# Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations

True/False Questions 1. The only assumption required for the paired-difference test is that the population of differences is normally distributed. Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 2. You always state H first.
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Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 3. When testing for the difference between two population means taken from independent random samples, the two samples must be the same size. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 4. The appropriate distribution when testing for the difference in two population means, assuming equal variances and small sample sizes is the t distribution. Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 5. When using the t distribution to test for a difference between two population means taken from independent samples the appropriate value for degrees of freedom is always (n1 + n2 -2). Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 6. H and H combined will always include all possible outcomes.
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Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 7. The F distribution is a symmetric distribution. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 8. Sample sizes are considered large if at least one sample is at least 30. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium

Aczel, Complete Business Statistics, Sixth Edition

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Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations
9. The two assumptions necessary to test for a difference in two population proportions are that the sample sizes are large and that the samples are independent random samples from the two populations. Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 10. The degrees of freedom for the paired-observation t-test are n - 2. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 11. If the difference between two sample means is significant, then this is evidence that the two samples come from populations with equal means. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 12. When the null hypothesis is not rejected, it is inferred that any difference in the two sample means, is due to sampling error, rather than a difference in the two populations. Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 13. When the sample evidence leads us to reject the null hypothesis that two population proportions are equal, then we can conclude that the two population proportions are significantly different. Answer: True Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 14. In testing for a significant difference in two population proportions, at α = .01, if the test statistic is 4.20, then the null hypothesis will not be rejected. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 15. Paired observations are taken from two independent populations. Answer: False Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium

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Aczel, Complete Business Statistics, Sixth Edition

S to r e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L a s t Y e a r 's S a le s 183 406 388 694 274 137 33 1423 C u r r e n t Y e a r 's S a le s 206 528 678 601 258 170 31 1468 Aczel. so long as the population variances can be 2 assumed equal. Sixth Edition 3 . To test whether or not two population variances are equal.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations Multiple Choice Questions 16.2 degrees of freedom 1 2 E) none of the above Answer: C Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium Use the following to answer question 18-22: A company made a major change in its advertising theme this year and is interested in knowing whether there is any significant increase in sales over last year.704 B) +1.05 with n = 12 1 and n = 10.96 C) +2. from independent samples.086 and -2. The following data is the sales in thousands for different stores over the country.645 and -1.704 and -2.645 E) none of the above Answer: C Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 17. the critical values for t are: A) +2. Complete Business Statistics.last year's sales). When testing for the equality of two population means. and has been adjusted for inflation. the appropriate distribution is: A) z distribution B) chi-square distribution C) F distribution D) t distribution with n + n . Take the difference as (current year's sales . using α = 0.96 and -1.086 D) +1.

what is the appropriate conclusion? A) the change in advertising did increase sales significantly B) sales have not changed at all from last year to this current year C) there is not sufficient evidence to indicate that the change in advertising increased sales D) sales have decreased from last year to this current year E) none of the above Answer: C Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 4 Aczel. Find the critical value to test the hypothesis that the change in advertising has increased sales.244 E) none of the above Answer: B Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 21. H : µ > 0 1 1 D D C) H : µ ≤ 0. State the null and alternative hypotheses to test the hypothesis that the change in advertising has increased sales. using α = 0.96 C) |t| > 2.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 18. Complete Business Statistics. A) z > 1. A) 1.895 E) none of the above Answer: D Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 20. Compute the test statistic for this test. H : µ > 0 1 D E) none of the above Answer: B Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 19.116 B) 1. If the decision for this test is to fail to reject the null hypothesis. A) H : µ > 0.116 D) -1.244 C) -1. H : µ < 0 D) H : µ = 0. Sixth Edition . H : µ ≤ 0 0 0 0 0 D D D D 1 D B) H : µ ≤ 0.365 D) t > 1.05.645 B) |z| > 1.

