulness of a product and the actual function of the system in a measurable and quantitative way should be identified through its functional unit. not the product itself. which could be expressed by various measures. According to IEA (2001). Inventory Analysis Phase ISO 14041 Standard (1998E) defines inventory analysis as the process of compiling the amount of natural resources and energy taken in by the system and the amount of wastes discharged to the environment from the system for each functional unit. Inventory data is related to reference flows for each 14 . it is important to refine the system boundaries for all stages of the product system life cycle including inputs. Every activity in the process tree is divided into unit processes.

These procedures should reflect the physical behavior of the system since allocation of building materials is complicated by the large time spans encountered in the lifetime of buildings. characterization as mandatory elements and calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference values. Impact Assessment Phase According to ISO 14042 Standard (2000: 2). ancillary materials and energy/fuel production are then formulated. the purpose of the impact assessment phase is to examine the product system from an environmental perspective using impact categories and category indicators connected with LCI results to better understand their environmental significance. which are: category definition. Process flow charts describing the complete system. normalization. iii. 15 . This phase could be subdivided into four steps. main production sequence.unit process in order to quantify and normalize input and output to the functional unit being investigated.3. as seen in Figure 2. classification. grouping and weighting as optional elements. Erlandsson and Borg (2003) determined that any allocation procedures related to inputs and outputs of the multifunctional system should be fully detailed and explained. Data would then be aggregated in order to prepare an input-output table for this product or service.

Categories are ranked according to their relative importance to each other and numerical values are assigned to them to represent degrees of the significance. (Source: ISO 14042 Standard. firstly the categories and category indicators are used to provide guidance for selecting and defining the environmental categories. for ease and clarity of 16 . The indicator chosen is used to represent the overall change or loading in the category. therefore contributions to impact categories are expressed using an equivalency factor.3. The author points out that for each impact category. the classification step is done to assign inventory input and output data to the pre-defined impact categories. the relative importance of the contributing substances can be modeled and quantified. Paulsen (2001: 8-9) indicated that. This is a qualitative step.Figure 2. which is based on scientific analysis or an understanding of the relevant environmental processes. 2000: 3). while making an assessment. Then. Elements of the LCIA phase. hence it is important to possess the ability to model the categories in terms of standardized indicators for the characterization step.

Sensitivity check: to assess the reliability of the final results and conclusions by determining whether they are affected by uncertainties in the data. The ISO 14043 Standard (2000: 5-6) recommends three techniques using during the evaluation phase. If two product alternatives or systems are compared and one alternative shows higher consumption of each material and of each resource. the life cycle interpretation phase of an LCA study includes three elements. a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the reliability and validity of results with particular respect to key assumptions made in calculations. Interpretation Phase According to ISO 14043 Standard (2000: 2). evaluation of the underlying study. iv. an interpretation that is based purely on the LCI can be conclusive. conclusions. uncertainty or missing data and dependence on particular data sets. These are: Completeness check: to ensure that all relevant information and data needed for the interpretation are available and complete. recommendations and reporting. scope and boundary settings. allocation methods or calculation of category indicator results. Firstly. identification of the significant issues based on the results. Consistency check: to determine whether the assumptions. According to SETAC (1997). methods and data are consistent with the goal and scope.decision-making. 17 . Such weighting is especially helpful when attempting to reduce LCA to a single score for the environmental impact and then making overall comparisons between alternative buildings and designs. and completeness and consistency of results. the whole analysis consists of discussions regarding data quality.

2002: 4). 18 .4. 2003).1. According to Zhang et al. as even durable products might be replaced quickly for aesthetic or economic reasons. second their service life is highly variable. Estimating the useful service life of any material can introduce a high level uncertainty in the results of any LCA study. consistency. (2006). and especially the assumptions and systems used to translate inputs and outputs into measures of environmental impact. LCAs of building materials are different from those for disposable items like packaging. Life Cycle Inventory Databases Life cycle assessment was originally developed in 1969 for internal use by manufacturers considering options for product development when a certain soft drink producer wanted to determine the environmental impact of switching from glass to plastic bottles (Ecobilan. the methods used to compile inventories. building materials tend to have a relatively long service life.3. Figure 2. Malin (2002: 3) classified the main problematic areas in LCA studies of buildings to be the quality. The author’s description of the facility and material life cycle is shown in Figure 2.4. and availability of data on products and processes. Facility and material life cycle (Source: Malin.2. for two reasons: firstly.

last access 19. but the environmental impacts of these flows.05.ca/papers/down_papers/. which is developed and maintained through the LCI process. LCA methods varied but typically involve use of databases with LCA related data for various materials and building components and systems.2007). A full product LCA requires the combination of several unit process LCI data modules (http://www. Ekvall (2005) further points out that key issues in data collection includes: improving the efficiency and quality of data collection. Data collection requires many assumptions and it may be impossible at times to ensure that the inventories of inputs and outputs are compiled consistently.Trusty (2003) argues that life cycle inventory data should come from manufacturers. how to facilitate LCI data exchange and presentation. According to the ISO Standard 14042 (2000: 2). According to Ekvall (2005: 1). or from pre-existing databases. trade organizations. The LCI database contains data modules that quantify the material and energy flows into and out of the environment for common unit processes. Data from any of these sources would vary in accuracy depending on how they were collected and compiled and how current they were. First of all. This process was the critical step that tracks and records the basic resource and waste flows to and from the environment. how to assess data quality. one of the fundamental tasks in LCA procedures was the determination of the quantity and type of the materials in a building.athenasmi. At the heart of an LCA model lies the database. it is not the inputs and outputs that are the issue. LCI of a product or process has to be analyzed from the point 19 .

of view of environmental issues. (Source: Guinee 2002: 479). the different types of environmental impacts are organized by LCA practitioners into a series of impact categories. and so on.5. Figure 2. an impact category like 20 . ozone depletion. However. such as global warming. Impacts such as global warming and ozone depletion are estimated based on internationally established methods that convert emissions of a wide range of gases to a cumulative impact measurable on a single scale. Whereas. diminished human health. Guinee (2002: 479) showed the inputs and outputs of environmental interventions and economic flows in Figure 2. Malin (2002) indicates that the LCA methods used to translate inventories into potential impacts. while assessing a unit process or a product system. “aims to examine the product system from an environmental perspective using impact categories and category indicators connected with the LCI results”.5. Environmental interventions and economic flows. According to UNEP-SETAC (2003: 9). resource depletion. This process. known as life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA). acidification. ecosystem toxicity.

and therefore the methodology used for impact assessment is less consistent. The main difficulty encountered in the comparative data analysis can be due to the different data presentation formats encountered in the inventories.ecosystem toxicity is much more complex to quantify.6. the weighted life cycle inventory data for materials and processes could be used to perform simplified environmental assessments of different designs. According to Paulsen (2001). it was important to add specific manufacturing and use-phase data to construct more complete LCAs. As stated in IEA Annex 31 (2001). Figure 2. (Source: Chanter and Swallow. based on knowledge of specific products and their applications. Specific end-of-life data for products that represent recycling or other final disposition of product systems should be added in order to assess the full life cycle. 1996: 167). Inputs to building data store. Chanter and Swallow (1996: 167) showed the inputs of this full life cycle of buildings in Figure 2.6. Most of the individual product data sets have been developed with the cooperation of associations or companies that operate in countries by using common 21 .

S. Public availability of the LCI data would make LCAs easier to perform. According to NREL (2003: 1-2). guidelines for LCA. The quality of life cycle data and the easy access to the databases are prerequisites to establish LCA as a reliable tool for environmental assessment. Ultimately. regional differentiation that properly reflects critical regional variations within and across industry sectors. or the data are not verifiable. The Importance of National Life Cycle Inventory Databases Trusty (2003) pointed out that. meet specific transparency criteria. Localization of the data is essential in order to obtain LCA results that are relevant to the geographical region concerned. a national database can then be established to serve the needs of the potential data users. and full accessibility in a format(s) designed to maximize use. the development of reliable LCI data typically required considerable expert time inputs and expense. Although there are a few LCI databases available in the market. proprietary LCI databases should be taken as the source for LCI model data by making appropriate adjustments to the process models. comprehensive LCI databases. 22 . ARUP Group (2004) insists that input data should reflect the impacts due to consumption of resources and environmental emissions of all functional units.technologies. uniform treatment of all materials and products. access to the information contained in them is generally restricted or protected by copyright agreements. This localized process is presented in Figure 2. LCAs are generally considered to be too expensive and time consuming because of the lack of widely available. critically reviewed. such a database should have the following criteria: Consistency with ISO standards and U.7 below.

Qualitative methods are based on assigning a score to each investigated parameter. focusing on energy use in buildings. Reijnders and Roekel (1999) divides environmental assessment tools into two classes: qualitative tools based on scores and criteria.7. 2. indoor climate. and quantitative tools using a physical life-cycle approach with quantitative input and output data related to flows of matter and energy.. (Source: ARUP. building materials containing hazardous substances etc. many tools for the assessment of the built environment. quantitative approaches are based on a combination of calculation and 23 . Processes for developing a localized database. the sick building syndrome. hence interest in environmental assessments of the built environment is also rising.Figure 2. the need for environmentally related information has been increasing with the rising interest and demand from policy makers to achieve a sustainable society. Life Cycle Assessment Tools According to Trinius (1999). resulting in one or several overall scores of a building. On the other hand. 2004: 7).2. Consequently.3. have been devised.

using bases compatible with formal ISO. and E10 .evaluation methods. such as life cycle costs. EcoEffect (Sweden). Examples of popular qualitative tools are LEED BREAM. life cycle environmental effects. such as LEED (US). and a few combine more than one of these areas. In this investigation. Hence. 24 . Level 2 Tools focuses on a specific area of concern. ATHENA has been used to assess the case study. social. SimaPro and TEAM assesses the materials individually. and EcoProfile. databases are used to manage information on quantities involved in calculation methods. or national standards and guidelines. and those of quantitative tools can be listed as ATHENA. Examples of level 2 tools are: ATHENA. GBTool (International). while base values and specific benchmarks are used for evaluation of the results.g. and EcoEffect.: Level 1 Tools such as BEES. These tools are considered to be building decision support tools. BEAT 2000. EcoQuantum. or operating energy. BEES. Trusty (2000: 18-19) classifies LCA tools into 3 levels according to the level of outputs e. and hold on. ASTM. ASHRAE. DOE2. Level 3 Tools provided a very broad coverage of environmental. This classification is also accepted as qualitative method of whole building assessment frameworks or systems. economic. Envest. and other issues relevant to sustainability. it can be valuable for building databases and for making comparisons and choices but can not be used to make whole building design decisions.These were consistently data-oriented and objective. In this process. lighting. Level 3 tools used a mix of objective and subjective data that depend on Level 2 tools for the objective data. GBTool. BREEAM (Canada/UK).

2007). The site-specificity of the data is defined through basic project inputs such as the city location. foundations and envelope systems of a building. Of these ATHENA Environmental Impact Estimator (EIE).05.athenasmi. and not to the categories of building assemblies. The structure of life cycle information in the ATHENA model is specific to particular building assemblies and construction methods. last access 19.ca/database.2007). As Trusty (2000) points out design teams can use ATHENA® directly to carry out assessments of the structural systems. Object Wood Stud Wall Parameters Assembly name Length Height Openings (area) Stud size Stud spacing Insulation type Sheathing type Finish type Object Concrete Block Wall Parameters Assembly name Length Height Openings (area) Block size Rebar size Insulation type Finish type (Source: http://www.1: Different sets of LCA parameters in ATHENA software for the “Wall” object. the parameters for the "Wall" object in an LCA model are defined according to the type of assembly seen in Table 2. while the assembly-specificity of the data is derived from the bill of materials of any building project (http://www.05. 25 .A comparison of the above mentioned tools is presented in Table A.athenasmi.1. is an LCA software developed by ATHENA Sustainable Materials Institute in Canada for life cycle assessment of buildings. For example. Table 2. The expected life of a component can be input as expected life of the structure and the operating energy conversion calculator module can be used to enter the building’s annual operating energy by fuel type. last access 19.ca/. Existing LCI provides the assembly-specific and site-specific data that is needed for the integrated simulation environment for an LCA analysis.1 (Appendix A).

(2001) indicated that it is difficult to abstract or fit into common structural frameworks of building data modeling so the definitions of new building objects which were stored in external databases were used to create alternative options.gc. in order to assess any building with ATHENA. thus redefinition of existing building objects is not required.2 (Appendix A) (http://www. Extra Basic Materials. The data used in this software are designed to make the LCA task as easy as possible for architects and engineers who need answers about the environmental implications of their decisions.2006). each individual building assembly is added as a new building object to the building data schema. or complete building assemblies. last access 08. It had approximately 25 “Assembly Types” which are combination of elements / components in the “Assembly Groups” (Beams and Columns. Walls). These databases can be dynamic and continuously updated by manufacturers of building components and systems. 26 .8. Pal et al. External databases can be used to select options for building components and systems during the development of the project database. The relationships among the building data scheme. According to IEA-BCS (1999).ca/es/etb. and/or by services and organizations.06. without breaking the existing schema.nrcan. the project database and the external databases can be seen in Figure 2. Foundations. The building elements are further divided into 2 kinds of products: structural and envelope products seen in Table A. Floors and Roofs.ATHENA is focused on the level of whole buildings.

After any building design is entered in the EIE using building assembly dialogues. 3). 2003: 6): • • • Embodied primary energy consumption. 27 . (Source: Pal et al.8. solid waste emissions. the project database and the external databases. The relationships among the building data scheme. region-specific implications of a design in terms of a detailed list of flows from and to nature in the following summary measures (Trusty. 2001. global warming potential. the user can see the cradle-to-grave..Figure 2.

28 .• • • pollutants to air. The construction stage includes product/component transportation from the point of manufacture to the building site and on-site construction activities. pollutants to water. i. The operation and maintenance stage comprised of life cycle maintenance and replacement activities associated with the structure and envelope components. concrete solid waste (CSW).ca/. ii. blast furnace dust (BOF).2007). Solid waste is composed of recovered matter resulting from the production and delivery (packaging) process which were bark/wood waste (WFiber). blast furnace slag ( BFS). These summary measures are obtained from four different life stages which are manufacturing. LPG. coal. resource transportation and manufacturing of specific materials. steel waste. used to transform or transport raw materials into products and buildings. The last stage. and natural resource use. construction. Embodied primary energy consumption includes all energy. The energy types are determined to be electricity. Manufacturing stage included resource extraction. It is measured in kilograms. diesel fuel. wood. hydraulic energy. simulated demolition energy and final disposition of the materials incorporated in a building at the end of building's life (http://www. operations and maintenance and building end of life. products or building components.athenasmi. last access 19. This indicator is measured in mega-joules. natural gas. including inherent energy contained in raw or feedstock materials that were also used as common energy sources. direct and indirect. Definitions of the six indicators as formulated by Norris (2002) are given in the following paragraphs. end of life. heavy fuel oil and feedstock fuels.05.

dissolved organic compounds. nitrogen oxides (NOx). iv. GWP is measured in kilograms. non-methane hydrocarbons (NMH). nitrous oxides (N2O). phenols. sulphides. nitrates. particulates and fumes. Global warming potential (GWP) is used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure. Air pollution is measured in grams. sulphates. Air emission types are composed of carbon monoxide (CO). acids. A gas which is quickly removed from the atmosphere might initially have a large effect but for longer time periods it becomes less important due to dissipation. ammonium. 100-year time horizon figures determined by the International Panel on Climate 29 . sulphur oxides (SOx). Air pollution index (API) displays the emissions to air for each air emission type by life cycle stage inclusive of structural and envelope effects as well as annual operating energy. Carbon dioxide is considered to be the common reference standard for global warming or greenhouse gas effects. while a substance's GWP depends on the time span over which the potential is calculated. acid gases. iron and heavy metals. hydrogen chloride (HCl). chemical oxygen demand (COD). suspended solids (SusSol). It captures the pollution or human health effects of groups of substances emitted at various life cycle stages. aluminum (Al). non-ferrous metals (NFM). polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). phosphates. methane (CH4). and metals. halogenated organics (HO). phenols. dissolved solids (DisSol).iii. All other greenhouse gases are referred to as having a "CO2 equivalence effect" which is simply a multiple of the greenhouse potential (heat trapping capability) of carbon dioxide. v. phosphorus. cyanide (Cyn). It is measured in milligrams. volatile organic compounds (VOC). Water pollution index (WPI) displays the emissions to water and can comprise of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). oil and grease. chlorides (Cl).

Global warming potential values and lifetimes from IPCC. sand. vi.2007). fine aggregate.cornell. Figure 2. uranium and natural gas. The weighted resource use is measured in kilograms. Weighted resource use includes the amount of raw resources used to manufacture each building product. ash. clay and shale (ClSh). 30 .Change (IPCC) are used in ATHENA as a basis for the equivalence index in Figure 2. (Source: http://people. These raw sources can be limestone (LStn).gif.ccmr. last access 19.9.05. semi-cementitous material (SCM). phenol form resins.9: CO2 Equivalent kg = CO2 kg + (CH4 kg x 23) + (N2O kg x 296). gypsum. iron ore (IOre). coarse aggregate.edu/~plh2/group/glbwarm/potent.

these could rarely be used directly. and consequently the total quantity of materials used throughout the overall service life of the building becomes important. In ISO 15686-1 (2000). on-site construction.4. would be at least as long as it is designed for. operation including maintenance and end-of-life scenarios. and is defined as the “service life that a building or parts of a building would be expected or predicted to have in a certain set of reference in-use conditions”. with planned maintenance. Saville and Moss (2002) insists on that even if certain service life data were available. and is typically given in terms of raw material extraction. the “Factor Method” is described as a means for addressing this problem. The objective of service life planning is to provide reasonable assurance that the estimated service life of a new building on a specific site. because the project specific in-use conditions. Service Life Prediction Nunen et al. by taking account of the difference between the project-specific and the reference conditions. The concept of Reference Service Life of Component (RSLC) was firstly introduced in ISO 15686-1 (2000). were usually different from those for which the service life data were valid. manufacturing. This method is used to modify a RSLC to obtain an estimated service life of the components (ESLC) of a design object. to which the components would be subjected. A designer involved in the service life planning of a building or other constructed object is faced with the problem of estimating the service life of each components.2. This is carried out by adjusting the RSLC by a 31 . The reliable input about how many replacements need to take place. Making changes to buildings or rebuilding or replacements are often not taken into account. (2004: 1) indicated that LCA models are utilized according to a predefined linear-life-cycle that is known as technical service life.

Commissioning.2: Examples of factors. D = Internal environment factor. protective coatings. ventilation. sheltering. Site management. condensation. accessibility for maintenance. tear.function of a number of factors. transport. G = Maintenance factor. Factor Class A Quality of components B Design / detailing C Installation / workmanship D Indoor environment E Outdoor environment F In-use conditions G Maintenance Examples Manufacture. Location of building. hours/frequency of use. relevant to building services plant. the function is the product of the factors. weathering factors. In its simplest form.2 below. These factors are described in Table 2. B = Design factor. (Source: Saville and Moss. 2002: 4). pollution levels. micro and macro environment. climatic conditions during installation Aggressiveness of environment. 32 . wear. system design. storage. F = In-use factor. C = Workmanship factor. E = External environment factor. mechanical impact. Quality and frequency of inspection and maintenance. materials. detailing. Table 2. each being from a particular factor class and reflecting a difference between the two sets of in-use conditions in the factor class. category of users. Incorporation into the building. interfaces. as summarized below: ESLC = RSLC * factor A* factor B * factor C * factor D * factor E * factor F * factor G where: A = Material / Component factor. standard of workmanship.

life occurs. there are three kinds of end-of-life scenarios in the building sector. Nunen et al.According to ISO 15686-1 (2000). “Trend” and “Related” factors should also be added while calculating the ESLC. 2004: 5). the user decides that the service life of the product is over.. when the component fails to meet the demand of people. (2004) mention that. Different types ends-of-life scenarios. The economical end-of-life occurs when another component can be substituted with lesser costs. if functional and economical criteria are included in the prediction of service life. (Source: Nunen et al. while the functional endof. The “Trend” factor 33 .10. which ends when the component can no longer sustain its performance. In other words. namely: technical. economical. Figure 2. and functional end-of-life. The reference service life of components is the technical service life.

In the use phase. Buildings are difficult to assess. Additionally. For example. the behavior of the users and of the services operators or facilities managers have a significant influence on energy consumption. construction. • • a building is highly multi-functional. was easier than only any component. 2. • the building life cycle includes specific phases such as resource extraction. For example. predictions of environmental loadings can not be precise because of the changing of the energy sources or the energy efficiency. a building creates an indoor living environment.11). use and demolition (Figure 2. which makes it difficult to choose an appropriate functional unit. the “Related” factor includes two aspects: the accessibility of a product to be replaced in combination with the replacement of components. because: • The long and unknown life expectancy of a building can cause imprecision. • • buildings are site specific and many of the impacts are local. The replacement of a complete building part. that can be 34 . frame without glass.5. buildings and their components are heterogeneous in their composition. Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings According to IEA Annex 31 (2001: 3-4). the associated product manufacturing processes can vary greatly from one site to another. more replacements can be made if it is possible to do so with much more ease. like fenestration.accounts for the sensitivity to fashion trends which can decrease the functional service life of any component due to the changing fashions. LCA methods could be directly applied to the building sector but buildings have many characteristics that can complicate the application of standard LCA methods.

2002). and • buildings are closely integrated with other elements in the building environment. Stages of building life cycle. they are generally ignored. Figure 2. particularly urban infrastructure like roads.assessed in terms of comfort and health. Because building design characteristics affect the demand for these other systems. green space and treatment facilities. the energy required to operate a building over its life is much greater than 35 . wires. pipes.11. it can be highly misleading to conduct LCA on a building in isolation. (Source: USEPA. Trusty (2004) emphasizes the greater difficulty in assessing the environmental effects of resource extraction in building life cycle. Additionally. He points out that since many of the environmental effects are very site specific and not easily measured.

Knowledge of the probable residual life span of a building element can often be decisive for whether it should be replaced or not. Although most building and construction materials are expected to have service lives of several decades. according to linear building perspective. The service then accounts for all activities related to the predicted service life. the remaining life span of building elements is an important piece of information for financially and ecologically coherent renovation/refurbishment decisions.the energy attributed to the products used in its construction. according to the building service life cycle perspective. it is necessary to take into account the current deterioration state of the element. The remaining life span of building elements is not only used as a decision criterion in renovation/refurbishment scenarios but also in life cycle energy or ecological assessments. However. The author asserts that.1. the service life cycle accounts for all activities that have to be performed so that all materials in necessary amounts and qualities is available as required for the specified service. other embodied effects such as toxic releases to water during the resource extraction and manufacturing stages are greater than during building operations.5. 36 . Life Cycle Assessment of Renovations and Refurbishments Erlandsson and Levin (2005: 1460) states that. 2. On the other hand. O’Connor (2004) determined that the service life approach allowed the analysis of renovation and refurbishment works. to determine it correctly. However. buildings are constructed and utilized for the intended purpose for a defined period and finally demolished. no set method is available for making reliable predictions of their service lives.

