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Section

7
Short-Circuit Calculations
7.1.0 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.1.7 7.1.8 7.1.9 7.1.10 7.1.11 7.1.12 7.1.13 7.1.14 Introduction Point-to-Point Method, Three-Phase Short-Circuit Calculations, Basic Calculation Procedure and Formulas System A and System B Circuit Diagrams for Sample Calculations Using Point-to-Point Method Point-to-Point Calculations for System A to Faults X1 and X2 Point-to-Point Calculations for System B to Faults X1 and X2 C Values for Conductors and Busway Shortcut Method 1: Adding Zs Average Characteristics of 600-V Conductors (Ohms per 100 ft): Two or Three Single Conductors Average Characteristics of 600-V Conductors (Ohms per 100 ft): Three Conductor Cables (and Interlocked Armored Cable) LV Busway, R, X, and Z (Ohms per 100 ft) Shortcut Method 2: Chart Approximate Method Conductor Conversion (Based on Using Copper Conductor) Charts 1 through 13 for Calculating Short-Circuit Currents Using Chart Approximate Method Assumptions for Motor Contributions to Fault Currents Secondary Short-Circuit Capacity of Typical Power Transformers

7.1.0

Introduction
Of the four basic methods used to calculate short-circuit currents, the point-to-point method offers a simple, effective, and quick way to determine available short-circuit levels in simple to medium-complexity three-phase and single-phase electrical distribution systems with a reasonable degree of accuracy. This method is best illustrated by the figures and table that follow. Figure 7.1.1 shows the steps and equations needed in the point-to-point method. Figure 7.1.2 shows one-line diagrams of two systems (A and B) to be used as illustrative examples. Figures 7.1.3 and 7.1.4 show the calculations for these two examples. And Table 7.1.5 provides the circuit constants needed in the equations for the point-to-point method. The point-to-point method is followed by two shortcut methods for determining short-circuit currents at ends of conductors, specifically, adding Zs and the chart approximate method. These two methods make use of simplifications that are reasonable under most circumstances and almost certainly will yield answers that are on the safe side.

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7.2

Section Seven

7.1.1 Point-to-Point Method, Three-Phase Short-Circuit Calculations, Basic Calculation Procedure and Formulas 7.1.1

Short-Circuit Calculations

7.3

7.1.2 System A and System B Circuit Diagrams for Sample Calculations Using Point-to-Point Method 7.1.2

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Section Seven

7.1.3 Point-to-Point Calculations for System A to Faults X1 and X2 7.1.3

Short-Circuit Calculations

7.5

7.1.4 Point-to-Point Calculations for System B to Faults X1 and X2 7.1.4

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Section Seven

7.1.5

C Values for Conductors and Busway

TABLE 7.1.5

Short-Circuit Calculations

7.7

7.1.6

Shortcut Method 1: Adding Zs


This method uses the approximation of adding Zs instead of the accurate method of Rs and Xs (in complex form).
Example

1. For a 480/277-V system with 30,000 A symmetrical available at the line side of a conductor run of 100 ft of two 500-kcmil per phase and neutral, the approximate fault current at the load side end of the conductors can be calculated as follows: 2. 277 V/30,000 A 0.00923 (source impedance). 3. Conductor ohms for 500-kcmil conductor from Table 7.1.7 in magnetic conduit is 0.00546 per 100 ft. For 100 ft and two conductors per phase, we have 4. 0.00546/2 0.00273 (conductor impedance). 5. Add source and conductor impedance, or 0.00923 0.00273 0.01196 total. 6. Next, 277 V/0.001196 23,160 A rms at load side of conductors.

For impedance values, refer to Tables 7.1.7, 7.1.8, and 7.1.9.

