Table A1.1.

—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders with standard errors: 2001 Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England France Germany Greece
4a 1, 4a

Average 420 327 550 544 422 494 537 553 525 539 524 528 543 512 414 509 541 396 545
3

s.e. 5.9 4.7 3.8 2.4 4.4 3.0 2.3 3.4 2.4 1.9 3.5 3.1 2.2 1.2 4.2 2.8 2.4 4.3 2.3 2.6 4.6 4.0 9.6 2.5 3.6 2.9 4.6 4.4 3.6 5.2 2.8 2.0 2.2 3.5 3.8 0.6

Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2

543 442 492 350 554 529 499 512 528 528 528 518 502 561 449 542 500

Macedonia

Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation4a Scotland
1

Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1 International average
1 2

Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.2.—Average literary and informational subscale scores for fourth-graders with standard errors, by country: 2001 Literary Subscale Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 1 3 6

Informational Subscale s.e. 5.8 4.9 3.9 2.6 4.2 2.5 2.3 3.9 2.6 1.9 3.3 3.1 2.0 1.3 4.5 2.6 2.7 3.8 2.2 3.1 4.5 3.7 8.4 2.5 3.9 2.7 4.7 3.9 3.5 5.6 2.6 1.8 2.4 3.4 3.8 0.6 Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 1 3 6

Average 419 330 550 545 425 498 535 559 518 537 528 518 548 520 421 510 543 394 537 546 441 480 347 552 531 506 512 523 529 528 512 499 559 448
1

Average 422 332 551 541 424 490 536 546 533 538 521 537 537 504 408 507 536 403 547 540 445 505 358 553 525 492 512 531 527 527 522 503 559 452
1

s.e. 5.4 4.9 3.6 2.4 4.3 3.0 2.7 3.6 2.5 1.9 3.7 2.9 2.2 1.5 4.6 2.9 2.4 4.5 2.3 2.7 5.2 4.7 10.9 2.6 3.8 2.8 4.6 4.3 3.6 4.8 2.7 1.9 2.2 3.8 3.7 0.7

Macedonia

Macedonia

Netherlands Norway Romania

Netherlands Norway Romania

New Zealand

New Zealand

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States

550 500

533 500

International average
1 2

International average

Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.3.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders by percentiles, by country: 2001 25th-5th percentile 50th-25th percentile 75th-50th percentile Country 5th percentile difference difference difference Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1 International average
1 2 3 4a 1 3 5, 3

95th-75th percentile difference 83 106 65 64 72 67 52 73 64 54 61 51 55 64 78 71 59 74 54 53 75 65 112 52 75 64 73 53 72 66 57 60 58 76 62 67

257 161 400 419 287 352 421 395 403 419 396 415 428 380 260 338 415 244 440 433 262 359 168 458 360 351 351 412 378 348 389 373 445 302 389 360

96 90 102 79 81 89 75 106 79 77 81 76 74 85 87 112 81 91 65 69 105 86 98 59 112 99 105 76 98 131 88 83 77 91 103 89

55 67 41 41 45 47 36 45 39 38 40 31 37 44 58 53 40 53 35 36 65 39 64 32 50 43 46 31 45 39 35 42 35 50 42 50

56 64 48 45 48 51 41 53 43 43 45 37 41 50 60 61 45 56 37 40 69 44 59 34 57 51 53 37 51 53 42 46 39 54 51 54

Macedonia

New Zealand

Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population.

4a 4b 5 6

Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. Hong Kong SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.4.—Average standard deviation of fourth-grade students' scale scores on the combined reading literacy scale with standard errors, by country: 2001 Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece
4a 5, 3

Standard deviation 96 106 83 72 81 81 64 87 70 67 73 63 66 75 92 94 71 89 62 64 103 75 115 58 93 81 90
4a

s.e. 2.5 2.4 2.8 1.1 3 1.5 1.2 1.7 1.5 1 1.6 1.7 1.2 1 1.8 2.1 1.4 2.3 1.3 1.3 2.3 2.3 6.8 1.3 1.9 1.6 2.7 4.2 1.8 3.7 1.7 1.1 1.2 1.6 2

Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland
1

66 85 92 70 72 66 86

Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States
1

83

International average 500 0.6 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.5.—Percentage distribution of fourth-graders on the combined reading literacy scale by the PIRLS 2001 international benchmarks with standard errors, by country: 2001 Top 10 percent Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland
1 4a 1, 4a

