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Marco Osvaldo Vigueras Zuniga Cranfield University
The paper presents a description of the main components of Intake Air Systems for Industrial Gas turbines and examines the impact of using new technology and advances in maintenance service to provide the best possible efficient in this particular section of the engine. The principal components are: Intake House, Filtration System, Cooling Inlet, Fog Nozzle Array, Silencer and Duct. This system provides the working element (air) at the engine. Innovations and advances provided by technology avoid fails in the intake of air. Equipments and accessories life is increased for many years more and the maintenance is more simple, easy and fast than equipment using some years ago. Additionally industrial gas turbines have been provided by new equipment designed to recover losses produced for waste and pollution of the air accumulated in the intake air system by automatic operation. This new technology contributes to save money in the operation of the engine. The maintenance of them is easier and fast, the costs of maintenance and time are reduced for more than 50% than in the past, and the turbine can continue operate when the maintenance in this section is running.
Use of monitoring systems for assessing the condition of a gas turbine and its components has helped to design new equipment and accessories for the engine. Intake Air for industrial gas turbine is a field very important for study. This study has developed equipment that saves money and time in operation and maintenance. With a correct selection, the customer can get the same output power for many years with low costs of maintenance and time. The quality and quantity of the air depends on two principal factors. First the environment, in specific the conditions of the air provided by the nature and second the selection of equipment. This last one (equipment), such as was mentioned before plays an important roll in the operation of the engine. In general industrial gas turbines are not designed for specific environments, so the only way to get the best output power for the engine is by the auxiliary equipment. However the equipment in the intake system can solve 90% of the problem for the environment (atmospheric condition changes, etc.) with a low cost. Industrial gas turbine maintenance is necessary and frequently, allowing the engine operates in optimal conditions. But this maintenance have a high cost and if the equipment was selected incorrect the consequences will be reflected in the total cost of production, in other words, the customer lost out power or has to invest again in a new equipment to supply his requirements. This work has be divided in two chapters, the first provide the description of the following intake air systems: (1) Intake House, (2) Filtration Systems, (3) Cooling Inlet, (4) Fog Nozzle, (5) Silencer, (6) Duct. The second part is focused for using advance technology in this section of the industrial gas turbine (Intake Air System). The Auto-Cleaning results are reflected in the output power of the industrial gas turbine by Intake Air System Equipment. The maintenance in these new products is lower and easier than the conventional systems.
which is calculated by two variables which are linked between them. both wraps and panels have the job of extending the life primary filter by capturing larger particulate. The incoming air is then directed through the pre-filter wrap (if used) that covers each of the primary filters.. airbone fibers. A highly efficient filter. it contents all equipment necessary to satisfy the demands and quality of the air for the compressor. these filters are used to protect a turbine in a continuous harsher environment. some times is pre-fabricated before and only is assembled there. The partiallycleaned air then passes through to the high efficiency filter pairs for fine filtration. and chemical products contaminants originate as droplets that become airbone from the breaking action of ocean waves. that is. Self cleaning Filter is used when the particles stay on surface. The maintenance is possible changing the filter orientation and passing a stream air through filter. can improve turbine performance by minimizing compressor blade fouling. the particles are removed automatic outside of intake house. A filter with a long service life at low pressure drop results in a low mean operating pressure drop of the system over time. Intake Air System Equipments 2. Pre-filters. particles. dry particles. pollution. Filtration System works in the following way: The dirty air income from the inlet hoods. The components are: Weather Hoods. but the maintenance implicate that they have to be changed for new filters by the staff. Here. sand.2. such as seeds. Static Filters are located in panels.2. etc. its effect is seen at this stage first. Intake House (Filter House) The intake air house is called like filter house. (3) Service life is the period of time the filter is in operation before it must be replaced because contaminant loading is causing pressure drop that exceeds the recommended level for the turbine.salt. the lower the better. The first is the quantity of the air demanded by the compressor requirements and the size of the filters cross and long section. etc. most of the larger particles are removed before they can reach the primary filter pairs. The Filtration System consists in many filters in series designed for specific application to avoid the pass of particles. A walkway behind the inlet hoods provides accessibility to the filters as well as to any inlet treatment accessories. The intake house is a building made by steel. Proprieties of Filters: (1) The pressure drop of a filter is simply its resistance to airflow. The effects of high filter pressure drop are well understood: it reduces turbine output. The principal characteristic of the Intake house is the size of the cross section. it is built in front of the intake air of the compressor. sand. but the building not only allocates the filters. Filtration System classification is composed for two filters (Pre filters and Main Filters or called Panel Filters). Environment Harshness. resulting in more turbine output over time.1. 2. if a moisture eliminator or some other inlet treatment is used. Housing. leaves. especially one that removes particles smaller than a micron in size. droplets or a combination of them. and is typically measured in terms of the number of particles removed as well as their size. relatively low efficiency . Filtration System The air of the atmosphere presents many kinds of particles which damage or cause losses of power in the engine. the energy loss incurred moving air through the filter and is typically measured in mm of water or inches of water. (2) Filter efficiency defines the amount of contaminant that is removed from the turbine inlet air-stream. They are made of low-cost. such as salt. and inside of the housing. Filters Panels and Connector. The filters can be for two types: self cleaning filters or static filters. deserts.
