Fall 1992

Volume 20 A

Number 1
Maimonides'

Terence Kleven

Study

of

Part I, Chapters 1-7
the

of

The Guide of
17

Perplexed

Larry

Peterman

Dante

and

Machiavelli: A Last Word Progress: Bacon's Improvement

37

Robert K. Faulkner

The Empire

of

Upon Machiavelli Review

Essay
Collingwood's Embattled Liberalism

63

James W. Muller Book Review

81

Nino Langiulli

Individuals

and

Their Rights,

by

Tibor Machan

Interpretation
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Interpretation
Fall 1992

A

Volume 20

Number 1

Terence Kleven

A

Study

Part I, Chapters 1-7 The Guide of the Perplexed
of

Maimonides'

of

3 17

Larry

Peterman

Dante

and

Machiavelli: A Last Word
of

Robert K. Faulkner

The Empire

Progress: Bacon's Improvement 37

Upon Machiavelli Review

Essay
Collingwood's Embattled Liberalism 63

James W. Muller
Book Review Nino Langiulli

Individuals

and

Their Rights,

by

Tibor Machan

81

Copyright 1992

interpretation

ISSN 0020-9635

.

magnitude of which are. As a for the writing of a commentary on the dictions Once and allusive rhetoric of result he initiates a direction of study work which would sort out the contra the Guide. and such an opinion is only if it emerges from confrontation with the obstacles and subtleties of the texts. At one point. Fox writes: I have chosen to discuss to Strauss' method at such length because it is widely. Marvin Fox's and recent book entitled Interpreting Maimonides "esotericism" reveals both Maimonides' sympathy uncertainty The Guide of the Perplexed (the edition used in this essay is Moses Mai monides. If the only way to expound an interpretation. p. study for considered be one of the most important to the and of Maimonides. volumes I and II. 1963]. Fox.) At another point. 7. Interpreting Maimonides. even readers who are well prepared and sophisticated. it to do little to advance the cause of sound understanding. in the modern context. Leo Strauss' essays. nor can we always we can no longer be his comfortable about the general confidence with which straightforward accounts of philosophy have been written. Chapters 1-7 The Guide of the Perplexed Study Maimonides' of of Terence Kleven Memorial University of Newfoundland Dr. his tone bears frustration at the suggestions of the depth of the esotericism. Metaphysics. Maimonides' writers' trust the the most statements about views and doctrines. and Moral Philosophy [Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. modern contributions with all and justly. Vol. Only painstaking a sensitive study makes it possible for us even to hazard an opinion concerning the views of reliable Maimonides. seems however. We have seen.A Part 1. Mr. Studies in Methodology. In response to Dr. that its brilliance ingenuity. 1990]. (M. translated and introduced by Shlomo Pines essay by Leo Strauss [Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Fox recognizes the difficulties in reading the Guide because of its with an regarding the alleged of introductory reputedly concealed composition. we begin to read Maimonides in the way he requires. hereafter cited as the Guide). 20. No. formative in explicating the Maimonides' esotericism. Fall 1992. 1 . The Guide of the Perplexed.

and we are resolved to disturbances which might cause evasiveness in our inquiry. He begins the Guide also discussion biblical terms. the chapter's relation is to what precedes and follows (p. the explanation of biblical parables. write a Fox sets out what on be done. one wonders not another part of possibly be written about the Guide which will it. Fox's recent publication. composition. he Maimonides' recognizes for a rabbinic law in the concealment of certain teachings. 63). however. then perhaps we Few of us would not admit concealment of that the arguments made by deliberate the teachings of the Guide are Strauss regarding the indeed disturbing. The interpreter of Maimonides seems be contradicted by required to reconsider preliminary impressions of the book and destined to regret his first expositions of the Guide. but . the first the Account of the Chariot (ma'aseh merkabah. The place in the Guide devoted to each parable is more difficult to discern than appear to with the terms. complicating the (p. if what can the Guide is written with intentional contradictions. the explanation of biblical terms and the biblical parables. the Ezekiel 1 and 10). Furthermore. Maimonides the Account and of identifies the two most central biblical chapters parables as of Genesis) Beginning (ma'aseh bereshit. he suggests that chapters which will not will it is necessary to be the final exposition of is found in commentary the Maimonides' teaching. II In the "Introduction to the First there are two purposes to his explanation of obscure of numerous Part" of the Guide. Maimonides with a states that treatise. If determined not to misunderstand the Guide. that Even in these and the explanation of Ezekiel 1 and 10 second allusive. we will need inquiry we are endure he is concealing and how the concealment is accomplished. then. If Maimonides fulfills his is. it is necessary to discern the manner in which he offers this explanation. but and what be the careful comment on what each chapter. Moreover. In the same page chapter from which the latter quotation is taken (it is actually only one was later). 152).4 Interpretation esoteric text should give is by compounding and up the effort altogether. This tension remains evident in Mr. Mai to make an monides does deliberately conceal as well as reveal. he writes: "If he but to to conform to the law [talmudic esoteric law]. If. is cursory purpose. The Account of the Chariot is discussed in seven chapters seven chapters at the beginning of Part III. Mai (p. The Account of the Beginning does not be discussed directly in any chapter of the Guide. re monides had no choice write his book in this fashion" Despite Fox's spect occasional tone of frustration. esoteric. in what sense are these two passages parables? It is perhaps simple enough to recognize that Ezekiel' s visions are symbolic. 62) esotericism. it seems into what unavoidable that we will need to scrutinize what elements lead to the affirma even tion that the Guide is a might difficult.

Maimonides claims that the treatise contains contradictions. Maimonides the warns that it is necessary to to teaching of each chapter of his treatise in its place. is. at the end of this enumer that "Divergences that are to be found in this Treatise are due to seventh" from the necessity (10a. In the "Introduction" Maimonides mentions seven causes of contradictions ation he says in any book or compilation (10a. Maimonides does not explain what the organization of the trea another" precision" (9a). without taking the necessary steps in develop ing and completing an argument and without submitting to any kind of moral read and training. the reader wants to know the final statement on all matters without the appropriate respect for the difficulty of the subject. and only the meticulous reader will scrutinize it with the required persis tence and thoroughness. The reader is required to identify these the fifth cause and the (12a). philosophy One only gains the Bible and by follow confidence in the precision . and is it therefore the more necessary to the Account of the Beginning to the enigmatically? of Account Why does it appear that there are no chapters devoted Beginning in the way that there are for the Account of the by cautioning the reader of Chariot? Maimonides begins orderly "Yet I did manner. of teaching difficult matters in ways that are easy to comprehend The seventh cause arises from the necessity to conceal some parts of a difficult matter and to reveal other parts (10b). the Guide to proceed in an In the Epistle not cease Dedicatory to Joseph (2b). in your mind ac cording to the proper methods and that certainty should not come to you by Maimonides recognizes that the reader may be impatient. occur at once. In order to guard against the superficial readings that will arise due to the student's contemplate of impatience. The fifth cause arises contradictions without extensive assistance by means of and acquiring a complete familiarity ing with texts of both classical Maimonides' argument closely." in an be established orderly manner. book to arise from his insistence that the student should proceed in and fashion this tise that the student should have proper preparation. Maimonides' Maimonides' explanation of all matters does not creation of a seems difficult.10b). Third. By means with this cautionary remark Maimonides indicates that the Guide will begin certain preliminary teachings which are necessary for the full comprehension of later teachings in the Guide.12a). orderly Since there is an doubt in this matter. Maimonides writes: dissuading you from this [Joseph's demand for additional approach matters should knowledge] and enjoining upon you to My purpose in this was that the truth accident. the treatise is written "with great exactness and exceeding (9a). Part I. he says only that "you must connect its chapters one with Second. First. And in is a way is the account of creation a parable? Is the of claim a parable more controversial than the claim that the Account present the Chariot is parable. Chapters 1-7 and purpose of 5 this awareness does not account for the sense what these sym that it bols.The Guide even of the Perplexed. let us note the three ways that he claims he uses to achieve aim. even a concealed and esoteric.

is studied in I 37 and not there it is that the term has six possible senses. only the student of sons that the Guide is such a difficult book. Maimonides also cautions the reader against commenting to be on the Guide. is limited in he may say or write about it. if the able chapters devoted to the mastered. Thus the the to Guide. Maimonides does say which the six senses is used in the Account of the Chariot. The is only alerted to the variety of of meanings of a word if the chapters of the Guide have been studied in order. The teaching of truth itself. If the Mai does not submit to the author's own explicit instructions.6 Interpretation Maimonides' with which treatise is written as one begins to see that what at of first may In appear as lack direction in the Guide turns into biblical to the way in a sustained and coherent exploration of particular philosophical and order problems." for example. For instance. Only cautious student. in III 1 and III 2 Maimonides insists. Maimonides follows this legal certain sanction biblical passages before the student is prepared. The explanation of the of Account the Chariot requires the study of other biblical terms as well. ments. explanation of the and variety of usages the terms have already been not Thus impatient disorderly readers will be to sort out what is said about the Account of the Chariot because they have not studied the other parts of the Guide adequately. prohibiting the explanation of This is one of the rea the diligent student. have already been examined elsewhere. If the student respects monides' instruction. the student may explain certain teachings of the treatise to others. the Account of the Chariot is found preliminary in Chapters 1-7 of Part III of the treatise. The student who is serious in study is required to begin the laborious task of under standing each chapter in its place. will complete the necessary training. He does state not in any of the seven chapters of Guide devoted to Ezekiel the meanings of all the key why this terms in these argument chapters is important. example. to the teacher and to the and Maimonides urges the reader reticent in making extent com The reader is cautioned to explain the Guide only to the that the teachings of the treatise are explained elsewhere by authorities of the Jewish law (9a). Furthermore. let look at one As already mentioned. and reader they are treated in other chapters of the Guide. explained of The term "face. student provided he respects the cautions what issued by Maimonides or submits the Jewish authorities. Yet even an initial reading of these chapters reveals how the explanation found in these passages is incomplete without the proper discussion of certain terms and problems found in other at chapters. but be restrained in teaching of all that he has discovered on certain subjects. the treatise may be harmful to the student. that the forms of living creatures in Ezekiel 1 are least 10 the and those of human beings. there is little chance of discovering would also what his true views are. through three different arguments. that is. to be as concrete as possible as which these assertions us regarding the composition of the Guide can be witnessed. The need for orderliness in the study the Guide attests to an agreement .

therefore. Maimonides not gained assures the student that those who obtain a certain perfection have has understood is under an obligation it only for themselves. The key to this discrimina tion is always the extent to which the alleged authority can lead each student to the next step of his education. the student can who will student has reason to be convinced of the the au thority. what constitutes adequate preparation be a continual problem. However. To be sure. if begin too to see an order that is at first apparent.The Guide between the teachings teach the need of of the and Perplexed. Part I. rationality and the wisdom of the prophets. the extreme care in the reading of all biblical texts. Both sources For Aristotle the authority that must be respected is rationality. we will However. of of This essay begins the reading reveal. the student will need to work independently and resolve diffi in culties alone. even if not steps. for Scripture the authority is the teaching of the proph Maimonides' ets. It is possible that someone will claim to know the teachings of the Guide in fact he is in ignorance. Further more. A In this respect for authority the Guide is a vigorous and of defence of both the intellectual life the teachings of Scripture. at least in part. to be cautioned against . the final teachings to be hidden from the student is adequately prepared. The aim of the teacher is always to teach to the student as are not much as the apprehend. The student must come to be able to distinguish between trustworthy and untrustworthy authorities. requires the student for respect authority. be cautioned against a rapid and superficial what appears reading in these first seven the Guide. The difficult students who are nature of the Guide is. The qualities of a good teacher will way of be the most loyalty to reasonableness. Chapters 1-7 the teachings of '1 Aristotle for the Bible. This essay seeks to explain that chapters as a discussion of biblical terms is in fact In order an extensive commentary on certain randomly selected biblical passages. be sufficiently the contexts from which marvel at individual terms well The student cannot but begin to and how Maimonides knew the Hebrew Scriptures. to be with alerted to the biblical passages the student must significance of familiar Scripture to know the are chosen. but not of in these chapters make no claim we having determined the purpose of all that is said therein. If the student can confirm by the teacher. in the learning. all and a certain straightforwardness student's in revealing the next step. a way distinguishing between truly when respectful of those authorities and those who are not. each reader's first inclination will likely be to he is competent. thus. the one who to allow the knowledge to be learned by the hints intimated competence of someone else (II 29 [66a]). intentionally difficult rhetoric. the student need never of be betrayed by a teacher who fact does not or know the teachings the Guide and is being obscure as a hiding severe his her ignorance. the nature the the Guide in an orderly way in I order to the esotericism of the Guide. to submit to the rash student will requirements of do neither. I shall even study to first seven chapters of Part I. assume which Maimonides aware of must begin by creating learn to a situation in his readers become their uncertainty and perplexity.