Upper quarter Percent 5 1 45 37 3 18 32 45 26 34 28 26 36 23 4 28 36 2 36 36 10 15 3 40 35 19 27 27 32 35 23 17 47 7 s.e. 0.8 0.4 1.9 1.3 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.9 1.2 1.3 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.0 0.5 1.2 1.3 0.4 1.6 1.7 0.9 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.2 2.0 2.1 1.8 2.3 1.4 1.0 1.4 0.9

Median Percent 17 5 72 69 14 45 68 72 60 69 60 64 71 53 16 54 69 10 73 71 28 42 8 79 62 48 54 64 62 64 59 48 80 25 s.e. 1.6 0.6 1.9 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.2 2.2 1.9 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.5 2.5 2.1 1.5 1.9 1.4 2.1 2.3 1.8 2.3 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.6

Lower quarter Percent 46 16 91 93 45 77 93 90 90 93 89 92 94 85 42 79 92 36 96 95 55 79 23 98 84 80 81 92 87 85 88 83 96 58 s.e. 2.5 1.3 1.1 0.6 2.4 1.4 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.6 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.8 1.9 1.1 0.8 2.0 0.6 0.6 2.1 1.7 3.0 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.1 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.5 1.7 1.2

Percent 2 0 21 16 1 6 10 24 9 12 10 6 13 7 1 11 14 0 12 13 3 4 1 14 17 6 11 8 14 15 7 4 20 2

s.e. 0.4 0.2 1.3 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.9 1.6 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.1 1.1 1.4 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.0 0.5 1.1 0.3

Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey
1

United States1 19 1.3 41 2.0 68 2.0 89 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.6.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders by sex, by country: 2001 Girls Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1
7 6

Boys s.e. 6.2 5.3 3.7 2.6 5.1 3.3 2.8 3.9 2.7 2.2 3.8 3.0 2.4 1.9 5.7 3.4 2.6 5.6 3.1 3.0 5.1 4.7 9.6 2.7 4.7 3.5 4.2 4.3 3.9 5.3 3.0 2.5 2.6 4.0 3.8 Average 410 314 538 535 416 483 531 541 520 533 514 519 536 503 399 498 537 373 534 535 431 479 341 547 517 489 504 522 519 516 510 491 550 440 533 s.e. 6.5 5.2 4.7 2.4 4.7 3.3 2.7 3.7 3.0 2.5 4.1 3.5 2.5 1.8 5.6 3.7 2.7 6.5 2.6 2.7 4.8 4.0 10.9 2.9 4.5 3.5 5.7 4.8 4.2 5.7 3.3 2.3 2.5 3.7 4.9

Girls-Boys difference Average 18 27 24 17 12 24 12 22 11 13 21 19 14 19 27 22 8 48 22 17 21 25 20 15 27 21 14 12 17 24 16 22 22 19 18 s.e. 4.7 4.8 3.6 2.1 4.3 3.5 2.8 3.3 3.3 2.7 3.9 2.9 2.1 2.4 8.1 4.3 2.5 8.4 3.4 2.7 3.6 4.0 6.8 2.2 5.4 3.9 3.8 2.3 4.0 4.1 3.0 2.8 2.6 3.1 4.1

Average 428 341 562 553 428 506 543 564 531 545 535 538 550 522 426 520 545 422 556 552 452 504 361 562 542 510 519 534 537 540 526 512 572 459 551

International average 510 0.7 490 0.7 20 0.7 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.
1

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.7.—Average literary and informational subscale scores for fourth-graders with standard errors, by sex, by country: 2001 Literary subscale Girls Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel Italy Kuwait7 Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 3 4b

Informational subscale Girls-Boys difference Girls Average 429 349 561 549 430 500 541 554 540 543 529 546 542 512 419 518 539 430 558 548 454 516 370 559 536 499 519 536 534 538 530 514 568 460 541 s.e. 6.0 5.1 3.4 3.0 5.2 3.1 3.3 4.0 2.9 2.5 3.9 2.8 2.5 1.9 6.4 3.5 2.7 6.1 2.8 2.9 5.6 5.5 10.8 2.9 4.5 3.7 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.9 2.8 2.6 2.8 4.6 4.1 415 316 541 534 417 480 532 537 527 533 513 529 532 496 395 495 533 378 537 532 437 494 349 547 514 486 506 527 520 517 514 492 550 444 525 Boys Average s.e. 5.9 5.9 4.2 2.6 4.9 3.5 3.1 4.0 3.1 2.1 4.4 3.6 2.8 2.0 6.1 3.6 2.6 6.7 2.6 2.9 5.8 4.7 1.9 2.9 4.4 3.1 5.6 4.6 4.1 5.3 3.4 2.5 2.6 4.2 4.3 0.8 Girls-Boys difference Average 15 32 20 16 12 20 9 17 12 10 15 17 10 16 24 23 6 52 22 16 17 23 20 11 21 14 13 9 14 21 16 21 18 16 16 18 s.e. 4.9 5.0 3.1 2.7 5.4 2.8 3.5 3.5 3.3 2.6 3.8 3.1 3.0 2.6 8.8 4.2 2.6 9.1 2.8 2.8 4.8 4.5 6.3 2.4 4.6 3.9 4.3 2.8 4.4 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.2 4.5 4.0 0.8 Average 21 20 28 19 12 26 14 30 11 14 23 21 20 21 28 23 11 43 21 18 22 23 19 17 30 24 13 14 19 25 14 19 25 22 16 s.e. 4.6 5.1 5.4 2.2 4.6 3.7 2.8 4.3 3.2 2.5 3.5 3.4 2.5 2.4 8.7 3.9 2.8 7.4 2.4 3.8 3.3 3.4 5.1 3.3 5.1 3.6 4.4 2.9 3.9 4.2 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.9 4.3