Many of the services to hotel guests are highly resource intensive. with the exception of hospitals. or environmentally certified. made of recycled materials.2. which are less toxic. subdivision of environmental burden (regarding environmental burden as a linear process.Nunen et al. hotels are characterized to have the highest negative impact on the environment. the type of services offered. Life Cycle Assessment of Hotel Buildings According to Dascalaki and Balaras (2004). The authors suggest that this impact can be countered by making hotels more environmentally friendly by constructing them with environmentally sensitive materials. of all commercial buildings. 37 . As a consequence. Knowledge of this development for all building elements will make it possible to assess the global development in maintenance and refurbishment costs for the entire building. more durable and stronger. instead of dividing it in different phases). hotels. According to Flourentzou (2000). accommodation facilities. sequential use (replacement of (identical) products within the overall service life of building). are unique with regard to operational schemes. (2004: 5) pointed out some irregularities that can cause problems when performing service life calculations in the building sector. as well as the resulting patterns of natural resource consumption. 2. water or raw materials. such as: • • • Premature replacement (replacing products before it is a technical necessity). whether it concerned energy.5. a model which could simulate the probable development in the deterioration of all building elements can be used to determine their probable date of replacement.

water and various consumable materials in providing services and comfort to their guests. the operational stage of a hotel lifecycle is substantial. Some of the currently operating hotels are located in buildings erected centuries ago (e. According to authors. in order to avoid transport-related impacts. Furthermore.g. the corporate image is also improved. It also contributed to the depletion of resources. regular refurbishment and renovation the lifespan of a hotel building can be significantly extended. Hotels utilize large quantities of energy. thereby attracting new customers. 38 . as well as improved comfort and productivity for the occupants. both from an economic and environmental perspective. resulting in a relatively large impact. However. Hotels designed according to sustainability principles are considered to be as “sustainable hotels”. as compared to other types of similar sized buildings. This phase defines the purpose of the hotel and typically lasts for 25 to 50 years. European palace and castle hotels). Consequently. with proper maintenance. The Italian National Agency for the Protection of the Environment and for Technical Services (APAT. an environmentally responsible design generates a number of benefits including considerably lower resource consumption and operational costs. The Carbon Trust (2005) states that the operation of a hotel is the most resource intensive stage of the entire life-cycle. According to Bohdanowicz (2003). the efficiency of many end-users in a hotel is very low. 2002) has estimated that 75% of all impacts exerted by hotel facilities on the environment are associated with the extensive use of resources. This has resulted in increased pressure on local utility systems (power and water supply).Such material should also have low embodied energy and be produced and available locally.. sometimes leading to shortages experienced by locals. as people came to prefer the “green” alternative.

thus increasing pressure on local sewer systems and plants. these four phases are presented graphically. Furthermore. However. in the second phase due to new competition the occupancy and average daily revenue declined over time. and various detergents. In Figure 2. there are four phases in the lifecycle of a hotel. often released without proper treatment. Many of the goods purchased have environmental effects associated with their manufacture. the market changes make occupants demand new and different services and so during the third phase the hotel faces functional obsolescence. during the first phase when the property is new. excessive use of electricity. transportation. use and disposal. Hotels are also responsible for the release of various air pollutants. it is more popular and shows a strong performance. deterioration of local air quality.12. a hotel is constructed to meet the needs of a growing community and it can become the dominant force in the market for a number of years.Bohdanowicz (2004) indicated that hotels generated large quantities of waste and sewage. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) still used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems contribute to ozone depletion. According to Stipanuk and Roffman (1992: 420). acid rain and global warming. finally decision has to be made to either dispose of it or rehabilitate it to respond to current needs in the fourth phase. 39 . a number of substances and products used at hotel facilities are exceedingly environmentally harmful. contributed to eutrophication of surface water. enjoying higher occupancies and rates than its competitors. as well as landfills.

while restoring furnishing and systems that can still be used.Figure 2. Lifecycle of a hotel. as well as the safety of the occupants. minor painting.12. Major renovation (12 to 15 year cycle): the scope of a major renovation is to replace or renew all furnishings and finishes within a space. and touching up the furniture. drapery. regular maintenance is crucial to ensure the proper performance of a building and its system. given current needs of the facility such as interior demolition of entire guestroom floors to reconfigure the mix of rooms and placement of bathrooms. wall coverings. bedding. Restoration (25 to 50 year cycle): the scope of a restoration is to completely gut a space and replace systems that are technically and functionally obsolete. and may include extensive modifications to the use and physical layout of the space itself like replacement of all furniture. • • According to The Carbon Trust (2005). (Source: Stipanuk and Roffman. lighting. replacing floor finishing and artwork. Refurbishment involves the generation of large quantities of waste. Stipanuk and Roffman (1992: 421) classified renovations in three categories: • Minor renovation (6 year cycle): the scope of a minor renovation is to replace or renew the non-durable furnishings and finishes within a space without changing the space’s use or physical layout such as replacing carpets. 1992: 421). and poses a risk involving the emission of various air 40 . and bedspreads.

For example. Bohdanowicz (2003: 36) summarizes the impacts of the refurbishment and demolition process and also suggest preventive measures for their mitigation in Table 2. Venetian blinds 8 years and furniture 10 to 12 years. for beds 15 years. long life expectancy is one of the main criteria in selecting doors. Özgurel (2001) pointed out that special designs for carpeting.pollutants (including lead and volatile organic compounds from paints. and mostly visual obsolescence define the life expectancy of finishes in relation to the maintenance policy concerning renewal cycles. windows and their components because frequent replacement is an expensive and time consuming work in a refurbishment project. The user activities. wallpapers. ozone depleting substances from refrigeration and air conditioning installations). upholstery and curtains could limit the future replacements so it is not preferred. Dascalaki and Balaras (2004) determined that durability and lifespan are also very important in material selection and detailing.3. Making lifetime estimation in preliminary design stage is advantageous in refurbishing programming. for drapes and spreads as 5 years. She also gave examples by referring to the Hilton International Engineering Manual where the lifetime expectancy for carpets in guestrooms is given as 6 years. for mattresses 12 years. besides initial costs and aesthetics. 41 . deterioration agents.

Prevention of unauthorized individuals accessing the construction site (fences and signs).g. equipment and furnishings. 42 . Specific working hours (e. Prevention of moisture inside the building materials (covering the building during construction). otherwise proper landfilling. asbestos. 2003: 36). finishing and furnishing Decreased safety and well being of occupants due to low quality materials. Considerations for possible reuse or recycling of building materials. Proper study of the materials used in the construction of the building. Reduced safety of the on-site workers and locals. In case of possible asbestos presence skilled experts should perform the demolition and removal of asbestos. Possible moisture in building structure resulting in mould growth. Action Refurbishment Impact Excessive use of resources (energy. not only initial costs (good quality products will last longer and require less maintenance in the future). Increased noise levels. Construction materials and equipment should be chosen based on their life-time costs and good quality. and impaired indoor air quality. Prevention of unauthorized individuals accessing the construction site (fences. as well as construction team. incorporation of controls and bioclimatic design. Release of dust. signs). Skilled personnel aware of possible dangers. Need for waste landfilling. Excessive use of resources (energy) and associated emissions (impaired air quality).Table 2. water. refurbishment and demolition stage. Vehicular traffic and heavy equipment operation..and organic-based paints.3: Possible impacts and mitigation measures at the maintenance. (Source: Bohdanowicz. 8am to 6pm on weekdays and 10am to 4pm on weekends) Skilled personnel aware of possible dangers. materials) and associated emissions and wastes. emissions from lead. Reduced safety of the on-site workers and locals. Mitigation Consideration of resource saving measures. Demolition of the building. Good quality equipment. Limitation of engines idling. Construction.

• The number of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of buildings according to years (Table B. hotel refurbishment projects in Ankara. the statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey.1. 3.1.MATERIAL AND METHOD This chapter includes details on two aspects of the study: the research material and methodology. information on three five-star hotels in Ankara. which are explained in detail under Section 3.1. The methodology is comprised of data compilation process.CHAPTER 3 3. the following data were obtained. simulation procedure and statistical tests. Statistical Data on Renovation and Refurbishment Projects In order to determine the volume of renovation works in Turkey.1. In order to fulfill the objectives of this study. 3. specifically.1.1. the grouped data derived from the bill of quantities for guestroom floors of the three hotel refurbishment projects. Also details about case study buildings. Material This study was carried out on renovation projects in Turkey. especially in larger cities. information and data were collected from various sources. and the LCA software. 43 . The first covers four subsections. their refurbishment works and software are given in the following sections.

B. only data for guestrooms were analyzed in this study.. 3.3.8 (Appendix B). 44 .1. during the 6 year period from 2000 to 2006 (Table B.4.5.1. restaurants etc. Two of these hotels belong to chains of international repute while one is a local hotel of historical importance. Although major renovations included such public areas as the lobby.2.3.1. Case Study Buildings Data pertaining to refurbishment / renovation projects of the three subject hotels in Ankara was compiled in 2005 and photographs of the refurbished rooms were taken in 2007. In order to verify the volume of renovation works in the Turkish hospitality sector.2. as the design decisions for one room is repeated many times over. Raw data is given in Table B. Appendix B). Data related to the different types of alterations and renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. conference and meeting rooms. B.7. • Number of buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by years and use of building (Table B. The three subject hotels are described in more detail in the following sections. Appendix B). ballroom. B.6. while the derived data is presented in Section 3. In order to find out the types and amounts of material being replaced during hotel refurbishment projects the BOQ of three five-star hotels were obtained. Appendix B).Appendix B). Appendix B). the following data were obtained: • • Data related to the number of tourism establishments in Turkey and Ankara (Table B. • Total floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years (Table B.

The hotel consists of 323 standard rooms. 2 ambassadorial suits and one royal suit. Its construction was completed in 1986. 8 executive suits. The major refurbishment in the guestrooms took place in 2002 in order to meet 45 . Guestroom floors are located on the upper 16 levels.1 below. This hotel has 24 floors. The construction of Hotel B. 26 suits and one royal suit. It consists of 280 standard rooms. 51 executive rooms and other leisure and business facilities.Hotel A belongs to an international chain which operates 2.1. 11 smart rooms. 5 smart suits. which is one of the 730 hotels operated by its chain in 80 countries. was finished in 1991. one entire floor with extended-stay apartments.700 hotels in 70 countries. The architectural layout of a typical guestroom floor is presented in Figure 3. Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel A. Figure 3.

restaurants. special rooms were designed for disabled and left-handed guests in order to provide more comfort to them and broaden target clientele.2. construction of a new convention and cultural centre was begun adjacent to the hotel building.2 below. The architectural layout of a typical guestroom floor is presented in Figure 3. a renovation project encompassing the main lobby. In 2003. mezzanine and business centre was also started in order to achieve harmony with the design philosophy and style of the new annex building. Figure 3. Additionally.customer demand for high/new technology. clubhouse. Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel B. 46 . At the same time.

3.3. 14 rooms have been converted to club-rooms and 2 for the handicapped. Typical guestroom floor plan of Hotel C. Although it was planned that in 2003 the hotel be completely renovated and not just refurbished. 47 . Now. The architectural layout of a typical guestroom floor is presented in Figure 3. This project was an extensive one and major changes were made in the building.Hotel C is one of the oldest five-star hotels in Ankara. which was constructed in 1966. 26 suits and 23 executive suits. Standard rooms were also reduced in order to increase the number of suits. there are 110 standard rooms. The number of guestrooms was reduced. It has 22 floors. This refurbishment project is different from the other two projects. 14 of which have guestrooms. Figure 3. this renovation was postponed because of financial problems and a change of management. Recreational and business facilities have also been expanded by increasing the number of meeting rooms and ballrooms.

Bills of Quantities of Three Refurbishment Projects The grouped data for the renovation of the three hotels was gathered from the BOQs of Hotels A. windows. windows. Additionally bathroom fittings and fixtures as well as doors (with frames) have been replaced in all the hotels.000 square meters in Hotel A. As mentioned earlier. the number of new doors in Hotels A.3. and Hotel C. 12.1 below. floor and ceiling finishing works. The walls were covered with embossed vinyl wallpaper.1. Most significant were the materials used for finishing the surfaces. and 490 respectively. floor and ceiling finishing works is square meter. which was replaced with new wallpaper to the tune of 20. In Table 3. Hotel B. 48 . data for only the guestrooms and corridors on the guestroom floors has been analyzed. furniture and fixtures are listed in set. The number of doors replaced with new ones was also significant. B and C. furniture and fixtures.1. More variety and amount of material was used in Hotel C as a result of the volume of the refurbishment. Quantities of refurbishment projects of three subject hotels for settled works are presented separately as Hotel A. The quantities of some works were not determined in the bill of materials of subject hotels. therefore it is presented as “not quantified” in Table 3. most of this washable textile backed wallpaper was imported. doors. such as vinyl wall coverings. The unit of wall. and C were 720. B. carpets and suspended ceilings. skirting and wall finishing works. doors. 387.500 square meters in Hotel B and 15.3. the description of renovation works are given in the first column. These works are divided according to assembly groups such as: demolition works.000 square meters in Hotel C.

Turkey. DESCRIPTION OF RENOVATION WORKS CIVIL WORKS DEMOLITION WORKS Demolition of brick wall Demolition of r/c Removal of suspended ceilings Scraping of existing wall plaster and ceramics Demolition of existing flooring and removal Demolition of piping and mechanical ducts Dismantling all electrical systems Removal of doors with frames Removal of bathroom fittings and fixtures E 1E1 1E2 1E4 1E7 1E8 1E9 1E10 1E11 F 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 G 1G1 1G2 1G3 1 A 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A7 1A8 UNIT Hotel A QTY Hotel B QTY Hotel C QTY M 3 3 2 2 Not quantified 1250 35 M M 106 20119 10054 7100 2680 8900 350 15000 M M 2 TON MT SET SET 2 2 2 480 360 186 FLOORING Levelling concrete Self levelling screed Ceramic flooring Heavy-duty board-room type fireproof carpet (80 wool/20 nylon 1st Quality walnut-finished parquet floor with varnish Mechanical polishing of existing marble floors PVC flooring for floor service rooms Solid walnut guestroom entrance door threshold SKIRTING Hardwood(walnut) veneered over mdf varnished skirting Hardwood skirting (varnished) Ceramic skirting Softwood skirting (varnished) CEILING Ceiling plastering Gypsum speckling Gypsum board(fire resistant) suspended ceiling M M M 2 2 M M M M M M M 5026 9615 2784 7272 26 1586 9500 2805 2 7560 7656 1100 2 2 2 504 800 980 150 MT MT MT MT MT 8093 4281 5400 970 2100 450 11097 7846 4413 563 1670 11170 6050 2 49 .1: Derived bill of quantities for renovation works in the three fivestar hotels in Ankara.Table 3.

Table 3.6 2774 7 1128 500 4150 1500 500 500 2 2 2 2 M M M M M M M M 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 23181 27148 4366 83 12839 12839 12839 500 3250 240 320 200 M 21697 24476 15000 700 MT EA EA M M M M 2 720 387 250 178 100 120 20 710 2 2 2 SET SET EA EA SET 352 180 177 354 187 352 360 186 200 177 50 .1: (continued) 1G6 K 1K1 1K2 1K3 1K4 1K5 L 1L1 1L2 1L3 1L4 1L5 1L6 1L7 1L8 1L9 1L10 M 1M1 1M2 1M6 1M7 1M8 1M9 N 1N1 1N2 1N6 1N7 Satin finish acrylic paint (3 layers) PARTITION WALLS Hollow block brick wall(20 cm) Gypsum board wall (double sided water &-fire proof) Single sided gypsum board wall Gypsum board partition wall (double) Hollow block bims concrete wall (10*39*19) WALL COVERINGS&FINISHES Interior wall plastering Gypsum speckling Satin finish acrylic paint (3 layers) Oil paint(3 layers) Ceramic wall tiles Walnut finish wall panels (varnished) Marble wall covering(textured finish) Coloured back glass wall tiles Textile backed vinyl wall paper Mid-rail on corridor walls of guestroom floors (150 mm) DOORS & WINDOWS Walnut veneered solid wood fire resistant doors with frames and fitting Toughened glass shower door Executive suits fire resistant walnut doors including frame and fittings Solid core laminate facing wooden doors with frame Solid core sound proof wooden doors with frame and fitting Aluminium window frame replacement with (4+4 double glass) FURNITURE/ FIXTURES Guestroom furniture units including all accessories Upholsteries & linens & drapery & cushions Shelving units All mirrors Bathrooms M 2 12488 6275 8596 M M M M M 2 217.

building type. This tool also has an operating energy conversion calculator module which allows software users to enter their building’s annual operating energy by fuel type. However. while inputs for the model can be specified in either imperial or (SI) metric. which is produced by the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute in Canada. LCA Software To assess the environmental impacts of the materials most commonly replaced during refurbishment projects. gross floor area. in this program the properties of the material in the database can not be changed or added by the users. These emissions can be compared to those embodied in the materials making up the building. In order to assess materials which are not found in its database. a life-cycle assessment software called ATHENA® was used. additional walls. ATHENA® separately assesses and compares conceptual design options for structural systems and envelope alternatives. such as: location.1. Some general information about the project is entered into the software. The Add Assembly menu is used to define foundations. floors/roofs and column and beam assemblies to complete a three-dimensional building space.3.4. the model's internal calculations and final results are computed in metric units. the author had to contact the ATHENA Institute to seek 51 . the EIE software calculates both the pre-combustion and direct combustion emissions associated with that fuel use. and operating energy consumption. The SI (metric) unit designation is the default unit measure for entering assembly information. ATHENA® uses European databases which include materials that are commonly being manufactured with western technology. However. Extra basic materials may also be added to augment any particular assembly selection.

However. Also there is a stipulation for all hotels belonging to a particular international chain to refurbish between definite intervals determined in the agreements. in order to present the volume of the refurbishment works and to assess the importance of renovation/refurbishment projects in Turkey. especially those belonging to an international chain. Methodology Statistical data on building types.2. These data were used to analyze the volume of these works in Ankara between 2000 and 2006. it was found that approximately 53% of hotels were refurbished in Ankara in 6 years. initiating a refurbishment project mainly depends on the financial situation of the building owners/management. Ankara was chosen as the location. 3. Statistics on renovation/refurbishment projects in Ankara were obtained from the Ankara Chamber of Architects as the municipalities in Ankara did not have this kind of database. After comparing them. On the other hand. Generally speaking. hotels in a capital city. and five-star hotels that belong to international chain were chosen as the hotel type for which the refurbishment is inevitable.guidance with regards to a best match from the database for the material in question. renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey and specifically that on hotels were obtained from TURKSTAT and Ministry of Tourism. hotels were chosen as the building type whose service life does not depend on its physical condition. are seen as a prestige symbol. 52 . From this point of view. refurbishment is an obligatory requirement for the success of the hospitality sector. in contrast to touristic cities where financial concerns are of prime importance.

the BOQ for the renovation/refurbishment projects and data on their operating-energy consumption were obtained from the management of these hotels and photographs of refurbished rooms were taken in March 2007. 53 .4. the hypotheses were formulated according to data generated from software and listed in Section 3. The contents of the refurbishment projects and the stages in their life cycle were assessed with the LCA tool. Furthermore. The simulation of refurbishment works is given in Section 3.2. data related to refurbishments of only the guestrooms are obtained since refurbishments in other common spaces were different for each of these hotels.1. The architectural design projects. the phases of this LCA study and interpretations of six environmental impact indicators according to international standards.2.3. However. Also included are the simulation procedure. Finally.2. The inventory analysis was made according to their bill of quantities for renovation projects. this stage was generally ignored and only a few parts were reused or recycled. the bill of materials of refurbishment works of three subject hotels are compiled and its process is stated in Section 3. ATHENA. (Some of them are more extensive than the others). From their bill of quantities. The methodology adapted for this investigation is summarized in Figure 3. the management was also interviewed informally to gather information on the frequency of and reasons for these renovations.In accordance with the concerns mentioned above. The waste produced during renovations and its recycling capacity should also be considered.2. belonging to international chains were chosen as case studies for this investigation. In order to fulfill the objectives of methodology of this investigation. three five-star hotels in Ankara.

Figure 3. 54 . The methodology adapted by the author.4.

According to the phases of an LCA study. These common materials were levelling concrete. Data Compilation Process First of all. the first phase is goal and scope definition as mentioned before. 55 .1. this case study estimates the life cycle environmental impacts of material manufacturing. the bill of materials of refurbishment projects of hotel buildings are confidential files so the author is very grateful to the technical management of these hotels. In the computer program. they were classified as guestroom floors and general spaces. Data pertaining to refurbishment/renovation projects of the three abovementioned five star hotels in Ankara was gathered in 2005. hardwood (skirting) and paint. The hotels are assessed one by one and then they are compared with each other. the structural materials can be assessed but fixtures like bathtubs.2. In scope. The assessment procedure for Hotel A is explained as an example. therefore.1. Data for only guestrooms and corridors on the guestroom floors has been analyzed and only those materials that were used in the refurbishment projects of all the three hotels were chosen for the analyses. maintenance. closets and beds can not be assessed. 3.3. there are structural materials and also the finishing materials. the variety and amount of material were more than the other two hotels.2. In these data. It should be noted that in Hotel C the rooms were converted to suits and more changes in the designs were made compared to Hotels A and B. seen in Table 3. Simulation This study consists of three different refurbishment projects. wallpaper. brick. After grouping these data. gypsum board.2. stucco.

while local indoor effects on human health are omitted. the materials which have the similar impacts are used instead of missing materials. the materials were quantified according to the bill of quantities. So the yearly operating energy consumption data was found and average value was calculated that was derived from the data belonging to a twelve year period (Table B. global warming potential.repair and replacement effects of the refurbishment project of Hotel A. but rather how the electricity is generated in the region and the author must choose from the existing location options. structure. Appendix B). building life expectancy. To define the system boundaries is very important. column roof and their materials are not changed. such as primary energy consumption. beam. General information about the project.10. which is: project name. solid waste. If operating energy consumption of building in a year is given. The most important location factor for the use of the software is not climatic zone. air pollution index.9. Appendix B). The goal of this study is to provide an interactive LCA case study which allows investigation of the life cycle impacts of a similar range construction. so foundation. The ATHENA Institute offered Toronto location as best match for Turkey's grid according to the electricity profile of Turkey. units (SI or Imperial). which was obtained from TURKSTAT (Table B. location. building type. because in this hotel major renovation was needed in this time period. These materials are put under the heading of extra basic materials because this project is a refurbishment project. The building life expectancy was defined as 37 years for Hotel C. As a second step. The study is confined to effects on the natural environment. water pollution index and weighted 56 . project description and operating energy consumption is entered on the computer. The software database is used. the location data can be ignored. After entering the materials as the input. gross floor area. the summary tables and graphs about six indicators.

41 .81 .2.0.11. The limit conditions and specific benchmarks of these six environmental impact indicators can not be found. it is developed in easily understood ranges of values.35 ton/person in Turkey (TURKSTAT). the ranges of index values could be categorized as follows in EPA standards: very small. high.0. the results of the software about water pollution could not be correlated with these values.1. However. medium. For Turkey.21 . Accordingly. the ranges of index values should be categorized. the limit value is generally measured in ton/person and this limit was 1. But the results of this software about air pollution could not be correlated with these values for Turkey. as a means for reporting the quality of air or level of air pollution. this project can be evaluated on the basis of these graphs and tables. and also the found values can not be correlated with the software summary measures. For solid waste indicator.20 0. To reflect the status of the air quality and its effects on human health.60 0.0. are obtained as the output. 0 .00. Only the amount of special gases such as sulphur oxide was determined seen in Table B.40 0.0. So the EPA standards were used to assess the materials. there was not an index like this. So the found international standards can be used and a comparison between all case studies will be more illustrative to the readers. and the API values regards to the effects to human health are also given in Table 3. For air pollution index. very high. The corresponding pollutant concentrations and API value according to EPA is given in Table 3.resource use. small.61 . Appendix B (TURKSTAT). 57 .80 0.3. For water pollution. instead of using the actual concentrations of air pollutants.

06.ca/english/airqualityinfo.htm.2: Air pollution index value and corresponding pollutant concentrations according to EPA.epa. 58 . Table 3.zhb.2007).Table 3.3: Air pollution index and air quality grading regards to health.2007).06. (Source: http://www. last access 08.pdf.gov/ttn/oarpg/t1/memoranda/rg701. (Source: http://www. last access 08.gov.

Basic formula of the API calculation method according to EPA was given below (http://www. Chigh and Clow = the maximum and minimum value of the concentration range. Tests of Hypotheses Tests of hypotheses were formulated according to data derived from simulation modelling in order to determine whether or not any significant relationships existed between the life cycle environmental impacts of the same material per square meter in three refurbishment works.gov/ttn/oarpg/t1/memoranda/rg701. which the concentration of pollutants take place.epa. 59 .3. − H03: There is no difference in the air pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. which the concentration of pollutants take place. = the maximum and minimum value of the API index range. C = the concentration of pollutants. The hypotheses were: − H01: There is no difference in primary energy consumption between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. − H02: There is no difference in solid waste between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.pdf): where I Ihigh and Ilow = Index value. 3.2.