7.1.7 Average Characteristics of 600-V Conductors (Ohms per 100 ft): Two or Three Single Conductors TABLE 7.1.7

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Section Seven

7.1.8 Average Characteristics of 600-V Conductors (Ohms per 100 ft): Three Conductor Cables (and Interlocked Armored Cable) TABLE 7.1.8

7.1.9 LV Busway, R, X, and Z (Ohms per 100 ft) TABLE 7.1.9

Short-Circuit Calculations

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7.1.10 Shortcut Method 2: Chart Approximate Method


The chart method is based on the following:
Motor Contribution Assumptions 120/208-V systems 240/480-V systems 50 percent motor load 4 times motor FLA contribution 100 percent motor load 4 times motor FLA contribution Feeder Conductors. The conductor sizes most commonly used for feeders from molded-case circuit breakers are shown. For conductor sizes not shown, Table 7.1.11 has been included for conversion to equivalent arrangements. In some cases, it may be necessary to interpolate for unusual feeder ratings. Table 7.1.11 is based on using copper conductor. Short-Circuit Current Readout. The readout obtained from the charts is the rms symmetrical amperes available at the given distance from the transformer. The circuit breaker should have an interrupting capacity at least as large as this value. How to Use the Short-Circuit Charts
Step 1. Obtain the following data:
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System voltage Transformer kVA rating Transformer impedance Primary source fault energy available in kVA

Step 2. Select the applicable chart from Figure 7.1.12 (Charts 113). The charts are grouped by secondary system voltage, which is listed with each transformer. Within each group, the chart for the lowest-kVA transformer is shown first, followed in ascending order to the highest-rated transformer. Step 3. Select the family of curves that is closest to the available source kVA. The uppervalue-line family of curves is for a source of 500,000 kVA. The lower-value-line family of curves is for a source of 50,000 kVA. You may interpolate between curves if necessary, but for values above 100,000 kVA, it is appropriate to use the 500,000-kVA curves. Step 4. Select the specific curve for the conductor size being used. If your conductor size is something other than the sizes shown on the chart, refer to the conductor conversion table (Table 7.1.11). Step 5. Enter the chart along the bottom horizontal scale with the distance (in feet) from the transformer to the fault point. Draw a vertical line up the chart to the point where it intersects the selected curve. Then draw a horizontal line to the left from this point to the scale along the left side of the chart. Step 6. The value obtained from the left-hand vertical scale is the fault current (in thousands of amperes) available at the fault point.

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Section Seven

7.1.11 Conductor Conversion (Based on Using Copper Conductor) TABLE 7.1.11

7.1.12 Charts 1 through 13 for Calculating Short-Circuit Currents Using Chart Approximate Method 7.1.12

(continued)

Short-Circuit Calculations

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7.1.12

(continued)

7.12

Section Seven

7.1.12

Short-Circuit Calculations

7.13

7.1.13 Assumptions for Motor Contributions to Fault Currents


To determine the motor contribution to the first half-cycle fault current when the system motor load is known, the following assumptions generally are made: Induction motors: Use 4.0 times motor full-load current (impedance value of 25 percent). Synchronous motors: Use 5.0 times motor full-load current (impedance value of 20 percent). When the motor load is not known, the following assumptions generally are made: 208Y/120-V systems
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Assume 50 percent lighting and 50 percent motor load. Assume motor feedback contribution of 2.0 times full-load current of transformer. Assume 100 percent motor load. Assume motors 25 percent synchronous and 75 percent induction. Assume motor feedback contribution of 4.0 times full-load current of transformer. Assume 50 percent induction motor load. Assume motor feedback contribution of 2.0 times full-load current of transformer or source. For industrial plants, make same assumptions as for three-phase, three-wire systems (above). If known, use actual values. Otherwise, use the values indicated in the preceding for the same type of motor.

240-480-600-V three-phase, three-wire systems


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480Y/277-V systems in commercial buildings


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Medium-voltage motors
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Note on asymmetrical currents. The calculation of asymmetrical currents is a laborious procedure because the degree of asymmetry is not the same on all three phases. It is common practice to calculate the rms symmetrical fault current, with the assumption being made that the dc component has decayed to zero, and then apply a multiplying factor to obtain the first half-cycle rms asymmetrical current, which is called the momentary current. For medium-voltage systems (defined by the IEEE as greater than 1000 V up to 69,000 V), the multiplying factor is established by NEMA and ANSI standards depending on the operating speed of the breaker; for low-voltage systems, 600 V and below, the multiplying factor is usually 1.17 (based on generally accepted use of an X/R ratio of 6.6 representing a source short-circuit power factor of 15 percent). These values take into account that medium-voltage breakers are rated on maximum asymmetry and low-voltage breakers are rated on average asymmetry.

7.14

Section Seven

7.1.14 Secondary Short-Circuit Capacity of Typical Power Transformers TABLE 7.1.14