Boys s.e. 6.2 5.3 4.2 3.0 4.9 2.9 2.7 4.9 2.9 2.1 3.8 3.4 2.1 1.9 5.7 3.3 2.7 5.2 2.8 3.4 4.6 4.3 8.5 2.8 4.7 3.4 4.2 3.9 4.0 5.7 2.9 2.4 2.9 3.8 4.2 Average 408 320 535 535 419 485 528 544 513 529 516 507 538 509 406 498 538 373 527 536 430 468 340 544 517 494 505 517 519 516 505 490 547 437 542 s.e. 6.2 5.6 5.1 2.7 4.8 3.3 2.7 4.0 3.2 2.4 3.7 3.4 2.6 1.7 6.4 3.2 3.3 5.4 2.2 3.7 4.9 3.6 9.1 3.2 4.6 3.1 6.1 4.3 4.1 6.0 2.9 2.4 2.6 3.6 4.6

Average 429 340 563 554 431 512 543 574 524 544 539 528 558 531 433 521 549 416 548 554 453 492 358 561 546 519 518 531 538 541 519 509 572 460 558

Macedonia

Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation4a Scotland
1

Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1

International average 511 0.7 490 0.7 21 0.7 509 0.7 491 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.8.—Average U.S. fourth-grade reading scale scores on the combined reading literacy scale with standard errors, by race/ethnicity: 2001 Combined reading literacy scale Race/Ethnicity White Black Hispanic Asian Other Average 565 502 517 551 515 s.e. 3.0 5.8 5.7 13.6 6.3 Literary subscale Average 575 505 523 552 523 s.e. 3.3 5.6 6.3 14.7 6.5 Informational subscale Average 554 498 512 548 506 s.e. 3.3 6.3 5.9 13.4 6.4

NOTE: The United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.9.—Percentage distribution of U.S. fourth-graders by PIRLS 2001 international benchmarks with standard errors, by race/ethnicity: 2001 Lower quarter Race/Ethnicity White Black Hispanic Asian Other Percent 5 21 15 9 20 s.e. 0.8 3.0 2.3 3.6 2.1 21 52 44 28 47 Median Percent s.e. 1.8 3.7 3.8 8.0 3.6 Upper quarter Percent 51 19 27 46 29 s.e. 2.0 2.4 2.9 8.7 3.0 25 6 10 21 11 Top 10 percent Percent s.e. 1.5 1.3 1.9 6.7 2.1

NOTE: The United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.10.—Average U.S. fourth-grade reading scale scores on the combined reading literacy scale with standard errors, by control of school: 2001 Combined reading literacy scale Control of school Public Private Average 538 580 s.e. 4.3 6.7

NOTE: The United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.11.—-Relationship between students attending schools with various percentages of students receiving a free or reduced-price lunch and combined reading literacy scale scores with standard errors: 2001 Percent Less than 10 percent 10-24.99 percent 25-49.99 percent 50-74.99 percent Greater than 75 percent 10 17 34 21 18 s.e. 3.4 4.6 5.1 3.8 3.8 Average 589 567 551 519 485 s.e. 7.0 8.5 5.3 7.5 5.7