Three pairs from three hotels were formed such as: Hotel B . − H06: There is no difference in weighted resource use between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.05) was prescribed. 5 % level of significance (α=0. Hotel B . 60 . − H05: There is no difference in global warming potential between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.Hotel A.− H04: There is no difference in water pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. The paired-sample t-test was used to analyze the refurbishment works of subject hotels. wherefrom significance is established on the basis of p-value outputs. and Hotel A – Hotel C. These analyses were done using SPSS 11® software for Windows®.Hotel C.

2. it was observed that floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building in the last fifteen years reached its highest value for residential buildings in 1996. the statistical analyses of these data using paired-sample t-test are presented in the fourth section.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter includes details on five aspects of the investigation. religious. As shown in Figure 4. industrial.1. as elicited through informal interviews.1. and for administrative buildings in 1991. commercial. for commercial buildings in 1997. there was a decrease in the floor area of cultural and administrative buildings (Table B. The first covers discussion of statistical data on renovation and refurbishment projects in Turkey and the second covers the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects.CHAPTER 4 4. Discussion on Statistical Data for Refurbishment Projects Building construction statistics that are prepared by TURKSTAT in 2003 were analyzed. Appendix B). The buildings are classified according to their use. After gathering data generated by the LCA software (ATHENA). While the total floor area of construction increased. administrative and other. The last section covers the comparative evaluation of the three case studies and seven common materials that were used in all three refurbishment projects. 4. 61 . cultural. residential.

2. 62 . Figure 4.000 Administrative building Religious building 60.000 Commercial building Residential building 20.000 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Figure 4.000 100.000 Cultural building Medical.2. (Source: TURKSTAT). (Source: TURKSTAT).2.000 Other building 80.120. The number of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B. Total floor area of completed or partially completed new buildings and additions by use of building according to years Table B.1. social building Industrial building 40.

This being the case it needs to have world-class hotels to accommodate the official guests. Data related to the number of tourism establishments in Turkey and Ankara derived from Table B.5. 63 . B. coastal cities rank the highest.4. As can be seen in Table B. which is why it has many hotels. B. nor a mountain resort. 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Total Tourism Establishments in 2003 Hotel Buildings in 2003 73 66 4917 7637 7832 4523 Turkey Ankara 148 Total Tourism Establishments in 2000 34 Hotel Buildings in 2000 Figure 4. B. This in turn means that the hotels in Ankara have to be kept up to date and must be renovated every how and then to meet the high standards of equivalent hotels elsewhere.3. it is the capital city and therefore hosts many delegations.C.5.6.The statistics for tourism licensed facilities of Turkey and Ankara were obtained from T. Ankara ranks twelfth amongst the 81 provinces in Turkey according to the number of tourism licensed facilities in 2003.3. If this data is analyzed. Although Ankara is not a coastal city. (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism). Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı (The General Directorate of Investment and Enterprises Ministry Culture and Tourism Republic of Turkey).

350 308 300 250 200 150 100 58 50 4 0 2002 0 11 6 2003 53 4 2004 1 Number of buildings modified for different use in Turkey Number of buildings modified as hotel buildings Number of hotel buildings modified for different use Figure 4. Besides this. Number of buildings modified for a different use after alterations and repairs by year and use of building derived from Table B.C. hence.The number of completed new buildings and additions decreases day by day and it becomes nearly the half of the peak value in 2003. as the case studies were also conducted in Ankara. (Source: TURKSTAT). 1999: 12). This affects to increase the number of all type of renovations and refurbishments. These alterations are only large-scale alterations which include the change of function of the building. and old and new use of building. the need for additions and alterations to the spaces (T. data about different types of alterations of buildings in Turkey would not be obtained so that for Ankara only is presented.2. In Table B. the rate of change of function of buildings is very high because users do not have much choice but to purchase what is on the market. Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Başkanlığı. Besides these.4. 64 .2. the change of use of buildings is examined according to year 2002 to 2004. even though the property does not meet their requirements.

46 39 Small scale 325 213 Medium scale Large scale With additions Major Renovation 102 Figure 4. which do not reflect on the building’s structural system or its façade.7. major renovation projects that entailed an increase in the covered area. structural system and also the function of the building.According to The Chamber of Architects in Ankara. facades. Appendix B. large-scale alterations that included changes in plans. (Source: Turkish Chamber of Architects in Ankara). • additions plus alterations contained additions to the building. have totally different function and plan and also were regarded as new projects.5. derived from Table B. 65 . during the 6 year period of 2000-2006. Data related to the different types of renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. • • • medium-scale alterations consisted of alterations in plans which reflected on the façade also but not in the building’s function. the types of alteration/renovation works in buildings are as follows: • small-scale alterations that concerned only changes in internal partitions.

major renovation of rooms took place also because there was a need to provide extra and different facilities to the guests.According to data taken from Ankara Chamber of Architects. conference call availability photocopy/printer machines. to keep up with new technologies.3). 4. satellite TV. the electrical wiring system had to be replaced in order to provide high-speed internet connection.5 % belong to hotels in Ankara.e. Informal interviews were conducted with the technical managers of hotels and the general manager of construction company of Hotel B to determine the frequency of and reasons for hotel refurbishment projects. Meanwhile. In view of the market demand some rooms were combined to make extra suits and some were converted into special guest rooms for non-smokers. rooms for the disabled had to be equipped with special features and fixtures. 18 out of 725 projects i. bathrooms and common/entertainment areas was mostly done to keep up with new fashion dictates on style and colorschemes. whereas. 66 . disabled or left-handed guests. If we compare this number with the total number of hotels in Ankara in the year 2000 (Figure 4. fax machine.2. as well as plugs suitable for both 110 & 220 V. hi-tech conference and meeting rooms. For example. data-port. the percentage of hotels renovated in the six year period is almost 53%. Apart from guestrooms. and to understand the necessity for such projects. while some were knocked down and the space was used to build self-contained apartments for extended stay. which was 34 only. major renovation works included the creation of theme restaurants and bars. Rooms for left-handed guests required replacement of all fixtures. approximately 2. between 2000 and 2006. Frequency of and Reasons for Hotel Refurbishment Projects Renovation of guestrooms.

Figure 4. Typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment.6. Typical standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment. 2001: 85).8. 67 . Typical standard suit of Hotel A after refurbishment.7. Figure 4. Figure 4. (Source: Ozgurel.

On the other hand. especially in Ankara. Unless there was a sudden change in fashion trends. gave an example from Istanbul where a hotel was excluded from their international chain because of non-compliance with the agreement concerning refurbishment periods. waste and raw materials and purchasing efficiency. The franchising and management agreement for Hotel B was similar to that. Çalışkan who was the technical manager of Hotel A. According to Mr Birkan.1. their main environmental issues were energy. The budget of the hotels was planned for one-year and five-year periods. Birkan added that besides the agreement. The aim was also to find out whether the guests were bored with the decor or not. Some of the questions were posed to determine those aspects which impressed the guests most. According to Mr. The 68 . An example of the budget is given in Table C. their financial situation and prevailing fashions. 4% of the annual budget of Hotel B was assigned to all types of refurbishments apart from the day-to-day maintenance. were a prestige symbol for the directors and being seen as up-to-date and luxurious was more important for them than being feasible. the general manager of the construction company of Hotel B. Appendix C. the refurbishment decision depended on their board of directors.Renovation works in hotels were undertaken mostly from the point of view of customer satisfaction. and these issues were their main concern in their refurbishment projects. Mr Birkan. According to their refurbishment program. The hotels. this was one of the reasons of refurbishment. the guestroom floors of this hotel have to be refurbished every ten years and the general spaces must be refurbished every twelve years. Mr. The guests were asked to fill up a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction. This is a stipulation for all hotels belonging to this particular international chain.

There were lightcolored marble tiles and vanity basin with matching faucet fittings in the bathroom of the guestrooms before refurbishment. is undertaken. Ash veneered chip-board panels were disassembled and gypsum-board panels were used for the suspended ceiling. the materials such as carpets. who was the technical manager of Hotel B. Although these fittings and fixtures were in good condition. In hard refurbishment. they were replaced with darker new marble cladding and fittings only because of the changing fashion trends. suspended ceilings. curtains. wallpaper. fabrics. Also. whole lobby and the theme-restaurants and bars were refurbished in order to have the same design theme as that of the new annex building. Also. the wooden pelmets were disassembled and replaced with gypsum pelmets. Because of this. etc. replacement of the wall and floor materials. In soft refurbishment. bathroom walls. Vinyl wallpaper on walls was renewed and timber beading used as wall trimming. The period of soft refurbishment was generally fixed for every 3 to 4 years. Yasav. the existing ballroom. 69 . Çalışkan stated that. Mr. as seen below in Figure 4.refurbishment activities are divided into hard and soft refurbishments. comprising of a convention and cultural centre and above them the guestroom floors. while hard refurbishment was undertaken every 8 to 10 years. The guestroom floors were divided into four sections. Hotel B had an extension built in 2006. gypsum boards. The rooms were decorated in light colors to offer a comfortable and spacious working environment. and cladding were replaced and marble and wood surfaces are polished.10. the guestroom floor refurbishment mostly depended on this extension in order not to be labeled as old. according to their budget.9 and Figure 4. partition walls. the refurbishment of guestroom floors of Hotel A was started in 2002 and finished at the end of 2004. According to Mr.

10. The faucet fittings and marble claddings in typical standard room of Hotel A before refurbishment. (Source: Ozgurel.9. Typical bathroom of a standard room of Hotel A after refurbishment.Figure 4. Figure 4. 70 . 2001: 92).

3. As an output of this software. the projects were evaluated according to six indicators. such as discarded beds.The technical managers of these hotels said that the furniture should be utilized as much as possible. was donated to Çocuk Esirgeme Kurumu (child protection agency) and Huzurevi (old people’s home). In this refurbishment. these projects could be evaluated and comparisons could be made between three case studies and the common materials that were used in all case guestrooms. Air Pollution Index: Inflows and outflows that contribute pollutants to the air. the room furniture. In Hotel B. According to these graphs and tables. The management generally has agreements with suppliers of electronic equipment and electrical parts to replace old equipment with new ones. On the other hand. • • • Solid Waste: Recovered matter resulting from the production and delivery (packaging) process. 71 . the summary tables and graphs were obtained as the output. Data Generated By Software After entering the BOQ of guestrooms as the input to the software. all the locks were changed and electronic door locks were installed. These were: • Primary Energy Consumption: Absolute primary energy consumption by fuel type for each life cycle stage as well as annual operating energy. the beds and room furniture were sold to their personnel by private auction. In Hotel A. Water Pollution Index: Inflows and outflows that contribute pollutants to the water. 4. The old locks were sent to be used in another 3 star hotel near the airport in Ankara. the faucet fittings and marble claddings could not be utilized so they were either scrapped or auctioned.

425 525 42369.7357 4854.3006 639.30 1193.8735 7.3395 91.024 HOTEL B HOTEL C 27.6 51 5/8" Fire-Rated TypeX Gypsum Board m2 Wallpaper Tape Water Based Latex Paint Hardwood Skirting (Modular) Brick Wall Plaster. • Weighted Resource Use: The quantities of raw materials or intermediary products consumed. Material Levelling Concrete .37 586. and end of life. which include the materials seen above in Table 4.5629 1719. including water. The output was divided into 4 stages: manufacturing.48 76199.305 15. Table 4.8 1155 1048. operations and maintenance.1080 424. The 72 .• Global Warming Potential: How much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming over a specific time interval.1: BOQ of guestroom floors of three hotels included common materials in all cases and used in the software. after these stages the total embodied of this project was given by adding of all impacts of these four stages.488 13.999 247.3 1240. so this stage was ignored.Screed 1/2" Fire-Rated TypeX Suspended Unit m3 m2 HOTEL A 1576.8815 619.1. gypsum spackling Oriented Strand Board Vinyl Solvent based paint tones l m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 l Firstly. construction.608 3051. were evaluated with the software. In summary tables. The operations and maintenance stage has the value zero for all indicators.30 9565.3765 2186. because the materials database of the software did not include the knowledge about this stage.6 6765 9. the hotel guestroom refurbishment projects.8825 228. during the processing or manufacturing of the product.

2: Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel A obtained from ATHENA software. in Table 4. And as a total life cycle impact was given by adding of the impacts of all stages seen in Table 4. Table 4. Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Manufacturing Material: Transportation: Total: Construction Material: Transportation: Total: End-Of-Life Material: Transportation: Total: Total Embodied Material: Transportation: Total: Operating Energy Annual Operating Energy: Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 3895168 177714 4072882 0 388409 388409 183 300512 300695 3895351 866635 4761986 Solid Waste (Kg) 125957 2 125959 0 4 4 0 3 3 125957 9 125966 Air Pollution Index 65263 57 65320 0 125 125 4 96 100 65267 278 65545 Global Warming Water Pollution Potential (kg) Index 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 379395 321 379716 0 699 699 13 541 554 379408 1561 380969 Weighted Resource Use (kg) 5395879 4396 5400275 0 8814 8814 4 6819 6823 5395883 20029 5415912 75708212 2801203827 2805965813 350905 12983498 13109464 1189069 43995544 44061089 54 2004 2006 3145474 116382542 116763511 9271680 343052159 348468071 73 .3 for Hotel B and in Table 4.2 for Hotel A.4 for Hotel C.impacts of the operating energy of the projects was calculated according to the electricity and natural gas consumption of them in output tables as the last raw. The raw data of these consumptions were seen in Table B.10.

Table 4.: Total Life Cycle: 645033 8421 653454 0 13956 13956 3 4489 4492 645036 26866 671902 48463215 1793138937 1793810839 Global Warming Potential (kg) 28331 15 28346 0 25 25 0 8 8 28331 48 28379 1937695 71694723 71723102 Solid Waste (Kg) 13773 0 13773 0 0 0 0 0 0 13773 0 13773 244106 9031928 9045701 Air Pollution Index 10110 3 10113 0 4 4 0 1 1 10110 8 10118 692567 25624988 25635106 Water Pollution Index 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 27 982 983 Weighted Resource Use (kg) 150122 197 150319 0 317 317 102 102 150122 616 150738 6732178 249090594 249241332 Table 4. En.4: Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel C obtained from ATHENA software.: Total Op.: Total Op. En. En. Annual Op.: Total Life Cycle: 4261159 136604 4397763 0 290922 290922 144 197653 197797 4261303 625179 4886482 Water Solid Waste Air Pollution Pollution (Kg) Index Index 125912 1 125913 0 3 3 0 2 2 125912 6 125918 68626 44 68670 0 93 93 3 63 66 68629 200 68829 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 25 917 Global Warming Potential (kg) 338714 246 338960 0 524 524 11 356 367 338725 1126 339851 Weighted Resource Use (kg) 4072072 3371 4075443 0 6601 6601 3 4485 4488 4072075 14457 4086532 41034340 199619 611292 1518270563 7385911 22617808 1523157045 7511829 22686637 920 1668179 5411003 61722607 200207100 62062458 204293632 74 . Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Manufacturing Material: Transportation: Total: Construction Material: Transportation: Total: End-Of-Life Material: Transportation: Total: Total Embodied Material: Transportation: Total: Operating Ener.3: Summary measures by life cycle stages of Hotel B obtained from ATHENA software. Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Manufacturing Material: Transportation: Total: Construction Material: Transportation: Total: End-Of-Life Material: Transportation: Total: Total Embodied Material: Transportation: Total: Operating Ener. Annual Op. En.

The impacts of three hotels according to water pollution index 75 . The operating energy stages were ignored while discussing the results in graphs because the impacts of these stages were calculated according to only the area of the hotels. and Figure 4. Figure 4. this stage should be ignored.11. The impacts of three hotels according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use.5 2 1.were shown in Figure 4. This was not changed due to the magnitude of the project.12.5 3 2. 3.5 0 3 2 1 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C Water Pollution Index Figure 4.5 1 0.The comparisons of three hotels according to the absolute values of six indicators in total stages -excluded operating energy. 6000000 5000000 4000000 4761986 4886482 5415912 4086532 Hotel A 3000000 2000000 1000000 0 671902 150738 Hotel B Hotel C Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (KG) Figure 4. So if only the impacts of the refurbishment and the materials used in the refurbishments were wanted to analyze.13.12.11.

946 24. were made according to base project. the last analyses shown as comparisons of all indicators -excluded the operating energy stage.13.in %. The impacts of three hotels according to solid waste. per m2.308 4195.215 21. On the next step.682 471.137 55. In Table 4.921 4927. air pollution index and global warming potential.758 4813.312 4402.379 5116.374 4138.192 000.384 57.5.450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 13773 125966 125918 65545 68829 28379 10118 380969 339851 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C Solid Waste (KG) Air Pollution Index Global Warming Potential (KG) Figure 4.799 1. the comparisons between three hotels were made according to the six categories of impacts. Hotel B was chosen as base project because in this hotel it was seen that this refurbishment included only the soft renovation.694 19.. so its total impacts were lower than the other projects.233 HOTEL A HOTEL B HOTEL C 76 .118 302.5: The comparisons of cases according to six indicators per m2. INDICATORS Primary Energy Consumption 2 (Gigajoules / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Operating Energy Total Sub-Total 258.873 31. Table 4.223 0524.

461168 167.052291 2.166052 1504.418830 34.309870 30.002146 0.000290 0.884479 12.000710 2.000000 0.000000 100.369968 0.000007 0.008188 0.333023 589.770565 550.006398 4.000140 0.288688 0.444364 3.808161 2.458466 437.007925 0.Table 4.659070 2.152916 0.070751 77 .039328 36.000230 0.000004 1.000000 0.926927 482.002408 0.027042 0.579401 HOTEL B 1.481588 438.052282 0.000000 100.000124 0.007160 7.000129 0.000000 0.863496 0.138808 60.020529 0.056210 0.314811 258.000000 0.368108 0.475138 933.992959 215.287689 2.5: (continued) INDICATORS 2 Solid Waste (kg / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total 2 Air Pollution (Index / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total 2 Water Pollution (Index / m ) Manufacturing Construction End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total Global Warming Potential (CO2 .000382 0.221312 199.035261 24.010018 0.423311 165.176132 20.000203 13.044467 0.134786 0.871592 574.000000 0.204356 343.000000 100.000182 8.844397 22.465507 178.318757 HOTEL C 13.000177 0.000000 913.373201 65.929584 7.kg) Manufacturing Construction Operations and Maintenance End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total 2 Weighted Resource Use (kg /m ) Manufacturing Construction Operations and Maintenance End-of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy Total Comparisons of all (%) Primary Energy Consumption Solid Waste Air Pollution Index Water Pollution Index Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource use 527.000002 0.560352 0.420455 0.863600 59.240292 999.513203 2675.688832 680.865468 587.000111 0.946759 24.592147 1019.000000 0.318470 4.266466 2.000000 100.780408 3406.176117 0.008704 12.287388 0.510754 21.737060 36.510261 0.963892 0.598647 79.744691 854.560831 HOTEL A 8.338865 0.139325 100.008600 22.141584 0.135037 3.000000 100.157329 75.845045 1148.983044 224.755976 0.835846 0.590691 72.478604 580.433806 344.708328 0.000011 0.

15.479 344.16. air pollution index and global warming potential.221 36.20 0.157 1.30 0.10 0.15 0.312 438.466 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C GWP (C02-kg / m2) Figure 4.511 7.864 13.14.600 500 400 302.373 2.009 4. 0.135 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C 0. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to WPI.00 Water Pollution (Index /m2) 0.872 Primary Energy Consumption (MJ / m2) Weighted Resource Use (kg / m2) Figure 4. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to primary energy consumption and weighted resource use.374 524.758 300 200 100 0 57.05 0.25 0. 78 .333 Hotel A Hotel B Hotel C 12. The impacts of three hotels per m2 according to solid waste.176 0.35 0. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Solid Waste (kg / m2) API (Index / m2) 8.423 24.288 Figure 4.052 0.

HOTEL_C HOTEL_A . The paired-sample t-test was used to analyze. Hotel B had the minimum impacts for every indicator and Hotel A was the second.232 .031 df 6 6 6 Sig.067314 .847 -2.329 -1.096931049 .4.00625559 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .According to the figures above.030529 Std. at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0. Because of this. Table 4. 4. Deviation .02196184 -. While comparing these materials. (2-tailed) .157331 . Hypotheses Tested In these refurbishment projects seven common materials were used. H01: There is no difference in primary energy consumption between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.114 . (2-tailed) value for 79 .05) in regard to the primary energy consumption.105580 .6: Paired-sample t-test results – primary energy consumption Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -. Three pairs from three hotels were formed.03127008 -.073985401 .037155 -.067684 -. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1. the sig. If the refurbishment type changes from soft to hard. This was the result of the volume of the refurbishment project.HOTEL_C Mean -. These seven materials wanted to analyze according to six indicators in three hotels as a third step. the mean values of the impacts of them in three cases were decided to use. the statistical analysis of the seven materials in three hotels was made in order to find if there is any difference between the impacts of them per m2 in three cases. the impacts will increase.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .039774216 Std.6.089 According to Table 4.

03109 -1.89067 1.HOTEL_C Mean -1. The null hypothesis was accepted because all significance values were above 0. for pair2 0.pair1 was 0. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.547 df 6 6 6 Sig. Therefore. (2-tailed) . so the null hypothesis was accepted and it can be said that there was no difference between three hotels in case of primary energy consumption according to seven materials. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0.185 .389082382 3.185). H03: There is no difference in air pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.48078652 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .173 The sig. This was because of the materials were made the same impact per m2 for three hotels. and for pair3 0.24062 1.089).297 .413924681 Std.174741 -2.499 -1.114). H02: There is no difference in solid waste between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.142 -1.297).297 (p=0.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .173 (p=0.05.279146649 1. for pair2 0.05) in regard to the solid waste.185 (p=0.7: Paired-sample t-test results – solid waste Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -3. Table 4.85796 -.05.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .173) in Table 4.114 (p=0.826876 Std.232 (p=0. Deviation 2. and for pair3 0. 80 .178444 -4.7 in the significance interval of 95 % (α=0.13454 . there was no significant difference between three hotels in case of solid waste according to the impacts seven materials per m2.089 (p=0.232). All these values were above 0.

01096215 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .273 .206 -1.132 .289 (p=0.8: Paired-sample t-test results – air pollution index Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -1.8.9: Paired-sample t-test Results – Water Pollution Index Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -. Table 4. so H04 was accepted.132).289).511524733 .959 df 6 6 6 Sig.144).744 -1.Table 4.043115288 .289 .142 According to Table 4.142).HOTEL_C HOTEL_A . (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0.498940 -. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.461361 Std.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A . hence H03 was accepted.273 (p=0.05.134308817 1. (2-tailed) .35823 . All these values were above 0.HOTEL_C Mean -.066815859 .142 (p=0.044033 -.098 According to Table 4.HOTEL_C Mean -. Deviation .05) in regard to the solid waste.02021871 -.019656 -. Like the other four indicators.105827 .960301 -. (2-tailed) . H03 was accepted at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0.43762637 -1. the impacts of the material per m2 had no significant difference between three hotels.024377 Std.623025806 Std.098).059716 . for pair2 0. and for pair3 0.273).55012083 -2.05. and for pair3 0.144 (p=0.038210547 Std.132 (p=0. for pair2 0.05). 81 . The sig.098 (p=0.03756 .144 .11484177 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .164 -1. at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0.688 df 6 6 6 Sig. H04: There is no difference in water pollution index between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1.9. the sig. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0. Deviation 1.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .54800 .059531 .681 -1.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B . All these values were above 0.01776136 -.