The differences are taken as before after.96) (40. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the average change in sales. Compute the average difference. Complete Business Statistics.385) B) 50.25 ± (2.25 ± (2.4 B) 102 C) 25. A) 20. A) 50. State the null hypothesis to test that the training was beneficial to this driver.385) D) 50.385) C) 50. The times before and after training are given below.365) (40. Sixth Edition 5 .25 ± (1.385) E) none of the above Answer: A Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium Use the following to answer questions 23-25: An auto racing driver is given training and his timings on five different tracks are then measured.5 D) 32. T rack 1 2 3 4 5 B efo r e 226 706 559 975 280 A fte r 198 701 589 892 264 23.306) (40. A) H : µ = 0 0 0 0 0 D D D D B) H : µ ≥ 0 C) H : µ > 0 D) H : µ ≤ 0 E) none of the above Answer: B Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy Aczel.25 ± (1.895) (40.4 E) none of the above Answer: A Type: Computation Difficulty: Easy 24.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 22. taking each difference as before after.

A random sample of 100 essays evaluated by the software was compared to a different sample of 100 essays evaluated by humans.33 Answer: B Type: Computation Difficulty: Easy 6 Aczel. Find the critical points to test whether this software does find more errors. A) H : µ .645 C) +1.282 D) +2.2 5. State the null and alternative hypotheses to test whether this software does pick out more errors.µ > 0.µ ≥ 0.738 1. Sixth Edition .96 B) +1. 26. Results were as follows: Evaluator Software Humans Sample Average 7. at α = 0.Dev.627 It is assumed that both software grading (population 1) and human grading (population 2) are normally distributed.2 Sample Std.µ ≤ 0. 1.01? A) Yes B) No Answer: B Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium Use the following to answer questions 26-29: A major educational testing service is evaluating the performance of its new automated essay grading system. Complete Business Statistics. H : µ -µ > 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 B) H : µ . A) +1. H : µ -µ < 0 1 1 2 D) H : µ . H : µ -µ ≠ 0 1 1 2 C) H : µ . The software will not be moved into second-level testing unless there is compelling evidence that it finds more grammatical errors than human graders. H : µ -µ ≤ 0 1 1 2 E) none of the above Answer: C Type: Concept Difficulty: Easy 27.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 25.05. with equal population variances.575 E) +2.µ = 0. at α = 0. Was the training beneficial to this driver. Student essays are scanned into a computer-recognizable format and then evaluated by the computer program.

9552) D) 2 ± (1. A) cannot compute from the information given B) about one-half C) very close to one D) very close to zero E) none of the above Answer: D Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 29.9552) E) none of the above Answer: C Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 30. The proportion of cars stolen that do have a burglar alarm installed is 8%.33) (0.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 28.9552) B) 2 ± (2.645) (0.9552) C) 2 ± (1. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the average difference between the number of errors picked by the software and those found by human graders. A) 2 ± (1. Aczel. the F distribution is: A) sometimes appropriate B) never appropriate C) only appropriate if both sample sizes are less than 30 D) only appropriate if at least one sample is at least 30 E) used when the two variances are not equal Answer: B Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium Use the following to answer questions 31-35: The proportion of cars stolen that do not have a burglar alarm installed is 12% in a sample of 100 cars. Sixth Edition 7 . When testing for the equality of two population proportions.96) (0. Complete Business Statistics. Compute the p-value for the test of this hypothesis. also in a sample of 100 cars. Assume cars with an alarm are population 1 and those without alarms are population 2.28) (0.