NOTE: The United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.12.—Percentage distribution of U.S. fourth-graders by PIRLS 2001 international benchmarks with standard errors, by percentage of students receiving a free or reduced-price lunch: 2001 Lower quarter Percent Less than 10 percent 10-24.99 percent 25-49.99 percent 50-74.99 percent Greater than 75 percent 98 97 92 83 75 s.e. 1.1 1.4 2.1 2.4 2.9 91 79 73 58 40 Median Percent s.e. 1.9 4.7 2.6 3.8 3.4 Upper quarter Percent 64 51 46 31 14 s.e. 6.5 5.0 2.9 3.7 1.9 Top 10 percent Percent 34 24 20 12 3 s.e. 6.3 5.0 2.0 2.6 1.0

NOTE: The United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.13.—Percentage of fourth-graders attending schools with emphases on reading with standard errors, by country: 2001 Written statement of reading curriculum Emphasis in curriculum on reading Informal initiatives to encourage reading Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1
4a 1 3 7

Percent 56 14 7 27 24 8 29 73 46 25 11 57 53 58 43 75 44 18 7 47 36 15 17 38 90 21 29 5 93 49 25 13 65 9 72

s.e. 4.4 3.9 2.2 3.3 3.8 3.1 4.5 4.3 5.3 3.8 2.3 4.0 4.3 0.4 5.3 3.6 3.4 3.7 1.9 4.1 4.2 3.0 3.7 4.3 2.4 4.7 4.1 2.2 2.5 4.0 3.8 2.8 4.7 2.4 4.1

Percent 95 88 87 84 79 68 66 86 73 37 81 80 78 90 81 87 63 76 89 51 72 85 96 75 95 90 85 63 81 77 62 61 89 67 95

s.e. 1.9 4.0 2.8 2.6 3.7 5.7 4.0 3.3 4.9 4.1 4.1 3.4 3.7 0.2 3.6 2.9 3.9 3.5 2.6 3.8 4.4 3.0 1.8 4.3 1.7 2.5 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.1 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.6 2.1

Percent 80 55 57 94 61 74 67 95 79 86 61 97 78 97 60 85 73 72 76 61 77 74 41 50 87 80 57 64 91 99 78 100 87 57 95

s.e. 3.6 7.3 4.2 1.6 5.1 5.0 3.7 2.1 4.4 3.1 4.7 1.4 3.5 0.2 4.7 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.1 4.2 3.5 4.2 5.1 4.1 3.1 3.6 4.2 3.3 3.1 0.8 3.6 0.0 2.9 4.0 1.7 0.6

Macedonia

New Zealand

International average 37 0.6 78 0.6 76 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.14.—Percentage of fourth-graders by average number of hours of reading instruction each week with standard errors, by country: 2001 Up to 3 hours Country Argentina Belize7 Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England France Germany7 Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6, 7 Hungary Iceland7 Iran Israel4b, 7 Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2, 7 Netherlands Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1
4a 1 7 1, 4a

3-6 hours s.e. 4.3 4.0 2.8 3.1 3.6 5.7 4.7 4.2 5.2 3.3 4.9 4.1 3.4 0.4 # 4.4 3.8 4.9 3.9 3.7 # 3.8 5.4 4.8 3.5 4.5 2.8 2.4 4.8 3.7 2.9 4.4 3.4 4.6 2.2 Percent 25 47 56 44 33 23 35 34 40 28 26 21 52 42 30 35 36 36 50 33 # 42 22 47 55 35 26 59 41 17 51 26 32 31 28 s.e. 4.0 4.4 3.9 3.4 4.8 4.7 4.1 4.4 4.7 3.2 4.3 3.9 3.8 0.4 4.4 4.4 3.7 4.3 5.0 4.2 # 4.5 4.2 4.8 4.5 4.5 3.7 3.4 4.9 2.3 4.2 3.8 2.9 4.3 4.3

More than 6 hours Percent 45 36 31 35 40 36 18 13 11 12 36 3 30 9 70 29 19 18 29 46 # 26 26 5 27 33 63 29 13 25 35 13 16 30 65 s.e. 4.7 4.3 3.4 3.5 4.9 5.2 3.5 3.2 2.7 2.4 4.3 1.7 3.5 0.2 4.4 4.2 3.1 3.0 4.1 4.4 # 3.7 4.8 1.9 4.1 4.8 4.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.7 3.1 2.6 4.1 4.9 0.6

Percent 30 17 14 21 27 42 46 53 49 60 37 76 18 48 # 36 45 46 21 21 100 31 52 49 18 32 11 12 46 58 13 61 51 39 7

New Zealand

International average 37 0.7 35 0.7 28 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.15.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders by average number of hours of reading instruction each week with standard errors: 2001 Country Argentina Belize7 Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece
4a 6, 7 7 5, 3