resulting in significantly increased filter performance for the existing turbine inlet air panel filtration system. They do not need to replace very often. Lastly. A second stage of filtration is used in conjunction with a conventional gas turbine air filter assembly. Cooling Inlet Cooling the turbine inlet air even by a few degrees. it can increase power output substantially. the baffles constitute a surface for contaminants to impact directly. marine. providing a means for inertial separation of the larger droplets. no special tools are needed to replace they. and designed to be changed more often than primary filters. no metal screens are needs to keep the media in place.4% per degree Fahrenheit or about 0. They provide a longer filter service life and maintain lower pressure drop over their lifetime. This array consists on a series of horizontally placed filter elements separated by a series of inclined baffles. The durable polymer frame makes lightweight and easy to handle. industrial. Due to the superior structure of the fluted design. The first stage assembly can be either a static or pulse system. The Salt filter is placed down stream form the first stage filter and serves as a barrier to the immigration of salt. but when the time comes.3. Both filters consist in filter packaging technique combined with different materials. opposite the direction of air flow. they require little maintenance between filter change-outs. Panel filters (not self-cleaning) air filtration systems are most often chosen to protect inlet air on turbines and generators in urban. Special Filters When is necessary to remove corrosive salt particles from the air-stream. (Cleaning and reusing them is never recommended). and coastal environments. The wrap is a “high loft” media. A secondary function collects accumulated salt droplets and redirects them to flow towards the front of the module. Because they are self-cleaning. The baffles serve several functions. This enables good airflow through the wrap even after it has captured much particulate. . The metal frame model offers can be used at higher temperatures 150 F (66C). Main Filters have to provide highly efficient air filtration for gas turbines operating in a variety of harsh environments. urban/factory areas. The first are Self-Cleaner. a convenience for the maintenance staff. even as much as 0. offshore. or phase of the salt contaminant.materials. Evaporative cooling and chiller coils. air laid (aka dry laid) in randomly oriented fashion to form a web. There are two tried and true inlet air cooling methods.7% per degree Celsius. meaning it has quite a bit of air space between the fibers throughout the depth of the media mat. Static Filter (Panel filter) is the second group. Their primary function redirects to air flow passing vertically through the media. This is because cooled air is denser. giving the turbine a higher mass flow rate and resulting in increased turbine output and efficiency. The filter media in the pre/filters are made of polyester fibers. on the coast. This media employs several physical principles to prevent the migration of salt. in the frosty north. Self-Cleaning Systems are designed to help turbines & generators operate anywhere – in dusty deserts. and thrown away. 2. Main filters are selected in two large groups. which means improved turbine output. The small pore size of this media ensures excellent performance on dry salt particles that may enter or form in the clean air plenum. and now they are having a big demand in the market for this propriety. One such feature is the pore size. their principal characteristic is that they are provided for the self-clean system. It has been very effective in removing salt from the air stream without regard to the shape. size.