112 (p=0.235 82 . Deviation 8.289448418 2.329).321 -1.10: Paired-sample t-test results – global warming potential Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -10.286 53.863 df 6 6 6 Sig.6232 Std.05.443760617 Std. Deviation 100.262 df 6 6 6 Sig.05) in regard to the solid waste.82913 -181.53832 -40.246 (p=0. The sig.05). (2-tailed) .72037 Std.158476274 10.11. H06 was accepted at a prescribed 5 % level of significance (α=0.98048 . Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** t -1. H05 was accepted because all significance values were above 0.11: Paired-sample t-test results – weighted resource use Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper -143.246).254 According to Table 4.063 -1.329 .519139 -3.2509 -63.331 -1.10 in the significance interval of 95 % (α=0. Table 4.231 .6438329 126. Table 4.99701 -1.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .8220 4. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0.HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .0438 12. (2-tailed) .331 42.8741 -13.HOTEL_C Mean -50.5132 4.112) in Table 4.246 .HOTEL_A HOTEL_B .268692 -14.285 -1.235 .H05: There is no difference in global warming potential between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.79742 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .9534837 28.HOTEL_C HOTEL_A .53972762 Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B .329 (p=0. and for pair3 0.567566060 Std. H06: There is no difference in weighted resource use between refurbishment projects of three hotels according to the impacts of seven materials per m2.27664 -4. for pair2 0. (2-tailed) value for pair1 was 0.112 The sig.HOTEL_C Mean -3.

the results of paired-sample t-test showed that there was no significance difference between the six impact categories of used materials per square meter in cases.5.13.12: The impacts of seven materials according to six indicators in three hotels.254 (p=0. From that list.05. and for pair3 0. Table 4. All these values were above 0. for pair2 0. Consequently.(p=0.12 for every indicator and listed in Table 4.4.1. The mean values of the impacts of the materials in three case projects were derived from Table 4. the material list of three projects was given.235). the seven common materials that were used in all projects were gotten as data for this section. MATERIALS Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (KG) Solid Waste (KG) API WPI GWP (KG) Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water-Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Levelling Concrete 3244607 647917 402919 50739 21128 246331 433034 56178 161316 454541 18889 102758 22922 6210 53 89 1263 4 1779 5827 7005 20 48898 10324 6223 497 199 3304 139 846 2569 7020 185 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350177 24763 14914 944 610 8933 781 6064 6167 16824 351 4332806 106365 41270 3343 12495 26757 1223392 75019 26718 46559 1245 Hotel A Hotel B Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint 83 . the mean values of the impacts of materials in three hotels could be gotten as derived data from software.231).254). Analysis of Materials According to Six LCA Indicators In Table 4. there was no significant difference between the impacts of materials per m2 used in three cases. According to Section 4. 4.231 (p=0. This statistical analysis was made because of while comparing the materials with each other.

13: The mean values of impacts of materials according to six indicators.12: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) Weighted Resource Use (KG MATERIALS Hardwood Brick Plaster Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Solid Waste (KG) API WPI GWP (KG) 12326 7913 519 52 41 0 116 106 0 0 0 0 356 286 0 7289 860 1466 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Hotel B Hotel C 2456770 1346202 278551 64531 29162 566018 240785 77807 47733 4293 68 122 2903 2 37024 21449 4302 632 276 7591 78 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 265150 51450 10310 1200 843 20526 434 3280739 221207 28532 4252 17244 61484 680257 Table 4. MATERIALS Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) 1919185 718478 378670 44720 20872 273421 224779 Solid Waste (KG) 60781 25494 5836 47 88 1402 2 API 28923 11447 5848 438 197 3667 72 WPI 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 GWP (KG) 207130 27460 14016 832 603 9915 405 Weighted Resource Use (KG) 2562855 118097 38787 2947 12343 29700 635038 84 .Table 4.

Comparison of seven materials according to the primary energy consumption. the total stage primary energy consumption of the other materials was less than the consumption of leveling concrete in the manufacturing stage.17.17. Hardwood had the minimum value among the others. Therefore alternative energy sources and processes should be found during manufacturing cement. According to Figure 4. When Table C. occurred especially during the manufacturing stage. 85 .2500000 1919185 2000000 1500000 MJ 1000000 718478 Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) 500000 378670 273421 44720 20872 224779 0 Levelling Gypsum Wallpaper Concrete Board Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Figure 4. levelling concrete created more primary energy consumption than the others.3 was analyzed. While the energy consumption of gypsum board was nearly the half of leveling concrete. This consumption mostly depended on the cement manufacture. so it should be chosen in order to decrease energy consumption. the consumption of wallpaper was almost nearly the half of gypsum board.

12152 ton/person which was reasonably high.35 ton/person. Comparison of seven materials according to the solid waste.70000 60781 60000 50000 40000 KG 30000 20000 10000 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Wallpaper Board Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster 25494 Solid Waste (KG) 5836 47 88 1402 2 Figure 4. 86 . In this example if the number of population was gotten as 500 according to the number of guestrooms.18.18. only the amount of the solid waste of leveling concrete was 0. In order to decrease the amount of solid waste. According to Figure 4. The limit value for solid waste was generally measured in ton/person and this limit was 1. the recycling and reuse strategies should be applied to the refurbishment projects. The leveling concrete had the most solid waste like the first indicator but the last one was plaster not hardwood. This indicator was nearly arranged in order like the primary energy consumption. levelling concrete also created more solid waste than the others.

the API values of seven materials were calculated and the results were given in Table 4.2. the leveling concrete emitted maximum pollution or human health effects of groups of substances at various life cycle stages. the total emission of all these materials should be thought in any project because they were not 87 . the plaster had the least effect. According to these results. The places of the last three ones were changed indicator by indicator. Comparison of seven materials according to the air pollution index.19. For air pollution. The graph showed to us. According to the formula given in section 3. The manufacturing stage was also the most important stage in this indicator. The filtering measurements during manufacturing were more important to decrease air pollution.2. the limit values stated in section 3. all materials were in safety side.35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 11447 Air Pollution Index 28923 10000 5848 5000 438 197 Hardwood 3667 72 Brick Plaster 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Figure 4.2. therefore the daily activities were not affected with that much emission. except the resource use.2. At that point. The first four ranks were nearly the same for all indicators.14.

000 Hardwood 0.Hotel C 2 1.000 Plaster Figure 4.000 Brick 0.20: Comparison of seven materials according to the water pollution index. Total emission of Hotel A had 106 API values which were categorized as slightly polluted and also Hotel C was in the same category with Hotel A.Hotel A Total .7 13 0.used by one by. 88 .3 106 35 107 MATERIALS Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Total .000 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper 0.667 Water Pollution Index 0.000 1 0.14: Calculated air pollution index value API obtained from software 28923 11447 5848 438 197 3667 72 65545 10118 68829 API value calculated by the given formula 75 40 20 2 0.000 Water Based Paint 0.Hotel B Total . Table 4.

In Section 3. only the absolute values of summaries were given such as the amount of each type of emissions to water listed in section 2.2.20.1 and this was depended on the different data presentation formats encountered in the inventories. This type of correlation problems were also stated in section 2. 250000 207130 200000 150000 KG Global Warming Potential (KG) 100000 50000 27460 14016 832 603 Hardwood 9915 Brick 405 Plaster 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Figure 4. this categorization could not be correlated with the software absolute results.3. The graph showed to us. specific benchmarks for water pollution due to EPA were given.21: Comparison of seven materials according to the global warming potential. the manufacturing stage was the 89 . the levelling concrete had maximum global warming potential impact.2. the amount of emission of chlorides. phenols. The ATHENA Institute did not give any limit conditions about the indicators. However.3. only levelling concrete and gypsum board created emissions to water.2.According to Figure 4. The leveling concrete had the maximum emissions. Additionally.

the impacts of concrete. The levelling concrete was also in the first rank for this indicator. So while designing. cement should be thought in details and unnecessary use of this material should be taken care in order not to deplete natural resources. 90 . And the results showed us levelling concrete had 4 times more impacts than the plaster in the second rank. This indicator becomes very important especially in these days when the main environmental problem is the global warming and its effects. Plaster was the best choice among these materials listed above for global warming potential.22.22: Comparison of seven materials according to the weighted resource use. and nearly 21 times more than gypsum board in the third rank. however it caused more weighted resource use seen in Figure 4.stage which was the reason of that much amount of the greenhouse gas emissions. 3000000 2562855 2500000 2000000 KG 1500000 1000000 635038 Weighted Resource Use (KG) 500000 118097 38787 0 Levelling Concrete Gypsum Wallpaper Board 2947 Water Based Paint 12343 Hardwood 29700 Brick Plaster Figure 4.

the ever-growing global environmental concerns are dictating the adoption of a “green” policy. both from an economic and environmental perspective. 5. The operational stage of a hotel life-cycle is substantial. which require the consumption of substantial quantities of energy. Hotel Refurbishment Projects Increasing awareness of the scarcity of conventional energy sources mandates the need to take measures for energy conservation in buildings. they interact with the environment at every stage of their life cycle. water and non-durable products. The refurbishment materials were compared with each other according to the six LCA impact indicators and a matrix was formed to enable designers to choose the suitable material in order to reduce damage to the natural environment. even in the hospitality sector.CHAPTER 5 5.CONCLUSION After generating LCA data for the three refurbishment projects with the help of the software the results were interpreted. Moreover. They are designed to provide multi-facetted comfort and services to guests.1. and this influence is often negative. Hotels rank highest amongst building types according to the levels of energy consumption. especially since this stage also 91 . At the end of this study further investigations are proposed and recommendations have been made for establishing a database.

Within the scope of this study. It is also necessary to define a yardstick to measure deterioration. in hotel buildings the service life span of materials is usually ignored because of the strategies of refurbishment. However. or indirectly by the use of electricity and heat/cold produced at power plants. and poses a risk involving the discharge of various air pollutants (including lead and volatile organic compounds from paints. However.includes refurbishment works. or even changing to renewable energy sources. as well as landfills. the amounts of primary energy consumption. which were produced by three hotel refurbishment projects. refurbishment involves the generation of large quantities of waste. In order to determine life-spans correctly. hotels generate large quantities of waste. it is necessary to take into account the current deterioration state of the element. thus increasing pressure on waste disposal systems. either directly from on-site heat and power generation. and ozone depleting substances from refrigeration and air conditioning installations). water pollution. As a result of these works. The remaining life span of building elements is an important piece of information for financially and ecologically coherent refurbishment decisions. global warming and weighted resource use indices were calculated. More environmentally benign construction materials and furnishings can be used during refurbishments. They are also responsible for the release of various air pollutants. so as to quantify it. which is mostly carried out as a result of the decision to give updated service to customers. thereby contributing to the deterioration of local air quality. As mentioned earlier. air pollution. solid waste. These data show the damage to 92 . acid rain and global warming. the refurbishment stage is an excellent opportunity in making the facility more environmentally friendly by introducing many energy and water efficiency measures.

The results of Hotel B for the six indicators were less than the others but the period of soft refurbishment. cladding and fittings etc. On the other hand. Consequently. are given every 3 to 4 years. it can be said that the decision for and design of refurbishment should be considered more carefully because the impacts of Hotel B refurbishment. was shorter than hard refurbishment undertaken every 8 to 10 years. fabrics. Although such a refurbishment decision adds considerably to the financial burden of the hotel in addition to its negative environmental impacts. generally fixed for every 3 to 4 years. which is considerably high. suspended ceilings. wallpaper. as stated in Section 4. the minimum impacts belong to Hotel B refurbishment works. gypsum boards. the 93 . the rates were one sixth of Hotel A and one eleventh of Hotel C.3. The project applied to Hotel B can be considered as soft refurbishment which includes only the replacing of carpets. The difference between the volumes of the projects can also change the amount of damage. Hotel A refurbishment produced ten times more CO2 emission than Hotel B and Hotel C produced fifteen times more than Hotel B. according to six indicators. which included replacement of wall and floor materials. For primary energy consumption it is nearly one fifth of Hotel A and one ninth of Hotel C. refurbishments made in Hotel A and C can be defined as hard refurbishments. bathroom walls. According to the comparison tables and charts presented in the previous chapter. These results mostly depend on the magnitude of the refurbishment project. For water pollution the rate is slightly less: one third of Hotel A and one sixth of Hotel C.nature caused by these projects. depending on their budget. curtains. partition walls. etc. The air pollution produced by Hotel B refurbishment works was one fifth of Hotel A and one eighth of Hotel C. For solid waste.

in addition to decreasing the transportation costs. preferring non-renewable energy sources should be the only choice in order to prevent scarcity of raw materials. reducing use of excessive amount of materials. When a pollutant such as sulfuric acid. The increasing complexity of materials and products has made recycling more difficult in many cases so more efficient technologies for separating materials have to be developed. Designers can specify materials made from waste in preference to virgin materials. Consequently. recycling is another strategy which considers not only the sources but also by-products and waste disposal. let alone before the end of its expected lifetime.2. and reducing clean water use in buildings. Choice of Materials for Refurbishment Projects The choice of materials and components has an important role in determining energy performance.managements of these hotels pointed out that renovations are on-going in the system in order to maintain excellence in appearance and accommodation. which is accounted for in the air pollution index indicator. material is sometimes dumped as waste even before it has started to deteriorate due to wear and tear. reducing construction waste production. Moreover. combines with droplets of water in the air it can 94 . 5. reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution which directly affects global warming potential. so that negative impacts of solid waste and weighted resource use can be reduced. Reuse represents the best and highest level of resource efficiency for the buildings. Some objectives for environmentally sustainable design can be achieved by taking into consideration the six LCA indicators which are: reducing energy consumption and embodied energy by specifying products made with local materials and labor. If reusing is not possible.

Release of chlorofluorocarbon. Increase of even a few degrees in temperature will affect the eco-balance through changes in the climate and the possibility of polar ice caps melting. it poisons the soil. Organic wastes such as sewage impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system. fish. from aerosol cans. such as construction and renovation works.cause acid rain which has serious environmental implications. one of greenhouse gases. oceans. 95 . and groundwater. and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams. cooling systems and refrigerator equipment removes some of the ozone. thus causing global warming. It damages plants by destroying their leaves. Based on the findings of this study some precautions have been recommended for their mitigation. and other wildlife. This build-up acts like a blanket and traps heat close to the surface of the earth. The negative environmental impacts of the six LCA indicators for building construction works are presented in Table 5. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. affect the ozone layer which protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. to open up in this layer and allowing the radiation to reach the earth. This ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has damaging effects on plants and wildlife. Water pollution due to human activities causes adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes. Chemicals released by activities. these precautions are listed for each impact separately in the last row.1 below. Damage due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals. rivers. causing holes.

1: Precautions versus impacts of LCA indicators 96 .Table 5.

such as: wall and floor ceramic tiles. which were common to all the three projects were analyzed. Hence. namely. the total eco-score for any 97 . 0 was assigned to a material. The author formulated a system to evaluate building materials according to the six LCA environmental impact indicators.13) were used to calculate the related eco-scores. they could not be analyzed because the database of the software does not include information on these materials. Although. As shown in the proposed matrix below. textile backed wallpaper. leveling concrete. materials and process selection databases of the CES V4 software. brick and plaster. global warming potential and weighted resource use. water based paint. For this reason. were consulted. by calculating their “Ecoscores”. the analyses comprised of only the seven materials mentioned above. The evaluation was done by assigning ecological scores to each material. Hence. The largest amount of impact of any material for each indicator was denoted as the maximum eco-score of 7 and the least amount was denoted as 1. Mean values for each environmental impact indicator for the material (listed in Table 4. the intermediary range was divided into 5 equal grades. LCA of the seven materials. primary energy consumption. emissions to air and water) with the LCA software ATHENA. While information about C02 emission and the amount of embodied energy could be taken from this database. hardwood. ranging from 1 to 7 where 1 indicates the least damaging and 7 the most. marble claddings and carpet. which is used in Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering in METU. which had no known impact. it does not include information that is required to evaluate the material (such as the impacts of indicators according to life cycle stages. water pollution index. air pollution index. there were other common materials. solid waste.In Section 4. gypsum board. the selected materials were evaluated on the basis of the seven LCA indicators.5.

while the minimum score. Table 5. use of levelling concrete should be minimized in refurbishment projects. in order reduce the damage to the ecosystem. which is forty-two for levelling concrete. wallpaper fifth and gypsum is ranked sixth. MATERIALS Levelling Concrete Gypsum Board Wallpaper Water Based Paint Hardwood Brick Plaster Primary Energy Consumption Solid Waste Air Pollution Index Water Pollution Index Global Warming Potential Weighted Ecological Resource Scores Use 7 6 5 2 1 4 3 7 6 5 2 3 4 1 7 6 5 3 2 4 1 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 5 3 2 4 1 7 5 4 1 2 3 6 42 35 24 11 10 19 12 7 points = Most damaging 1 point = Least damaging 0 point = No damaging According to Table 5. means it is the most damaging material in these refurbishment works. materials with lesser scores will indicate least LCA impact and will be more desirable for the project. the maximum score.2: Proposed matrix for calculating “Eco-scores” for building materials according to the six LCA environmental impact indicators. brick fourth.2. As indicated in Table 5.1. In other words. which in turn helped to determine its environmental appropriateness. plaster third. is the least damaging material. Paint is ranked second.material was obtained by adding all the individual indicator scores. Cement in leveling concrete consumes more energy and raw materials in 98 . which is 10 for hardwood. especially in refurbishment projects.

the manufacturing phase due to high temperature in the kiln where it is produced. are finely ground mineral substances to form compounds with cement-like properties. which also have worse impacts on nature. Since the hotel maintenance and renovation guideline dictate a shorter useful life than their expected life. Use of these materials increases the strength of concrete while reducing the amount of cement required and recycling industrial waste. blast-furnace slag. Additionally. Usage of gypsum board should also be reconsidered and alternatives should be evaluated carefully. For these two materials.e. these materials and components. which are replaced in bulk just after a few years. Mineral admixtures. gypsum and concrete. The kilns must be strictly controlled not to cause smoke emissions and atmospheric pollution. i. called pozzolana. reducing and reusing strategies are most significant. As mentioned earlier. including fly ash. including aluminum ore refuse. ground blast furnace slag and silica fume. However. or fly ash. 99 . which are not as durable as wood. The cement industry should use industrial by-products as raw materials to mitigate its environmental impact. Hardwood has the minimum ecological score so wood should be preferred while refurbishing. the recycling. anchors and glues. it would be prudent to use replaceable material and components with de-mountable joints. Even the wooden pelmets were replaced with gypsum ones. Hotel A had 4500 square meters of wooden suspended ceiling replaced by gypsum board false ceilings. From these examples it can be seen that sometimes good quality and durable materials are replaced with those of poorer quality and strength. dangers of deforestation should not be ignored and regeneration of eco-balance can be assured through re-plantation in forests. are incorporated into the structure with permanent joints. Industrial by-products produce the most readily available pozzolana.

Since furniture is changed after every 8 to 10 years. It is therefore essential to add information regarding more types of materials with varied specifications. since benchmarking is not available. the limit values for the impact indicators could not be found. assessments are made on a comparative basis. The limit conditions for all indicators and air and water pollution index tables correlated with the software generated results can be prepared in order to make the assessment according to the local index values. It would also be more economical and healthy if floors were covered with wooden parquet or marble tiles depending on the climatic region. whereas ATHENA is a software that has been developed specifically for evaluating whole buildings. While assessing the hotels and materials in this study. 100 . These rugs can be washed or replaced at considerably lesser costs. Ecological scores similar to the ones formulated by the author and proposed in this dissertation can be determined and tabulated for other materials also.3. it is advisable not to use fixed furniture or parts thereof. in order to assess whole buildings. which is limiting to the assessment process. Moreover. Further Investigations LCA methodologies used so far have been developed for individual products only. which attracts dust and stains easily. 5. therefore. international standards were used instead. such as wall mounted headboards or night stands. and rugs were used instead of wall to wall carpeting. On the other hand this software does not include database for all types of material.

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110 . 2003: 933-936).APPENDIX A Table A. (Source: Erlandsson & Borg. 1: Comparison of 5 LCA tools according to different topics.

1: (continued) 111 .Table A.

1: (continued) 112 .Table A.

Table A.1: (continued)

113

Table A. 2: ATHENA Products. (Source: http://www.athenasmi.ca/database/, last access 19.05.2007).

Structural Products

Wood Products 16 products available in various length, thickness, and load carrying designations. Some available in a number of combinations for both Canada and the United States. Data initially developed in 1993; softwood lumber database updated in 1999. US data developed between 2000 and 2002. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Softwood Lumber (Green & KD) Plywood Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Glulam Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Parallel Strand Lumber PSL Wood I - Joists Lumber or LVL flange Plywood or OSB web Light Frame Trusses Pitched Roof Parallel Chord Truss Composite wood/steel trusses Lumber flange(s) and steel tubing web

Steel Products 17 products available in various length, thickness (ga.), and load carrying designations produced in virgin (integrated), electric-arc (mini-mill) and in combination integrated and mini-mills. Data initially developed in the period 1992-1995. Data updated 2002 for both Canada and the United States. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Galvanized C-studs and tracks Galvanized C-joists Wire Mesh Ladder Wire Fasteners screws nails nuts and bolts Open Web Joists Rebar and Rod Light sections Hollow Structural Steel Tubing and bracing Hot rolled sheet

114

Table A.2: (continued)

Concrete Structural Products 8 products in various mixes, sizes and structural strength designations. Data first developed in 1993 / 94, updated in 1999. • • • • • • 20 MPa ready-mixed with industry average, 25% and 35% fly ash concentrations 30 MPa ready-mixed with industry average, 25% and 35% fly ash concentrations 60 MPa ready-mixed Precast double T beams Precast hollow deck Concrete block Mortar

Envelope Products

Cladding Products 14 products in various sizes, species (wood), types and firing regimes (e.g., brick products), gauges as well as mortar and stucco products. Data developed between 1995 and 1998. • Wood bevel siding Wood tongue and groove siding • Wood shiplap siding • Sheet steel cladding • Common brick • Modular brick • Face brick • Glazed face brick • Fire brick • Thin veneer brick • Concrete brick • Silicate (sand lime) brick • Vinyl siding

Gypsum Wallboard and Finishing Materials 10 products available in various thicknesses and sizes. Data developed in 1996. • Regular paper faced gypsum board • Type X (fire resistant) gypsum board • Moisture resistant gypsum board • Mobile-home gypsum board • Gypsum fiberboard • Shaft liner board • Drying type ready-mixed joint compound • Setting type dry joint compound • Paper joint tape

115

expanded and updated in 1999.various weights and shapes Commercial Roofing Type III & IV fiberglass underlayment felt metal roofing Asphalt Built-up roofing Modified Bitumen (2-ply) roofing EPDM & PVC single-ply roofing membranes • • • • Windows & Glazed Curtain Wall 4 double pane sealed glazing unit types using 4 different frame materials in various combinations and dimensions plus a curtain wall application with viewable and opaque glazing as well as spandrel panel. argon filled Silver-coated glass.Table A. • Rockwool(mineral) batt • Fiberglass Batt • Cellulose • Polystyrene Rigid • expanded (XPS) • extruded (EPS) • Polisocyanurate foam board • Polyethylene vapor barrier Residential Roofing • • #15 and #30 building paper (felt) Organic (paper) and fiberglass based asphalt shingles of various durability weights • Clay tiles . expanded and updated in 1999. Data first developed in 1998 and verified.2: (continued) Insulation and Vapor Barriers 7 products in various densities and thicknesses (R-values). • Latex acrylic (water-based) • Oil alkyd (solvent-based) • Oil alkyd varnish (solvent-based) 116 . argon filled Window Frame Materials • Wood • PVC • PVC clad wood • Aluminum Paint Finishes • 3 paint types developed in 1998. First developed in 1998 and verified. Double Glazed Systems • Standard • Tin-coated glass • Tin coated glass.various weights and shapes • Concrete tiles .

APPENDIX B Table B. 1: Coted New Buildings and Additions by Use 117 .

118 .

119 . 2: Buildings Modified for A Different Use after Alterations and Repairs By year and Use of Building.Table B.

120 .

121 .

Table B. (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism). Type of Establishment Total Number of Years Establishments Qualified Number of Establishments Unqualified Number of Establishments 2003 2002 2001 HOTEL 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 MOTEL 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 BOARDING HOUSE 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 HOLIDAY VILLAGE 2000 1997 1992 1987 4 917 4 964 4 446 4 523 4 632 4 279 3 363 542 556 755 788 804 750 397 2 037 2 109 2 284 2 330 2 353 2 304 1 689 26 28 17 21 18 13 8 3 527 3 598 3 494 3 498 3 297 2 248 930 447 457 653 679 669 595 267 1 139 1 191 1 688 1 689 1 633 1 045 354 25 27 17 21 18 13 8 1 390 1 366 952 1 025 1 335 2 031 2 433 95 99 102 109 135 155 130 898 918 596 641 720 1 259 1 335 1 1 - 122 . 3: Number of qualified and unqualified municipality establishments and rooms in Turkey by types and years.