Up to 3 hours Average 437 295 558 542 442 489 533 561 522 542 524 528 549 518 ‡ 487 544 400 553 549 443 495 341 553 518 499 503 518 536 538 512 501 564 448 537 s.e. 10.1 13.7 9.4 4.3 10.0 5.4 3.5 4.6 3.8 2.9 5.8 4.3 7.8 1.9 ‡ 8.4 3.9 7.7 6.4 5.1 4.4 9.2 12.0 3.9 11.1 5.8 14.8 11.1 5.4 7.4 8.4 2.6 2.7 7.6 19.0 Average 432 327 552 545 413 497 542 557 528 537 537 536 542 511 409 510 541 399 539 543 ‡ 486 350 556 534 500 492 530 522 513 520 499 557 450 543

3-6 hours s.e. 11.7 7.2 5.1 3.7 8.7 6.1 4.0 7.1 3.8 3.5 7.2 7.6 3.3 1.8 9.8 8.0 3.9 9.3 3.4 5.9 ‡ 6.6 18.0 3.8 4.8 4.7 8.0 5.0 6.3 12.1 4.6 5.3 3.7 6.8 8.5

More than 6 hours Average 402 317 541 547 421 499 536 532 529 530 522 513 547 508 415 522 533 397 548 542 ‡ 489 344 535 526 496 523 526 518 521 519 503 565 448 540 s.e. 10.0 10.8 8.4 3.7 6.7 4.6 5.6 11.5 8.9 8.7 6.0 28.4 5.3 3.2 5.0 8.1 6.4 13.7 4.2 4.0 ‡ 6.9 17.1 11.7 8.2 5.4 6.3 6.4 12.2 9.2 5.0 6.3 6.1 7.0 4.2 1.6

Hong Kong, SAR Hungary Iceland7 Iran Israel4b, 7 Italy Kuwait7 Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2, 7 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1

International average 502 1.4 501 1.2 499 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.16.--Percentage of fourth-graders taught by certified teachers with standard errors, by country: 2001 Country Argentina Belize
7

Percent 94 74 100 100 94 94 — 98 93 92 — 95 73 91 57

s.e. 2.5 4.4 0.0 0.1 1.7 2.8 — 1.2 2.1 1.2 — 1.9 3.9 0.2 4.3 1.4 3.1 4.0 2.3 3.1 0.7 4.6 2.8 0.9 0.0 1.1 3.0 1.4 0.8 1.8 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.4 0.4

Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 1 3 4b

97 78 53 92 85 99 43 89 99 100 97 82 96 99 95 94 95 93 98 95 89

Macedonia

Netherlands Norway Romania

New Zealand

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1 International average — Data not available.

Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.
1 2

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.17.—Average number of years fourth-grade students' teachers have taught all grades and fourth grade with standard errors, by country: 2001 Fourth grade Country Argentina Belize7, 8 Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia7, 8 Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1
7 5, 3

All grades s.e. 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.4 Average 13.7 11.8 17.3 16.7 17.1 10.3 18.8 14.3 17.8 23.4 15.5 12.9 18.5 13.1 14.4 14.5 21.8 11.6 19.6 19.8 19.3 18.6 16.3 17.2 13.8 16.7 20.1 19.4 18.0 10.9 16.9 18.6 15.9 14.8 15.3 s.e. 0.9 1.4 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.2

Average 3.4 3.0 2.8 5.6 5.5 2.7 5.2 4.8 8.9 8.0 4.3 4.5 5.1 2.7 6.4 4.8 4.5 5.0 4.1 4.7 6.1 4.4 6.3 6.2 5.7 3.1 5.4 5.1 5.0 2.8 5.5 8.5 6.6 3.8 7.1

International average 5.1 0.1 16.4 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.18.—Percentage of fourth-grade students who read for fun outside of school with standard errors, by country: 2001 Every day/almost every day Country Argentina7 Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel Italy Kuwait7 Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1
4a 1 3 4b

Once or twice a week Percent 24 26 28 23 26 31 33 26 26 24 34 38 33 22 39 27 24 37 33 31 28 33 37 20 23 28 30 29 23 23 33 29 32 36 22 s.e. 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.2 0.8 1.0 0.7 1.5 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.5 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.0

Once or twice a month Percent 12 13 11 12 10 12 12 14 9 11 14 26 16 9 12 13 10 17 10 10 12 10 17 10 13 12 16 6 11 14 14 12 13 13 12 s.e. 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.2 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7

Never/almost never Percent 28 30 10 25 15 12 17 27 15 18 6 14 11 18 14 17 35 13 13 6 13 7 14 34 20 22 27 6 35 33 13 14 11 13 32 s.e. 1.2 1.3 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.1 0.8 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.8 2.3 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.8 0.8 1.6 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.2