establishes By citing the means use of these terms in biblical passages. but Maimonides does not draw attention to that argument.8 Interpretation of the seeing these initial chapters selected biblical terms. The first has a body is Genesis 1:26-27. Thus he sets God does not incorporeality out we are to prove the to prove that God is incorporeal: have a body. of through repeated reference to these two biblical verses. is the first bibli the Guide. which verse and elsewhere. If Adam is suggesting that God in the image of God." but it does "shape" not mean in image. and James Version English translation. A from these verses." emerods. selem may be used to indi thing to be what it is. and He is wholly separate from matter and nature. Parts of Genesis 1:26-27. the formal cause or essence. Ill The first terms. "thou shalt despise their notion. always this phrase." after our cal quotation in Chapter 1 of containing both terms." for what is despised is a charac teristic of their soul and not their physical shape. then that image may be man's physical shape. Maimonides that the sense of both terms limited to physical shape or configuration. It distinguishes our species from all other species of . Psalms 102:7 Selem and demuth are both used to refer to that immaterial. According to certain philosophical arguments. Demuth means "likeness respect in to a rather than simply physical likeness. that the image the of As an alternative he says God in mankind is intellect or reason. Guide is devoted especially to the explanation The importance of this passage is confirmed first chapter. is not chapter of the Guide begins with a discussion of two Hebrew "likeness" "image" (selem) and (demuth). Selem "physical shape" in I Samuel 6:5. it is a separate substance philosophical to say that is corporeal. though not three more times in the first chapter. Psalms 58:5 (King 6). Reason is what constitutes human being as a substance or being: it is our highest perfection. "images of your Psalm 73:20. see Ezekiel 31:8. verse 4). Through his lexical study he shows that selem and demuth in this pas sage do not mean physical likeness. are repeated through the coincidence of the terms selem and demuth in Genesis and Thus. 1:26-27. this the by identification of the theme of the Maimonides if states that it is necessary to prove the doctrine of God's doctrine of His unity (II). (KJV. This one example of Guide only as a discussion of careful exposition of key biblical passages randomly is only Maimonides' esotericism in the Guide. words is incorporeal cate that which causes a Maimonides the same studies the meanings of these two phrase because they occur in passage. Genesis 1:26-27. Maimonides sets out to refute this argu ment. He proceeds by showing that biblical passages teach contradiction and most central passage made that God is incorporeal. likeness. In particular. "Let us make man in our image. there of is a sugges tion that Chapter 1 single the biblical passage.

and there are numerous references to "form" other biblical texts throughout the of chapter. however. at first concealed because the chapter examines the meaning of another Hebrew term. has three possible meanings: it to the deity. It appears too in the following gain in Genesis 3 that human beings disobedience: Genesis 3:7 eyes were opened and pursuit of the capacity for knowledge only Genesis 3 after their says that after man and woman ate the fruit their suggests they knew that they were naked. Maimonides does not establish refers these meanings of another instead to citing their use in biblical passages. The knowledge pos- . he shows that one of the Hebrew terms for god. refers Elohim. nature of the Perplexed. Genesis 1:26-27. Part I. IV Chapter 2 does does. that the knowledge is a result of disobedience. or angels or rulers who govern cities. albeit a regard is intemperate in second to drink and sex. justification in the of philoso phy from a Scriptural text. The intemperate man the first: de fends the desires biblical passage over he seems to have proof that than caused a and imaginings have brought of reason into being rather diminution it. it appears that human knowledge. the Aramaic translation of Onqelos. The first chapter of the Guide introduces the reader The chapter gives a to a basic principle of philosophy. God's is best evoked is an image of by saying God is reason and the image of God in mankind this reason. (to'ar). he authority. by noting Maimonides what type of moral life accompanied this objection. highest knowing perfection from eating the fruit because if good and evil. however. First. Maimonides' initial reservation about this reading is made. Chapter 2 not begin with the explanation of biblical terms as Chapter 1 presents and then responds to an objection that is raised against the conclusion of Chapter 1. Chapters 7-7*9 what makes us Moreover. What began as a discussion single of Hebrew terms resulted explanation of a key biblical passage. Maimonides man who places the objection in the mouth of a learned man. Genesis 3:5 appears to to the contradict Genesis 1:26-27. the apparent contra answers this intemperate man and resolves diction between the two biblical passages with two rejoinders. Yet in Genesis 3:5. We are given the initial hint that the from which study terms may conceal the more significant biblical context certain terms are selected. The objection is based upon a second biblical passage. With human life is the of regard latter. The significance of this one pas sage is. Genesis 3:5: mankind is prohibited they eat they will be like gods. In Gen Elohim by esis 3:5 Onqelos translates Elohim "rulers" as (rabrabin). reason is like unto God.The Guide plants or animals. Maimonides has just hence he suggests argued that mankind's is reason and that the the purpose of cultivation of the intellect and perhaps attainment of the knowledge beings verses are forbidden to pursue such God.

" "beautiful" words hasan which which may mean "evil. and They the opinions and views of the majority. The and tend to distract people from the inferiority for food. of these generally of accepted opinions is revealed in their ad mixture with the desires the imagination. Most know only what is agreeable upon through their sensual nature and the impres sions of edge" this sensuality the imagination. thus. respectively. However. Chapter 2 of of the Guide begins explains by Chapter 1. In Genesis 3:6 the tree is described to the eyes and as able to make one comes wise. that and not what and ('emeth sheqer). Maimonides identifies the Hebrew words nature or "evil" intellect humans discern the is accepted "good" (tob) al- and (ra') with. Opinions are lower in dignity than only possible after the disobedience highest kind of knowing. Through the true knowledge. focuses upon a biblical passage. in contrast. like Chapter 1. Chapter chapters set 2. to disobedience the human state tends to ple be absorbed in imaginings. it is have. as good as pleasant But Due peo Maimonides indicates that this knowledge that quite different in nature from the knowledge that comes by way by way of imagination is of reason. He distinguishes "evil" "truth" ('emeth) and and (sheqer) from (tob) and (ra'). the persuasive. Maimonides is acquired as a result of the disobedience of humans is not true knowledge but truth." "ugly" but "agreeable.10 Interpretation sessed by rulers is not the highest form of knowledge. opinions generally are accepted opinions. Maimonides not possible offers a criticism of the case against an view presented man. gives of Adam's and Eve's disobedience. they may be ra') and or may not be true. the human state becomes more like that of the beasts (I 2)." even and al-qablh may and mean "evil" and refer "disagreeable". Chapter 2 the an account of the cause and effects responding to an objection to the reading key verses in Genesis 3 and. What mankind acquires as a result of disobe dience is the kind that God has. in Chapter 2 because the argument is made by intemperate Yet is it that the argument could have been what made by a moral man? We may perhaps need to examine more closely . therefore. Since cultivation of reason these opinions can replaced by the terms "truth" "good" "evil" and "falsity" (tob and are used in Genesis concludes 3:5. Both positions have and up a certain merit are. What is true false exists by necessity. the somewhat ambiguous Arabic "good. He thus emphasizes that are "good" to generally accepted opinions. With the which necessity of all things or that always true. The inferiority of this "knowl The is indicated by the intemperate morality of the man who advocates it. but not not identical to the knowledge possessed of by God. The first two a dialectic between two different positions. depravity of mankind's subsequent condition is further evinced by the dif ficulty he has in securing food (Genesis 3:17-19). Good and evil. are designations for generally opinions (al-mashhurdt). Maimonides' knowledge that rulers the type of knowledge the first "good" second argument is a confirmation and elaboration of "falsity" argument.

The first reader moral is the is genuinely intemperate though person who prefers intemperance to right action. Maimonides' makes presentation moral problems associated likely a religious reader who. The respect this lexical study "likeness" is similar to what we discovered in to the "image. Part I. Chapters 1-7 11 about the proper understanding of these two positions. such persons would be left with the insinuation that their argument irrational because they are intemperate. or he may modify argument clarify his position later in the Guide. but extremes who wonders if what has been this dialectic are two that need not be as radically opposed as Maimonides presents.The Guide Maimonides implies especially of as Maimonides' of the Perplexed. The Guide appears to be a treatise with an exposition of various nature of topics in a sustained fashion. a view initially be sympa thetic with. The dialectical character of these first two chapters alerts us to a distinction between the work ostensible literary form of the Guide and what the dynamics of the truly are. But the dialectical the first two chapters introduces the possibility that two or perhaps more viewpoints will be in con versation in subsequent chapters. V Chapters 3 Chapter 3 purpose of and 4 of the Guide discuss the meaning of five Hebrew terms. will accept the teachings that God's of is rationality and that this essence is the image he God's is perfection persuaded in to human accept beings. The religious reader might not the philosophical view. for moral reasons. The force in these first two chapters stresses that the image of that God is incorporeal. including a who is persuaded by accept that intemperance is wrong. Now it is possible that Maimonides affirms that intemperance causes irrationality. The chapters seem God in humans is written and reason and who will of to be to someone that the intemperance argument will incorrect. It remains to be seen how one or the other of the views predominates or how one view is modified by the other. as presented in Chapter 1. because of the with the position presented essence in Chapter 2. There are also two types of readers that may not be immediately persuaded by Maimonides' argument. The be one immediately someone. At this stage we may have achieved a do not know which of second reader these situations who characterizes the intemperate man. but it is also possible that he claims that someone who certain has not mastered all his passions degree of intellectual perfection. "figure" examines the words (temunah) "shape" and (tabnith). The is one is temperate and who agrees that rationality is mankind's supreme perfec constructed tion. that is. Do the imagination and commonly accepted opinions participate in any more integral in perfection of the human intellect? We can at this point only wait to the way see how Maimonides manages these two positions in the subsequent chapters of the Guide. their philosopher." terms and "form": Maimonides shows which term is used .

But for those munah) Moses' know that (te means essence as well and who also passage know the problem of Moses' saying that knowledge. a single Numbers 12 is a biblical chapter which establishes the superiority of Moses' prophecy over that of Aaron and Miriam. the terms mean essence or natural "Figure" form. like the passage in As Maimonides explains the other passage of is understood as evi God. God is corporeal. at" notes the use of "to (ra'oh). he thus gives us a clue to the importance and of this passage. The Moses word "sim God's as physical or it is used and here in Numbers 12:8 who could mean that saw shape. sense of Maimonides isolates one passage in "figure" which is used in the the essence of God. the dence of the perfection of apprehension Moses' first suggests. the meaning is who helpful. The biblical text describes God as "seeing" figurative way indicating that God in possesses which knowledge. Whenever God sees the terms are is seen figurative. Moses his imagination Chapter 4 vision" apprehends the nature of God by his reason and not by "to nor with any apprehension received see" through the senses. has no eyes as a to see nor shape to behold. habbit. The theme of the Moses' Chapter 5 as well. In Numbers 12:8 Moses does not actually see the form of God with his eyes. Maimonides refers in both Chapters 3 and 4 of the Guide to the passage in Numbers 12. like temunah. possible meanings of habbit and temunah. is used figuratively. Exodus 24:10 and Numbers 12:8. therefore. for it similitude indicates that Moses knew God. Moses' the Lord speaks to Moses "mouth to apprehension of mouth" (12:8). In explaining the sense of these terms Maimonides cites those in which God either sees or is seen by human beings. "to look (habbit) and cases or (hazoh). he apprehends the form of God with his intellect. that God is corporeal. are biblical passages which God is by hu The passages in the Pentateuch say that God is seen by humans Genesis 18:1. for those do not know the other meanings of the word the problem of saying that God is corporeal. The "and the perfection of God is The contained similitude of the Lord shall he behold. In Miriam and Aaron that Moses has been singled ets at the particular out to the Lord reveals to proph know God. the indicates the perfect perfection of apprehension of God is human knowledge because he knows God's true being. if at all. shape.12 Interpretation physical shape and to indicate when. What links Chapters 3 and biblical passage. Other and time know God in visions and dreams (12:6) in the phrase: in dark speeches (12:8). In of Numbers 12:8 Moses beholds the ilitude" similitude (temunah) God. superiority of This chapter is not a study intellective prophecy is continued in of terms. Mai seen monides also notes numerous mans. and it functions with . munah) may sense of the imaginary form of an object after the object is no longer manifest "Shape" (tabnith) is used of physical to the senses and in the sense of natural form or essence. God does of not have a body and. In the passage the terms "similitude" (temunah) 4 is "to look at" (habbit) occur together." passage at Genesis 1:26-27. (te exclusively physical in the has three uses: it be used in the sense of shape.