96)*(0. Complete Business Statistics. A) |z| > 1.0422) Answer: D Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 8 Aczel.575)*(0.3472 D) 0.645 C) |z| > 2.6554 B) 0.0422) E) 0.645)*(0.04 ± (1.04 ± (1.1736 Answer: C Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard 33.6528 C) 0. A) H : p . A) 0. A) 0. with and without burglar alarms.05.28)*(0.3264 E) 0.96 E) z < -1.p = 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 B) H : p .645 Answer: A Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 34.0422) C) 0.04 ± (2.04 ± (1.p ≥ 0 E) H : p .0422) D) 0.p > 0 Answer: A Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 32. State the null hypothesis to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in proportion of cars stolen with and without alarms.33 D) z > 1.96 B) |z| > 1.96)*(0. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the difference between the proportion of stolen cars with alarms and the proportion of stolen cars without alarms.04 ± (1.0422) B) 0.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 31. Compute the p-value for this test of the hypothesis that there is a difference in proportion of cars stolen. Find the critical value or values for the test of the hypothesis that there is a difference in the two proportions.p ≤ 0 D) H : p . at α = 0.p ≠ 0 C) H : p . Sixth Edition .

Assume that the manufacturer's tires are population 1 and the competitor's tires are population 2. Sixth Edition 9 .64 11.10. the correct interpretation is: A) there is no evidence that there is a significant difference in the two proportions B) there is a significant difference in the two proportions C) cars without alarms are stolen twice as often as cars with alarms D) an alarm on a car will reduce the likelihood that it is stolen by 10% E) none of the above Answer: B Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 36. with a standard deviation of 1.500 Answer: C Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium Aczel. Complete Business Statistics.µ ≥ 1.µ ≤ 1. State the null hypothesis to test whether the manufacturer's claim is true. The competitor's tires last a mean of 15.500 D) H : µ .500 miles more than his competitor's.700 miles. If the decision on this hypothesis test is to reject the null hypothesis that the two proportions are equal. S a m p le m e a n 40 30 S a m p le V a r ia n c e 10 12 S a m p le S iz e 12 15 A) B) C) D) E) 3.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 35.4 none of the above Answer: C Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium Use the following to answer questions 37-39: A tire manufacturer claims that his tires last at least 1.µ = 1.350 miles. Two independent samples of 10 tires each are subjected to wear and the average life of the company's tires is found to be 16. at α = 0. A) H : µ .12 34.500 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 B) H : µ . Calculate the pooled variance for the following sample data.µ ≤ 0 E) H : µ . with a standard deviation of 1.µ ≥ 0 C) H : µ .33 124.700 miles.100 miles. 37.

µ > 0 Answer: D Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 41. Sixth Edition . A) 1. Find the critical value or values to test the claim that the manufacturer's tires last on the average at least 1.500 more miles that the competitor's tires.53 D) 0. with a standard deviation of \$2. The number in the first sample is 15 and the number in the second sample is 12. for the last nine months.µ < 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 E) H : µ . State the null and alternative hypotheses to test whether this data provides evidence that a dividend release raises the stock price. with a standard deviation of \$2.16 C) 1.101 E) 1.50 for the next nine months.µ ≤ 0. How many degrees of freedom are associated with the critical t-value? A) 27 B) 26 C) 25 D) None of the above. H : µ .33 B) 9.µ ≠ 0 C) H : µ .µ ≤ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 B) H : µ . After the dividend is announced.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 38. Compute the test statistic for this test.645 D) 2. Complete Business Statistics. H : µ .µ ≥ 0. Answer: C Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 10 Aczel. H : µ .330 B) 1. A) H : µ .µ = 0.96 Answer: B Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 39. Use α = 0. the average stock price is \$37.146 E) none of the above Answer: D Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard 40.µ < 0. H : µ . H : µ .µ > 0. Assume that population I is before the dividend release and population 2 is after. The average stock price of a particular company is \$34 before a dividend is announced.05. Using two independent samples. two population means are compared to determine if a difference exists.734 C) 1.µ ≥ 0 D) H : µ . A) 2.

Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations Aczel. Complete Business Statistics. Sixth Edition 11 .