Fog Nozzle The contribution. Design range in size from 25. and are available with choices in media efficiency and materials. The second stage blades include a shroud as part of the blade casting and each shroud has two parallel rails to reduce the hot gas flow over the tips.g. fins and parts to stay clean enough to function well for many years. The coils are cold and therefore condensation is created. the hot gases tend to flow over the tip of the blade to the back side of the aerofoil.g. hot and humid climates.000 cfm to 1. This evaporation is the process that reduces the air temperature. the excess fog evaporates. and in places with seasonal heat. the system is designed so that 10 percent of the water evaporates before reaching the compressor. to 12-15 mm w. While the above actions considerably improved power output. but to ensure air dryness. This process continues up to the eighth compression stage. also moved to reduce the parasitic losses with the turbine itself. Evaporative Cooler Module is recommended positioned downstream of the filter section. The shroud block is furnished with bronzed honeycomb material. In this case. where leftover water droplets are removed. then directed out of the system. Cooled air then passes through the integral mist eliminator." excess fog is injected into the air stream so that it will evaporate inside the compressor. Excess water that does not evaporate is directed down wars so as not to be carried along with the cooled air. the air is cooled through an indirect heat exchange with the cooling fluid. The air then passes through drift eliminator media and into the turbine.Evaporative coolers and chiller coil systems are currently cooling gas turbine engines all over the world. As air flow passes through the chilled coils. Chiller Coil System is typically positioned downstream of the air filters.4. As the air temperature rises during compression. from Southern California to Saudi Arabia in hot and arid climates. we recommend using pre-filters to ensure the cleanliness and functionality of the coils. Due to the pressure difference between the suction and pressure sides of the blades. all condensation is eliminated this way. low air pressure drop of 76-10 mm w.000 cfm. Typically.300. is not small. Condensate droplets are directed downward and collected in pans. The lack of availability through unscheduled maintenance impacts significantly on OVERFOGGING. With this method. bringing the air temperature down and thereby making it easier to compress the air. On some systems where this positioning is impossible or undesirable for some reason. water evaporates off the wet media. called "over fogging. This allows the coils. mist eliminator panels are in place to remove any stray condensate droplets. Clean. Minimum requirement in this equipment: highly reliable water control system to respond to water levels needs. depending on media and material made corrosion resistant. cooled air is then directed into the turbine inlet. The system install a cutter teeth on each of the stage two blade shrouds to cut grooves in the honeycomb to . with the remainder evaporating inside the compressor. It works when the filtered air passes through the saturated evaporative cooling media. which engine faults make to the availability of assets. 2. The fog system is designed so that the fog mist does not evaporate before reaching the first compressor stage.
Warm moist air is less dense than cool dry air and so results in lower power output. Since these particles have almost no mass. On this type of gas turbine a 40 mm reduction in inlet pressure drop increases base-load output by 0. The turbine uses a constant volume of air. also wanted to find ways to slow down the gradual power loss that occurs over time. The lack of availability through unscheduled maintenance impacts significantly on KEEPING UP THE PRESSURE. temperature and humidity. small-diameter tubes that are surrounded by absorptive material to reduce the high-frequency noise. gas dynamic forces and differential expansion between the rotor on the housing force the tip of the cutter teeth into the honeycomb. using a single shaft axial compressor. 3.1 Keeping Filter’s House and Duct clean Significant to have low pressure ratio in the intake system the turbine output increases by approximately ¼% for each 25 mm reduction in Pressure. This process is enhanced by oil mist from the bearings.6. To optimize system performance from the air intake through the duct. enter the compressor and deposit on the compressor blades. When the turbine is operating under full load. Ducting The contribution. 2. again leaving less available energy for turning the generator. for this reason the duct has to warranty the complete seal a long the duct. Although the inlet silencing requirements are usually less stringent than the exhaust requirements. it serves to minimize the amount of dirty ambient air and oil mist entering the compressor from bearing #1. with a commensurate improvement in heat rate. too small to be trapped by the inlet filters. for this reason the duct has to be considered in the design of a complete Intake Air System. Using appropriate technology (equipment) gives the best results. Silencer The inlet noise of a gas turbine contains mostly high-frequency noise. This work in two ways first the silencer directs air flow at the gas turbine inlet through a series of parallel. For example on bearing #1 just before the compressor intake is used this seal. . These particles can be avoided in the ducts and filter’s house installing a brand new non-metallic brush seal.6 percent and combined-cycle output by 0. The characteristic of duct in industrial gas turbines are very important. In addition to boosting power output. which engine faults make to the availability of assets. the pressure drops across the inlet air structure affect gas turbine performance. centrifugal forces. The amount of work the compressor consumes depends largely on the ambient conditions such as air pressure. This translates into significant annual fuel savings. to avoid any kind of particles inside of it. about half the turbine's power output satisfies compressor demands. Minute particles in the air.5. They have to cover a wide range of applications and provide economical solutions to a broad range of noise conditions. is not small. In addition. Over time these particles build up to the point where the added drag on the blades cuts the power output from each turbine generator. warm air is much harder to compress than cool air. the centrifugal forces are too small to overcome the particles' suction and so they stay on the blades. 2. 3.5 percent. An absorptive silencer in series with the inlet filtration system is usually required to meet noise attenuation requirements.further retard the leakage of hot gases around the blade tips. The honeycomb is made by the stainless steel shroud block. Some companies supplied honeycomb with one manufactured which was selected for its ductility and resilience to hot corrosion attacks. it is critical that the inlet silencer be constructed to exacting criteria. but the power generated depends upon the mass flow of the air. Silencer can work as well directs air flow at the gas turbine inlet through packed baffles.
