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Thermal insulation materials

Many types of thermal insulation, some of which have been abandoned throughout history.

Aluminum. Thermal losses can be by esatado change (evaporation), in contact (or convection) or by radiation (which increases with the fourth power of the temperature difference), achieving the aluminum mirror, and thus reduce by 97% the thermal radiation losses (both cool protecting from the sun, and before the cold, to retain heat inside), this property being independent of the thickness of the aluminum layer. Besides aluminum offers another advantage, being totally watertight / impermeable and prevent the passage of water and air, thereby blocking convective losses.

Cork. Is the material used since ancient times to isolate more. Typically used as agglomerates, forming panels. Typically, these panels are made from crushed and boiled cork at high temperatures. In general, it is not necessary to add any binder to compact panels. Its water content is less than 8%, and is composed by 45% by suberin. These two conditions mean that a product is imputrescible, which do not try to protect from fungi or microorganisms, unlike wood. Another advantage over other insulating materials is that presents high thermal inertia. This feature makes it an ideal material for thermal insulation systems abroad SATE 53% of the world's cork is made in Portugal, and 32% in Spain. Use Options to DIN 4108-10. Density: 110 kg/m3 Average, 100-160 (on board), 65-150 (tree) Thermal conductivity: 0.039 W / (m K) (according to EN 13170 to 0.04 a 0.055) mu (resistivity to the passage of water vapor) - 2 to 8 (the shaft), 5 to 10 (n plaque)

c (specific heat) from 1600 to 1800

Cotton. This is part of a cotton blanket. Density: 25-40 kg/m3 (blown wool), 20-60 kg/m3 (fleece blanket) Thermal conductivity: 0.04 W / (m K) mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 840 J / (kg K)

Arlita. The Arlit is a very lightweight ceramic aggregate. . Density: 300-800 kg/m3 (bulk density) Thermal conductivity: 0.08 W / (m K) mu - 2 to 8 c (specific heat) approximately 1100 J / (kg K)

Spelt. Density: 90 kg/m3 (pressing) Thermal conductivity: 0.06 W / (m K) mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately - J / (kg K)

Lino. Density: 40-50 kg/m3 (raw material), 20-40 kg/m3 (in blanket) Thermal conductivity: 0.04 to 0.05 W / (m K)

mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 1500 J / (kg K)

Pellets of cereals Made from cereals (in German - Getreidegranulat). Density: 105-115 kg/m3 (bulk density) Thermal conductivity: 0.05 W / (m K) mu - 1 c (specific heat) approximately - J / (kg K)

Hemp Density: 150 kg/m3 (scrapes), 20-40 kg/m3 (in blanket) Thermal conductivity: from 0.04 to 0.08 W / (m K) mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 1500 J / (kg K)

Wood chips Density: 70 kg/m3 (bulk density) Thermal conductivity: 0.045 W / (m K) mu - 2 c (specific heat) approximately - J / (kg K)

Cellulose. It is ground recycled newsprint, which have been added borax some salts to give flame retardant properties, insecticides and antifungal. Is blown into the chambers or wet projected. It is a powerful insulator summer and winter, and also has

acoustic insulation properties. Its biggest advantage is that it behaves like wood, balancing tips while temperatures have a large thermal storage capacity, behaves countercyclical for 12 hours, keeping the cool summer morning in the afternoon. In Winter protects against cold similiar way as does wood. Density: 30-60 kg/m3 (or according to other sources, 25 to 90 kg/m3) Thermal conductivity: 0.039 W / (m K) mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 1900 J / (kg K)

Fiberboard According to EN 13171. Use Options to DIN 4108-10. Density: 30-60 kg/m3 (blown), 130-250 kg/m3 (in blanket) Thermal conductivity: 0.04 to 0.06 W / (m K) mu - 5 to 10 c (specific heat) approximately 1600 to 2100 J / (kg K)

Woodwool According to EN 13168, DIN use options 4108-10 Density: 350-600 kg/m3 (normal), 60-300 kg/m3 (multiple layers) Thermal conductivity: 0.09 to 0.1 W / (m K) mu - 2 to 5 c (specific heat) approximately 2100 J / (kg K)

Coco. Density: 70-110 kg/m3 Thermal conductivity: 0.045 to 0.05 W / (m K)

mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 1500 J / (kg K)

Caas (Currently, no cane based product approved for use in Germany). Density: 190-220 kg/m3 (scrapes), 20-40 kg/m3 (in blanket) Thermal conductivity: 0.045 to 0.065 W / (m K) mu - 2 c (specific heat) approximately 1300 J / (kg K)

Algae Used in roofs and walls. Density: 70-80 kg/m3 Thermal conductivity: 0.045 W / (m K) mu c (specific heat) approximately 2000 J / (kg K)

Straw Density: 80 to 600 kg/m3 Thermal conductivity: from 0.045 to 0.13 W / (m K) mu - 1 to 10 (pressing 35 to 40) c (specific heat) approximately - J / (kg K)

Grass Density: 25-65 kg/m3 Thermal conductivity: 0.04 W / (m K) mu - 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 2100 J / (kg K)

Rockwool. Stone wool is a thermal insulation, fireproof, rot. This material is different from other insulation that is fire resistant material, with a melting point in excess of 1,200 C. The main applications are insulation cover both inclined and flat (European cover conventional, self-protected with waterproof sheet), ventilated facades, facades monolayer, the interior walls, interior partitions, floors and acoustic insulation slabs. When it has a roof tile with grooved, using a felt or other uncoated kraft paper with a face, which helps position. It is also used for passive protection of structures such as facilities and penetrations. Stone wool is sold or semi-rigid panels, mats, blankets and shells armed. It is also an excellent material for sound insulation in lightweight construction, flooring, ceiling and wall finishes. Density: 30-160 kg / m. According to EN 13162, into fiber 20 to 150, 25 to 220 stone. Thermal conductivity: 0.034 to 0.041 W / (m K). According to EN 13162, 0.035 to 0.05 Mu from 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 840 J / (kg K)

Blanket Is rock wool fibers intertwined. It is suitable for isolating horizontal constructional elements, provided in the upper position. Clamping vertically or staples need to prevent clumping ends in the bottom of the element and in the bottom of a

horizontal hook. They usually come under Kraft paper, tar paper or light metal mesh.