Moses' for Maimonides to the degree of superiority of apprehen moral sion. the student must extinguish the desires and cravings engendered by the imagination. In deficiency and God's perfection. Chapter six "woman" discusses "sister" "man" ('ish). he must point out where Scripture reveals that Moses possesses perfection. which indicates that the student limitations and the difficulty of the subject. the passage central to Chapter 4 of the Guide.The Guide respect of the Perplexed. Yalod is used figuratively to mean creation . and Moses is was also said to be the meekest man on earth (12:3). Chapter 2 answers an objection to 3 and Chapter 1 . ('ishshah). The the student may require an improvement in "chief philosophers" of the claims character. Moses humility than other the face of the earth. the able most perfect character and the most perfect intellect. Moses is capable of an apprehension of God because he which initially drew refers back from such an apprehen The incident to Maimonides burning bush (Exodus 3:1-4:17). Chapter 7 dren" examines the use of a single verb meaning "to bear chil (yalod). According to his own when account he began to investigate chief of Maimonides' in Guide I 5. as is stated explicitly in Numbers 12:3. Moses achieved. The purpose of Chapter 6 is first obscure because the four terms that it easier examines are not to establish in any key passages we have studied. Moses is honored as having received a more perfect apprehension of God than Miriam and Aaron. He was thereby the to overcome the generally accepted opinions which came about as result of Adam's disobedience. in particular. VI Chapter 6 the use of and 7 return to the study of Hebrew terms. in Numbers 12. notion of In Chapter 7 Maimonides distinguishes the literal dren" "to bear the chil from its figurative uses. Chapter 5 answers an objection to Chapters 4. Chapters 1-7 with 13 to Chapters 3 and 4 as Chapter 2 functions Chapter 1 . Maimonides begins his ments made scure response to this problem with a philosophers" digression on com ob by "the chief of matters. the the philosophers enjoins the student to should appreciate be patient. and edge of the story Moses realizes in Chapter 5 is the story of the both his own such a Moses draws back from knowl God (Exodus 3:6). sion. The latter propose that Moses apprehends God through the intellect through the imagination. But how can such apprehension of perfect rather than being be possible for human beings after their disobedience? And even if such an apprehension is possible. Maimonides draws to central our attention that moral probity is also possesses more to the prophecy of men upon Moses. Later. Part I. It is in fact the purpose of Chapter 6 if we begin with Chapter 7. Scripture affirm and common opinion would insist that In the prophet order must possess a moral perfection by having a sense of shame. at "brother" ('ah) and Vahoth). or granted.

to Chapter 6. Maleness and femalehuman distinction. that the about same "man" is true and of Chapter 6. did not resemble Adam. Maimonides' central statement the terms ness is a is that they refer to human beings. If "begat" means son shape. then. lence and. "male" Maimonides are by way saying that "female" and this argument only equivalents to and . thus. one of which not mean is the propagation or the education of true shape" "Begat" notions. If that a central theme in these first chapters is God's incorcould poreality. But Genesis 5:1-3 is potentially a reading of Genesis 1:26-27 because it says that and Adam begat of physical "image" a son in his likeness what image. Since the word is both what God in Adam same. focuses upon a biblical passage. "man" and not and If Maimonides to make his reading of these two passages in Genesis conform to his affirmation "female" that God is are incorporeal. he must point out that the uses of and "male" and of limited to human beings of and animals that the image makes God is "man" not sexually determined or circumscribed. This passage is similar to Genesis 1:26-27 in that it uses the terms "image" (selem) "likeness" and Maimonides' refutation of (demuth). He proceeds to say that animals possess this dis well. depicted in Genesis 4:17-24.14 of Interpretation mountains. Therefore. Moreover. Seth. sense of "physical in Genesis 5:3. Seth is the descendants of the first son of Adam who bears this intellectual perfection. it is only at the birth Seth that the text says that a son is born that is in the image of Adam. We might suspect. Maimonides does opposes this conclusion by showing that "begat" several usages. so that Seth bears the intellect of his father. The Hebrew terms used in these passages. passage then we expect the image to be the Hence. are (zakar) wishes (neqebah). What is intended in the is simply that Adam bore a son by procreation but that Adam instructed his son. like the chapters before it. Let utes us now return Every chapter thus far in the Guide contrib to the argument that God is incorporeal. then how these terms contribute to Maimonides' exploration of the theme? The student is led to the possible problem of the origin of sexual differentiation. the may suggest that God is has the corporeal. it is used in the preservation and perfection of reason. the telling lies and the propagation of opinions and a knowledge. cultivated evil and vio of Cain. and. and what Adam begets in his son. The image of God in Adam that is passed on to his son is reason and not a physical shape. Adam begets in his creates is a only the creation body. thus. In Genesis 5:3 Adam passage "bears" a son not likeness and image." or a combination of "male" the two. Chapter 7. In the last sense the term is used in biblical in his passage similar own to Genesis 1:26-27. Mai leaves the correct student to draw his own conclusion from this statement. the of growth of plants. This 1:26-27 and problem is indeed necessary in the exposition of Genesis Genesis 5:1-3 because in both passages it is possible that the either maleness or image and of God in Adam is femaleness "woman. Gene sis 5:1-3. "female" however. "woman" tinction monides we are as they too may be called man and woman. the procuring of the events of the day.

First. Second. p. Maimonides passages with which uses several away from the passages because devices to alert the stu concerned so dent to the biblical he is that as a reader seeks to clarify the lexical study of the opening chapters of the Guide the treatise becomes an extensive commentary on specific biblical passages. 3:5-7." are equivalents of words used terms.The Guide "woman" of the Perplexed. not a body and does not possess bodily parts of or organs. Through a study reader these terms the the is introduced to the and reader might therefore conclude God's incorporeality. VII of what at of In summary. Therefore the image of God in us is not corporeal being. "female." is not devoted to and specific passages." 15 (Guide. reason is the image of God in human beings. but are used in biblical passages. Genesis 1:26-27. in these cific passages. Chapters 1-7 "man" "woman." As God is neither nor so God is not a "male" neither part of nor Sexuality is part of the created order and is the divinity. Maimonides to maintain that the image is reason. that the terms that are discussed have problem of been out simply because they suggest that God is incorporeal. alerts us to and Chapter 7 reading of God in of the passage in Genesis 5 continues which forms part of the Genesis 1 mankind 3. 5:1-3 and Numbers 12:8. Human than of what "knowledge" is more often of accepted opinions rather order is true false. At the same time Maimonides diverts are not attention away in from these sages." "to and "to vision" these chapters. it is our highest perfection." "brother" "sister. Maimonides' reading explore and of these passages establishes three teachings which he wishes to develop in the Guide. Part I. and are primordial most disobedience causes a diminution the human capacity for human beings are now ruled by or desires and imaginings intemperate different and even bestial. These terms and the appearance that the study is other purely lexical "man. even though these terms sages we do give not occur in any of the four pas have identified. Several the "woman. This "knowledge" generally is of a different than the knowledge that Adam once had. and it is of a . The equivalents are used to confirm the reading of these spe biblical are not passages but also deflect attention they found in them. The passages are identified as the reader becomes aware that the biblical terms which are chosen specific for examination are not selected randomly." in these see" particular pas He the terms "shape. Reason is what makes mankind most like God. for God is Adam's reason. the first seven chapters of the Guide begin with an examination first appear to be randomly selected biblical terms. xxviii). But through these chapters there is a movement from the study of biblical terms to the chosen study of biblical passages. This discussion of equivalent terms does contribute to the theme of God's incorporeality. passages examines by examining terms that "form.

study of the Guide. but apprehends God through What is reason. the of perfection of the intellect. In a brilliant argument reader. the full import of particular biblical It is an initial Maimonides' example of esotericism in the Guide. Moses does visions and obscure know God by way the senses and imagination. Moses has been not granted again. he has achieved the highest possible human intellectual perfection. He has points shown pursuing does not philosophical that the Torah not only condemn philosophy. We account of the first parable. the Account Maimonides' the Beginning. to these first seven explanation of sets out to inquiry of the nature of God through a Three of the four biblical passages which are central of chapters of the Guide these passages in the early chapters forms part of the first parable are of Genesis. But have gradually begun to reconstruct we should be cautioned lest we in think the explanation of the first parable is complete. that is. Third. boldly accomplished by these early chapters is that Maimonides by recourse to Scriptural exegesis. . The which Maimonides explain. that the Guide can be understood is this deliberate procedure is recognized. Whereas Adam's reason was once able to apprehend truth without senses and obscured imagination. Maimonides reveals the religious and moral obligation moral argument directed primarily to the religious for intellectual derived from Scripture. the prophet Moses is not antagonistic to philosophy. it to the religious or moral necessity of pursuing it. on the unless even humbling of as we learn basis this preliminary demanding on the student of the ignorance. We will need to be especially later chapters in the Guide modify any of these early explains and conceals This inquiry reveals how Maimonides both passages. in parables. has attained. after the disobedience intellectual knowledge has been desires and pleasures of by mankind's preoccupation with the or the senses. Maimonides has not re solved all of we the problems our in the explanation of these chapters Genesis. Moreover. This esotericism of our Guide. so has established.16 Interpretation than Moses' order apprehension of God. but it does not seem. but is himself a philosopher. and have only begun in any concerned with whether affirmations way. the validity and necessity of investigation. even investigation.

Davis In a previous article on Language in Interpretation. it helps to begin with the intersection between Dante's linguis it would span all tic and political teachings. between Machiavelli's and linguistic more Similarly. I think it fair to say. To velli's appreciate the dialogue's implications for the destructive end of Machia teaching. towns. A contest over the serves as a Comedy's language arguments geneity. 1 . as Machiavelli argues. 20. the origins of the battle between Situating the dialogue in the Dialogue as a whole is relatively simple. No. and preceding on the other Machiavelli's own argu ment on language. the dialogue becomes a sourcebook ancients and moderns. it is Florentine. including Dante's. but generally. which amounts to the position that all languages are made elements.Dante and Machiavelli: A Last Word Larry Peterman University of California. For Dante. a common vernacular Italy would presumes the existence or potential existence of a political order which be its home and to which other Italian political divisions cities. Fall 1992. I examined Machiavelli's Dialogue on the premise that its indictment of Dante places it in the modern ancients and moderns. for a common vernacular. Vol. I return to this unfinished busi his dispute with my Dante is original premise. against bridge. the dialogue our potential concluding that Florentine rules the Machiavelli's destructive analysis of on the essential commonality and opens the way to his teaching contentiousness of all human matters. Insofar as Machiavelli's now account of a true measure of their on differences. It is literally and figuratively the central of the tract's three divisions.1 that to do justice to them require a systematic the performed dialogue from which the Dialogue takes its ness and emend In the present article. charge that lines in the battle between political mon "parricide.2 competing native and foreign the language of the Divine Comedy meets the up of The dialogue itself tests whether requirements of a Dantean courtly particular language or whether. homogeneity by reinforces in favor of linguistic hetero Comedy's writing. interpretation. then." The article emphasizes the dimension of Machiavelli's rather end by claiming to write in a com "courtly" language than Florentine Dante is unpatriotic and verges on but in the I concluded that linguistics and and politics do not exhaust the would issues between the two Florentines look at title. following on the one side Machiavelli's negative assessment of arguments.

and of the rests teaching its case upon which Church. and invented to support his disclaimer about using Florentine. then. The Machiavellian of the papal forces responsible for Italy's political animus to Dante that runs through his presentation. speaking for role the respublica Christiana. Dante responds as re his use of gards Lombard with passages from Purgatory choices 3 and fifty-two can tos later 6 Paradise 22. Later. of Dante's argument. From the a Machiavelli's triumph of perspective this would mean that Dante's proposals manifest the the promise of Christianity. Its first exchanges raise the question of the spokesmen. to the configuration air" the heavens at the moment when Dante quotations of as first breathes "Tuscan in 1265.18 Interpretation would proposal provinces be subject. 7 The first the dialogue. at Benevento in 1266. in short. the Ghibelline (imperial) cause became can be more confident. Dante's teaching on language is world monarchy be established to serve the needs of he calls the universal generis? Dante's linguistic that human community the universalis civilitas humani argument thus becomes an extension of his argu version of ment in favor of a secularized a political order the respublica Christiana of the reproduces Church. leading Dante's linguistic-political teaching demonstrates the bitter victory of the doc trines and the agents of what he calls "our and Dante's arguments affairs. tied to his what that a In this respect.9 the last serious unified threat to papal dominance of The vantage seven centuries allows us way that Pope Leo III do for Machiavelli: of of to say what Dante probably could not.8 the line of the last emperor to mount a serious challenge to the Dante describes Frederick "the last of the Roman emperors" runs It is a matter for conjecture whether Manfred's death and the exhaustion of same Frederick's line Charlemagne's cement the power of the Church for Dante in the victories and his crowning by in Machiavelli's account. on the other hand.4 in secular as well as spiritual religion. for demanding For Machiavelli. is. draw attention to Dante's birth just Church out. in as this respect. but for our other way. and destructive analysis. Machiavelli purposes refers to and acknowledges the use of Lombard are in these passages. is in some part a function of his better publicized antipathy to the Church and its This brings us to the specifics of the dialogue." link him to the ascendency deterioration.5 place of the Church in Dante's teaching and Dante's world. that "with the defeat an and death of anachronism. that temporally the ends that order the Christian afterlife in an equivalent of a universal spiritual community."10 We Manfred in 1266. the King of Sicily the last the politically the second effective line of the Emperor Frederick of II. Latin. Machiavelli opens things words by asking Dante to give examples of his Lombard. Charlemagne's conquest of the Lombards disposes Italy. The first passage over Dante's the here telling in an momentous of victory of the Church Manfred. that the connecting of Manfred's death and Dante's birth by both Machiavelli and Dante by the dialogue's choice of passages and the Comedy's positioning of .