3: (continued) Total Number of Establishments 79 75 118 129 126 84 73 36 40 41 41 42 14 6 7 637 7 772 7 661 7 832 7 975 7 444 5 536 Qualified Number of Establishments 60 56 93 98 87 50 38 31 35 36 35 30 12 2 5 229 5 364 5 981 6 020 5 734 3 963 1 599 Unqualified Number of Establishments 19 19 25 31 39 34 35 5 5 5 6 12 2 4 2 408 2 408 1 680 1 812 2 241 3 481 3 937 Type of Establishment Years 2003 2002 2001 CAMPING 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 THERMAL RESORT 2000 1997 1992 1987 2003 2002 2001 TOTAL 2000 1997 1992 1987 123 .Table B.

Table B. 124 . 4: Number of Municipality Licensed Accommodation Establishments in Ankara.

5: Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2003.Table B. Qualified Number of Establishments 652 577 294 376 141 103 71 65 57 48 28 36 30 49 45 47 29 28 18 37 31 24 37 27 13 17 28 18 25 13 25 15 18 16 15 20 15 20 16 14 Unqualified Number of Establishments 287 58 113 22 90 27 47 50 52 41 41 30 36 4 8 5 22 20 28 9 14 17 4 12 25 18 7 17 8 20 5 15 11 11 12 6 10 5 8 10 Total Number of Establishments 939 635 407 398 231 130 118 115 109 89 69 66 66 53 53 52 51 48 46 46 45 41 41 39 38 35 35 35 33 33 30 30 29 27 27 26 25 25 24 24 Rank Provinces ANTALYA 1 MUĞLA 2 ĐSTANBUL 3 AYDIN 4 ĐZMĐR 5 BALIKESĐR 6 BURSA 7 MERSĐN 8 TRABZON 9 ÇANAKKALE 10 ARTVĐN 11 ANKARA 12 KONYA 13 NEVŞEHĐR 14 RĐZE 15 ERZURUM 16 DENĐZLĐ 17 MANĐSA 18 GAZĐANTEP 19 SAMSUN 20 AFYON 21 ADANA 22 DĐYARBAKIR 23 K. (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism).MARAŞ 24 KOCAELĐ 25 SĐVAS 26 TEKĐRDAĞ 27 YALOVA 28 ISPARTA 29 SAKARYA 30 HATAY 31 ORDU 32 KAYSERĐ 33 ERZĐNCAN 34 KASTAMONU 35 ARDAHAN 36 TOKAT 37 KARABÜK 38 AMASYA 39 DÜZCE 40 125 .

5: (continued) Rank Provinces AĞRI 41 KÜTAHYA 42 SĐNOP 43 VAN 44 YOZGAT 45 ZONGULDAK 46 EDĐRNE 47 KARS 48 MALATYA 49 BARTIN 50 BOLU 51 KIRKLARELĐ 52 ÇORUM 53 IĞDIR 54 ELAZIĞ 55 ŞANLIURFA 56 BURDUR 57 UŞAK 58 GĐRESUN 59 ŞIRNAK 60 BĐLECĐK 61 BĐTLĐS 62 ÇANKIRI 63 TUNCELĐ 64 ESKĐŞEHĐR 65 AKSARAY 66 NĐĞDE 67 ADIYAMAN 68 GÜMÜŞHANE 69 KIRŞEHĐR 70 HAKKARĐ 71 MARDĐN 72 SĐĐRT 73 MUŞ 74 KARAMAN 75 KIRIKKALE 76 OSMANĐYE 77 BĐNGÖL 78 BAYBURT 79 BATMAN 80 KĐLĐS 81 Qualified Number of Establishments 13 19 13 15 13 17 15 10 11 18 15 16 17 10 5 14 16 10 9 11 9 7 11 8 10 6 6 5 6 8 5 3 7 5 5 4 6 4 3 2 2 Unqualified Number of Establishments 10 4 10 8 10 6 7 12 10 3 5 4 2 9 12 3 6 6 4 5 4 3 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 1 2 - Total Number of Establishments 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 17 17 16 16 15 15 14 11 11 11 10 10 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 4 3 2 2 TOTAL 3 527 1 390 4 917 126 .Table B.

Qualified Number of Establishments 145 154 54 259 85 106 31 42 55 34 46 34 45 42 31 26 12 18 21 22 32 18 30 3 18 30 24 19 13 6 4 23 18 17 8 8 10 13 14 5 Unqualified Number of Establishments 1217 952 561 257 384 341 200 165 96 114 97 101 89 54 64 58 71 61 55 48 37 45 31 54 37 24 30 34 39 43 40 20 25 2 28 24 21 18 16 25 Total Number of Establishments 1362 1106 615 516 469 447 231 207 151 148 143 135 134 96 95 84 83 79 76 70 69 63 61 57 55 54 54 53 52 49 44 43 43 37 36 32 31 31 30 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Provinces MUĞLA ANTALYA AYDIN ĐZMĐR ĐSTANBUL BALIKESĐR MERSĐN DENĐZLĐ ÇANAKKALE ANKARA BURSA TRABZON NEVŞEHĐR KONYA ERZURUM TEKĐRDAĞ YALOVA ARTVĐN RĐZE K.MARAŞ HATAY ADANA MANĐSA SAKARYA ISPARTA KASTAMONU SĐVAS AFYON SAMSUN DĐYARBAKIR KOCAELĐ ORDU SĐNOP KÜTAHYA GAZĐANTEP ERZĐNCAN ÇORUM ZONGULDAK BARTIN BOLU 127 . 6: Number of qualified and unqualified municipality licensed hotels by provinces in Turkey – 2000. (Source: Ministry of Culture and Tourism).Table B.

6: (continued) Qualified Provinces DÜZCE EDĐRNE KAYSERĐ AMASYA KARABÜK TOKAT KIRKLARELĐ MALATYA VAN AKSARAY ELAZIĞ IĞDIR ŞANLIURFA ARDAHAN AĞRI GĐRESUN UŞAK KARS YOZGAT ADIYAMAN BĐTLĐS BĐLECĐK BURDUR ÇANKIRI TUNCELĐ BĐNGÖL ESKĐŞEHĐR ŞIRNAK MARDĐN SĐĐRT KIRŞEHĐR NĐĞDE KARAMAN GÜMÜŞHANE MUŞ BAYBURT KIRIKKALE OSMANĐYE BATMAN HAKKARĐ KĐLĐS Number of Establishments 4 17 8 13 9 14 12 10 4 11 5 7 15 3 2 11 8 8 11 10 6 7 7 6 4 9 13 4 3 3 7 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 2 3 2 Unqualified Number of Establishments 26 12 21 15 19 14 15 17 21 12 18 16 8 18 18 9 12 9 6 6 10 8 7 8 10 4 0 7 7 6 1 4 3 2 3 2 2 0 2 1 1 Total Number of Establishments 30 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 25 23 23 23 23 21 20 20 20 17 17 16 16 15 14 14 14 13 13 11 10 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 TOTAL 1859 5958 7835 128 .Table B.

ĐMRAN KARAMAN M.YP.ALĐ YAPICIOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL SEVĐM NOYAN CELAL ÇAMLIBEL HALDUN ERTEKĐN ALĐ RAGIP BULUÇ MUSTAFA ÜMĐT KALELĐOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ADEM KOÇ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYŞE GÜLDER TAŞÇIOĞLU ALTAN ERSOY ATĐLLA ŞENGONCA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ZĐYA TANALI B. KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT EĞĐTĐM YAPILARI KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT ATOLYE KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK.TAR.CEMAL ÖZER PROJECT TYPE ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT DUKKAN IS MERK.HALDUN ERDOĞAN METĐN TAMER EMĐN ALPER GÜNER METĐN AYGÜN METĐN TAMER M. during the 5 year period of 2000-2005. 7: Data related to the different types of alterations and renovation projects approved by the Chamber of Architects in Ankara. ISYERI+KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT 129 .Table B.MALĐ END. PROJECT DATE 15-Feb-00 23-Dec-00 9-Jan-01 10-May-01 4-Jun-01 15-Jun-01 3-Aug-01 25-Oct-01 10-Jun-02 2-Oct-02 4-Oct-02 10-Oct-02 15-Oct-02 17-Oct-02 18-Oct-02 18-Oct-02 24-Oct-02 8-Nov-02 14-Nov-02 27-Nov-02 29-Nov-02 29-Nov-02 9-Dec-02 9-Dec-02 11-Dec-02 11-Dec-02 24-Dec-02 24-Dec-02 26-Dec-02 30-Dec-02 30-Dec-02 31-Dec-02 31-Dec-02 6-Jan-03 13-Jan-03 13-Jan-03 21-Jan-03 21-Jan-03 27-Jan-03 3-Feb-03 NAME SURNAME FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR CELAL ÇAMLIBEL MEHMET FUAT KARAOĞLU NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL MEHMET FUAT KARAOĞLU REFĐK ERDOĞAN NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN A. ÇARŞI BURO KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT TĐC.

7: (continued).Table B. NAME SURNAME SEMRA TEBER YENER SERCĐHAN MADEN MUSTAFA ZÜHTÜ BAYER ATĐLLA ŞENGONCA ABDÜLHALĐM BÜYÜKBAY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN CELAL ÇAMLIBEL ÖZGÜR ECEVĐT MURAT LALECĐ ÖNDER ÇOLAK MUSTAFA ARSLAN ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ METĐN TAMER AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SAĐT OĞUZHAN ÖZTURAN HÜDAVERDĐ GÖKÇEN LÜTFÜ KOCAOĞLU HALĐME ÖZSÜT ŞENOL ERKUT ŞAHĐNBAŞ MĐTAT KARA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN SEVĐM NOYAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐRFAN ÇAKALLI ERHAN KOCABIYIKOĞLU MUSTAFA MÜRŞĐT GÜNDAY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ALPER AYLAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐRFAN SEZER FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL MEHMET GÜNER MUZAFFER IŞIK AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT TĐCARĐ VE SANAĐ DUKKAN KONUT KONUT GENEL HASTANE KONUT KONUT OZEL ISLEVLI OKUL BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT GUNDUZ BAKIM EVI KONUT DEPO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DEPO KONUT OTEL PROJECT DATE 3-Feb-03 3-Feb-03 20-Feb-03 26-Feb-03 27-Feb-03 27-Feb-03 27-Feb-03 10-Mar-03 11-Mar-03 25-Mar-03 28-Mar-03 31-Mar-03 2-Apr-03 4-Apr-03 7-Apr-03 7-Apr-03 8-Apr-03 8-Apr-03 10-Apr-03 16-Apr-03 17-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 18-Apr-03 22-Apr-03 1-May-03 10-May-03 12-May-03 12-May-03 13-May-03 15-May-03 16-May-03 16-May-03 16-May-03 16-May-03 21-May-03 27-May-03 28-May-03 2-Jun-03 130 .

Table B. DUKKAN DEPO DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT FABRĐKA DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO GENEL HASTANE PROJECT DATE 4-Jun-03 5-Jun-03 11-Jun-03 13-Jun-03 13-Jun-03 17-Jun-03 19-Jun-03 23-Jun-03 26-Jun-03 1-Jul-03 7-Jul-03 11-Jul-03 17-Jul-03 21-Jul-03 22-Jul-03 31-Jul-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 11-Aug-03 15-Aug-03 15-Aug-03 18-Aug-03 21-Aug-03 25-Aug-03 25-Aug-03 28-Aug-03 28-Aug-03 1-Sep-03 3-Sep-03 3-Sep-03 5-Sep-03 18-Sep-03 29-Sep-03 3-Oct-03 3-Oct-03 6-Oct-03 6-Oct-03 9-Oct-03 9-Oct-03 131 .7: (continued). NAME SURNAME MUAMMER AYDIN SERCAN ÜNAL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ALP KAĞAN DURAN ATĐLLA ŞENGONCA ERHAN KOCABIYIKOĞLU CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER HASAN ER DENĐZ AYBARS AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN COŞKUN ÜREYEN CEMAL BAYSAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HALĐL OĞUZ ARIK HAKAN BÜLBÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ Y.TOLGA DĐKER AYTEN KART HĐKMET ÇENGEL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MEHMET GÜNER MAHĐR AYDUĞAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN VELĐ AKTÜRK ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ MUZAFFER IŞIK HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MEHMET TURHAN KAYASÜ PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD OTEL KONUT BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT FABRĐKA KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN DUKKAN KONUT OTEL ĐŞ-TĐCARET MERK.

NAME SURNAME MEHLĐKA MIHOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SEVĐM NOYAN MURAT LALECĐ COŞKUN TORUN HALĐL OĞUZ ARIK FATMA CEBECĐ OKTAY AKDUMANLI MUSTAFA ARSLAN MUSTAFA ARSLAN ZEHRA TÜRKCAN AKSU MEHMET ILGIN AYSUN COŞAR METĐN TAMER MĐTHAT AKMAN MEHLĐKA MIHOĞLU MUSTAFA ÖZKARAKAYA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐLKAY TAVLI ĐLKAY TAVLI MUSTAFA ZÜHTÜ BAYER AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖNDER ÇOLAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR SEMRA TEBER YENER AYLA TÜFEKCĐOĞLU SUAT ZOBU MEHMET AYDIN ERHAN KORKMAZ MEHMET KĐBAR YUSUF AYGAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HASAN ÖZBAY HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HAKAN BÜLBÜL MUSTAFA ARSLAN AHMET ENGĐN FIRAT PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BENZIN ISTASYONU KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT MARKET KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT ÇOK AMAÇLI SAL.Table B. BURO IMALATHANE OTEL KONUT ĐDARĐ BĐNA PROJECT DATE 14-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 22-Oct-03 24-Oct-03 30-Oct-03 3-Nov-03 10-Nov-03 12-Nov-03 17-Nov-03 17-Nov-03 17-Nov-03 19-Nov-03 2-Dec-03 11-Dec-03 12-Dec-03 15-Dec-03 15-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 22-Dec-03 24-Dec-03 13-Jan-04 13-Jan-04 19-Jan-04 26-Jan-04 26-Jan-04 5-Feb-04 6-Feb-04 6-Feb-04 9-Feb-04 19-Feb-04 27-Feb-04 27-Feb-04 1-Mar-04 2-Mar-04 3-Mar-04 5-Mar-04 5-Mar-04 5-Mar-04 9-Mar-04 132 .7: (continued). KONUT ĐDARĐ BĐNA APARTMAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK.

Table B.7: (continued). KONUT PROJECT DATE 10-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 12-Mar-04 19-Mar-04 19-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 22-Mar-04 23-Mar-04 24-Mar-04 24-Mar-04 24-Mar-04 26-Mar-04 26-Mar-04 26-Mar-04 29-Mar-04 5-Apr-04 6-Apr-04 13-Apr-04 19-Apr-04 20-Apr-04 20-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 26-Apr-04 28-Apr-04 28-Apr-04 29-Apr-04 29-Apr-04 30-Apr-04 30-Apr-04 7-May-04 7-May-04 7-May-04 10-May-04 14-May-04 20-May-04 133 . NAME SURNAME ĐRFAN ÇAKALLI AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MURAT LALECĐ MURAT LALECĐ MURAT LALECĐ ABDULLAH EMRE ÖZĐKĐNCĐ MEHMET ALTUNTAŞ A.CAN ERSAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYKUT SONOL TOLGAY RÜSTEM CANTÜRK HASAN AKYÜZ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY FATMA CEBECĐ TURGUT YURT HASAN ER MUSTAFA ŞAHĐN SAĐT OĞUZHAN ÖZTURAN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU AHMET ENDER EROL ĐHSAN BĐGE AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN YUSUF AYGAR ALĐŞAN BAYRAKDAR ALĐŞAN BAYRAKDAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK ALP KAĞAN DURAN MEHLĐKA MIHOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN M.ALĐ YAPICIOĞLU HADĐ EMĐROĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT HASTANE BENZIN ISTASYONU KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DUKKAN BURO KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT KONUT LOKANTA DUKKAN KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT IMALATHANE IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT SHOWROOM DUKKAN KONUT KONUT APARTMAN IS HANI IS HANI KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK.

HÜSEYĐN KEÇECĐ AZĐZ SERDAR CEYHAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN FATMA CEBECĐ LEYLA MERAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MAHĐR AYDUĞAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN PROJECT TYPE KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO APARTMAN APARTMAN KONUT KONUT ĐDARĐ BĐNA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT GENEL HASTANE MAĞAZA DEPO DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 20-May-04 20-May-04 20-May-04 20-May-04 31-May-04 1-Jun-04 3-Jun-04 3-Jun-04 3-Jun-04 15-Jun-04 15-Jun-04 18-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 21-Jun-04 22-Jun-04 22-Jun-04 28-Jun-04 30-Jun-04 1-Jul-04 1-Jul-04 8-Jul-04 12-Jul-04 13-Jul-04 14-Jul-04 14-Jul-04 2-Aug-04 2-Aug-04 5-Aug-04 12-Aug-04 13-Aug-04 18-Aug-04 23-Aug-04 24-Aug-04 24-Aug-04 26-Aug-04 2-Sep-04 2-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 134 . NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN NURĐ KURTULUŞ KONUR MĐTHAT DEMĐRCĐ MĐTHAT DEMĐRCĐ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ AYSUN COŞAR NURĐ KURTULUŞ KONUR MURAT LALECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MEHMET TURHAN KAYASÜ FERHAT ERDEM KARAORMAN ÖNDER ÇOLAK MURAT LALECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN EROL USTA MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU GÜNERĐ IRMAK MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN H.7: (continued).Table B.

ALĐ ULUSOY ĐBRAHĐM TEVFĐK PARABAKAN MUSTAFA YÜCESAN SERDAR AKÜNAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MAHĐR AYDUĞAN ÖNDER ÇOLAK HAZELĐ AKGÖL METĐN TAMER MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ MURAT LALECĐ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK ONUR BAYER ONUR BAYER A.CAN ERSAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BENZIN IST.Table B. NAME SURNAME MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MEHMET GÜNER T.7: (continued). ISYERI+KONUT IMALATHANE ISYERI+KONUT BENZIN ISTASYONU DUKKAN OTEL KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS HANI KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 7-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 8-Sep-04 14-Sep-04 22-Sep-04 24-Sep-04 27-Sep-04 29-Sep-04 4-Oct-04 4-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 5-Oct-04 6-Oct-04 8-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 12-Oct-04 15-Oct-04 15-Oct-04 18-Oct-04 20-Oct-04 20-Oct-04 21-Oct-04 22-Oct-04 25-Oct-04 25-Oct-04 135 .BERKAY YALIN DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR H.

Table B.7: (continued). NAME SURNAME REFĐK ERDOĞAN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU AHMET YILMAZ MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN CANAN KAÇAR MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN AHMET ENGĐN FIRAT YENER GÜRAN ĐSMAĐL ÇAĞLAR SERCĐHAN MADEN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD OTEL KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 25-Oct-04 28-Oct-04 5-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 8-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 9-Nov-04 18-Nov-04 30-Nov-04 2-Dec-04 6-Dec-04 7-Dec-04 7-Dec-04 7-Dec-04 136 .

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN M.ALĐ YAPICIOĞLU ERGĐN DĐLSĐZ AYDIN ÖZDEMĐR ÖNDER ÇOLAK VELĐ AKTÜRK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ HASAN ER MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MEHMET YALÇIN EMMĐLER SEVĐM NOYAN TURAN TEKĐN YAVUZ ÖNEN MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ AYŞE ERGÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BORA TUBAY DÜRRĐYE MĐNE KARATAŞ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TAHSĐN TAŞKIRAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN FAHĐRE SAATÇĐ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY ĐHSAN BĐGE DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR MUSTAFA YÜCESAN KEMAL MÜKREMĐN BARUT AYŞE ERGÜL PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT YURT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BANKA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT HASTANE DÜKKAN+KONUT EĞĐTĐM YAPILARI DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT PROJECT DATE 7-Dec-04 9-Dec-04 10-Dec-04 14-Dec-04 14-Dec-04 14-Dec-04 15-Dec-04 15-Dec-04 16-Dec-04 16-Dec-04 20-Dec-04 20-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 21-Dec-04 23-Dec-04 23-Dec-04 23-Dec-04 24-Dec-04 27-Dec-04 28-Dec-04 30-Dec-04 30-Dec-04 31-Dec-04 7-Jan-05 7-Jan-05 7-Jan-05 10-Jan-05 13-Jan-05 19-Jan-05 24-Jan-05 27-Jan-05 28-Jan-05 1-Feb-05 10-Feb-05

137

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ERKUT ŞAHĐNBAŞ MUSTAFA AYTÖRE TURAN TEKĐN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU BÜLENT BĐROĞLU HASAN ÇINAR HASAN ÇINAR ERKUT ŞAHĐNBAŞ KALĐP HERGÜL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR RÜSTEM CANTÜRK ALĐ TEPE HÜLYA HANCI CENGĐZ DÖNMEZ MUZAFFER IŞIK ADNAN KÖPRÜLÜ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK SEVĐM NOYAN REFĐK ERDOĞAN SERVER TUNÇAY ERHAN KOCABIYIKOĞLU MURAT ARTU SONER GÖKDEMĐR SERCĐHAN MADEN MURAT ARTU MUSTAFA YÜCESAN TANER DEMĐRDAĞ MÜJDAT KADRĐ ATABAŞ AHMET HALĐS TURGAY MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN MÜKREMĐN MUNGAN ĐHSAN SĐNAN ÇETĐNTAŞ GÜROL AYDIN ĐSMET BAYAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN PROJECT TYPE TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT KONUT HASTANE BURO DÜKKAN+KONUT ĐŞYERĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO ISYERI+KONUT ĐŞ-TĐCARET MER. DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT IS HANI DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT SHOWROOM BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 11-Feb-05 11-Feb-05 11-Feb-05 11-Feb-05 18-Feb-05 21-Feb-05 21-Feb-05 21-Feb-05 22-Feb-05 24-Feb-05 24-Feb-05 7-Mar-05 8-Mar-05 14-Mar-05 14-Mar-05 21-Mar-05 7-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 11-Apr-05 12-Apr-05 20-Apr-05 20-Apr-05 21-Apr-05 26-Apr-05 26-Apr-05 27-Apr-05 28-Apr-05 28-Apr-05 3-May-05 5-May-05 6-May-05 6-May-05 6-May-05 6-May-05 9-May-05 21-May-05 25-May-05 26-May-05 26-May-05

138

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME KEMAL MÜKREMĐN BARUT BURHAN ÖZÇELĐK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN FATMA CEBECĐ HACER AYRANCIOĞLU YETĐŞ HACER AYRANCIOĞLU YETĐŞ HÜDAVERDĐ GÖKÇEN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN YĐĞĐT GÜLÖKSÜZ FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL SEVĐM NOYAN MUZAFFER IŞIK RASĐM ÖZVEREN ORHAN GÖNÜLAL YENER GÜRAN YENER GÜRAN HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN MEHMET GÜNER CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER ESER ÖNAL DANYAL TEVFĐK ÇĐPER FATMA CEBECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MELTEM MIZRAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ADNAN CEYHUN YAVUZ TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN NAMĐ HATIRLI BÜLENT BĐROĞLU CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR AHMET AKIN AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK ARZU BAŞAL HAKAN BÜLBÜL PROJECT TYPE KÜÇÜK TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT IS MERK. KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT LOKANTA KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT APARTMAN KONUT KONUT KONUT LOKANTA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT PROJECT DATE 27-May-05 30-May-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 1-Jun-05 3-Jun-05 3-Jun-05 6-Jun-05 7-Jun-05 9-Jun-05 14-Jun-05 16-Jun-05 16-Jun-05 16-Jun-05 17-Jun-05 17-Jun-05 20-Jun-05 4-Jul-05 6-Jul-05 6-Jul-05 15-Jul-05 15-Jul-05 18-Jul-05 21-Jul-05 26-Jul-05 26-Jul-05 27-Jul-05 29-Jul-05 2-Aug-05 2-Aug-05 3-Aug-05 4-Aug-05 9-Aug-05 10-Aug-05 11-Aug-05 12-Aug-05 16-Aug-05 19-Aug-05 23-Aug-05