A) Paired-observation t. 12 Aczel. Recently. on a trial basis the firm switched suppliers of its tooling and observed the following changes in rates of consumption across its employees: Monthly Consumption Old New 72 59 59 57 44 37 51 51 91 66 73 63 55 60 80 72 72 67 57 48 62 53 65 67 Employee Charles Caroline Emma Andrew Roy Colleen Edgar Gregory Janet Brenda Susan Michael The firm will permanently switch suppliers only if it has substantial evidence (α = 0. Type II C) Independent-samples z. Type I B) Paired-observation t.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 42. Complete Business Statistics. If a researcher is testing the difference in population mean before and after some experimental intervention. Type II E) None of the above Answer: B Type: Concept Difficulty: Hard Use the following to answer questions 43-45: The rate of consumption of disposable tooling is a significant cost driver at a small manufacturing firm which employs 12 workers. Type I D) Independent-samples z.05) that consumption is lower under the new supplier. Sixth Edition . the use of the ___________ test will reduce the ___________ error rate without a corresponding increase in the risk of an inappropriately rejected null hypothesis.

What is an appropriate decision rule to use for hypothesis testing in this situation? A) Reject H if the observed t is less than -1. In a recent test of the processes' effectiveness. 2.38 D) z = -0.200 D) Reject H if the absolute value of the observed z is greater than 1. a random sample was taken consisting of 5.500 that had been evaluated by process A and 2. Complete Business Statistics. Sixth Edition 13 .05. H : µ – µ 0 1 1 2 C) H : µ D) H : µ D D D 0.796 0 0 0 0 0 B) Reject H if the absolute value of the observed t is greater than 2.500 that had been evaluated by process B.645 Answer: A Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 45. Of the 2. H : µ – µ > 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 B) H : µ – µ = 0.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 43. What are the most appropriate null and alternate hypotheses for this scenario? A) H : µ – µ 0. Assume that this evaluation was undertaken to determine if there is sufficient evidence to conclude that process B leads to a lower miscalculation rate. H : µ < 0 1 1 D D 0.500 that had been evaluated by process A. H : µ < 0 1 D E) H : µ = 0. Assume also that α is set at 0. Compute the test statistic for this test: A) t = -2. 87 had been misclassified.96 E) Reject H if the absolute value of the observed z is less than -1. Aczel. Process B generated 65 misclassifications in its sample.97 B) t = -1.074 C) Reject H if the observed t is less than -2.96 E) z = -1.000 components. H : µ 0 Answer: D Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 44.42 C) t = -0.37 Answer: A Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard Use the following to answer questions 46-48: A manufacturing firm uses two different processes to evaluate the quality of incoming components of a particular class.

F = 0. 33 and 47. Sixth Edition .32.39. Complete Business Statistics.p 0 0 0 0 0 A A A A B B B B) H : p .645 Answer: E Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 48.10 LOWER LOWER LOWER LOWER LOWER UPPER UPPER UPPER UPPER UPPER B) F C) F D) F E) F = 0. the critical lower and upper values for F are.645 C) Z > 2.p = 0 D) H : p – p B E) None of the above Answer: A Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 47.0351 B) 0.45. What is the appropriate critical value for the test statistic in this instance? A) Z < .44.96 E) Z > 1.60 = 2.96 B) Z < . respectively. F = 2. she observes sample variances of.27 = 2.1. F = 3. Given α = 0.3085 E) 0.33 D) Z > 1.22 Answer: D Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 14 Aczel.10.1401 D) 0. Before a researcher can proceed with hypothesis tests involving a potential difference in population means.p 0 0 C) H : p .2266 Answer: A Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard 49.67 = 2. What is the p-value for the observed test statistic in this instance? A) 0. F = 0.1. F = 0.0708 C) 0.37. respectively: A) F = 0. In a random sample of 18 observations from each of populations 1 and 2. she hopes to first establish that the two population variances are equal.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 46. Which of the following is the appropriate null hypothesis to test in this instance? A) H : p .

Sixth Edition 15 . Complete Business Statistics.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations Aczel.