The foresees unfolding events. and "our for which one looks in vain in Dante's writings. whom both Machi avelli and Dante seem to hold responsible for the development of the modern they could not hold. Compared to Machiavelli. . the act recalled in the passage quoted him among the lateand he is adamant Paradise places beginning awareness of In sum. Machiavelli. Papacy. no matter how radical it appears to his own contemporaries: the Monarchy was burned for its Machiavelli alleged Averroism. if not Dante. pit which .12 Nor is Dante particularly sympathetic to the Church at least any more than Machiavelli behavior Manfred. religion" between Dante.15 Machia velli's treatment of antitheological writers. for example. identifies the court of Dante's curiale language with the Court of Rome and at makes connections end of the the Dialogue exacts Dante's "confession" for having erred. and the process whereby he displaces for the earlier Using Dante himself against target. can confront apologists . in this sense. did not cease into Italy new men and to stir ness up new wars . to call through their personal ambition. is consistent with Dante's treatment of us Frederick and his line." Dante." he which means he will that the Pope was unreasonable and consecrated fred to be buried in in the dialogue. of course. there are limits to his description of what follows Manfred's death. In other places in the Dialogue. . for example. therefore. then. that is. calling up Purgatory 3 and Paradise 22 at the the dialogue directs attention to Dante's and Machiavelli's mutual that Dante lived in a period that was severely affected by papal politics. . seems to agree with this assessment of the events at the his birth. the Church. The Florentine Histo Manfred. and not for the better. for example. affairs.Dante cantos and Machiavelli Dante's life 19 and calls attention to their agreement on the confluence of Church ries' predominance account of in Italian. he describes them in terms Banquet. he "those bad seeds as a . ruined and are still ruining . towards Although in the Comedy regarding its he has Manfred repentent acknowledge his "horrible sins. However. Church. ." his death the Popes and to take advantage of the now "quiet" ensuing period of "now through love for religion. reports that Manfred's death imperial stage echoed perhaps leaves velli's a political vacuum on the "quiet" in Machia and the Comedy barely continue mentions the short-lived attempt by Manfred's nephew Conradin to the family fight against the Church. thus that province not permit which through their own weak This proc any other to ess eventually culminates in the ascendency of Nicholas III. time of as suggested. Machiavelli tells but that after that in life Manfred kept the Pope were able in "continuous anxieties.13 eventually enter denied Scripture in refusing to allow Man ground. to the extent that similar he can see or to Machiavelli. the consequence of living in the wake of Manfred's death is that Dante's teaching bears the stamp of the Church. that they hastened his world's deterioration and en couraged unforgiveable excesses. they did possess. Dante.14 For Machiavelli. and European. is part of part of his general anticlerical and posture.

16 The question of how Dante faces his religion and the world it colors further unfolds as we go question's deeper into the dialogue. in the sequel to the reference to his birth in Paradise 22. references different. he the other point the plant that transforms him into a the possibility of mortal On a of hand.20 Interpretation and put Italy. or nature. as he induces from a life of passion to one of faith. introduces Dante to Folco. The invented example is the pair of of reflexives that he utilizes. We see this immediately by ize as in the examples of Latin and inventions that follow his Lombard responds examples: the temptation is to think that Dante to the questions raised his Lombard of the new. but Dante assures happens to Glaucus seagod. who late in life turned away from youthful debauchery and acted Ezzsoway that was a reproach to her infamous and bloodthirsty brother lino. delivers the Comedy's teaching on how to handle the intersection of character. before he could realize his potential. who. he leads to ask how he expects to make unfortunate his way between his natural and astral inheritance and the events that follow Manfred's failure: this is the Dialogue's and of Dante's version relates the Prince's statement on how that to "path" which "nature in wholly the clines" to the which we walk but for which we are not accountable. Folco underlines exemplifies improvement. that is.21 . and fortune. quotations with a combination of the best of the old and the transhuman- best The Latin example is the word transhumanare that Dante uses in Paradise 1 to express the change that takes place in him he ascends from Purgatory to Paradise.17 The issue of the Church's impact upon upon Dante and perhaps question of religion's impact deal all of us thereby transforms itself into their the question of how control. to capacities for change. By joining this comment to his reference to Manfred. in the Heaven Folco of Marseilles. introduces Dante to Rahab. add. in turn. men with circumstances or conditions outside Machiavelli's Dante is not without resources in this matter. who rose above her condition to aid Joshua. although the types of change then. the promising son of Charles of Anjou who died ure. Dante himself defines the terms when. the in a Whore of Jericho. who changed on earth Venus in Paradise 9. to speak with him. as Ovid reports.18 involved are Transhumanization's that we extrahuman character recognize it by comparing his eats change to what is self-evident.19 when. Charles. The two examples have in common. In effect. is best realized in the Heaven of Venus's most imposing fig Charles Martel. its teaching on the question the Dialogue raises by linking Manfred's death and Dante's birth. in the Heaven Dante by putting him with people who are Venus precisely because of their ability to alter their behavior on earth: Cunizza da Romano. he speaks of his "genius" or the capabilities his stars bestowed us upon him.20 The whole we question of man's confrontation with should also his surroundings and his conditions." those who provide aid and comfort to religion in the ranks of the premodern thinkers.

22 level. Latin. because if star" a something . our on the other hand. The connection between the two arguments obvious. Dante implied in his examples of Lombard. crude. The problem illustrates. that his his Latin and misses the point. it a rather clumsy dialogue. the opposing instance.24 At the same time. is reasonably In place of Dante's demonstration that he rises above his native vernacular through the use of combine with other words to produce a curiale examples of the entine words. our rebirth in this life that is from.23 capacity for altering behavior so. of At the level faith or speculation. particularly distasteful of and obscene words all Flor Dante's refined from the Comedy defy for the is then to have written in a new language particularly suited the huomini litterati the court. morals. begin with part of sets of examples are allusions linked by subject matter.Dante In the wake of and Machiavelli 21 his examples of may say that the charge. which makes his concluding examples. therefore. claim men Lombard. deceivers Inferno 26 from move which of Machiavelli borrows describes Virgil's the thieves to that of the Dante's from the ditch or evil affects counselors in Hell's "virtue" eighth circle. to Dante's genius and his Specifically. the first of from pieces Inferno 26 and Inferno at 20. transhumanization malign events or conditions of upon supplies the ultimate corrective to the of whether possibly Dante depends this life. Machiavelli gives "shameful" Inferno's clumsy.27 example of references Dante's clumsiness but the same time provides that there be four the to three kinds of words at both ends of More impor Both for the and tantly. as Charles Mattel's untimely death rivalry but the Heaven of Venus demonstrates that it is not insurmountable. After seeing them he does not run where observes guide he "curb "good (his) genius" lest it it. Machiavelli purported manufactures his example of Dante's of clumsiness. Confronting that such people must grievously or Dante. irrespective for the the religious or philosophical tradition teaching and whether it is the power of grace or intellect that leads him to think At the mundane and material we can escape from material or physical cares. in short. Dante gives men cause to think that they are not captives or fate fortune.26 This connection reinforced in various ways. and invented words that language.25 In a nice instance of his artistry and responds own at to Dante's opening references fondness for symmetry. he challenges Machiavellianism repeat the same by leading to see that we are not doomed endlessly to mistakes. for example. Machiavelli and challenge with references of his the end of the dialogue. stars. Thus. fortune is daunting. with Folco and at his heavenly companions demonstrate that oppor rebirth next. open or times submerged his genius or imprisoned him of nature's with inventions. apart tunity for doing the result that it is least occasionally intersects with an possible for us to look for a upon. Without comment. although patterned in the By and of providing glimpses of possibilities available at the levels of faith. intellect. or even half us of fortune.

Machiavelli may take hitherto unknown heights. curbs."29 and lead to construe of a na genius or nature in terms ture that constrains rather and potential. Dante's and Machia Machiavelli intends to demonstrate cannot erase through his that Dante his linguistic roots. logue. For Machiavelli. artistic manipulation of politics against to Dante is in The keeping with his identification of nature with compelling above necessity. whereas Dante's come from in the first instance and the Paradise in the rest. short. Dante's art. Dante's sedes we can restate the differences that frame the dia repudiation of Florence his and his claim to a language that super hers are of a piece with vision of man as a being of natural poten Conversely. As op to the celebration of genius need sometimes to who put keep genius in Paradise 22. "applied mind. in this respect. About to enter the realm of those their gifts to bad purposes Ulysses. substituting the remaining constant in the nature. adds Dante's discussion posed of genius which is not apparent in the earlier something to case. impels. reference to Inferno 26. we need closely at the Machiavelli's closing more examples themselves. Machiavelli's passage reveals utilizing their that Dante's self-acknowledged abilities notwithstanding. providence. however. to cealment of Grandgent. In this sense.33 and candor are not always companions. who. To see constraining that is seditious of the the why and how of this. effect of Machiavelli's teaching is that Dante's idea that freedom means face of which audience needs to redefine necessity and freedom means moving in the direction in fortune for the idea that or rising its ends. Dante conspires to veil his abilities in reaction to those who hide their intentions by More to the point. Diomed. the fragment from Inferno 26 28 initially established through Paradise 22. but his argument tiality. genius reasserts he must not mis it. Inferno 26 emphasizes the under wraps. The hint that Dante employs veils in his teaching is reinforced by the pas- .30 inability "avoid" Florentine celebrates nature's triumph over From this perspective. for a start. necessi ties. For Machiavelli. Machiavelli's raise the specter than liberates and is understood in terms of than opportunities and potential.31 It is worth repeating. use the associations Their common velli's references work at cross purposes. features notwithstanding. the Inferno conveys an idea of nature as teaching look the rest of the Comedy."32 their burning not to the con The here is far from the surface.22 even Interpretation "better" has granted him such a boon that is. in uses his examples to reconfigure nature such that we are bound by natu necessity to rather than defined by natural potential. he admits that genius fully abilities. a point he drives home Where Dante's us by reminding Dante that "art to an can never examples point ability to of entirely deny improve and develop nature. ral limits rather Machiavelli. that Machiavelli's the examples all come Purgatory of from the Inferno. Guido da Montefeltro in check or one's promise Dante indicates that stances keeping talents demand their guards against quote real betraying irony reining in genius like those eloquence as circum evil coun selors.

then. cal response to the difficulties that arise when circumstances oppose Machiavelli responds. becomes a practi everything talent." other specific reference silent. but we are not told what they talk about. new key to navigating the waters aroused the old nature and overcomes fortune the old version of teaching such on deception teaching on human potential. and subtle. Dante here "singing" by stressing quietly teaches that problems may be curbing by maintaining reserve or of Restraint genius and not avoiding self-exposure. In effect.Dante sage and Machiavelli 23 from Inferno 20 at the other end of Machiavelli's manufactured quotation. Machiavelli turns Dante's argument for artistic restraint back his upon him have by using it to course of accuse Dante of being injudicious or indiscreet in writing: in the what you written. the fox becomes the lead animal in Machiavelli's bestiary. he thinks that it would have been preferable for Dante to be more discreet about the teaching An obvious next question represented by the examples of Glaucus and Folco."35 arguing Machiavelli tells Dante to "consider well Machiavelli rejects the open teaching of the Para dise. passages show then maintaining Why right that make up Machia Dante curbing his genius of his Dante is loath to "sing" talk with Virgil is intriguing in Hell in its own they may be discussing diviners but in the troublesome position of respected ancient our context it is secondary to the way Machiavelli combines these passages to give a new. is the collide. but he fails on to tell us why he thinks so. Rather than handle the tension between our potential genius and circumstances more for development avoided and growth. in favor of the closed teaching alter or the teaching on discre sup a tion of the Inferno. Presumably. response to the question Dante poses at the dialogue's inception. to the questions Dante raises at the dialogue's opening by bringing forward the reticent end of Dante's teaching at the dia logue's close. Despite encouraging men to be adaptable. Machiavelli borrows here from through Hell. guided by morally when neutral prudence or wisdom. Machiavelli Dante's of argument own that men may themselves and gives us foretaste his teaching A that morally neutral artistry. in presses this respect. modern By methods. This matter brings into play the remaining quotations why he foregoes ancient in Machiavelli's and the last from Dante in the Dialogue. . As they move they talk. it follows. the of Dante's alleged clumsiness a purposeful silence. Dante and Virgil another transitional moment in the journey walking downward from the diviners to the barrators in circle eight. a silence that anticipates his silence ways. The quotations. which Dante mentions twice.36 is why Machiavelli calls attention to Dante's methods but will not apply them to Dante's ends. All Dante cares to say is that he and are Virgil speak "of other things of which my comedy does not care to sing": refusal in to Dante's remain comedy. concluding set which finish off Machiavelli's demonstration that the Comedy is Florentine.34 to "my he emphasizes his velli's example and Between them.