Percent 37 31 51 39 49 46 38 33 50 48 46 21 40 52 35 44 31 33 44 53 47 50 32 37 43 39 28 59 31 30 40 45 44 38 35

s.e. 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.8 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 0.8 1.5 0.8 1.2 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.5 2.2 1.9 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.1 1.2

Macedonia

New Zealand

International average 40 0.2 29 0.2 12 0.1 18 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.19.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores of fourth-grade students who read for fun outside of school with standard errors, by country: 2001 Every day/almost every day Country Argentina7 Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland
1 4a 7 5, 3

Once or twice a week Average 436 327 551 543 438 500 540 554 517 535 524 532 536 508 423 511 546 403 539 540 448 490 353 558 523 497 515 527 533 531 522 497 556 449 553 s.e. 6.0 6.5 3.9 2.7 5.4 3.9 2.2 4.8 3.6 2.4 4.7 3.4 2.9 2.5 5.4 4.2 3.1 4.6 3.1 3.6 5.3 4.7 9.4 3.5 4.8 3.6 5.3 5.9 5.0 5.2 3.0 3.1 3.0 4.8 4.9

Once or twice a month Average 418 311 529 527 435 481 524 555 506 525 516 525 543 489 408 497 537 394 540 524 420 484 362 547 513 490 521 509 532 517 516 492 547 438 541 s.e. 10.2 8.3 9.4 3.0 8.2 6.5 3.9 4.3 4.8 3.2 5.2 3.4 2.9 4.9 5.6 6.4 5.1 5.4 4.7 4.8 11.2 8.0 14.8 3.5 7.6 5.7 8.4 7.2 6.0 6.1 4.4 4.3 3.2 4.8 6.3

Never/almost never Average 428 332 497 513 427 472 504 516 483 517 491 511 521 479 396 484 521 373 515 520 440 467 385 531 482 462 508 512 500 505 485 473 523 439 515 s.e. 6.6 7.0 8.4 2.6 7.2 5.8 4.2 4.4 3.9 3.2 10.3 4.2 2.9 2.7 4.8 4.3 3.0 7.5 3.6 7.4 8.0 8.2 15.3 3.0 4.8 4.3 5.7 5.3 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.7 3.5 5.2 5.0 1.0

Average 424 336 570 571 415 503 555 583 548 555 533 539 558 533 415 528 561 413 561 553 457 501 337 577 563 527 514 533 558 561 529 518 579 459
1

s.e. 6.9 6.9 3.8 2.9 4.9 3.6 3.1 4.1 2.7 2.2 4.3 3.3 3.1 1.9 4.8 3.6 3.2 4.9 2.8 2.9 5.1 4.3 9.8 2.7 4.3 4.0 7.0 4.1 4.3 6.6 3.9 2.4 2.7 4.3 3.8

Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States

564

International average 515 0.8 502 0.8 492 1.1 478 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.20.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders by frequency of reading stories or novels outside of school with standard errors, by country: 2001 Every day/almost every day Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England France Germany Greece
4a 6 1, 4a

Once or twice a week Average 432 334 555 543 430 497 542 553 524 543 521 535 541 511 423 499 542 406 545 544 448 494 345 551 527 499 517 525 523 517 525 501 557 454 548 s.e. 7.8 7.1 4.1 2.7 6.1 3.3 3.4 4.6 3.1 2.4 5.1 3.1 2.8 2.4 4.8 4.1 3.9 4.6 3.5 3.3 6.1 4.2 8.0 2.5 4.3 3.7 5.2 5.4 3.8 4.8 3.8 3.2 2.7 4.1 4.3

Once or twice a month Average 430 317 558 528 445 496 545 547 522 538 523 521 543 507 422 510 550 397 548 556 441 492 354 548 509 505 527 523 526 492 524 497 555 441 548 s.e. 10.0 6.9 4.8 3.2 7.3 4.6 3.4 4.3 3.8 3.4 4.6 3.7 2.4 3.3 4.8 4.9 4.1 6.4 3.4 4.3 7.7 6.8 8.4 3.6 5.8 4.3 6.0 6.2 4.7 6.1 3.3 3.6 3.0 5.2 5.5

Never/almost never Average 434 315 519 505 436 472 524 501 505 527 513 499 532 483 380 527 533 371 532 526 414 475 366 530 457 488 489 506 481 464 509 496 528 403 505 s.e. 6.3 7.3 7.0 4.1 7.4 5.6 2.9 4.2 3.0 2.3 6.8 5.1 3.9 3.2 6.7 3.7 2.5 8.4 2.8 4.0 10.8 6.5 25.6 3.9 7.8 3.9 7.8 4.9 7.0 7.8 3.8 3.4 3.6 7.1 6.0 1.2