139

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ YÜKSEL BEŞBAŞ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HAKAN BÜLBÜL ÖNDER ÇOLAK CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR MUZAFFER IŞIK TURAN TEKĐN NAMĐ HATIRLI TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK HALE EREN BAŞAL ĐHSAN BĐGE MUZAFFER IŞIK CANAN KAÇAR DÜRRĐYE MĐNE KARATAŞ AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU ÜNAL KARA TURAN TEKĐN HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ ALĐ TEPE CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR CANAN KAÇAR MĐTHAT DEMĐRCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AZĐZE MANAP TURAN TEKĐN MUAMMER KOÇ HĐKMET ÇENGEL PROJECT TYPE ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD LOKANTA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK. DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 23-Aug-05 23-Aug-05 23-Aug-05 23-Aug-05 24-Aug-05 26-Aug-05 26-Aug-05 29-Aug-05 29-Aug-05 31-Aug-05 01-Sep-05 05-Sep-05 05-Sep-05 06-Sep-05 06-Sep-05 08-Sep-05 09-Sep-05 13-Sep-05 14-Sep-05 16-Sep-05 22-Sep-05 22-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 26-Sep-05 29-Sep-05 04-Oct-05 04-Oct-05 06-Oct-05 06-Oct-05 06-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 10-Oct-05 12-Oct-05 20-Oct-05 20-Oct-05 25-Oct-05 08-Nov-05 11-Nov-05

KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞ MERKEZĐ

140

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TURAN TEKĐN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU ÖZGÜR TOP HAKAN BÜLBÜL HAKAN BÜLBÜL HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR AYŞE ERGÜL ALĐ TEPE TÜMAY KORUCUOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN MEHMET KĐBAR MELTEM MIZRAK ALĐ OSMAN ÖZTÜRK SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖNDER ÇOLAK ĐLKNUR ÇOPUR ÇAĞLAR ĐLYAS DOĞAN ARZU BAŞAL HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SEVĐM NOYAN ESER ÖNAL ÖNDER ÇOLAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BURHAN ÖZÇELĐK HATĐCE GÜL GÜVEN ALPER AYLAN ERHAN KORKMAZ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER RÜSTEM CANTÜRK RÜSTEM CANTÜRK MĐTHAT AKMAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK ERHAN KORKMAZ BEKĐR CĐNCĐOĞLU PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT TĐCARĐ VE SANAĐ KONUT KONUT IS MERK. KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DUKKAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT APARTMAN KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT K.SAN. SIT. KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT PROJECT DATE 11-Nov-05 14-Nov-05 14-Nov-05 14-Nov-05 16-Nov-05 17-Nov-05 17-Nov-05 18-Nov-05 21-Nov-05 22-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 01-Dec-05 01-Dec-05 02-Dec-05 02-Dec-05 05-Dec-05 09-Dec-05 12-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 13-Dec-05 14-Dec-05 15-Dec-05 15-Dec-05 19-Dec-05 20-Dec-05 20-Dec-05 20-Dec-05 22-Dec-05 22-Dec-05 26-Dec-05 26-Dec-05 26-Dec-05 28-Dec-05 30-Dec-05 05-Jan-06 06-Jan-06 16-Jan-06

141

Table B.7: (continued).
NAME SURNAME HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MUAMMER KOÇ MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TURGUT YURT AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AHMET SĐNAN KINIKOĞLU MAHMUT NEDĐM DĐKMEN YÜKSEL ODABAŞI AHMET AKIN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ ĐSMET BAYAR VELĐ AKTÜRK H.ALĐ ULUSOY H.ALĐ ULUSOY AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN FATĐH AÇIKALIN ÜNAL AKPINAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ŞÜKRÜ DĐKĐCĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYŞE BOZYEL HACI MEHMET TEZEL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÜNAL AKPINAR AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER ALĐ RAGIP BULUÇ HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR HACI BEKĐR ÜNÜVAR MURAT ÇAĞLAYAN BUDAK MUZAFFER IŞIK PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD DUKKAN KONUT KONUT IMALATHANE KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT IS MERK. KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KÜLTÜR MERK. DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT ISYERI+KONUT KONUT KONUT APARTMAN APARTMAN KONUT KONUT SAĞLIK VE SOS. HĐZ. KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT SAĞLIK VE SOS. HĐZ. KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT IS MERK. ĐŞYERĐ BENZIN ISTASYONU BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 18-Jan-06 26-Jan-06 26-Jan-06 27-Jan-06 27-Jan-06 31-Jan-06 01-Feb-06 01-Feb-06 01-Feb-06 02-Feb-06 07-Feb-06 09-Feb-06 09-Feb-06 10-Feb-06 10-Feb-06 14-Feb-06 14-Feb-06 14-Feb-06 15-Feb-06 17-Feb-06 20-Feb-06 20-Feb-06 24-Feb-06 27-Feb-06 28-Feb-06 28-Feb-06 01-Mar-06 01-Mar-06 03-Mar-06 04-Mar-06 04-Mar-06 07-Mar-06 09-Mar-06 23-Mar-06 04-Apr-06 05-Apr-06 07-Apr-06 07-Apr-06 07-Apr-06 10-Apr-06 10-Apr-06 10-Apr-06

142

Table B. DÜKKAN+KONUT DUKKAN DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT MAĞAZA KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞ MERKEZĐ KONUT BURO KONUT ĐŞ VE TĐCARET MERKEZĐ KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 10-Apr-06 10-Apr-06 12-Apr-06 13-Apr-06 13-Apr-06 13-Apr-06 20-Apr-06 25-Apr-06 26-Apr-06 28-Apr-06 28-Apr-06 03-May-06 05-May-06 08-May-06 12-May-06 17-May-06 17-May-06 24-May-06 24-May-06 26-May-06 26-May-06 31-May-06 31-May-06 31-May-06 01-Jun-06 06-Jun-06 07-Jun-06 13-Jun-06 14-Jun-06 16-Jun-06 19-Jun-06 19-Jun-06 20-Jun-06 21-Jun-06 21-Jun-06 22-Jun-06 22-Jun-06 22-Jun-06 27-Jun-06 29-Jun-06 29-Jun-06 143 . NAME SURNAME MEHMET GÜNER ERDAL ALTUN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYŞE ERGÜL ÖZGÜR YAKIN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU ÖZKAN ÖZGÜR MUZAFFER IŞIK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN OSMAN SADIKOĞLU ERCĐHAN KORKMAZ HAKAN BÜLBÜL MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MĐTHAT AKMAN HAKAN BÜLBÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN SÜLEYMAN ÇETĐNTAŞ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ERCÜMENT YAĞMUR ŞÜKRÜ DĐKĐCĐ SONER GÖKDEMĐR MUSTAFA ÜMĐT KALELĐOĞLU ALĐ OSMAN ÖZTÜRK METĐN BOZBOĞA SEFA GÖRGÜN MUZAFFER IŞIK MUZAFFER IŞIK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN GÜNERĐ IRMAK GÜNERĐ IRMAK DĐLEK ALKA AYDEMĐR TURAN TEKĐN TURAN TEKĐN SALĐH KOÇAK YENER GÜRAN HALĐME ÖZSÜT ŞENOL PROJECT TYPE ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD FABRĐKA BENZIN ISTASYONU KONUT ĐŞ VE TĐCARET MERKEZ K.7: (continued).SAN. SIT.

Table B.HALDUN ERDOĞAN ERCÜMENT YAĞMUR MUZAFFER IŞIK MUZAFFER IŞIK TEOMAN TANJU ZENCĐRCĐ MUZAFFER IŞIK AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ĐHSAN BĐGE HASAN ÇEVĐK ÖMER FARUK SUMMAK REFĐK ERDOĞAN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HĐKMET ÇENGEL HÜSNÜ CEYHAN ESER ÖNAL FAĐK AHMET ŞENEL HASAN AKYÜZ METĐN BOZBOĞA AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL GÜRKAN DEMĐRCĐ TÜLĐN ÇETĐN PROJECT TYPE BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT BURO+MAĞAZA KONUT ĐMALATHANE KONUT BENZĐN ĐSTASYONU DÜKKAN+KONUT ĐŞYERĐ ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT KONUT BÜRO KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BENZĐN ĐSTASYONU KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT+DÜKKAN DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT PROJECT DATE 30-Jun-06 30-Jun-06 30-Jun-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 06-Jul-06 07-Jul-06 10-Jul-06 10-Jul-06 11-Jul-06 11-Jul-06 12-Jul-06 14-Jul-06 20-Jul-06 20-Jul-06 21-Jul-06 21-Jul-06 24-Jul-06 26-Jul-06 27-Jul-06 31-Jul-06 31-Jul-06 01-Aug-06 01-Aug-06 02-Aug-06 03-Aug-06 03-Aug-06 07-Aug-06 09-Aug-06 10-Aug-06 11-Aug-06 11-Aug-06 16-Aug-06 16-Aug-06 16-Aug-06 17-Aug-06 18-Aug-06 22-Aug-06 144 .7: (continued). NAME SURNAME AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN TURAN TEKĐN MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT MEHMET HĐKMET BOZKURT AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ALĐ OSMAN ÖZTÜRK HASAN KILIÇ CELAL ÇAMLIBEL ŞERĐFE MERĐÇ B.

LOKANTA PROJECT DATE 23-Aug-06 24-Aug-06 25-Aug-06 29-Aug-06 01-Sep-06 01-Sep-06 04-Sep-06 07-Sep-06 08-Sep-06 19-Sep-06 21-Sep-06 22-Sep-06 29-Sep-06 05-Oct-06 09-Oct-06 12-Oct-06 13-Oct-06 16-Oct-06 18-Oct-06 19-Oct-06 01-Nov-06 02-Nov-06 02-Nov-06 03-Nov-06 07-Nov-06 07-Nov-06 13-Nov-06 13-Nov-06 15-Nov-06 15-Nov-06 20-Nov-06 22-Nov-06 28-Nov-06 28-Nov-06 29-Nov-06 30-Nov-06 30-Nov-06 30-Nov-06 07-Dec-06 07-Dec-06 08-Dec-06 12-Dec-06 ESER ÖNAL AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖZLEN ÇAĞIL AZĐZ SERDAR CEYHAN AHMET NECATĐ KÜÇÜKKÖMÜRLER KAAN ÖZER AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HAKAN BÜLBÜL ERCÜMENT YAĞMUR AHMET HALĐS TURGAY ALĐ TEPE HĐKMET ÇENGEL ŞAKĐR MERAKĐ HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN HALĐL FAZLIOĞLU HACI CANATAN FATMA CEBECĐ AYDOĞAN ÜNSÜN ÖZLEN ÇAĞIL TÜLAY ASLAN SAĐT OĞUZHAN ÖZTURAN ĐSA PARLAK MEMET YILMAZ HELVACIOĞLU CĐHANGĐR ÖZYER ĐSMET BAYAR NURĐ OSMAN YURDAKUL GÜRKAN DEMĐRCĐ ĐSMET BAYAR ALĐ TEPE HAYRĐYE KORHAN ALTAN ERSOY BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK 145 .BURO.7: (continued). NAME SURNAME MURAT ARTU HALĐL OĞUZ ARIK BOZKURT GÜRSOYTRAK AHMET FUAT ÖZKOÇAK SERCĐHAN MADEN SERCĐHAN MADEN BÜLENT BĐROĞLU PROJECT TYPE ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ĐLAVE + TADĐLAT KAPSAMLI TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT BASĐT TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT ORTA TADĐLAT PROJECT FIELD KONUT KONUT BURO KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT OTEL ALIŞVERĐŞ KOMPLEKSĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT BURO KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KRES KONUT KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT APART OTEL KONUT DÜKKAN+KONUT ĐŞYERĐ KONUT KONUT APARTMAN DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT ĐŞYERĐ DÜKKAN+KONUT KONUT KONUT ĐŞMERKEZĐ OTEL SHOWROOM.Table B.

00 146 . A.00 16.56 1.15. A.12 A. A.00 7.5 A. Table B. 1: Bill of quantities of Hotel A.272.1. (Source: The technical departments of three hotels).182.2. POZ A. A.9 A.20 2.278.1 A.2. A.14.00 352.2. A.8.00 7.006.20 7.1.92 17.17.005.4.08 336. A.11.1.2.00 16.992.5.827.00 416.2.580.16.21.1. AÇIKLAMA ODA SÖKÜM ĐŞLERĐ ODA GĐRĐŞ KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ CONNECTING KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ SIUTE ARA KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ GARDROP SÖKÜMÜ YATAK BAŞI SÖKÜMÜ KORNĐŞ PERDE KAFESĐ PERDELĐK SÖKÜMÜ SÜPÜRGELĐK SÖKÜMÜ HALI 0 KEÇE SÖKÜMÜ TAVAN AHŞAP ÇITA SÖKÜMÜ AHŞAP ASMA TAVAN SÖKÜMÜ TUĞLA DUVAR YIKILMASI DUVAR KAĞIDI SÖKÜLMESĐ ODA ĐMALATLAR ŞAP YAPILMASI SELF0LEVELLING YAPILMASI FEB0CLEAR SÜRÜLMESĐ TAVAN ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI ALÇIPAN ASMATAVAN ĐMALATI TAVAN SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI ALIN ALÇIPAN ĐMALATI ALÇIPAN PELMET ĐMALATI HAZIR KARTONPĐYER VE MONTAJI TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI ÖNCESĐ MACUN0SATEN0ASTAR YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI KAPLAMA (MALZEME HARĐÇ) DUVAR BOYA YAPILMASI MENFEZ ĐMALATI VE MONTAJI (LĐNEER) TUĞLA DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ ĐKĐ KAT ALÇIPAN DUVAR YAPILMASI ODA GĐRĐŞ KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ BANYO KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ CONNECTING KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ SUIT ARA KAPI SAÇ KASA ĐMALAT0MONTAJ SAÇ KAPI KASA BOYA YAPILMASI BĐRĐM TOPLAM adet adet adet adet adet adet mt m2 mt m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 mt m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad m2 m2 ad ad ad ad ad 352.00 336. A.4 A.56 121.139.2.Table B.2. A.753.24 17.96 5.2.1.2.2.1.088.00 800.10.2.2. A.1.00 16.2.68 8.2.652.13.506. A.1.2. A.76 15. A. A.9.12 2. A.3 A.580.8 A. 8: Total bill of quantities of three case studies.7 A. A. A. A.1.00 16.7.1.00 6.32 7.2 A.18 A.2.2.22.2.12.1.2.2.6.00 6.10 A.1. A.1. A. A.2.20.2.1.651.2. A.2.19.00 336.3.6 A.641. A.8.32 7.11 A.60 13.

15 B.Table B. B.662.10 B.17. B.1.2.8.424.424.1.7.1.2.6 B.2.2.00 336.2.2.00 320.16.1.08 147 .18.2.16 B.2. B.2.13 B. B.4 B.4.00 672.14.13. B.00 1.2.1.00 336.424.17 AÇIKLAMA BANYO SÖKÜM ĐŞLERĐ BANYO KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ BANYO AYNA ÇERÇEVE MDF ARKALIK IŞIKLIK SÖKÜMÜ ALÇIPAN DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞLERĐ TUĞLA DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞĐ DUVAR KAĞIDI SÖKÜMÜ BANYO ALÇI ASMA TAVAN SÖKÜMÜ KÜVET SÖKÜMÜ LAVABO SÖKÜMÜ KLOZET SÖKÜMÜ BANYO PERDE SÖKÜMÜ LAVABO TEZGAH SÖKÜMÜ ANKASTRE BANYO BATARYASI SÖKÜMÜ LAVABO BATARYA VE ARAMUSLUK SÖKÜMÜ TAHARET MUSLUĞU SÖKÜMÜ MAKYAJ AYNASI SÖKÜMÜ SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI SÖKÜMÜ HAVLU ÇUBUĞU SÖKÜMÜ TUVALET KAĞITLIĞI SÖKÜMÜ HAVLU RAFI SÖKÜMÜ BANYO ĐMALATLAR GRANĐT TEZGAH ĐMALAT0MONTAJ (BALTIC BROWN) GRANĐT TEZGAH ALTI KARKAS VE PROFĐL MERMER DERZ ARASI DOLGU0TADĐLAT MEVCUT BANYO DÖŞEME MERMER CĐLA MEVCUT BANYO DUVAR MERMER CĐLA BANYO KAPI GRANĐT EŞĐK ĐMALAT0MONTAJ ALÇIPAN ASMATAVAN ĐMALATI TAVAN SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI DUVAR BOYA YAPILMASI DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI (KAZIMA0YOKLAMA DAHĐL) DUVARKAĞIDI ÖNCESĐ MACUN0SATEN0ASTAR YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI KAPLAMA (MALZEME HARĐÇ) ALÇIPAN MÜDAHALE KAPAĞI ĐMALAT VE MONTAJI ĐKĐ KAT ALÇIPAN DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ TUĞLA DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ SĐLĐKON ÇEKĐLMESĐ (RENKLĐ VEYA ŞEFFAF) BĐRĐM TOPLAM ad ad m2 m2 m2 m2 ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad oda m2 m2 ad m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad m2 m2 mt 336. B.12.00 1.8.2.1.15.19 B.9. B.00 1.12 B. B.1.1.2.3.1.7 B.60 2.11.2.00 217. B.2. POZ B.10.1.1.1.00 336. B. B. B.1.2.2.1. B.2.2.3 B. B.64 105.1.00 320. B. B.00 1. B.00 320. B.00 336.1 B.92 320.00 336. B.5 B.8 B.656.1: (continued).00 320.1 B.9 B.1.1. B.5.00 336.6.1.1.14 B.11 B.2.1.2 B.

1 C.20 B.27 B.2.34 C.24 B.1.1.2.2 C.7 C.18 B.20 3.00 336.00 336.2.26 B.23 B.00 320.00 148.2.00 336.2.00 2.8.28 B.1.1.5 C.1: (continued).29 B.16 16.22 B.2.2.1.00 - m2 m2 m2 m2 ad mt m2 ad ad m2 m2 ad ad m2 1.2. C.1. POZ B.33 B.30 B.3 C.4 C.2.31 B.1.2.1.2.420.Table B.1.2.64 32.13 C.953.1.2.14 AÇIKLAMA KÜVET MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) LAVABO MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) KLOZET MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) BANYO PERDE MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) LAVABO TEZGAH MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) ANKASTRE BANYO BATARYASI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) LAVABO BATARYA VE ARA MUSLUK MONTAJI (MALZ.28 48.12 C.028.96 363.11 C.784.2.25 B.1.32 148 .2. C.8 C.00 1.00 320.00 320.1.10 C.1.21 B.00 16.9 C.19 B.2.1.6 C.2.HARĐÇ) TAHARET MUSLUĞU MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) MAKYAJ AYNASI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) HAVLU ÇUBUĞU MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) TUVALET KAĞITLIĞI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) YEDEK TUVALET KAĞITLIĞI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) HAVLU RAFI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) KAPI ARKASI ASKI MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) TUTAMAKLI SABUNLUK MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) ÇAMAŞIR ĐPĐ MONTAJI (MALZEME HARĐÇ) KORĐDOR SÖKÜM ĐŞLERĐ ALÇIPAN ASMA TAVAN SÖKÜMÜ DUVAR AHŞAP PANEL SÖKÜMÜ DUVAR AYNA SÖKÜMÜ DUVAR KAĞIDI SÖKÜMÜ ŞAFT KAPAK SÖKÜMÜ SÜPÜRGELĐK SÖKÜMÜ HALI KEÇE SÖKÜMÜ YANGIN MERDĐVENĐ KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ BUZ ODASI KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ ALÇIPAN DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞLERĐ TUĞLA DUVAR YIKIM ĐŞLERĐ SERVĐS HOLÜ KAPI VE KASA SÖKÜMÜ SERVĐS HOLÜ WC KLOZET SÖKÜMÜ SERVĐS HOLÜ DUVAR DÖŞEME SERAMĐK SÖKÜMÜ BĐRĐM ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad TOPLAM 336.32 B.1.

16 C.8.00 48.Table B.2.2.2.2. (LAYSAN) SERVĐS HOLÜ WC KLOZET MONTAJI YANGIN MERDĐVEN DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAP.2.12 C.48 1.034.2.2.2.2.12 1.2.2.21 C.26 C.2. POZ C.40 2.2.18 C.2.23 C.2.2.00 48.20 149 .35 C.2.22 C.12 567.3 C.13 C.518.2.28 C.68 4.1: (continued).9 C.2.32 1.2.20 403.39 AÇIKLAMA KORĐDOR ĐMALATLAR ŞAP YAPILMASI SELF0LEVELLING YAPILMASI FEB0CLEAR SÜRÜLMESĐ DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI ÖNCESĐ MACUN0SATEN0ASTAR YAPILMASI DUVARKAĞIDI KAPLAMA (MALZEME HARĐÇ) DUVAR SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI DUVAR BOYA YAPILMASI ALÇIPAN ASMATAVAN ĐMALATI TAVAN SATEN SIVA YAPILMASI TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI SERVĐS HOLÜ KAPISI METAL TEKMELĐK VE MONTAJI YANGIN KAÇIŞ YÖNLENDĐRME LEVHASI VE MONTAJI ASANSÖR YÖNLENDĐRME LEVHASI VE MONTAJI SERVĐS HOLÜ KAPI SAÇ KASA (ĐM+MONTAJ) YANGIN MERDĐVEN KAPISI SAÇ KASA BUZ MAKĐNA ODA KAPISI SAÇ KASA (ĐM+MO) SAÇ KAPI KASA BOYA YAPILMASI YANGIN MERDĐVEB KAPISI ĐMALAT0MONTAJ SAÇ KAPI BOYA YAPILMASI YANGIN DOLABI ĐMALAT VE MONTAJI ŞAFT KAPAKLARI ALÇIPAN DARALTMA HAZIR KARTONPĐYER VE MONTAJI TUĞLA DUVAR ÖRME ĐŞĐ MENFEZ ĐMALATI VE MONTAJI ANEMOSTAD ĐMALATI VE MONTAJI SERVĐS HOLÜ TAVAN SATEN SIVA SERVĐS HOLÜ TAVAN BOYA YAPILMASI SERVĐS HOLÜ DUVAR SERAMĐK ĐMALATI SERVĐS HOLÜ DÖŞEME SERAMĐK ĐMALATI SERVĐS HOLÜ DUVAR ALÇI SIVA YAPILMASI SERVĐS HOLÜ+MĐNĐBAR DEPO DUVAR BOYA SERVĐS HOLÜ+MĐNĐBAR DEPO DÖŞEME VĐNĐL KAPL.17 C.36 C.2.00 456.30 C.28 2.00 16.32 456.38 C.5 C.40 5.56 4.2.457.00 32.2.29 C.11 C.20 C.139. C.034.2.2.00 32.27 C.2.20 567.2.2.19 C.40 2.034.534.10 C.901.252.4 C.2.2 C.034.33 C.15 C.1 C. YANGIN MERDĐVEN DUVAR BOYA YANGIN MERDĐVEN TAVAN ALÇI SIVA YANGIN MERDĐVEN TAVAN BOYA YANGIN MERDĐVENĐ KORKULUK ZIMPARA+MACUN+BOYA BĐRĐM m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad mt m2 ad ad m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 ad m2 m2 m2 m2 mt TOPLAM 2.8 C.56 1.2.2.2.252.00 16.2.2.00 16.32 C.6 C.48 1.2.2.34 C.2.00 96.2.7 C.37 C.40 64.00 144.00 32.2.457.31 C.14 C.24 C.25 C.2.