are hardly living different than to on earth. however. Mahomet is Christian "scandal or as and "provocateur. In the the medieval framework."37 swallowed" Vanni Fucci's defiance to God passages "(he) lifted his hands a subtext which methods both the The also. to fashion an accommodation between Athens and Jerusalem: that Dante and Glaucus transhumanize in a canto which begins with a call to reform In context. punished stands for religious and is appropriately for creating disorder: he is hacked apart by a devil. Machia conveyed by Dante's. Mahomet's tortured form acts as a counterpoint to Folco's resplendence. thus the spilling of his entrails. who is in Hell as a sower of religious discord.40 In referring us to Mahomet and Vanni Fucci Machiavelli supplies a series of rejoinders to Dante's heavenly references. for example. Machiavelli hardly describe Mahomet's and spilled entrails "that better than these cases.24 arise Interpretation in Inferno 28 and respectively to Mahomet. to join pagan Folco or. Indeed.38 either in he role of apostate the founder of schism" In both instances. Whereas Dante and Folco become something new in Paradise and on earth respectively. and after he heals is hacked anew. Insofar Florentine choose expressions as the charge that Dante employs crude and obscene could in the Comedy is which con cerned. their terrible Mahomet continues rebellious sow discord by asking Dante to convey and Vanni Fucci's that led advice to the still gesture Zeno. there is what amounts to a warning that the the world that is renders impossible in the Dialogue's term. makes shit of what is with on vividly figs. who is among the infamous Florentine thieves because of his involvement. they Glaucus to Christian Apollo for inspiration with and that the canto which commemorates Folco 's to the begins Beatrice's reassurances signals Dante's approach problem. in Hell the latter punishments notwithstanding. Similarly. "incredible" . First." again. describes himself as more than a beast in a way that sets off Dante's becoming more than human at the gates of paradise. carry an interconnected set of in Dante's opening. however. carry Dante's bears the question of why Machiavelli reveal accepts but not his ends. Mahomet and Vanni Fucci undergo repetitive transmutations but always return to their original forms. "like the Phoenix. The sacrilegious thief Vanni Fucci suffers similarly: a snake's he regains sting reduces him to ashes. in the looting of 25 and refer a treasury in the Church of San Zeno in Pistoia. in about 1293. more broadly. Vanni Fucci.41 velli's examples deflect the message More to the point. like Dante. life only to be stung and reduced after which.39 Even and such a terrible pun ishment does not. quell his "bloody gesture to God which marks him the "obscene" rage. with messages a nod that toward the fifteenth chapter of the Prince. the difficulties in trying." a religious Islam.42 friar Fra Dolcino. however." he is still capable of "proud" as the most spirit Dante encounters in Hell. and to Vanni Fucci. then. attitude "obscene" to God carries forward the defiant him to desecrate San oppose the arguments contained Machiavelli's examples.

Dante
world of

and

Machiavelli
and

25

the

Paradise."

Mahomet,

the sower of religious

discord,
Florence

Vanni

Fucci,

the impious

and

defiant thief, illustrate the
medieval and

sectarian antagonisms and and make and gener

divisiveness
Dante's

that tear late

attempted accommodations
secular and spiritual world we

early between Athens

renaissance and

Jerusalem,

ally the

ternatively, the disrepair that it
te's

probably dangerous. Al behold in Machiavelli's hellish examples is in such
worlds,

impractical,
of

and

exposes

the

improbability

the

world we

behold through Dan

heavenly
the

examples.44

In this latter

respect

especially, the Dialogue

thereby
as ancient

repeats

message on religion of

the early part of the

Discourses,
to

where,

Harvey

Mansfield, Jr. says, "we
ancients and

are presented with a contrast

between

veneration of religion and modern contempt

for it,
of

leading
and

moderns"

among the
provisional

among the doctrine that "religion is incapable

disunity

unity eventuating in the
unity"

political

producing

and

that

religious veneration must
useful.45

thereby

give

way to the view that religion

is merely

This

points

to another count in Machiavelli's indictment of Dante. Dante

miscalculates

the

impact

upon

his

audience of sectarianism and religious

insta

bility and, by extension, fails to see that there is no educating his contempo raries. The best that can be hoped for is that they be manipulated. The covert
teaching
and
critical of

the Dialogue is that life in a world molded
requires

by

figures like Mahomet
other

Vanni Fucci

that the methods and arts of deception become the

tools of rule where once

they had been
and

one

among
at

important
to Dante-

tools.

By bringing forward
and and

Mahomet

Vanni Fucci

as rejoinders

Glaucus

Folco, Machiavelli

elevates

Dante's Hell
arts of

the cost of his Para
and

dise,
tion,

demonstrates that Dante's arts, the

discretion

dissimula

are more necessary for Dante's teaching.

facing

the world than the promise underlying

As

well as

responding to Dante, it follows, the Machiavellian
of what we
correct out.

conclusion of

the Dialogue suggests something
route

Machiavelli lays
regions of

If it is

may that Machiavelli

expect at the end of sees

the new the

in his

world

lower

the Inferno made real, the cyclical or at least repetitive punish

ments of

Hell

will compel

human affairs,

and

Aristotle's universe,

where natu

ral cataclysms manifest nature's start

beneficence
world

things afresh,

is

lost.46

The

by presenting the opportunity to Machiavelli describes contains men
repeat

damned, by Dante's infernal
mistakes.

ancestors

standards, to
one should

their own and their

This bleak picture,
to

add, probably leads Dante to leave the

stage at the end of
modern thinkers

the Dialogue. Much

later, it

will move

the

first

wave of

struggle over

how to honor Machiavelli's

view of man with

out

having

to give up hope of relieving the human
examples

condition.

Machiavelli's closing

in the dialogue, in sum,
the credibility
of mark of

counterbalance

Dante's opening
totelian
synthesis

examples and challenge

the Christian- Aris

that

is the theoretical highwater
combination of

late

medievalism.

For Machiavelli, the

Mahomet

and

Vanni Fucci defeats the

26

Interpretation
Dante-Glaucus
and

combination of

Folco.
are

By

the same
and

token, Christian-Aris
manipulation

totelian
one's

ideas

of

human

potential

set

aside

artistic

of

fellows,

the

secrets of which
political

Machiavelli

attributes

to

Dante, becomes
in the
art of

the route to survival and
propaganda.

triumph

it is

most

fully

realized

Machiavelli's
center of

reservations about as well as

Dante's teachings become
peripheries.

apparent at

the

There, for example, Machia velli replies to Dante's opening claim to having used Lombard by citing a Florentine usage in Beatrice's Thomistic message to Christians to avoid worry
the dialogue

its

about unwanted or unforeseen consequences of vows more careful about
place.47

by being

more grave and

In the immediate sequel to this, vowing in the first Dante, arguing that it is allowable to use a few foreign words in a long work, cites a Persian word in Virgil's account of Aeolus's sinking of Aeneas's fleet at
the urging
of
Juno.48

Dante's two mystery
and

guides

Outside the linguistic issue, it follows, quotations from place Christian sentiment in favor of stripping vows of their

sense of our some gods.

avoiding the unforeseen or unanticipated alongside paganism's helplessness before oftimes fickle and indifferent but always fear

The

central

section of the

dialogue may thereby be
and paganism at a

said

to be

dominated between The

by

the tension between
and

Christianity
repeats,

and

between

Dante's Beatrice

Virgil,

which

higher

level,

the competition

native and

foreign

elements

in Dante's

writing.

same sorts of conclusions after

follow from

passages

Machiavelli
and

cites

imme

diately
stance
says

the

illuminating

confrontation of

Beatrice

Virgil. In this in

Machiavelli, prefiguring Dante's
"confesses"

confession at

the end of the
and

Dialogue,

that Dante

to using
and

Florentine in Inferno 10
when

23

by having

men recognize

him

as

Tuscan
are

Florentine

they hear him

talking. The

characters

in

question

hero

and savior of

respectively Farinata degli Uberti, the Ghibelline Florence, and Catalano dei Malavolti and Loderingo degli
who

Andolo, hypocritical friars
relationship between these

had

once ruled

Florence. For Machiavelli, the
ends of

characters parallels

that between Beatrice and Virgil.

Where the latter indicates the tension between the two

Dante's teach
ad

ing,

the former
of

points

to the

incompatibility

between the lifestyle Dante
of of

mires, that

Catalano meeting

and

Farinata, and the dominant lifestyle Loderingo, who as friars and rulers
Dante's
of religion and

Dante's world, that of Florence represent the Dante

ground of a

his

political association. of what

Farinata,

hero

terms noblehood, and

extraordinary proportions, an example "the greatest of Dante's colossal

sculptures,"

is in Hell

for his Epicureanism. Despite this, but consistent with his oldfashioned bent, he is one of two figures in the Comedy Virgil is the other whom Dante,
after

Aristotle,

styles magnanimo. even

Characteristic

of

the magnanimous,
scorn of
Hell"

Farinata
and
ad-

is exceedingly proud,

in Hell: he displays "great

Dante

and

Machiavelli
and

27

dresses Dante "half disdainfully."49 Conversely, the friars are sullen In contrast to s openness and self-aware greatness, they
Farinata'

fearful.
them.50

are always

looking

over

their shoulders, and

they worry
with

that Dante

will

scorn

Moreover,
punished

where

Farinata is

a

throwback to pagan beliefs

Epicureans

are

for making "the
ways:

soul

die

the

body"

the

friars

identify

them to

selves

according to their

religious
wear

orders,

and

Dante keys their Cluniac

punishment

their monastic

they

leaden

versions of

cloaks and

cowls.51

Finally, further establishing
accusation that

the antithesis, Inferno 23 refers expressly to the

Catalano

and

Loderingo burned the
of

Farinata'

palace of

s

family,

the

Uberti,
As he

at

the instigation

the

Pope.52

exacts

trasting

pictures

Dante's confession, then, Machiavelli leads us to Dante's con of an Epicurean heretic who is the last representative of pagan

magnanimity and of religious hypocrites who are also Christian monastics and papal deputies. The initial conclusion that we draw from this is relatively sim ple, and not much different from that which Dante induces without Machia
velli's

help. In

a world of men

is openly sympathetic, becomes
and
sion

like the friars, Farinata's model, to which Dante As Beatrice's and Virgil's essential
suspect.53

contentiousness comes to the surface

in Machiavelli's

framework,

so

Catalano

Loderingo signify conditions unfriendly to a Farinata. The theoretical divi between Dante's guides repeats in the political and practical divisions be

tween his interlocutors. At the simplest
and at a more complex

level,

the friars

help destroy

the

Uberti,

level their

actions refute

the notion of magnanimity

identified does
is

with

the family's greatest spokesman.
versus

While Dante brings the Farinata
not

the friars tension to our attention, he
us

can steer

openly between the

resolve

it. Typically, he leaves it to
us

to decide

whether we

ancient and modern perspectives.