Rigid panels These agglomerated panels with any epoxy resin, which gives a certain rigidity to the insulator. Serves for vertical and horizontal construction elements for the bottom, a change of conductivity having a slightly lower coefficient to the blanket.

Coquillas Are preformed tubes with various diameters and thicknesses. Like all good thermal insulator, the section should be chosen so that it is perfectly adjusted to the outer surface of the driving is isolated. Like any mineral wool is incombustible. Stone wool can withstand temperatures up to 1,000 [ C].

Glass wool. When you have a tile roof with a tongue-and I want to isolate with glass wool product must be used for that purpose, a glass wool panels with greater density, hydrophobic and hygroscopic. When you have a tin roof, the product line to be used is the cladding with aluminum foil on one side reinforced to act as mechanical strength, such as vapor barrier and reflective material. As in the previous case is sold in the form of blanket pellets and shells panels pipe insulation. Coefficient of glass wool thermal conductivity: 0.032 W / (m K) to 0.044 W / (m K)

Lana. It is natural and organic version of isolates woolly. Unlike rock wool or glass wool, sheep wool is obtained naturally and does not need a high temperature baking. It is very tough and a potent regulator of moisture, which contributes greatly to the comfort inside buildings. Construction hardly used in comparison with glass wool or rock. As in previous cases sold as a blanket, and flakes of Chipboard.

Thermal conductivity: 0.043-Glass wool IW / (m K) 1 Density: 20-80 kg / m 2 Thermal conductivity: 0.040 to 0.045 W / (m K) Mu from 1 to 2 c (specific heat) approximately 1000 J / (kg K)

Glass expanded. Addition of insulation is a very effective vapor barrier, which is not usually normal for heat insulation and makes it very suitable for insulating thermal bridges in construction, as pillars in front walls. Is formed by glass, usually recycled and treat smooth color, since no matter what color the product, which is a foam hot gas leaving enclosed cells, which act as an insulator. Its stiffness makes it more suitable than other insulating plaster to cover it. It is rarely used in the construction. Glass is also known as Cellular and still currently manufactures, 2013, in Spain under the latter name.

Fragment of expanded polystyrene. The polystyrene foam material is an insulating petroleum and natural gas, of which the polymer is obtained as styrene plastic granules. To build a block is incorporated in a metal container a certain amount of material is related to the same final density and water vapor is injected to expand the granules to form the block. This is cut into slabs of the desired thickness for marketing through a heated metal wire. Due to its flammability was incorporated flame retardants, and is called flame. It has a good thermal performance in densities ranging from 12 kg / m to 30 kg / m Has a conductivity coefficient of 0.034 to 0.045 W / (m K) which depends on the density (generally lower density to higher conductivity coefficient) It is easily attacked by the ultraviolet radiation and therefore it should be protected from sunlight It has a high resistance to water absorption

No way that the burning flame and sublimates.

Foam cellulosic The foam material, cellulose has an acceptable thermal insulating power and is a good acoustic absorber. It is ideal for applying to the bottom of sheds being a fireproof material completely white and its speed to be placed. It melts at temperatures above 45 C. Is little used in construction. Thermal conductivity: 0.065 to 0.056 W / (m K)

Polyethylene foam Chemical structure of polyethylene, sometimes shown only as (CH2-CH2) n. The polyethylene foam was characterized by economic, waterproof and easy to place. With respect to its thermal performance can be said to be of average character. Its completion is white or aluminum. Thermal conductivity: 0.036 to 0.046 W / (m K)

Polyethylene foam Film Similarly, the foam of polyethylene, is used as thermal plastic bubble simply covered with aluminum foil. The advantages versus other insulators are very small thickness (3-5 mm), easy installation, very low cost, it is also non-flammable and recyclable. This film is little used in construction, and more usually in air conditioners.

Polyurethane foam. Displays polyurethane foam high density. The polyurethane foam is known to be a very good insulation performance. It has many applications such as thermal insulation in construction and in industrial sectors. Highlights throughout the cold chain by high efficiency energrica Thermal conductivity: 0.023 W / (m K)

Elastomeric foam Is an insulator with excellent performance in low and medium temperature and easy to install, minimizing the costs of labor. It has in its structure a vapor barrier and completely fireproof behavior. Coef. Conductivity: 0,030 kcal / h m C Optimum temperature: -40 to 115 C It is easily attacked by the ultraviolet radiation and therefore it should be protected from sunlight.

Aerogel. As thermal insulation, airgel blankets occurs in flexible (range: -40 C to 650 C or -270 C to 90 C). Only comes in 5mm and 10mm thicknesses. It has great mechanical properties for the performance it delivers, is hydrophobic (repels moisture), is permeable (lets through air / vapor), prevents corrosion under insulation is fireproof (not burn) and is highly resistant to harsh treatment (stomping, hitting, etc.). Installation is intuitive and simple, the material can be cut with scissors or cutters, reducing the time and costs of excessive labor. Density: 0.020g/cm (Aerogel monolith) of 0.13g/cm to 0.18g/cm (airgel blanket flexible)