. Electrical demand is highest during warm summer afternoons when the air is also the least dense. water droplets were being carried by the inlet air through the inlet air filter and onto the compressor blades. the design temperature of the air leaving the cooling system and entering the turbine is typically no less than 7C (45 F).2 Self-Clean Filtration System (Low costs in maintenance) Self-Clean Filtration System: When the filters are Self Cleaning the system requires little maintenance because a reverse pulse of air back through the filters knocks off accumulated dirt. 3. The smooth fibers provide low impedance to airflow helping to maintain low P . and even frost. Pre-filters have to offer a powerful filtration on even the smallest (sub-micron) particulate and lower average pressure ratio over the life of the filter. depending on local ambient conditions. results in denser inlet air and increased power output. Depending on the environment where work the filter is the fiber classification: Synthetic. The diameter of the fiber and poro size depends on the environment such as desert. marine. arctic/frost. This then leads to a light coating of oil on the compressor blades.4% turbine output. Duratek.special blend of man-made and natural fibers that has superior dust holding capacity and moisture resistance. 3. and filters keep performing and delivering higher turbine output through their 2 to 3 year (or longer) lifespan. For maximum turbine performance. depending on the harshness of the environment. These features working in combination prevent salt contaminant from migrating through the filter media as it cycles through varying humidity cycles. etc. however.Man-made fibers that are sturdy. which makes it easier for dirt particles to stick estimates that this paste on the blades produces enough drag to result in a loss of 6 MW on each turbine. Cellulose. The average life of the fiber is 2 to 4 years. and moisture resistant. for the entire life of the filter..natural fibers that stop a range of particulate sizes. The impurities in the water. as well as the submicron particles released in the air by the evaporative cooler.a fine-fiber layer that caches very fine particulate before it reaches the media substrate. urban. . would then foul the compressor blades causing a considerable increase in the power demand for compressing a constant volume of air.. This slight vacuum condition will encourage leakage of dirty and oily air into the compressed air path. Install a 200 gpm evaporative cooler.3 Performance in the gas turbine by cooling air system. That is why the material of the pre-filter use a fine fiber media technology inside. The surface energy of the media has been designed to droplets of salt. Cooling agents are usually either water or a water/glycol mix. durable. It soon found. General Electric says that the on the frame of pressure drop at the inlet costs 1. Spider-Web.. therefore. dust. The ambient temperature and the altitude at the site are the major factors used in sizing and designing a coil system. larger particulate. that at that flow rate. New material of the filters has to be necessary to install in this section of low pressure.The space just upstream of the first compressor disk is normally under slight vacuum that may be as high as twenty inches of water. Cooling the air on warm days. industrial. A concurrent benefit is that the pore size contributes to the resistance of the media to droplets of salt.
are increased efficiency. which have a direct impact on the performance of a combustion gas turbine. Duke Energy. Fog. corrosion-resistant materials. A gas turbine generator with evaporative cooling system installed at a site having an ambient temperature of 37 C and a relative humidity of 30% could deliver up to 7. emissions.5 GW of added capacity. fog. which means less blade fouling. 3. improves heat rate and contributes to more efficient fuel consumption. Cinergy." Because fog cooling increases humidity. depending on the ambient humidity.6% more power than a gas turbine without an evaporative cooler.4 Performance in the gas turbine injected fog. where it fouled the first stage compressor blades. which helps boost turbine output. Inside. The droplets evaporate quickly and cool the inlet air. The company's customers include Florida Power. It is manufactured with low-cost. Because fog wash the accumulated dirt off the silencers and carried it downstream. Installations account for an estimated 2. mild steel shell has two coats of paint. cold weather. Each nozzle atomizes the water into trillions of ultra-fine fog droplets per second. pressure drop. Madison Gas and Electric. it means better turbine protection. salt-laden air. Filters. The turbine may face challenges from hot weather. the most significant emission from gas turbines. and the rugged. and/or noise abatement regulations. The best air filters provide all . The performance of a filter is defined by 3 main parameters. Intake Air System (Filter’s House. The benefits of fog power.Installing the fogging system downstream of the silencers is preferable. and Utilicorp. flow tubes are placed parallel to the air flow direction. Turbine Air inlet filtration system. 