Machiavelli, however,

not so generous.
version

He leads
of

to a decision

terological
over

Gresham's law,

characcausing us to see, in a that Catalano and Loderingo win out

by

Farinata. To this end, Machiavelli enlists the example of Count Ugolino, a Pisan contemporary of Dante and the central figure in the longest episode of the Inferno: Ugolino is in Antenora, the part of lowest Hell assigned to traitors to party and country, where he is punished by having endlessly to devour the
cleric,

Archbishop Ruggieri,
children.

who a

had brief

starved

him

so

terribly

that he canni
argument

balized his dead
tine

After

change of

direction in his
admit

we shall return to this

Machiavelli

causes

Dante to

that he uses Floren

ing
ting
of

reminding him that Ugolino addresses him as Florentine after overhear him talking to Virgil. Machiavelli overcomes Dante's resistance to admit

by

that

he
and

speaks

Tuscan

and

Florentine

on

the

basis

of

the examples of

Farinata Farinata

the

friars, in

other

words, through the similarly directed example

Ugolino. Ugolino's

added

weight,

however,

also

tips the

balance

against

as regards the question of what models of

behavior

are and will

be

compelling for either Dante or Machiavelli's audience. For a start, Farinata, and to a lesser degree the friars, draw attention to Dante's provincial roots by

54 are Ugolino. benign father. and obscures the ancestral compelling than Tuscany. that the choice is his or that of he can choose at random."57 Machiavelli's argument here is that there is no difference in language in the on Dante reads. it is that perseverence guarantees salvation. Machiavelli is passages focus deservedly gives famous for celebrating founders Dante's reference to Pulci's reference an us and innovators. Machia Morgante?6 sequentially from the Comedy and Luigi Pulci's with The begins the Inferno: "In the wood where middle Machiavelli ordering Dante to read the first line of of the journey of our life. a Dante selects a not line from the beginning Morgante 24: "The one who begins does deserve merit. Both beginnings." the si city which is the "shame is more representative of concerns razed and was alone the peoples of the fair land where than Italy Farinata. Dante's intertwined with province. replies Machiavelli caso. twist. Although Machiavelli Machiavellianism.Virgil write finis to the dichotomy. Matthew 10 and as 24 both fit might interesting think.28 Interpretation Tosco. it is written in your Gospel. in "right" these senses. not orders. the devourer of his own children and of spokesman sounds.55 Where Machiavelli exposes with the self-destructive tension at the heart of Christian-Aristotelianism the Beatrice. he is fair in that he allows Dante to suggest some of case his. Whereas Dante shares Aristotle's suspicion of beginnings. leaves the im patria. who was domi nated Florence from are by family being more by (fu'io solo) responsible for saving the Ghibellines but whose cause. testifies to "wrong" the conditions that ultimately defeat Dante. In this instance. his sensibilities that for Dante and Dante's more Farinata his province. Dante's collapse in the face of example after does velli not speak admitting Machiavelli is is tacit again in the Dialogue and and himself he admission that what Machia holds is true for a that Ugolino. Dante and Machiavelli differ substan tially. we ought Pulci's tone lead to to refuse to reward originators because of qualms about the Rather. a failure Dante underlines by asking where he should begin. Machiavelli does not specify a partic reading. Dante to read ular from the Morgante. little than a dim memory by Dante's own time. The Scriptural message is not. he asks. end of any potential ancient-mod ern synthesis.58 to the Gospel This. is pression that Florence. and goodness. but the passages are also similar in another way. On this subject. he uses Farinata. For the purpose of Dante that he Florentine by has Dante exchange read comparing his writing to that of a contemporary. the . I came to myself in a dark lost. the friars. a short "convincing" objections to in point occurs in exchange just before Ugolino." the straight way was Next. and Aristotelian. in turn. and Ugolino to Farinatan. premachiavellian. A Machiavelli writes velli mentions shows Dante little mercy in the Dialogue. out Machiavelli's linguistic point. that new." addressing him "O This simultaneously bears initially but Ugolino greets Dante as a Florentine.

by Dante with a and ancient thinkers and is true to his greater project of replacing them certainty. but Dante apparently the cost of mitigating a practical problem that sets apart Jerusalem the clash between spiritual commitment and habitual respect for Athens tradition without employing Machiavelli's more acid remedies. Dante it. Dante's quotation from Pulci. is to eliminate the forbearance in the face uncertainty that colors the Comedy: a having said that he began his journey his lost in wood. but because "our and world. . 24. .9-13). When hand. . accepts and it as opening new ways. "which approaches or equals Machia design in the Dialogue. welcomed. and because the impact of the figures like Mahomet to will not accept thinly supported compromises wants the Vanni Fucci. . which of includes religion" appreciation of what his reading of his has wrought. child. and suggests a way to ease the strain between reason and revelation. 10. and will hate one another false prophets will arise and will end. "brother will hand over brother to men .Aristotelian synthesis on beginnings. For reasons implicit in his respect for both in the Vergil Beatrice. unwaveringly to our spiritual ob how tempted we are to stray be hated but false prophets: "you one will by all nations for my . It brings together Aristotle Scripture by the expedient of identifying distrust of beginnings with Chris it is tian belief in steadfastness. and to Machiavellian ism.61 ."59 hope. At a critical moment in the dialogue.60 immediately admits that he cannot account for and escape from It appears that for Machiavelli confronting fortune "artistry. velli's as it. in of such terms. .Dante point and Machiavelli 29 being that we are to commit ourselves jectives because no matter what pitfalls we encounter and of new . Dante accepts the concessions and uncertainties of Christian. he must overcome Dante. at least in politics. who of and the father his . Through Pulci. Dante restates the ancient challenge to innovators. the point of the Dialogue's comments on and liv ing in uncertainty are mutually exclusive. it follows. name's sake (many) will betray another. lead death." natural necessity. the double force. Machiavelli synthesis demands. . in other words of the thirteenth of the dialogue combined paragraphs and and occurs in the thirty-third the Dialogue's exchanges and conceals the gap between Aristotle's to overthrow all in the bias toward the name of faith long standing by reading Christianity's Scripture's willingness praise of perse verence into Aristotle's argument against Dante and Pulci.21-22). . it follows. To succeed in his purpose. the last great medieval spokesman for classical rationalism's reservations about knowing. In the Dante's suspicion of innovation a and respect passage and he chooses from Pulci has for tradition. . and to provide dependable truths. . he be saved" but whoever perseveres to the astray (Matt. The alliance between or Aristotle and Scripture. a fundamental of Dante's and Machiavelli's dispute and emerges. is uneasy. children will them to death And you will be hated by rise up against parents and put all for my name's sake." Machiavelli says here that he "convince" Dante "with book in even he shows his disdain for the Leo Strauss put uncertainties tolerated. but he context has persevered to the end will be saved" (Matt.

radiate outwards to the differences between pagan the gods and the whole ancient and modern appreciations we Christian appreciations of beginnings. and Catalano and heretic. 1978). framing at dialogue. garb. in summary. he eases the uncertainty the ancients beget and caters to a modern need quotes on for surety. The argument on Language. their teachings modern go in opposite direc tions according to the way the other deflects the desire for certitude and feeds it. it leads is a to the conclusion that the quarrel between ancients and moderns function of the way ancient and modern views of the gods and God. and beginnings. At its center and the Dialogue's there is the contrast between Far conclude We by inata. but it is instructive his and Machiavelli's the At their one hearts. Dial. on the other hand. These figures Virgil on are surrounded of betrayors of Florence. at once hypocritical men of the cloth.63 belief in human flexibility and growth that most of us identify with NOTES 1. the dialogue turns on questions that divide ancients and moderns.Aristotelian relationship. included in her Niccolo (Florence: Leo Olschki. Whichever way one takes Machia be restated as velli's argument. Machiavelli's attempt to Dante more assured or convert elicits closest wears a challenge to Machiavelli's confidence in or perhaps can come him to Machiavellianism. Citations e to the critical edition of Ornella lingua" il "Dialogo intorno alia nostra 10 (1982). When Dante for Pulci. he turns the pagan and revelatory traditions high make valuation Machiavelli by combining suspicion of originators with perseverence and steadfastness. by the references on one side to gods and on Beatrice on vows and the fickleness and the other side to the Comedy's beginning the Morgante's scripturally and and of supported warning to originators. 25.30 Interpretation To the degree that Machiavelli corrects and convinces Dante. According to what has been said. and upon us of circumstances of men different ways of Looking looking the at dialogue whole. however. mediate between the soul and the freedom. in this way. Finally. Pollidori. This is the to ancient skepticism while as regards Dante comes he his Christian. mous at once an Epicurean man. the contrasting moral types at its peripheries. the savior of Florence and the last magnani Loderingo. influence as a find opposed alterna tives regarding our natural potential and the and surroundings. different types human possibilities at face each across a medium can composed of different ways of looking the gods and at beginnings. inventiveness." . The differences between Farinata the friars.62 returning to the specifics of the dialogue. in this way. "Machiavelli Machiavelli versus Dante: Language are and Politics in the Dialogue 201-21. through contact with different forms of belief. and objects of scorn. This follows: the contrasting psychological models or souls at the core of the dialogue become.

10.ii. and the formation "of the first unitary Italian the language. 2 (Milan: Mondadori. 4. and Rome. Marco Lombardo (Purg. Kansas: University of Kansas Press. Purg. 106(1988). Monorchia. On interpenetration of theology and politics in medieval thought. The first portion of the dialogue (35-36." and delphia: Univ. and impact. 6. 249-53.24]: ". Pier and whereas the pope used to be confirmed by the began in his election to have need of the pope. not benefit" in Machiavelli's to "honor and pontiffs will places his own relatives. (New York: Oxford University Press. 1968). 8. Larry Peterman.. 35. (Princeton: Princeton "Machiavelli's Dante and University Press." the dialogue demands that special attention be given to the authorities and quotations that occur in occur its in give and take. Dial. Conv. 8. the formation of the Magna Curia. Flor.115. are to Tutte le Opere di Niccold Machiavelli. 1981). 26 chapters later. Dante Frederick among the simonists in Hell. 14. 1.11 [11. Sinclair text 7. Nicholas III was.Dante of and Machiavelli his 31 the original article is that Dante's stance on language is tied to his view of political associa Florence. Hist. De Vulgari Eloquentia I. For a recent note on the relevant literature. where Nicholas shown to ruin Charles in the same manner that Charles had ruined Manfred. 35-36. and a 13-paragraph section by said" replied." 4. 46 and n. See. 4. "Dante's Monorchia and Aristotle's Political Thought. I.115-20) uses Frederick II as the dividing point between his country being full of cortesia" "valore e and becoming shameful. They 22-26. Jr. In criticizing Dante.37-40]. The Dialogue is carefully crafted. References to the Divine Comedy and translation. 3. he was also the first to attempt Machiavelli says that after him mention of the relatives of that is left is for popes fill history and all to try to make their office hereditary. Its 52 paragraphs and exchanges. An adequate appraisal of "Dante. Dante says that since the death of Frederick and his (Florence: Felice Le Monnier. which is in turn governed by Aristotle's discussions of polis and politeia. 16. 3 vols. Laura them. Tuscany and performed and "I expressly dispensing with the "he 2. 34. see Charles Davis. iii. As the Empire was coming to lose its privileges. 3 [1. 1-4. xii. that is to points say. 13-16. are 6.ix. 1965). of papal secular influence before Charand during Dante's time. Convivio IV. vols. in Dante and Italy (Phila of Pennsylvania Press. III is Strong (Lawrence. Para. Machiavelli. the same place. The King's Two Bodies (Princeton: Princeton 5. account. references to Machiavelli. Charles Davis. See Flor. 1964). There still exists some controversy over the Dialogue's authenticity. To the reference to Manfred's defeat are added a reference to .. Machiavelli assures that we be aware that the dialogue is tions. 1968)." present Cf. Richard Kay. Pier Ricci ed. 10(1973). Dante Studies. the dialogue. 11. 1988).17. [11." and usage and most of all of that Davis reinforces by quoting Pier Mengaldo to the end that the argument of the Vulgari Eloquentia accurately reflects the interconnection of the political activities of Frederick and Manfred. Studies in Larry Peterman. great supply the heavy weapons in Machiavelli's and Dante's struggle and density: nothing I know in Machiavelli compares with the dialogue in this respect. Pollidori gives a compelling defense of Machiavelli's authorship in her edition and in her Nuove and a Riflessioni (Rome: Salemo. 9-10. a good place to begin is Ernst Kantorowicz. Hist. are divided into an introductory paragraph and a 13-paragraph section. At Dial. 14-15. by the bonds of custom language. too. Francesco Flora Carlo Cordie eds. vellianism. Unless otherwise indicated. 20 (Winter. 1984). the emperor to the title up "to the time. G. 1987). In there has been "descendants" worthy Ricci ed. the Church over acquired princes." the Sources of Machia Polity. I consequently argue. 22. (Florence: Felice Le Monnier. II. 11. Dial..237]. and 10. Dante's Swift 1978). 1961). for example.128. Discourses. Machiavelli opposes Aristotelianism and antici pates the modern state." concluding paragraph. 1957). (Verona: Arnoldo Mondadori. See Medieval 3. for "Italy once had a united court under Frederick II and still has a dispersed court whose members are united all the same by the gracious light of reason." the temporal trans. 9. IV. page square University Press. not Renaissance History. 41-42) is dominated by examples which point to the growth. Florentine Histories. 1. Vandelli eds. emperors. Dial.22-23. 22. only the first pope of open ambition. Busnelli no claimant and to the John G. says that the absence of an Italian court does foreclose a common language. and by these means it kept increasing its authority Banfield and Harvey Mansfield. in and brackets.