Average 417 342 571 559 413 504 550 574 545 556 537 542 551 529 415 507 562

s.e. 7.4 6.1 5.0 3.1 4.8 4.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 2.5 4.5 3.5 3.3 2.2 6.1 5.1 4.5 4.5 4.2 3.6 5.5 5.0 9.0 2.8 4.7 5.5 5.4 4.6 4.6 4.9 4.9 3.1 2.6 4.3 4.0

Hong Kong, SAR Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania
7

414 559 551 447 501 340 565 556 519 503
4a

Russian Federation Scotland
1

533 550 553 531 515 580 459 560

Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1

International average 512 0.8 501 0.7 500 0.9 478 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.21.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders by frequency of reading for information outside of school with standard errors, by country: 2001 Every day/almost every day Country Argentina7 Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel Italy Kuwait7 Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco
2 1 4b 5, 3

Never/almost never Average 439 300 494 539 435 461 533 549 528 532 532 519 536 514 372 539 544 372 557 ‡ ‡ 474 389 558 528 491 454 530 513 508 481 480 554 385 544 490 s.e. 12.6 11.8 12.0 4.4 14.2 10.9 6.3 7.5 4.9 3.0 10.3 5.2 5.6 3.5 8.0 6.8 4.9 12.3 5.4 ‡ ‡ 8.0 36.5 2.9 8.1 6.3 10.8 5.6 10.1 9.6 10.7 7.5 3.3 15.1 7.7 1.9

Average 419 344 560 534 405 485 520 530 514 531 513 523 536 508 424 492 534 410 538 537 445 491 343 530 515 485 510 516 511 533 514 501 557 465 527 494

s.e. 6.5 7.6 4.8 3.9 5.5 4.9 3.9 6.0 4.2 3.1 5.9 5.1 3.2 5.2 5.9 5.3 4.7 4.9 3.8 3.7 5.5 5.0 12.5 6.8 6.2 6.1 5.3 6.1 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.3 5.3 4.8 5.1 0.9

Netherlands Norway Romania

New Zealand

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1 International average ‡ Reporting standards not met.

Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.
1 2

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.22.—Percentage of fourth-grade students who never or almost never read types of texts outside of school with standard errors, by country: 2001 Read stories of novels Country Argentina8 Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel Italy Kuwait7, 8, 9 Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 1 3 4b 5, 3

Read for information Percent 6 9 7 10 3 4 7 8 11 13 5 8 7 18 10 8 11 8 4 2 2 7 17 29 9 13 4 5 8 4 5 5 22 5 8 s.e. 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.1 2.9 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.9 1.2 0.6

Read comic books Percent 23 39 35 36 31 18 33 31 21 29 18 27 28 23 21 21 27 15 30 21 13 13 14 30 50 11 26 37 31 25 31 27 19 11 57 s.e. 1.1 2.1 1.5 0.9 1.9 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 2.4 1.2 1.2 0.8 1.8 1.1 1.2 0.5 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.2

Percent 29 25 22 10 12 13 37 13 22 38 12 12 12 16 14 28 51 16 30 22 3 11 23 14 10 37 15 6 13 9 42 27 11 7 21

s.e. 1.3 1.6 1.6 0.6 0.9 0.7 1.3 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.5 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.4 1.1 2.4 0.8 0.8 1.4 1.2 0.6 0.9 0.5 1.2 1.4 0.6 0.6 1.0

Macedonia

Netherlands Norway Romania

New Zealand

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1

International average 19 0.2 9 0.1 26 0.2 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.23.—Percentage of fourth-graders who watch television or videos for five or more hours on a normal school day with standard errors, by country: 2001 Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait7 Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 1 3 5, 3

Percent 25 16 15 13 17 13 12 20 8 7 6 9 12 4 10 25 7 9 15 12 8 14 11 14 16 5 10 7 17 10 17 11 7 6 18

s.e. 1.1 1.3 0.9 0.6 1.1 0.9 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.6 1.1 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.4 1.0 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.6 1.4

Macedonia

Netherlands Norway Romania

New Zealand

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1

International average 12 0.1 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.24.—Average number of hours fourth-grade students watch television or videos on a normal school day with standard errors, by country: 2001 Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q) Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England1, 4a France Germany Greece4a Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel4b Italy Kuwait7 Latvia Lithuania Moldova Morocco
2 1 3 5, 3