3. Conclusions Gas turbines are not often installed in ideal environments. users say. reduced nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions. The highquality design and construction ensure low maintenance and long product life. to name few. Higher efficiency inlet air filtration is important because it reduces compressor blade fouling. it also reduces NO. using fog cooling to cool the inlet air by -7 C results in 10 percent fewer NO emissions produced by the turbine than by the non-fogged turbine. Each flow tube has a spun-bonded polyester wrap to prevent pack migration. 4. and lower costs.5 Technology applied in Silencers. Cooling the inlet air of a 100-MW turbine by -7 C can produce about 10 MW more powercalled "fog watts"-thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the turbine by about 3 percent. results in better turbine performance and means higher turbine output. sand storms. The new silencer has to be compact and lightweight to make shipping and storage easier. For instance. Fog technology works through a system of high-pressure pumps that pressurize desmineralized water as it flows through a network of stainless steel tubes to nozzles located in the inlet ducts of gas turbines. Silencer and Duct) helps overcome these challenges and keep your turbine producing its optimum output. Each extra fog watt is produced using about 30 percent less fuel than "non-fog watts. High-impact composite faceplates are mounted on the front and back. Entergy. efficiency and service life. Evaporative cooling typically can decrease inlet air temperatures by as much as -7 C to 1 C.
Maintenance Management 5130. [Ref 13] Brun. [Ref 16] Aker. G. 1998. Influence of Compressor Deterioration on Engine and Greitzer.. McGrawHill Companies. 1998. ASME. [Ref 3] Jones W. K.. 2001. Z. Inc. Electric Perspectives 8340. ASME.. Because gas turbines produce less energy as the ambient temperature rises. Simulation of Performance Deterioration in Eroded Compressor. Gas Turbine Theory. Sire. Measurements Uncertainties Encounteres During Gas Turbine Driven Compressor Field Testing. Rogers. generators look for ways to cool intake air to boost gas turbine power. H. 2002-2003 References . For this reason fog cooling systems have been shown to work better than refrigeration or other traditional evaporative media cooling systems. Acustic-Vane. S. [Ref 1] The Jet Engine. 1999. [Ref 15] Spakivszky. turbine manufacturers choose evaporative coolers or chiller coils. 1996. high efficiency. 1999. H. AICE.I. Cranfield University. Cooling the turbine inlet air even by a few degrees can increase power output substantially. Washington. Because gas turbines produce less energy as the ambient temperature rises. Gas Turbine Fuel Washing Theory and Practice.I.. I... D. ASME. ASME.. ASME. ASME.M. 2002....F. and Saravanamuttoo. ASME. Dec 1999. power-plants are using fog to produce more energy with less fuel and fewer emissions. Fog cooling systems have been shown to work better than refrigeration or other traditional evaporative media cooling systems. G. Journal of Turbomachinery ASME.. ASME. ASME. Power-plants are using fog to produce more energy with less fuel and fewer emissions. and long service life. Influence of Axial Compressor Fouling on Gas Turbine Unit Performance Based on Different Schemes and with Different Initial Parameters.F. [Ref 8] Roberts P. [Ref 12] Diakunchak. To accomplish exact controlled cooling.H. Predicting the Gas Turbine Performance Degradation due to Compressor Fouling Using Computer Simulation Techniques. [Ref 5] Nicolson A. Harlow. [Ref 6] Curtis R. 1988. 1996. 1991. [Ref 7] Stalder J. and Saravanamuttoo.H. In fact. Nov/Dec 2001. H. 1986 [Ref 2] Cohen. [Ref 10] Tarabrin A. [Ref 14] Singh. Longman. Salt Percolation Through Gas Turbine Air Filtration Systems and its Contribution to Total Contaminant Level. Performance Degradation in Industrial Gas Turbines. 1999. [Ref 9] Huber P. E. Coatings for Stationary Gas Turbines.C. 2000. Economic analysis shows that selection of a high performance air filter (one that optimizes its filtration performance for its operating environment) results in greater operating profit of a gas turbine system.three characteristics: low pressure drop. 1996. 2001 [Ref 4] Technical Bulletin 93-1327. AICE (American Institute of Chemical Engineers) ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Gas Turbine Symposium. An Analysis of Axial Compressor Fouling and a Blade Cleaning Method.. [Ref 11] Schurovsky V. Find News ways to cut gas-turbine costs.. Rolls-Royce.
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