59. Dial.80]. signify what adequately be conveyed by language. Harvey Mansfield. Dial. loved and Villani: "(Manfred) was generous.. For Dante. Dial." 53. should add. 22-24. Jr. but only for the delights of the flesh. For this an interpenetration of minds or "spiritual telepathy" which renders speech redundant. Para. i. 211-20. 9. he says that men are be discordant with it will fail. The p. Machiavelli' . Para. "Machiavelli's and Papacy. Charles Singleton. in which office he life by taking a vigorous part in the persecution of the Dante's invented reflexives case of transhumanare . and he became even richer. But his whole life was Epicurean. Between them.e.6. 100. Cf. Folco troubadour and poet who early in monk and life to the pleasures of the flesh but later became a Cistercian demonstrated his dedication to the Albigensian heretics. see Peter Kaufman. For a recent assessment of Dante's critique of the Papacy. 102-3. me")." Frederick Dante. 9. change 36. "Machiavelli's 254-55." that men must pay greater attention to the Charles Martel 's death the overthrow of the White Guelphs and Dante's eventual exile from Florence are on a par with the long-term consequences the triumph of the Church and its party.70. so that he was much enjoyed great favor. which. in other of Manfred's death words. See the possibility of a in Prince XXV. Charles Martel particular place promise could evil that will creates problems for critics Dante is unclear about why he is in this but he fits nicely into our framework. he cared neither for God nor for quotes the saints. characteristic of Paradise. More clearly than Dante. 1973). Joshua 2:1.2(1990). "were I in was given you as you in radical that Sinclair speaks of his "transfiguration" (Para. NY: Cornell of such m'intuassi come University Press. 4-5. See Peterman. and debonair. lie" but claims that fortune "gives (Dante) the "genius" where Machiavelli his acknowledges as regards portrait of Florence: process Machiavelli describes on a Florence incredible. Para. Moreover. in Purgatory 2: Commentary (Princeton: Princeton University Press. Prince XXV [1. Dante. 16. 18. I. IV. 13. of priests. Cf. increasing its riches and power on land and 14. Para. he occupied the churches. Eloq. Dante does "marvels" not say his language attaches to any particular court (38). Like his father. he had a large Church. 1. and of monks. Veltro Diana (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer 19.. Conv. the act that solidifies the power of the Church in Italy truly is enclosed within references serious secular threat to the Papacy and the first of the modern popes. to the last Thus. xii. he kept in good state as long as he lived. As in the cannot spiritual eventually the Bishop of Toulouse. and the History of European Ideas. the short-term consequences of Manfred and Charles define Dante's major political problems. he also becomes the lookout for fortune yet not abandon moved which to pursue different ends and should "nature" study in what can happen when for the warning that men must be nature: recollecting Aristotle. No. Having died young and before his political be borne out "the world held me only a little time. for he had of inherited the treasure and prosperous the emperor and of his brother. Erich Von Richthofen locates thirteen such inventions in the Para. For Dante's of sea. despite the wars with the Conrad. 898-968. much be would not have (Para. XX. we Dante. Purg. Metamorphoses XIII. 143) tranformation of human passion into "holy ardour. Machiavelli holds that the well-being of the Church 251 and of the secular community are inversely proportional. 22-66.68. Para.114. 3.434]. Dante's in the comes 17. He was an enemy of the Holy Church. quotes 64-69. 1979). 22. 22." view of degenerating affairs after the deaths Manfred. well-being that his own description be middle way between the choices Machiavelli lays out s New Modes and Orders (Ithaca.32 Interpretation of the lemagne's defeat Lombards and two references to Nicholas III. Vffl. 143). 12. King kingdom. Sinclair (p. 3 and Para.49-51) he becomes a good example of the been" ofttimes malign influence collide. Grabher on 20.81 (io in Folco is sufficiently was a tu ti immii. an unrestrained Church and an ..36 [11. 12. 79. but Machia velli still that he might assign such importance to the Court of Rome (58-59).74-84. see Vulg. 109-26. Purg. Hist. 8. Publisher. 15. courteous. from a good source "fortune" he concludes in order to foundation nature lays and build on it improve (121-48).iii.' Rahab's 21. see Sinclair's gloss on the und passage (143-44). 1. and if I had lived longer. of fortune in active affairs and a case nature and on fortune Thus. "Foscolo. 1956). Peterman. Flor.

is from where 329). its curbing "the teaching hidden falls between Inferno 9. of course. 13. "Reading the Convivio. totals twenty-six. 8. 21.13-24. 26. . 24. explicit quotations By counting the incorrect attribution as a single quotation.130. 3. See. Machiavelli.2. 26.end [1. and Para.g.xi. 144. Dial. 1938). 452.27. Purg. Singleton. Machiavelli (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 14. The Lombard and invented for example. 40. 50. Dial. the same number of chapters as velli's use of prefaces Livy has books. Inferno.l. 25. La Divina Commedia (Cambridge: Harvard University Press.54. xiii. 38. are "readers" to penetrate the over Dante's "truth" 35. 2. (New York: Penguin. 16. Purg. On the Dante. are Venus mediates between interconnections between these have been seen passages that go beyond those suggested in the examples of and which would by Machiavelli. Making two quotations one reminds of Machia to give the Disc. words. 3 vols. Manfred's canto. Mark Musa's comments. The Heaven with of Venus is it is characterized by rhetoric at Conv. Purg." (19-21). 29.115-48. For a more conventional view of this subject. e. 50." Machiavelli a greater sequence. 9. 1972). Inf. veil of those of "good intellect" to note under the (Dante's) verses" strange "veil" (61-63) and 33 cantos later Purgatory 8.46-72.2.g. Medieval Number Symbolism (New York: Columbia University Press. 22. The Letters of Machiavelli (New York: Capri corn Books. the number of in the Dial. Para. Dante's account of the chariot. 12. 25.. however imperfect. 1981). See Peterman. Inf. 38. See. 22). Strauss. 111. I. Inf. 503.128. belong to a sequence it includes Purg. 2. 1981). e. xvi. Modes and Orders. 31. Singleton.13-14. Disc. 243. Dante's birth under Gemini that speaks to the question of as well on man's permanence and his place be tween the stars and the earth. It is interesting in this respect that Dante mentions Manfred and Charles at the thirty-nine cantos at the center of which Statius describes his remarkable change of life after experiencing Christianity (cf.Dante unstable ends of and Machiavelli 33 Florence. Dial. In the Conv. Inf. 32. 103 (1985). in Allan Gilbert trans. Leo Strauss. The Divine Comedy. Para.97-108. God's is treason and utilizes (Inferno.. 8. Marco Lombardo's canto. 1958). II. The selors create problems evil coun difficulties in reckoning their sins together.: The Free Press.128].26. p. Machiavelli compares his defiance to that of Capaneus. significance of genius (ingegno) by 30. 36.13. is shockingly forthright about utilizing lies. 27. Cf. Here comment on again the passage "genius. Polidori. Mon. Other things being equal.. 24. 34. Mansfield. II. n.ii. Sinclair. Para. Dial. Inf. 25. Cf. 50. 9. See "Letter to Guicciardini. 16. 22. see Inferno. 1961). Cf. xiii." about your of As rhetoric a path between philosophy and politics. 126-30. 241. Dante speaks of writing with discrezione. 23. as used 28.. Inf.40. speaks of their "high gifts" mental and their "higher endowmen and concludes that Dante's "main thought is that on ends which are not great mental powers are a great disaster" trust and that the expending of them p. 39. for for critics because of example. 81. 26. 50. Para. 28. 227. a question that bears Dante's transhumanization. 20.107-20) tells Dante that in the Heaven of Venus "the and we "discern the good for which the world above turns shadow of your world comes to an world. and allows himself and other writers room for dissimulazione within the discretionary purpose. vol. There text. Inf. 3. Dial. the Heaven the heavens and the earth. the extraordinary abilities of the evil counselors are obvious. Para. To argue that describing the two is an oversight ignores the fact that Machiavelli refers correctly to the same place at passages as one in Inferno 26 Dial. see Quentin Skinner. Dial. 15. 299. Thoughts.112-14. are with 33. which is consistent Folco's position that a contact point between the temporal and extratemporal orders: Folco is end" (Para. 217-18. 137." 17 May 1521. 37. 200. 26. Thoughts on Machiavelli (Glencoe. 31. Inf. 51. Dante Studies. 313-14. 22. 1. Folco's canto. Inf. where Vincent Hopper. 29. Vanni Fucci's status in Hell is remarkable. Purg. 22. Conv. 2.

On Dante's accomodations.55-57. 46-48. Dial. We may also speculate that him that his innovativeness. Inf. Aen.3.127-28]. 53. 10. five Florentine 44. On the other hand. 13. who acknowl edges that he is innovative but still warns about innovation's dangers. The Persian word is gaza. 30) but he is silent on the subject in his comments on Farinata. Peterman. 108. prophesies the was deterioration for a of Florence through Black-White party strife.142-51. 52. 2. Cf. Thoughts. 45. 10. 43. 9. friars' on 51. 299. which Fra Dolcino led. 57. perhaps.55-60)." dling of magnanimity.61-66. I.41. but by having Dante hear Catalano rather than the reverse. and Mahomet's Fra Dolcino successful time. attempts by having which Dante recall the Comedy's beginning. Machiavelli (Dial. 189-214. 50. 10. stands in the way viewpoints: Machiavelli earlier signifies the unsatisfactory remarking on the incredibility of the Comedy's accounts of Brutus. 1(1988). Dial. The quotations from Pulci and Virgil not arise are the only ones in the dialogue that do a in the Comedy. 28. in the Dialogue." [1. The religious. 1.g. Singleton (Inferno. in the course of the Dialogue loses any sense of Dante. n. too. 26 Machiavelli notes the incredibility of Dante's citizens finding Brutus in the mouth of Lucifer.13-15. and Cacciaguida (Dial. Dial. 23.1-3. 47.xi [1. 33. Inf. "Machiavelli versus 215- 55. "Gravity and Piety: Machiavelli's Modern 1990). 46-49. Dante likens the cloaks to those which Frederick II had melted canto are underscored traitors. and particularly Christian. Davy Carozza. The replacement of Dante-Glaucus and Folco by Mahomet and Vanni Fucci recalls the replacement of the God-Man Chiron sect of by the Beast-Man Chiron of Prince XVIII. undertones of the the inclusion in their ditch of Caiaphas and other New Testament Jews responsible by for judging and delivering weight of up Jesus: they lie "crucified on the ground with three that passes over them. is the in which the pride Comedy is Fucci's is associated with (Inf. 2. Vulg. 21. Inf. Modes 46. 56. Disc. and Cacciaguida in Paradise. Inf. See Grandgent. 398) reinforces two cantos the connection between the by noting that both mention Frederick II.139- Orders. 78. 297. III. 7-18.x. 49. I. 1268b25ff. 23. It is surprising that Singleton fails to mention the delicacy of Dante's han Turn. a punishment over which the every load" stakes" and must pagan "feel the Virgil "marvels" (109-26). Machiavelli reminds of is comparable to Machiavelli's own. Tuscany. 247.92-93. Dial. 2. Dante excepted.64.29.. 43. I. The Review of Politics (Spring Larry Peterman. Dante is him to "native" a self-described Farinata by name and correctly quotes his passage. Mansfield. 28. 91-93. 55. see. He notes its opposition to pusillanimity in his comments on Virgil (Inferno. 48. 5.34 Interpretation 41.79-80. Machiavelli's point is that Dante utilizes the Florentine ciancie (light frivolous) rather than the Lombard zanze in Dante's text the word used is ciancia. Pol. "The Motif of Maturation in the Lectura Dantis Newberryana. of Tuscany and of Florence. Inf.vi. See. Dante's too rosy view is manifested in Folco's 42) of the imminent end of the corrupt government of the Church. Vanni Fucci among the thieves. or and prediction (Para. Vanni that of the Black Devil of Inf. Strauss. may remind Machiavelli through the Morgante that being new does not assure reward. Cf. 44-45) he garbles mentions his account of the friars 54.49-51. The heretical time the Apostolic set Brethren. 141. 73. Commedia. treasure. e. The passage from Pulci is the only quotation from contemporary poet.673]. 26). his to promote traditional nature of such viewpoints by 59. Dial. For Machiavelli. 24. On the connection. the five Florentine thieves. Dial. 58. See Strauss. thereby disrupting the spiritual world.119. 115-26. See Strauss. At Dial. . Machiavelli likens "citizen" a parracida and for turning upon Florence and. the statements on the documenta phylosophica and the documenta spiritualia and the Emperor and the Pope in Mon." Tuscan 19. 23. Conv. Para. Thoughts. 42. still active at Thoughts. xv. Eloq. Dante. to which Machiavelli refers in see the Castruccio Commedia. 60-61. Sinclair. 43.

Cf. 62.Dante 60." American Political Science Review. 76. Inf. . 3(1982). 63.1-12.x. On Dante and Machiavelli and certitude. I. certain" and Machiavelli 35 61. Prince XV [1. Dante announces that he intends to take a "new and then bids his audience not to at the direction his apology not tell them not to wonder. Other references and quotations in the dialogue (Dial. 39-42) suggest that Dante agree about Machiavelli their worlds being dominated by the Church.48]. 632-35. see Larry Peterman. No. At Conv. and that there is a connection between that and Ugolino's fate.2-4. 1. "Dante "marvel" path" whose end will is "not take he does and the Setting for and Machiavellianism.