Average 2.6 1.8 2.4 2 2 2 2.2 2.6 1.7 1.6 1.4 2 2 1.2 1.7 2.6 1.5 1.7 2.4 2.2 1.7 2.2 1.6 2.4 2.1 1.5 2.1 1.7 2.3 1.8 2.7 2 2.2 1.4 2.2

s.e. 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

Macedonia

Netherlands Norway Romania

New Zealand

Russian Federation4a Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1

International average 2 0.0 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.25.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders by frequency of watching television or videos on a normal school day with standard errors, by country: 2001 Less than 1 hour Country Argentina Belize Bulgaria Canada (O,Q)5, 3 Colombia Cyprus Czech Republic England France Germany Greece
4a 1, 4a

From 1 up to 3 hours Average 436 314 564 558 440 502 545 569 531 546 532 541 554 523 420 530 554 399 556 562 467 506 342 565 551 505 527 536 545 546 529 510 566 455 564 s.e. 8.0 8.4 4.6 2.7 6.0 4.7 2.5 3.3 2.8 2.6 4.2 3.0 2.9 2.8 4.9 4.2 3.0 6.4 3.1 3.1 4.6 5.3 7.2 2.4 4.5 3.2 5.8 4.7 4.2 5.2 3.3 2.6 2.4 4.9 3.8

From 3 up to 5 hours Average 422 302 552 545 427 500 538 569 515 533 518 538 539 511 415 529 534 395 553 546 430 494 336 547 506 507 527 528 539 530 523 505 556 445 559 s.e. 8.0 9.1 5.4 3.3 7.7 5.0 3.9 5.1 5.0 4.6 5.8 4.1 3.7 5.2 9.3 4.5 5.0 7.9 3.8 4.4 10.3 6.0 10.7 3.8 6.4 8.0 7.1 6.7 5.0 5.3 4.0 5.3 4.2 11.3 6.9

5 hours or more Average 427 331 542 522 431 477 502 522 487 513 482 530 514 476 411 521 507 396 520 541 422 492 346 526 500 473 500 513 505 492 502 474 527 430 502 s.e. 6.3 8.6 5.3 3.8 6.3 6.6 4.9 5.0 5.2 3.5 9.0 6.0 3.7 6.1 7.9 3.4 5.2 6.6 4.0 4.4 8.5 5.1 17.1 5.1 5.8 7.3 6.0 6.0 4.5 8.0 3.9 6.0 5.4 9.3 4.8 1.1

Average 423 337 542 541 415 495 539 544 530 541 527 513 546 514 413

s.e. 5.7 5.4 4.6 3.1 4.4 3.2 3.2 6.2 3.7 2.1 4.2 3.4 2.7 1.5 4.6 4.1 2.6 3.9 4.0 3.4 4.9 4.6 11.0 3.2 4.5 3.7 4.9 4.4 5.0 5.3 4.2 2.9 2.8 3.5 4.2

Hong Kong, SAR6 Hungary Iceland Iran Israel Italy Kuwait Latvia Lithuania3 Macedonia Moldova Morocco2 Netherlands1 New Zealand Norway Romania Russian Federation Scotland1 Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Sweden Turkey United States1
4a 4b

479 539 r 404 537 525 440 480 358 558 533 498 498 526 521 523 510 501 564 450 541

International average 497 0.7 511 0.8 500 1.1 482 1 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. 2 Nearly satisfying guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. 3 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population because coverage falls below 65 percent. 4a National Defined Population covers less than 95 percent of National Desired Population. 4b National Defined Population covers less than 80 percent of National Desired Population. 5 Canada is represented by the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (O, Q) only. 6 Hong Kong, SAR is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. 7 The item response rate for this category is below 85 percent. Missing data has not been explicitly accounted for in the data.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

Table A1.26.—Average combined reading literacy scale scores for fourth-graders with standard errors, by country: 1991 and 2001 2001 Country Italy Iceland United States Greece New Zealand International Sweden Slovenia Singapore Hungary Average 513 513 511 507 502 500 498 493 489 475 s.e. 4.4 3.5 6.3 5.9 5.3 1.7 3.9 3.7 8.0 3.9 500 486 521 466 498 487 513 458 481 459 1991 Average s.e. 5.4 1.5 3.2 4.5 4.1 0.7 4.2 3.2 3.6 4.0 2001-1991 difference Average 12 27 -10 41 4 13 -15 36 8 16 s.e. 6.9 3.7 7.1 7.4 6.8 1.8 5.7 4.9 8.7 5.6

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, IEA International Reading Literacy Study of 1991, 2001.