6 752.1 276 138 138 2691 717.8.Table B.pelmet and side panels) KAPI KASA FINISHING GĐRĐŞ TAVAN FINISHING YENĐ PERDE PANELĐ MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING ĐLAVE KARTONPĐYE QUAN. 138 138 132 6 6 138 132 6 132 132 6 6 135 3 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 135 3 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 UNIT adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet set set adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet mt m2 adet adet adet mt mt TOTAL 276 138 132 6 6 138 132 6 132 264 6 6 135 3 138 138 414 138 138 138 0 138 138 138 135 3 138 2511. AÇIKLAMA QUEEN – MOBĐLYA YATAK BAŞI KOMODĐNĐ YATAK BAŞI ÇALIŞMA MASASI SMART ÇALIŞMA MASASI SMART MASA ÜNĐTESĐ ORTA SEHPA TV-MINIBAR ÜNĐTESĐ TV-MINIBAR ÜNĐTESĐ ÇALIŞMA MASA SANDALYESĐ KOLTUK KOLTUK OTTOMAN DEKORATĐF AYNA DEKORATĐF AYNA YATAK ÖRTÜ DĐKĐM BAZA DĐKĐM YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK DĐKĐM PERDE-TÜL-BLACKOUT DĐKĐM BANYO PERDESĐ DĐKĐM PORTATĐF BAVULLUK LAMP @ TV ARMOIRE QUEEN – ĐMALAT GĐRĐŞ KAPI KANADI BANYO KAPI KANADI SÖVE GARDROP GARDROP (KAYAR KAPAKLI) GARDROP ĐÇĐ ÜNĐTE AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK PENCERE CEPHE (wd.6 150 . 2: Bill of quantities of Hotel B.

4 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 151 .6 3312 276 138 138 207 386.6 552 276 138 138 138 138 QUAN. 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 UNIT m2 m2 m2 adet adet adet m2 m2 MAKTU ADET adet adet MAKTU MAKTU SET MAKTU TOTAL 3643.2: (continued).BĐYE KUMAŞI SANDALYE KUMAŞI YASTIK KUMAŞI (bej kareli 2 adet) YASTIK KUMAŞI (lacivert kareli 1 adet) KOLTUK KUMAŞI (2 ADET) KOLTUK + OTOMAN KUMAŞI KOLTUK YASTIK KUMAŞI DUŞ PERDESĐ KUMAŞI SĐLĐNDĐRĐK MASA LAMBASI SĐLĐNDĐRĐK LAMBADER YATAK (160 cm) YATAKBAŞI RESĐM + ÇERÇEVE KASA 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 132 6 6 138 138 138 138 138 138 m2 m2 mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt MT mt adet adet adet set adet 4140 3450 138 2484 1656 1656 1104 621 132 207 103.2 7479.8.TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE YATAK BAŞI KUMAŞI PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI BLACKOUT KUMAŞI YATAK ÖRTÜSÜ KUMAŞI BAZA . AÇIKLAMA TAVAN BOYASI DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ BANYO LAVABO TEZGAHI AHŞAP AYNA ÇERÇEVESĐ AYNA ARKASI HAZIRLAMA BANYO ZEMĐN CĐLASI MERMER DUVARLARIN TEMĐZLĐĞĐ TEZGAH ALTI SÜPÜRGELĐK DOĞRAMA YANI ALÇIPAN TAMĐRATI BANYO SPOT KAPATMA ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ TESĐSAT ĐŞLERĐ ELLE ÇEKMELĐ PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI REMOVAL QUEEN .Table B.5 1848 51 3.

2 68 24 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet adet SET SET adet adet 42 84 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 84 84 84 42 42 42 0 QUAN. DOWNLIGHT TWIN .2: (continued).Table B.8.ĐMALAT GĐRĐŞ KAPI KANADI BANYO KAPI KANADI BAĞLANTI KAPI KANADI SÖVE GARDROP (nişsiz) GARDROP ĐÇĐ ÜNĐTE AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK PENCERE CEPHE (wd.MOBĐLYA YATAK BAŞI KOMODĐNĐ YATAK BAŞI ÇALIŞMA MASASI ORTA SEHPA TV-MINIBAR ÜNĐTESĐ ÇALIŞMA MASA SANDALYESĐ KOLTUK OTTOMAN DEKORATĐF AYNA YATAK ÖRTÜ DĐKĐM BAZA DĐKĐM YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK DĐKĐM PERDE-TÜL-BLACKOUT DĐKĐM BANYO PERDESĐ DĐKĐM PORTATĐF BAVULLUK LAMP @ TV ARMOIRE TWIN .8 138 229.pelmet and side panels) KAPI KASA FINISHING KAPI KASA FINISHING 42 42 8 42 42 42 34 8 42 34 8 adet adet adet adet adet adet mt mt m2 adet adet 42 42 16 42 42 42 618. AÇIKLAMA SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI TRAŞ AYNASI ÇALIŞMA MASA LAMBASI ODA DUVAR KAĞIDI BANYO DUVAR KAĞIDI LAVABO ARMATÜR ELEKTRĐK PRĐZ+ENERGY SAVER+VB. 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 UNIT adet adet adet m2 m2 takım MAKTU adet TOTAL 138 138 138 5658 1794 138 138 414 152 .

BĐYE KUMAŞI SANDALYE KUMAŞI YASTIK KUMAŞI (45754) YASTIK KUMAŞI (01157) KOLTUK + OTOMAN KUMAŞI KOLTUK YASTIK KUMAŞI DUŞ PERDESĐ KUMAŞI 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 m2 m2 mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt MT mt 1260 1050 84 756 504 504 630 336 42 126 25.2: (continued).2 357 25.8.2 168 QUAN.Table B.8 1842. 42 42 42 42 42 34 8 42 34 8 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 UNIT adet adet mt mt m2 m2 M2 m2 adet adet adet adet m2 m2 MAKTU adet adet adet MAKTU MAKTU SET MAKTU TOTAL 42 42 819 218.4 1108.6 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 153 .TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE YATAK BAŞI KUMAŞI PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI BLACKOUT KUMAŞI YATAK ÖRTÜSÜ KUMAŞI BAZA . AÇIKLAMA GĐRĐŞ TAVAN FINISHING YENĐ PERDE PANELĐ MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING ĐLAVE KARTONPĐYE TAVAN BOYASI DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ BANYO LAVABO TEZGAHI AHŞAP AYNA ÇERÇEVESĐ AYNA ARKASI HAZIRLAMA BANYO ZEMĐN CĐLASI MERMER DUVARLARIN TEMĐZLĐĞĐ TEZGAH ALTI SÜPÜRGELĐK DOĞRAMA YANI ALÇIPAN TAMĐRATI BANYO SPOT KAPATMA ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ TESĐSAT ĐŞLERĐ ELLE ÇEKMELĐ PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI REMOVAL TWIN .8 420 1008 68 24 42 42 63 117.

2: (continued).8.ĐMALAT GĐRĐŞ KAPI KANADI BANYO KAPI KANADI 3 3 ADET ADET 3 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET SET ADET 6 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 3 3 9 6 3 QUAN.Table B. 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 UNIT adet adet adet set adet adet adet adet m2 m2 takım MAKTU adet TOTAL 42 42 84 42 42 42 42 42 1722 546 42 42 126 154 .MOBĐLYA YATAK BAŞI KOMODĐNĐ TV DOLABI @YATAK ODASI YUVARLAK SEHPA @ YATAK ODASI TV-ARMUAR @OTURMA ODASI ÇALIŞMA MASASI ÇALIŞMA MASA ÜNĐTESĐ MERMER TABLALI KAHVE SEHPASI KARE SEHPA @ OTURMA ODASI YUVARLAK SEHPA @OTURMA ODASI KOLTUK OTTOMAN BAVULLUK SOFA PORTATĐF BAVULLUK DEKORATĐF AYNA YATAK ÖRTÜ DĐKĐM BAZA DĐKĐM YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK DĐKĐM PERDE-TÜL-BLACKOUT DĐKĐM ABAJUR @TV ARMUAR HOTEL SUIT . AÇIKLAMA SĐLĐNDĐRĐK MASA LAMBASI SĐLĐNDĐRĐK LAMBADER YATAK (100 cm) YATAKBAŞI RESĐM + ÇERÇEVE KASA SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI TRAŞ AYNASI ÇALIŞMA MASA LAMBASI ODA DUVAR KAĞIDI BANYO DUVAR KAĞIDI LAVABO ARMATÜR ELEKTRĐK PRĐZ+ENERGY SAVER+VB. DOWNLIGHT HOTEL SUIT .

Table B.8.2: (continued).
AÇIKLAMA BAĞLANTI KAPI KANADI GARDROP PENCERE CEPHESĐ KUMAŞ-AHŞAP YATAKBAŞI DUVAR KAĞIDI UYGULAMA AHŞAP SÜPÜRGELĐK MEVCUT KAPI KASA FINISHING MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING TAVAN BOYASI ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ TESĐSAT ĐŞLERĐ YENĐ PERDE PANELĐ ELLE ÇEKMELĐ PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME HALI BAĞLANTI PROFĐLĐ KAPI ĐPTALĐ VE YERĐNĐN KAPATILMASI GĐRĐŞ HOLU TAVANI YAPILMASI ODA ĐLAVE KARTONPĐYE YAPILMASI ŞAP TAMĐRĐ VE SU ĐZOLASYONU YAPILMASI REMOVAL HS BANYO - ĐMALAT MEVCUT BANYO DUVARLARI YIKIM ĐLAVE BANYO DUVARI YAPIMI ALÇIPAN ASMA TAVAN ALÇI KARTONPĐYE MERMER YER DÖŞEME (AMASYA) MERMER BORDÜR (SIVRIHISAR) MERMER DUVAR KAPLAMA (AMAS+SIVRI) MERMER BANT (GIALLO) MERMER SÜPÜRGELĐK (SIVRIHĐSAR) MARBLE BATH TUB SET (SIVRI) MERMR SET @WC ARKASI(GIALLO) MARBLE SET @SHOWER MERMER DUŞ TAŞI CAM DUŞ KAPISI DUŞUN CAM YAN PANELĐ LAVABO TEZGAHI 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ADET m2 m2 mt m2 mt m2 mt mt ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET ADET 3 86,25 21 35,25 9,75 45,75 54 31,5 16,5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 QUAN. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 UNIT ADET ADET m2 m2 m2 mt ADET mt m2 MAKTU MAKTU ADET SET m2 ADET M2 M2 MT M2 MAKTU 3 33 36 192,75 78 12 51 172,5 3 3 6 6 165 12 6,99 18 66 9 3 TOTAL 3

155

Table B.8.2: (continued)
AÇIKLAMA LAVABO AYNASI TAVAN BOYASI HS KÜÇÜK TUVALET - ĐMALAT MERMER YER DÖŞEME (AMASYA) MERMER DUVAR DÖŞEME (AMAS+SIVRI) MERMER BANT (GIALLO) MERMER SÜPÜRGELĐK (SIVRIHĐSAR) S-03 ĐLE AYNA NĐŞĐ (SIVRIHĐSAR) LAVABO TEZGAHI LAVABO AYNASI ALÇI KARTONPĐYE TAVAN BOYASI YIKMA-KIRMA WALLS CEILING HOTEL SUIT - TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE YATAK BAŞI KUMAŞI PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI BLACKOUT KUMAŞI YATAK ÖRTÜSÜ KUMAŞI BAZA KUMAŞI SANDALYE KUMAŞI YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK KUMAŞI YATAK ÜSTÜ YASTIK KUMAŞI BĐYE KUMAŞI KANEPE KUMAŞI KANEPE YASTIK KUMAŞI (gold) KANEPE YASTIK KUMAŞI (laci) KOLTUK + OTOMAN KUMAŞI KOLTUK YASTIK KUMAŞI YATAK (200 cm) YATAKBAŞI RESĐMLERĐ KASA SAÇ KURUTMA MAKĐNASI 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 adet adet m2 m2 mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt mt adet 180 150 12 39 72 72 36 12 3,6 6 3 3 52,5 6 3 16,5 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 m2 m2 mt mt ADET ADET ADET mt m2 MAKTU m2 m2 7,5 28,5 15 15 3 3 3 21 9 3 27 9 QUAN. 3 3 UNIT ADET m2 TOTAL 3 21

156

Table B.8.2: (continued)
AÇIKLAMA TRAŞ AYNASI PANTALON PRESĐ ÇALIŞMA MASA LAMBASI ABAJUR @ YATAK BAŞI AYAKLI LAMBA ABAJUR @KARE SEHPA DUVAR APLĐĞĐ @ OTURMA ODASI ODA DUVAR KAĞIDI LAVABO ARMATÜR ELEKTRĐK PRĐZ+ENERGY SAVER+VB. SEALED DOWNLIGHT KORĐDOR - MOBĐLYA KONSOL SEHPA KOLTUK TORCHIERE PERDE-TÜL DĐKĐM KORĐDOR - ĐMALAT PERDE-TÜL DĐKĐM HALI VE ALT KEÇE DÖŞEME PERDE RAYI VE MONTAJI DUVAR KAĞIDI KAPLAMA MEVCUT SÜPÜRGELĐK FINISHING MEVCUT KARTONPĐYE FINISHING TAVAN BOYASI MEVCUT KAPI TAMĐR-BOYAMA AKSES KAPILARI FINISHING AHŞAP LAMBRĐ ELEKTRĐK ĐŞLERĐ KORĐDOR - TURSER ĐŞLERĐ HALI ALTKEÇE KOLTUK KUMAŞI (2 KOLTUK) PERDE KUMAŞI TÜL KUMAŞI DUVAR KAĞIDI ARTWORK ACCESSORIES 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 M2 M2 MT MT MT M2 1980 1188,88 66 176 99 2520,804 0 0 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 SET M2 SET M2 MT MT M2 ADET ADET M2 MAKTU 11 1210 11 2090 935 1595 1320 55 22 22 0 11 11 11 11 11 ADET ADET ADET ADET SET 0 0 0 0 0 QUAN. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 UNIT adet adet adet ADET ADET ADET ADET m2 takım maktuen adet TOTAL 3 3 3 6 3 6 6 210 3 3 9

157

5 1250 35 7100 2680 8900 415 350 15000 158 .8. 3: Bill of quantities of Hotel C. DEMOLITION OF STEEL MEZZANINE FLOOR EARTH WORKS EXCAVATION ( GENERAL ) DITCH EXCAVATION TOP SOIL EXCAVATION BY HAND REMOVAL OF EXCAVATED EARTH TOP SOIL REFILL ASPHALT REPAIR INFRASTRUCTURE LEAN CONCRETE( 300 KG/M3) READY MIX CONCRETE ( B 225 ) LAYING GRAVEL ON BASE REINFORCEMENT STEEL BASEMENT WALLS WATER INSULATION( PVC JEOMEN BRANE 2 mm) BASEMENT FLOOR WATER INSULATION Ф 15 PVC DRAINAGE INSTALLATION ROOFING LEVELLING CONCRETE SELF LEVELLING SCREED PVC BASED JEOMEMBERANE WATER INSULATION 2 mm ROOF HEAT INSULATION WITH EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE M2 M2 M2 1800 2805 2805 2805 M3 M3 M3 TON M2 M2 MT 250 500 80 5 1050 770 450 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 MT 250 1590 50 450 1590 20 M3 M3 M2 M2 M2 M2 TON MT LS TON 4.Table B. MILLENIUM HOTEL ANKARA ESTIMATED COST BREAKDOWN TASKS DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY 1 A 1A1 1A2 1A3 1A4 1A5 1A6 1A7 1A8 1A9 B 1B1 1B2 1B3 1B4 1B5 1B6 C 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 1C6 1C7 D 1D1 1D2 1D3 1D4 CIVIL WORKS DEMOLITION WORKS DEMOLITION OF BRICK WALL DEMOLITION OF R/C REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED CEILINGS SCRAPING OF EXISTING WALL PLASTER AND CERAMICS DEMOLITION OF EXISTING FLOORING AND REMOVAL REMOVAL OF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS IN LOWER FLOORS DEMOLITION OF PIPING AND MECHANICAL DUCTS DISMANTLING ALL ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS TRANSPORTATION OF DISMANTLED AND DEMOLISHED MAT.

8.3: (continued) DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY E 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4 1E5 1E6 1E7 1E8 1E9 FLOORING LEVELLING CONCRETE SELF LEVELLING SCREED ANTIACID CERAMIC FLOORING WITH EPOXY GROUT CERAMIC FLOORING PVC FOR MEDICAL AREAS AND PATIENT ROOMS PVC FLOORING FOR FLOOR SERVICE ROOMS (3 mm) HEAVY DUTY BOARD ROOM TYPE FIRE PROOF CARPET (80 wool/20 nylon) WITH FELT UNDERLAYER FOR SOUND INSULATION 1st QUALITY WALNUT FINISHED PARQUET FLOOR WITH VARNISH w MECHANICAL POLISHING OF EXISTING MARBLE FLOORS M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 1586 9500 770 2805 100 980 M2 M2 M2 MT MT M2 M2 M2 M2 7656 1100 800 150 150 1190 190 300 400 1E10 BATHROOM DOOR THRESHOLD 1E11 SOLID WALNUT GUESTROOM ENTRANCE DOOR TRESHOLD 1E12 TERAZZO FLOOR IN STORAGE AREAS&MACHINE ROOMS 1E13 TEAK DECKING ON ROOF TERRACE 1E14 NYLON CARPET 1E15 CARPET TILE F 1F1 1F2 1F3 1F4 G 1G1 1G2 1G3 1G4 1G5 1G6 H SKIRTING HARDWOOD(WALNUT) VENEERED OVER MDF VARNISHED SKIRTING HARDWOOD SKIRTING (VARNĐSHED) CERAMIC SKIRTING SOFTWOOD SKIRTING (VARNISHED) CEILING CEILING PLASTERING GYPSIUM SPACKLING GYPSIUM BOARD(FIRE RESISTANT) SUSPENDED CEILING METAL PLATE (HEAT CURED PAINTED) SUSPENDED CEILING FIRE RESISTANT ACOUSTICAL GYPSIUM BOARD SUSPENDED CEILING SATIN FINISH ACRYLIC PAINT (3 LAYERS) EXTERIOR WORKS THE DISASSEMBLY OF THE TREE WHITE VERTICAL PRECAST TERRAZZO MEMBERS ON THE LOAD BEARING WALLS AND THE BLACK PRECAST TERRAZZO MEMBERS COVERING THE MAIN BEAM THE MONTAGE OF NEW PRECAST FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS WITH INSULATION WITH AISI 304 STAINLESS STEEL MEMBERS OF MECHANICAL ANCHORAGE MT MT MT MT 5400 970 2100 450 M2 M2 M2 1670 11170 6050 400 M2 M2 2246 8596 1H1 1H2 M2 3050 M2 1400 159 .Table B.

Table B.5 55 2.GOOD RECEIVING AREA CANOPY STAIRCASES STEEL FIRE STAIRS REPAIR OF EXISTING HAND RAILS AND STUDS SATIN (BRUSHED) FINISHED STAINLESS STEEL HANDRAIL WITH SECURIT GLASS PANELS STAIR IN ROOF FROM STEEL PROFILES GRANITE SATIR THERADS COLORED GLASS PROECTIVE BALUSTRADE RAINWATER DRAINAGE WORKS PVC RAINWATER DRAINAGE(VERTICAL) Ф 40 REINFORCED PVC RAIN WATER DRAIN PIPE MANHOLE WITH CAST IRON COVERTOP COPPER GUTTERS Ф 30 REINFORCED PVC WASTE WATER DRAIN PIPE CONCRETE MANHOLE WITH CAST-IRON COVER TOP PARTITION WALLS HOLLOW BLOCK BRICK WALL(20 CM) GYPSIUM BOARD WALL (DOUBLE SIDED WATER PROOF-FIRE PROOF) SINGLE SIDED GYPSIUM BOARD WALL GYPSIUM BOARD PARTITION WALL ( DOUBLE PANEL ) HOLLOW BLOCK BIMSCONCRETE WALL (10*39*19) ACOUSTICAL WALL GENERAL TOILET CABINS WITH DOORS FROM LAMINAT CONSTRUCTION WALL COVERINGS&FINISHES INTERIOR WALL PLASTERING TON LS MT TON MT M2 4.8.3: (continued) DESCRIPTION THE MONTAGE OF NEW PRECAST FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM COVERS WITH AISI 304 STAINLESS STEEL MEMBERS OF MECHANICAL ANCHORAGE THE MAINTENANCE OF THE PRECAST TERRAZZO MEMBERS ON THE REAR FACADE SCAFFOLDING SATIN FINISHED STAINLESS STEEL CANOPY WITH TOUGHED GLASS TOP COVER DISMANTLING AND REINSTALLING ALUMINIUM SHADING PANELS EXTRIOR HANGING SCAFFOLDING NEW RAMP & CANOPY CONSTRUCTION UNIT QTY 1H3 1H4 1H5 1H6 1H7 1H8 1H9 I 1I1 1I2 1I3 1I4 1I5 1I6 J 1J1 1J2 1J3 1J4 1J5 1J6 K 1K1 1K2 1K3 1K4 1K5 1K6 1K7 L 1L1 M3 M2 M2 LS LS EA EA EA 1650 1510 5907 1 1 2 1 1 1H10 SERVICE ENTRANCE .5 35 20 MT MT EA MT MT EA 480 122 4 200 90 7 M3 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 EA 100 4150 1500 500 500 640 49 M2 12839 160 .

3: (continued) DESCRIPTION UNIT M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 MT M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 QTY 12839 12839 500 3250 240 320 200 15000 700 60 45 8 800 30 1L2 1L3 1L4 1L5 1L6 1L7 1L8 1L9 1L10 1L11 1L12 1L13 1L14 1L15 M 1M1 1M2 1M3 1M4 1M5 1M6 1M7 1M8 1M9 GYPSIUM SPACKLING SATIN FINISH ACRYLIC PAINT (3 LAYERS) OIL PAINT(3 LAYERS) CERAMIC WALL TILES WALNUT FINISH WALL PANELS (VARNISHED) MARBLE WALL COVERING(TEXTURED FINISH) COLOURED BACK GLASS WALL TILES TEXTILE BACKED VINLY WALL PAPER MIDRAIL ON CORRIDOR WALLS OF GUESTROOM FLOORS (150 MM) WALNUT VENEER OVER MDF+VARNISHED FROSTED GLASS PARTITION WALLS IN RESTAURANT BLACK GRANITE WALL COVERING IN THE RECEPTION TRANSLUCENT ONYX SHEET WALL (20 MM) SATINLESS STEEL DECORATIVE ACRYLIC PLASTER SWIMMING POOL AREA BACK ILLUMINATED PLASTIC WALL COVER DOORS & WINDOWS WALNUT VENEERED SOLID WOOD FIRE RESISTANT DOORS WITH FRAMES AND FITTINGS TOUGNENED GLASS SHOWER DOOR ALUMINIUM FRAMED GLASS REVOLVING DOOR FIRE RESISTANT WOODEN DOORS(WITH GLASS)&FRAME AND FITTINGS FIRE RESISTANT STEEL DOORS EXECUTIVE SUITS FIRE RESISTANT WALNUT DOORS INCLUDING FRAME AND FITTINGS SOLID CORE LAMINANT FACING WOODEN DOORS WITH FRAME SOLID CORE SOUND PROOF WOODEN DOORS WITH FRAME AND FITTING ALUMINIUM WINDOW FRAME REPLACEMENT WITH (4+4 DOUBLE GLAZING GLASS) 1/4 OF GUEST ROOMS ALUMINIUM SLIDING FENESTRATION IN RESTAURANT WITH EA EA EA M2 KG M2 M2 M2 M2 M2 EA M2 250 178 2 56 400 100 120 20 710 200 1 3350 1M10 4+4 MM DOUBLE GLAZING 1M11 AUTOMATIC(RADIO CONTROLLED) GARAGE DOOR SOLAR CONTROL WINDOW FILM COVERING (EXTERIOR 1M12 WINDOW) N 1N1 1N2 FURNITURE GUESTROOM FURNITURE UNITS INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES UPHOLSTERIES & LINENS & DRAPERY & CUSHIONS SETS SETS 177 354 161 .8.Table B.