05) that oceanfront guests are more likely to purchase memberships? Answer: No. H : ≠ 0 1 2 1 1 2 B) F C) F LOWER = 0. Does it appear the IRS ruling significantly (at α = 0.06. (s ) 7 .748. given Z crit = 1. Suppose 100 oceanfront guests were randomly sampled and 36 of them purchased memberships. Out of 100 marshview guests. we would reject a null hypothesis of no difference and conclude there has been a change in behavior. Monthly travel and entertainment expenditures for a random sample of 16 top-level business executives were observed before and after an IRS ruling on the deductibility of certain business expenses. Is this sufficient evidence to conclude (at α = 0. Guests of a popular resort destination are given the opportunity to purchase memberships in a resort company's international condominium club.645 and Z observed = 1. Management believes that guests who stay in oceanfront rooms are more inclined to purchase memberships than those who stay in marshview rooms.59 0 OBSERVED = 2. F UPPER = 2.43.13 and an observed t of -4. with a standard deviation of \$115. Suppose he randomly samples from each population and observes the following: P o p u la tio n 1 P o p u la tio n 2 S a m p le S iz e (n ) 10 16 S a m p le S td .05) affected these executives behavior? Answer: Yes. Sixth Edition .9 4 4 .27.20.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations Short Answer Questions 50. 16 Aczel. Reject H Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard 51.33. given |t crit | = 2.7 9 State: A) Null and alternate hypotheses B) Critical values for the test statistic at α = 0. a researcher first assesses whether or not their variances are different.10 C) The observed test statistic and a corresponding decision Answer: 2 2 2 2 A) H : = . only 29 purchased memberships. Before selecting a method for studying whether two populations have different means. D e v . this is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the two populations differ in their rate of membership purchases Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 52. The average difference was \$-123. Complete Business Statistics.

Complete Business Statistics. Sixth Edition 17 .Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium Aczel.

500 dollars squared. The variance in 16 of its accounts before the minimum limit was 2. State the null and alternative hypotheses to test the claim that the living expenses of the students are the same. and after the change it is 2025 dollars squared. Find the p-value for this test of the hypothesis that the change in color of the wrapper has increased sales.0186. Assume α = 0.2452 Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 18 Aczel. do not reject the null.05.50. 62 of the men liked the jeans. respectively. Sixth Edition .µ = 0. A survey was conducted to see if the proportion of men and women liking this brand of jeans differed. In a sample of 100 men and 90 women. with standard deviations of \$25 and \$29 per month on their living expenses. +0. Complete Business Statistics. do not reject the null Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard 54. A soap manufacturer changes the color of the wrapper of the soap from red to green in the hope of increasing sales. Answer: [-0.µ ≠ 0 Type: Concept Difficulty: Medium 0 1 2 1 1 2 56. A commercial bank wants to lower the fluctuations in its deposit holdings and announces a minimum amount required to be held in its checking accounts. Type: Computation Difficulty: Hard 57. A survey was conducted to see if the proportion of men and women liking this brand of jeans differed. if the test statistic is z = 2. In a sample of 100 men and 90 women. Answer: F = 1. Compute the p-value for a two-tailed test of the difference in two means. H : µ .66. no. Two samples of 64 students each from two colleges in a city spend an average of \$540 and \$590. with a standard deviation of \$120.05. with both sample sizes at least 30. Answer: 0.23. Answer: p approximately 0 Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 55. and 66 of the women liked the jeans. Answer: z = -1. and 66 of the women liked the jeans.0124 Type: Computation Difficulty: Medium 58. Has the change in policy decreased the variance of account holdings? Assume α = 0. The mean difference in sales over 30 stores is found to be \$150 per month. Conduct a test of the hypothesis that there is no difference in the proportions of men and women liking this brand of jeans.Chapter 8 The Comparison of Two Populations 53. 62 of the men liked the jeans. Answer: H : µ . Construct a 95% confidence interval for the difference in the proportion of men and women liking these jeans.