STOPPERS & ACCESSORIES) SAUNA INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES STEAM ROOM INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES SATIN FINISH+TOUGHED GLASS CONFERENCE CENTER ENTRANCE CANOPY STEEL WATER TANK (3 COAT PAINTED) FIRE STOPERS SAFES (GUESTROOMS) CENTRAL SAFE CORNER GUARDS FROM STAINLESS STEEL IN ALL SERVIS AREAS EA EA EA EA EA EA LS EA EA EA LS LS LS EA EA EA EA LS EA 178 180 2 2 1 25 1 180 1 4 1 1 1 7 5 1 20 1 3 1O10 GALVANISED STEEL FLAGPOSTS 1O11 1O12 INTERIOR SIGNAGE 1O13 EXTERIOR SIGNAGE WITH BACKLIGHT 1O14 FAX MACHINES 1O15 SMALL PHOTOCOPY MACHINES 1O16 PROFESSIONAL PHOTOCOPY MACHINE 1O17 DESKTOP COMPUTERS 1O20 SWIMMING POOL MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SERVICE AND REPAIR METAL DETECTORS IN LOWER LOBBY.3: (continued) DESCRIPTION PUBLIC AREAS FURNITURE UNITS INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES STAINLESS STEEL-GLASS RECEPTION.CONSIERGE DESKS INCLUDING ALL ACCESSORIES CHANGING ROOM LOCKERS SHELVING UNITS ALL MIRRORS POTS WASTEBIN-ASHTRAY UNIT LS EA EA EA EA LS EA LS LS SETS QTY 1 5 175 187 200 1 22 1 1 64 1N3 1N4 1N5 1N6 1N7 1N8 1N9 1N10 EXTERIOR FURNITURE AROUND POOL AREA 1N11 FITNESS CENTER EQUIPMENT 1N12 OFFICE FURNITURE O 1O1 1O2 1O3 1O4 1O5 1O6 1O7 1O8 1O9 MISCELLANEOUS IRONMONGERY (SATIN STAINLESS STEEL CARD CONTROLLED DOOR LOCKS) IRONMONGERY (DOOR KNOB .8.HARDWARE .Table B. UPPER LOBBY AND 1O21 CONFERENCE CENTER ENTRANCES P 1P1 EARTHQUAKE REINFORCEMENT B 225 RC CONCRETE WITH GRANUMETRIC SAND AND CRUSHED STONE M3 29 162 .

055 216 216 216 1P2 1P3 1P4 1P5 1P6 1P7 1P8 1P9 1P10 POURING OF CONCRETE WITH PUMP STEEL MESH ENVELOPE OVER OLD COLUMN FOR ADHERENCE CONCRETE FORMWORK WITH TONGUE&GROVE JOINTS AND FINE FINISHED SURFACE Ф 8-12 MM REINFORCING BAR Ф 14-18 MM REINFORCING BAR SCRAPING THE EXISTING PLASTER SCRAPING FLOOR CONCRETE AROUND THE COLUMN AND CORNERS CLEANING THE COLUMN SURFACE WITH AIR COMPRESSOR CARBONFIBER SIKA CARBODUR ENVELOPE WRAPPED AROUND COLUMN WITH FIXING TYPE AND SIKADUR 30 ADHESIVE SCAFFOLDING AROUND THE COLUMN TO SUPPORT THE M2 M3 115 1000 1P11 BEAMS AND FLOORSLAB 1P12 EPOXY RESIN GROUT APPLIED TO CARCKS AND THE ENDS OF REINFORCEMENT BARS AND AROUND THE OLD COLUMN SURFACES Kg 450 TO PROVIDE FOR CONTINGENCIES FOR TEN YEARS PERIOD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 For ceramic tiles for walls and floors For telecommunication apparatus For drapery For carpets For magnetic door locks For window hardware For paint material For wallpaper For parquet flooring For textile (Table cloth) For lighting fixtures For bathroom fixtures For furnishings 7% For each specific type 2% 2% 5% For each class 5% 5% 10% For each type and color 2% For each type 2% For each type 5% For each type 10% For each fixture 5% For each fixture 5% For each loose furniture 163 .3: (continued) DESCRIPTION UNIT M3 Kg M2 TON TON M2 M2 M2 QTY 29 500 216 2.8.Table B.46 7.

06’sı sokak aydınlatmasında. dönemine göre termik elektrik enerjisi üretiminde %11.11 oranında üretim artışı görülmüştür. 36. Bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre elektrik üretimi.059.05’i linyit ile çalışan santrallerden sağlanmıştır. 2006 yılı III. döneminde. 2006 Yılı III. Elektrik üretimi bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre EÜAŞ ve EÜAŞ’a bağlı ortaklıklarda %8. 164 . Elektrik tüketimi.0 GWh'ı hidrolik ve 11. %15.58’i ise diğer ve doğrudan satışlar olarak tüketilmiştir.döneminde ise. 2006 yılı III.66‘sı üretim şirketleri. 2006 yılı III.95 artmıştır.84'ü doğal gaz. %18. Elektrik enerjisi üretimi 2006 yılı III. döneminde elektrik enerjisinin % 49. %8. Üretilen elektriğin 2005 yılı III. döneminde. 2006 yılı III. 2005 yılı III. %4. döneminde ise %46.9 GWh’ı da rüzgar enerjisi iken.4 GWh olarak gerçekleşmiştir.72 oranında artmıştır. 32. doğal gaz santrallerinde %9. döneminde %46. %2. üretim şirketlerinde %12.81'i meskenlerde.2 GWh’ı da rüzgar enerjisi olarak gerçekleşmiştir.360.78. 2006 Yılı III. %23.21 artarak 46. döneminde. 9: Electricity profile of Turkey.20'si linyit. Brüt elektrik enerjisi üretiminin. %23.74'ü doğal gaz.31. linyit santrallerinde %8. döneminde.Ş. %18. (EÜAŞ) ve EÜAŞ'a bağlı ortaklıklar. 10. DÖNEM (Temmuz – Ağustos – Eylül) Sayı:204 21 Aralık 2006 10:00 Elektrik enerjisi üretimi 2006 yılı III. 2005 yılı III. 10.99 oranında azalmıştır. hidroelektrik enerjisi üretiminde ise %2.Table B.5 GWh'ı hidrolik ve 46. enerji kaynaklarına göre 2005 yılı III.71 artmış.29 oranında artmıştır. döneminde bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre %11.64’ü Elektrik Üretim A. döneminde bir önceki döneme göre % 10. Elektrik enerjisinin %41. %3.7 GWh'ı termik. ELEKTRĐK ÜRETĐM VE DAĞITIMI 2006 III. % 41.23'ü sanayide.81’i şantiyelerde ve %7.85’i ticarethanelerde.306 GWh olarak gerçekleşmiştir.14’ü tarımsal sulamada.52’si resmi dairelerde.043.254. bir önceki yılın aynı dönemine göre % 9.66'sı su. %22. %1. dönemine göre elektrik dağıtım şirketlerinin elektrik satış gelirleri cari fiyatlarla %15.394.70’i otoprodüktörler tarafından gerçekleştirilmiştir. otoprodüktörlerde ise %2.5 GWh'ı termik.12’si su.62 artarak 34.

632.290 5.984.983.967 675.029.356 82.688 586.576 4.046 4.147.288 664.938.779 622.167 648.410 5.790 5.848 636. Months Natural Gas Consumption (m3) 2963 3346 4200 5203 4847 5863 8806 656 5919 3982 3928 3529 53242 Eletricity Consumption (KWh) 493185 497494 494266 528928 594827 782335 826988 926762 721124 531827 524015 530134 7451885 Water Consumption (m3) 80526 83061 61077 38461 35434 31331 33688 27771 29184 33620 62763 68747 585663 January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual Consumption: 165 .209 5.760 60.10.285.401 Water Consumption (m3) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Average Annual Consumption: 454.020.621 71.898 74.218 643.666 612.145.083 65.679 61.752 5.2: Operating energy consumption of Hotel B for 2006.623 523.909.Table B.783.180 660. 10: Operating energy consumptions of hotels.475 75.824.279 4.10.706 84.160 4. Year Natural Gas Consumption (m3) Eletricity Consumption (KWh) 5.723 91.975 88.783 75.750 4.099 67.230 5.462.704 81.540 4.542 Table B.934.331.828.341 4.144 4.655. Table B.498 612.005.333 4.1: Operating energy consumption of Hotel A by years.070 4.344 619. (Source: Technical departments of hotels).834 4.

aynı dönemde Trabzon’da %73. 2007 yılı Şubat ayında il ve ilçe merkezlerinde ölçüm yapılan istasyonlardan elde edilen kükürtdioksit ortalamaları incelendiğinde.UKS) değeri ölçüm yapılan hiçbir istasyonda aşılmamıştır. Burdur. Manisa. Đzmir (Merkez) ve Đzmir (Ödemiş)’de %56. Aynı dönemde Bayburt’da %88. Uyarı Kademesi Sınır Değeri 166 .Table B. 1. Elazığ‘da %71. Kayseri. Bilecik (Merkez)’de %67. Bilecik (Bozüyük)’de %63 ve Đzmir (Merkez)’de %54 oranında azalmıştır. Bilecik (Merkez)’de %88. Kısa Vadeli Sınır (KVS) değeri Isparta’da aşılırken. Erzurum. Gaziantep. Karaman’da %58. 11: Air pollution profile of Turkey. Diyarbakır. Kayseri. Uyarı Kademesi Sınır (1. Kocaeli (Gölcük)’de %45. Sivas. Trabzon ve Karaman’da aşılmıştır. Malatya ve Sivas’da %31 oranında artmıştır. Karaman’da %79 ve Malatya’da %55 oranında artarken. Bursa (Đnegöl) ve Kocaeli (Gebze)’de %43 oranında azalmıştır. Burdur. Malatya. Kısa Vadeli Sınır (KVS) değeri ve 1. Samsun. Bayburt ve Karaman’da aşılmıştır. Elazığ. Konya. Aynı dönemde partiküler madde ortalamaları incelendiğinde. Manisa. Zonguldak. Hedef Sınır (HS) değeri Amasya. 2007 yılı Şubat ayı partiküler madde (duman) ortalamaları ise Bilecik (Bozüyük)’de %157. Antalya. Gaziantep’de %127. Malatya. Kütahya. Uyarı Kademesi Sınır (1. Gaziantep. SO2 ortalamalarında Hedef Sınır değeri aşıldı. Isparta. SO2 150 µg/m3 400 µg/m3 700 µg/m3 Partiküler Madde 150 µg/m3 300 µg/m3 400 µg/m3 Hedef Sınır Değeri Kısa Vadeli Sınır Değeri 1. bir önceki yılın Şubat ayına göre Gaziantep’de %193. HAVA KĐRLĐLĐĞĐ. Sağlık Bakanlığı tarafından hava kalitesi ölçümü yapılan il ve ilçe merkezlerinden elde edilen sonuçlara göre 2007 yılı Şubat ayı kükürtdioksit (SO2) ortalamaları. Hedef Sınır (HS) değeri Amasya. Antalya’da %64. Kütahya. Zonguldak’da %32. Bayburt’da %54. ŞUBAT 2007 Sayı:69 27 Nisan 2007 10:00 Bir önceki yıla göre SO2 ve duman ortalamalarında artışlar görüldü. Duman ortalamalarında Hedef ve Kısa Vadeli Sınır değerleri aşıldı.UKS) değeri ölçüm yapılan hiçbir istasyonda aşılmamıştır.

Signs Heat. 5 745 4134 5.8 100.8 4.7 0.1 1.0 1.5 0. & Mec.8 Sale of Utilities Electricity Fuel-oil Water Gas Misc.3 0.2 0. Communication Exp.1 1.7 1.2 6.5 0.7 16. & Air Cond.8 0.3 2.3 100.6 18.8 5.0 34.4 Budget 16600 70000 26000 36300 115700 26366 24656 2000 2000 200 250 1250 300 250 1250 2000 4000 2561 6500 Var.5 93118 100. Exp. Exp.7 0.1 0. Cargo Exp.3 8.2 Last Year 19580 61633 556 15667 27800 86076 26506 2266 25916 % -22. (Source: Technical Department of Hotel B).2 32.7 8. Kitchen Equipment Laundry Equipment Refrigeration Boiler Room Office Equipment Plumbing Elec. Training Exp.3 22.6 0. Six Sigma Exp.2 1.2 1.3 26. Uniform Exp. Equipment Data Proc.3 1.5 11. Elevator Building Landscaping Swimming pool Electric Bulbs Removal of Waste Water Treatment Misc. Total PROPERTY OPERATIONS Salaries & Wages Overtime Benefits Furniture Floor Covering Paint & Decoration Radio & TV.7 71. -827 24644 -279 7753 1715 330006 -5595 2550 9678 480 845 -1037 250 -6299 -1555 -642 1077 1567 -6462 60 -1279 -143 276 976 -1512 -1075 323 816 6 -1209 1000 -168 8 914 7941 5869 1740 5039 0.2 0.1 54.1 2.1 1.2 2.3 600 2000 100 1000 1300 652 200 1000 100 419 223 1281 2158 2647 1662 641 96 1056 31 516 0.7 1.2 0.0 Total 167 .7 0. Vent.4 2.9 8.APPENDIX C Table C.3 2.0 0.7 1.Maint.0 27.0 0. Operating Exp. Current Period ENERGY EXPENSES Actual 15773 45356 279 18247 34585 82694 31961 2550 14978 1520 1155 1237 7549 1855 892 173 433 10462 2501 7779 143 324 1024 1612 1075 677 484 646 1409 268 411 % -19. Cleaning Exp.4 0.6 1.7 0.1 41.0 80954 -12164 96865 100.1 1.2 2. 1: An example budget list of Hotel B.

405120221 3.805 .00868171 .072128832 .521 .037577 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean .095601641 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation -.259079185 2.00868171 . Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Mean HOTEL_B .021 .037577 HOTEL_A 1.210701 HOTEL_C 2. Table C.07636614 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.940 .072128832 . . . 1: Paired-sample t-test – primary energy consumption Paired Samples Statistics Std.07636614 . Deviation .210701 HOTEL_B . 2: Paired-sample t-test – solid waste Paired Samples Statistics Std.04583671 .Table C.002 168 . 2: The paired-sample t-test tables.931 Sig.259079185 3.095601641 .2.17961243 HOTEL_A 1. Deviation .964 .346088660 2.925 Sig.014117677 .405120221 .116 .2.003 Table C.346088660 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .035 -.17961243 HOTEL_C 2.014117677 .295 .04583671 .

13224086 .Table C.973 .066975546 .092542 .02777071 . Deviation .015 169 .02777071 .016 .066975546 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation . Deviation .63118071 .014511885 .041944442 .799 .944 .116234869 .852 Sig. 4: Paired-sample t-test – water pollution index Paired Samples Statistics Std.846 .929 Sig.13224086 1.05214743 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.092542 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std. .2.502638136 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .00811443 .2.63118071 1. .002 Table C.220062660 1.05214743 .041944442 .014511885 .033 . 3: Paired-sample t-test – air pollution index Paired Samples Statistics Std. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean .119 . Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean .091 .220062660 1.502638136 1.116234869 1.00811443 .

643213 HOTEL_C 5.36657300 HOTEL_A 3.230690916 10.8037514 102.759 .81554 52.365103857 8.363587 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.995 Sig.36657300 HOTEL_C 5.066 .363587 HOTEL_A 3. Deviation 2.19237 1.048 . Deviation .365103857 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .4061927 2. .718 .168 .718 .168 .452265062 128. 6: Paired-sample t-test – weighted resource use Paired Samples Statistics Std.527770405 8.724 .000 170 . .4061927 128.19237 65. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Mean HOTEL_B .000 Table C.527770405 10.230690916 .941474 52. Error Mean ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** ******** Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B HOTEL_A HOTEL_B HOTEL_C HOTEL_A HOTEL_C Mean 1.81554 N 7 7 7 7 7 7 Std.Table C.8037514 Paired Samples Correlations N Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 HOTEL_B & HOTEL_A HOTEL_B & HOTEL_C HOTEL_A & HOTEL_C 7 7 7 Correlation .643213 HOTEL_B .941474 65.452265062 102. 5: Paired-sample t-test – global warming potential Paired Samples Statistics Std.992 Sig.2.2.

Table C. Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 2938312 218645 87650 3244607 2801203827 2804448434 50875 3786 1517 56178 1793138937 1793195115 2224848 165555 66367 2456770 1518270563 1520727333 627510 14427 5980 647917 2801203827 2801851744 156170 3638 1508 161316 1793138937 1793300253 1303743 30017 12442 1346202 1518270563 1519616765 Solid Waste API 102755 2 1 102758 12983498 13086256 1779 0 0 1779 9031928 9033707 77804 2 1 77807 7385911 7463718 22922 0 0 22922 12983498 13006420 5827 0 0 5827 9031928 9037755 47733 0 0 47733 7385911 7433644 48796 70 32 48898 43995544 44044442 845 1 0 846 25624988 25625834 36947 53 24 37024 22617808 22654832 10317 5 2 10324 43995544 44005868 2568 1 0 2569 25624988 25627557 21435 10 4 21449 22617808 22639257 WPI 2 0 0 2 Global Warming Potential 349612 394 171 350177 Weighted Resource Use 4325856 4961 1989 4332806 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 2004 116382542 343052159 2006 116732719 347384965 0 0 0 0 982 982 1 0 0 1 917 918 1 0 0 1 6054 7 3 6064 74899 86 34 75019 LEVELLING CONCRETE Manufacturing Construction HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71700787 249165613 264722 298 130 265150 3275476 3757 1506 3280739 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 61722607 200207100 61987757 203487839 24726 26 11 24763 105902 327 136 106365 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing 2004 116382542 343052159 2005 116407305 343158524 0 0 0 0 982 982 1 0 0 1 917 918 6157 7 3 6167 26601 83 34 26718 GYPSUM BOARD Construction HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71700890 249117312 51374 54 22 51450 220244 681 282 221207 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61774057 200428307 171 . 3: The impacts of seven materials during life cycle stages according to six LCA indicators.

Table C.3: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 396285 5555 1079 402919 2801203827 2801606746 447058 6266 1217 454541 1793138937 1793593478 273965 3840 746 278551 1518270563 1518549114 50502 137 100 50739 2801203827 2801254566 18801 51 37 18889 1793138937 1793157826 64230 174 127 64531 1518270563 1518335094 Solid Waste 6210 0 0 6210 12983498 12989708 7005 0 0 7005 9031928 9038933 4293 0 0 4293 7385911 7390204 53 0 0 53 1298349 1298402 20 0 0 20 9031928 9031948 68 0 0 68 7385911 7385979 API 6221 2 0 6223 43995544 44001767 7018 2 0 7020 25624988 25632008 4301 1 0 4302 22617808 22622110 497 0 0 497 43995544 43996041 185 0 0 185 25624988 25625173 632 0 0 632 22617808 22618440 WPI 0 0 0 0 Global Warming Potential 14902 10 2 14914 Weighted Resource Use 41120 126 24 41270 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116397456 343093429 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 0 0 0 0 16811 11 2 16824 46389 142 28 46559 WALLPAPER HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71711547 249137153 10302 7 1 10310 28428 87 17 28532 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 61722607 200207100 61732917 200235632 944 0 0 944 3338 3 2 3343 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116383486 343055502 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 351 0 0 351 1243 1 1 1245 WATER BASED PAINT Manufacturing Construction HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71695074 249091839 1200 0 0 1200 4245 4 3 4252 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61723807 200211352 172 .

3: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 19694 1183 251 21128 2801203827 2801224955 11490 690 146 12326 1793138937 1793151263 27183 1633 346 29162 1518270563 1518299725 238686 4865 2780 246331 2801203827 2801450158 7668 156 89 7913 1793138937 1793146850 548451 11179 6388 566018 1518270563 1518836581 Solid Waste 89 0 0 89 12983498 12983587 52 0 0 52 9031928 9031980 122 0 0 122 7385911 7386033 1263 0 0 1263 12983498 12984761 41 0 0 41 9031928 9031969 2903 0 0 2903 7385911 7388814 API 199 0 0 199 43995544 43995743 116 0 0 116 25624988 25625104 275 1 0 276 22617808 22618084 3301 2 1 3304 43995544 43998848 106 0 0 106 25624988 25625094 7585 4 2 7591 22617808 22625399 WPI 0 0 0 0 Global Warming Potential 608 2 0 610 Weighted Resource Use 12462 27 6 12495 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116383152 343064654 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 0 0 0 0 355 1 0 356 7270 16 3 7289 HARDWOOD HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71695079 249097883 839 3 1 843 17199 37 8 17244 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 61722607 200207100 61723450 200224344 8919 9 5 8933 26584 110 63 26757 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116391475 343078916 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 286 0 0 286 854 4 2 860 HOTEL B BRICK End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71695009 249091454 20494 20 12 20526 61085 254 145 61484 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61743133 200268584 173 .Table C.

3: (continued) Primary Energy Consumption Manufacturing Construction 33098 171401 228535 433034 2801203827 2801636861 40 205 274 519 1793138937 1793139456 18404 95306 127075 240785 1518270563 1518511348 Solid Waste 0 2 2 4 12983498 12983502 0 0 0 0 9031928 9031928 0 1 1 2 7385911 7385913 API 11 55 73 139 43995544 43995683 0 0 0 0 25624988 25624988 6 31 41 78 22617808 22617886 WPI 0 0 0 0 Global Warming Potential 60 309 412 781 Weighted Resource Use 1214317 3889 5186 1223392 HOTEL A End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 2004 116382542 343052159 2004 116383323 344275551 0 0 0 0 982 982 0 0 0 0 917 917 0 0 0 0 1455 5 6 1466 PLASTER HOTEL B End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: Manufacturing Construction 71694723 249090594 71694723 249092060 33 172 229 434 675210 2163 2884 680257 HOTEL C End-Of-Life Total Embodied Sub-Total Operating Energy: Total Life Cycle: 61722607 200207100 61723041 200887357 174 .Table C.

June.74 High School. Research Assistant as a Computer Coordinator of Faculty of Architecture. Meram Anadolu Lisesi.89 CISCO Networking Academy CCNA Certificate.1974 : Konya : Married : zeytunberrin@yahoo. MS.2005 Spring Semesters 1998 . Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture.2001 Fall and Spring Semesters 1998 . GPA: 3.CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONEL INFORMATION Surname. Ayşem Berrin : Turkish (TC) : 05.11. Konya.com PhD. 2000 – 2005. GPA: 9.68 BS.. Research Assistant in “ARCH 488 Solar Control and Utilization in Architecture”. Ankara. METU. Name Nationality Date of Birth Place of Birth Marital Status email EDUCATION Expected date of Comp. Ankara.2005 Fall and Spring Semesters 175 . Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture. Ankara. METU. METU SEM. Ankara. GPA: 2. 2007 : Çakmaklı (Zeytun). METU. 1997 – July 2005 METU Faculty of Architecture.01 June 2003 June 2000 June 1997 June 1992 WORK EXPERIENCE Dec. GPA: 3. Faculty of Architecture Department of Architecture.. Research Assistant in “ARCH 281 Environmental Design I” Research Assistant in “ARCH 282 Environmental Design II Research Assistant in “ARCH 461 Computer Literacy in Architecture” 1998 .2005 Fall Semesters 1998 .

Technical Drawing ARCH 282. Oct. Instructor.Physical Environmental Control II IMB 112. IMB 111. Presenting a paper named as “Designing Living Spaces In Contemporary Architecture” in “18th International Building and Life Congress” that was organized by Bursa Chamber of Architects in Bursa.2007 Fall Semesters 2005 .2007 Spring Semesters FOREIGN LANGUAGES Advanced English. 2003 18-20 January 2006 23-25 March 2006 176 . Intermediate German CONFERENCES Sept.Computer Aided Drawing I IMB 220 – Physical Environmental Control I IMB 313 . 2002 – Sept. Taking task in organizing committee of ““CIB W62 2003 29th International Symposium on Water Supply and Drainage for Buildings” at September 11-12.October 2005 .present Başkent University GSTMF. CHILE.Computer Aided Drawing II MUH 122. 2003 in Ankara . Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design.Environmental Design I (as Part-time Instructor) 2005 . Presenting a paper named as “Hotel Renovation Projects and LCC in “CIB W107 International Symposium on Construction in Developing Economies: New Issues and Challenges” that was organized by CIB in Santiago. 1999 Presenting a paper named as “Sürdürülebilir ve Ekolojik Yüzey Malzemeleri” in “Mimari Biçimlendirmede Yüzey Sempozyumu” that was organized by Gazi University Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Department of Architecture and Chamber of Architecture in Ankara.

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