.

or a typically variation on an humanism. Fall 1992. not She thus simply spirit" abstracts from the differences. gain.G. upon How could scientific method and a humane pianism guides vellian a foundation so this study. Cicero. AND THE ESSAYS Many projects commentators are somehow have wondered whether Francis Bacon's incline to say complicated traceable to Machiavelli's simpler if ruthless novelty. That an uto- leads to rest new questions. Bacon's as a Renaissance republican. Polybius. they doubt How can that Machiavelli's works contain any very original one measure or extensive plan. Faulkner Boston College I. 20. I examine with or apparently incompatible? That question care the four explicit treatments of Machia and doctrines in Essays relies on Counsels. among many other impor recommendation of a small city (for Aristotle's differences. BACON. There is another difficulty against that some contemporary scholars raise. Civil Moral and conclude that Bacon Machiavelli's fundamentals. the old mixed government set forth by Aristotle. Vol. the difference between Aristotle's character) and (which is partly attuned to diversity of ethical Machiavelli's republican state (which sets diverse passions of mixed regime tant into managed conflict). MACHIAVELLI.A. the primacy of execution and effectual and republics for Machiavelli (but for Aristotle). but attempts improved measures. Recent swer students of the Baconian political writings yes. and. Pocock's historical synthesizing is much more a self-conscious and complex theory of historical development. No.1 glancing intro a new advo and duction to Machiavellian fundamentals Fink simply interprets Machiavelli cate of others. 1 . Her arguments neglect the primacy of moral virtue and of of philosophy for Aristotle (but not for the "utilitarian princes Machiavelli). Machiavelli and his fellow Florentine intel abroad and lectuals are said to advance an Aristotelian account of the "political nature of interpretation. in J. Pocock's consideration of influential formulation? A little these views and will provide a revisions. quality of po litical life) and Machiavelli's of an expanding republican empire (for security fear. and ambition managing faction within).The Empire of Progress: Bacon's Improvement Upon Machiavelli Robert K. as Zera Fink contends. Bacon advocates an old classical civic and republican Machiavelli's innovations if Machiavelli merely republicanism.

the resulting "civic" humanism is not simple classicism. in particular it pro "Atlantic" formative civic republicanism that was hostile to the capitalism and commercialism of the liberal and individualist tradition. an have doubts array about interpretation that Pocock's bristling and explicit assump tions and presumptions. Also. from the civic neoclassicism that Pocock attrib to Machiavelli. Pocock alludes challenges slightingly to the political on contention that Machiavelli refers the "great tradition" of philosophy (he probably to conclusions in Leo Strauss's Thoughts Machiavelli). while of "error blame. He role of arms and mentions property" government. These more complications contain more difficulties than Fink's simplicities. In general. like within. Pocock misreads the character and importance of He continually inserts an into Machiavelli's advocacy of a republic that republicanism. he does not expound or confront this argument. in chapter 15. any impartial reader must rests upon destroy. self-inflated blimp. and only if men fail are they to be accused Aristotelian doctrines that for the good. "ideal" Machiavelli's participation elites of active citizen mixes peoples and in striving. Pocock is brief. "We much beholden to Machiavel to that write what do. Machiavelli do. of make use of a republic. thus." "the civic epochal. counsels and and velli's obvious his historicist theorizing gives us less of Machia more evasions and distortions. about the "balanced "dynamic in shaping the ment was vellian vided a "personality. by definition. lenic that the "Florentine intellect" mind" created and its own concepts a according to the "Hel and self-directed it inherited. passage most While summa rizing The Prince's chapters. not to say enigmatic. its portent is .38 Interpretation under special man" Christian circumstances which deny the possibility of secu lar fulfilment. It is a critique that directed at philosopher-kings and government a by gentlemen and at the comes into existence from necessity but exists reviewing chapter 3 Pocock skips over Machia velli's introductory formulations of his own foundation: "it is a very natural and ordinary thing to desire to acquire". he neglects the purpose: the critique. No than Fink does Pocock confront the differences between Aristotle's doc trines and Machiavelli's. a decayed Hegelian ism. It is the key step shared should by the later and capitalistic versions of individualism. elude or explain away the advice to princes on how to acquire." virtue. and and not what they ought This much-quoted phrase is no aside. with passengers anesthetized own comments on came to dominate the future. suggest that Bacon's Machiavelli's thought it was a turn are ing point. city Similarly. He is clearer about its future: the achieve clearly moment" which This Florentine theorizing constituted a "Machia influenced the tradition."2 and other such writers are and others decisively men correct. not least the enormous assertion." core of and this humanism. of and of an orientation seems important for his "imaginary" republics and principalities by the good rather than necessity. It is the step that utes be absent. way that protects liberty reinterpreted as He then overstates Machiavelli's devotion to a a warrant for individual He has to or republicanism." and Machiavelli legitimates acquisitiveness.

science 39 It occurs in the midst of Bacon's comprehensive development of moral in the Advancement. in the what men Advancement." Anthony opportunism Machiavellian than says "greatly influenced by Machiavelli. Commentators have century. except men Such differences are more massive all cloud the question of Bacon's Machiavellianism.4 Bacon refers to Machiavelli ten noted times. he called When in The Prince's orientation 15 philosophers' by what is in be it imaginary and advanced a new move men. even if the final counsel. In Advancement alone favorably. is do and not what wisdom accompanied by qualification: we should attend they ought to possible to join the of the serpent with do. N. to provide not least for self-preservation. his works Spedding's exam Spedding dismissed Abbot's contentions rather ple and biography have often been followed. Bacon's important works and the general tone of differ visibly from anything Machiavelli ever wrote." The quali be perfectly acquainted with the nature of evil fication might seem in the spirit of the Bible. According during to Richard Kennington. are among many impressed with the hard-nosed informing Bacon's writings on practical affairs. such as Abbott. political Machiavelli's profound revolution chapter in morality or. The works on method. and some. even apply this thought to influence on truth. finally in fear. have no Machiavellian parallel. it encapsulates morality. rather. so by success one managing the forces that really to how one should live that he "For it is far from how lives lets go of what is done for This is what should done learns his ruin rather than his presentation. itself. This is far from Bacon's only allusion to Machia velli. gives pause. Howard White.6 ter 15 of The Prince had turned to "what do" men and away from "the orders of . for a new organization of human affairs. and there differences. Paolo Rossi. Even the explicit deference to Machiavelli the status morality. Felix Raab. precisely the famous Baco nian features of the idea of progress are absent from Machiavelli's plans." according to Orsini. if only because "it is not the innocence of the dove. the end of science. Chap James airily. Still. almost always resemblance. away from Machiavelli confronted the ancient good."3 what Strauss called Machiavelli's "clarion call" of modernity: the announcement of a novel founda tion. that men devote themselves to perfect knowledge of evil ways. his lifetime seventeenth-century philosopher mention." and added an impressive the writings exhibit a "pre schemes" occupation with vast that leads to "neglect of rules of morality. Abbott thought the Es as are "the whole of Bacon's political observation: all writings. Bacon was "more Machiavelli. to take the obvious case. Suppos ing the descriptions of experimental method to be Bacon's chief contribution. who orientation. and the family Edwin Abbott in the last Orsini. Jonathan Marwil.The Empire of Progress crucial. Also. Bacon's no other so much as one open references are unprece dented among published political philosophers. Quinton in this."5 Such writers suggest that Bacon follows Machiavelli in discarding traditional scruples and ends. be of so other writers have seen that Machiavelli's' Bacon on cannot simply to affirmed.

selection of detail. On the contrary. reminiscent of Cesare Borgia reminiscent republicanism. affluence. and parentlike care. erty. I confine provides explicit references. patria. and only to references to Machiavelli by name." had "imagined exist principalities and republics that have never been seen or known to of in truth. "Of Custom Things" of (no. 39). the last two expressly. and bent on growth in empire. All take issue with Machiavelli. and naval clergy reduced. there and elsewhere. However one may explain Bacon's reti myself cence. A complete ac count would weigh the express references to what of Machiavelli in other works. This essay addresses the difficulty by investigating look at a selected number of the Baco or nian references to Machiavelli. the Essays counsel humanity. and nobles and with middle class and native encouraged wealth. All and with matters of religion or sects." Yet Bacon's New Atlantis advances an imag ined land cal future health. there are conspicuous differences between his prescriptions and Bacon's. and its very examples are often drawn from Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius. public. mention not Bacon not Machiavelli (if least in the Essays! In particular. why does by name in the most visibly Machiavellian Estates" essay. Even if Machia be thought to hide of a prescription velli might for new modes and orders beneath historical examples. which allows me the luxury I attend of close examination in a work that is nevertheless of broad scope. appear businesslike and respect able. unscrupulously warlike. To and subtle differences four doctrine. 15). peace. summarize: all references use the authority of Machiavelli to deal indirectly. Bacon prescribes a rather popular militia republic. Machiavelli's exhibit preoccupation with the strategy and meta Nor do they and popular Machiavelli's characteristic or themes: ruthless princely decisiveness. and are filled with quotations from traditional authorities. And the tacit allusions. and yet differs from him in ways that others consider fundamental. and lib of the ancient Roman re In short. a technologi heaven on earth that had not been seen or known to exist. Bacon defers to Machiavelli in ways that some consider fundamen tal. None of Ba con's works exhibits phor of war. The price of these restrictions is real. "Of Sedition and (no.40 Interpretation who others. three times of directly of and once occur amidst crucial Nature" discussions fundamentals Troubles" "Goodness Goodness and of Education" (no. I the references in the Essays Coun sels. and "Of Vicissitude With (no. population. to the four essays in which Bacon I can ponder progress of of reasoning. although on the basis of a fundamen imperial tal agreement. 13). Julius Caesar. Civil and Moral alone. Bacon seems impressed with the . Machiavelli. 58). The surface of Bacon's more practical works descriptions lacks the ruthlessness for which The Prince and the Discourses are infamous. "Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms of and essays (no. The result seems to vindicate the experiment. 29)? This is one the two central essays we count the 58 that Bacon included in the definitive 1625 edition) and the longest one.

liberty. as in numbers 15 ferocity.7 unjust' ("Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature. in prey to 13). links Bacon's vision of scientific progress to a series of growing and businesslike nation-states." "ferocious." of no. The 2. Yet Bacon corrects Machiavelli's calculations about the sect will glorify." Machiavelli traces the difference to sacrifices "bloody" and in pagan religion. encourages and kings to be parental. Essay 13 advises the adoption of a humane cause that retains rather Christian charity. is but abject. Bacon thought that his progress appeals more combination of civil nation-state with visionary and broadly and than Machiavelli's mixture of republican empires with modes of rising safety. It incorporates Machiavellian realpolitik in a subordi Baconian movement of enlightenment.The Empire of Progress glory that attends 41 be the head of a conquering political or sect. Machiavelli indicates in population and private acqui repeatedly that sitions. in general a management of hopes than fears. Machiavelli in the Essays is as a a theological The irony barely original glosses in fact it occurs Christianity." "had the confidence to put in writing. is a tyrannical ruler." which glorifies does a not celebrate except humble. THE POLICY OF HUMANITARIANISM "And one of the doctors of Italy. The thinking man should the comprehensively calculating templative philosopher. Machiavelli's Discourses. Number 13 or pagan whole. almost in plain 'That the Christian faith had those that are tyrannical and up " good men terms. Bacon's first introduction authority. not the comprehensively con virtue. Nicholas given Machiavel. and liberty a means to growth that a conquering republic and a regulated populace. II. The II. is his that an aura of end. but the glory that ensures preserva tion. . especially. upheld in Bacon's time. is Essay 39 criticizes the way to undermine an old order and engender a new. which celebrated worldly glory. True.8 indictment telling blow at in Dr. Economic more Essay 15 development. suggesting instead revolution through the society that affords opportunities. as opposed to the delicate equivalents in "our religion. accentuates It is startlingly ruthless. quietly. democratic toward nobles "ferocity" passage celebrates and contrasts democratic liberty and the freedom of ancient war like the peoples with modem servile peoples. especially in business. better hides its founder's ambition. Together such new na customs of a civil tions can spread an imperial sect and overcome the Christianity that Spain. other-worldly nate place within a better imitates the successful Christian vision of an provider. The last essay. "magnificent. and contemplative men. He plans a calcu lated bold liberty But these suggestions come only after praise of bold militancy. Machiavelli's bloody words. number 58. than partisan. peoples. neither does the Essays as and 29. not truth man.

is biblical. senses and portrays development." or perhaps seed. such as Bacon then slips in self-regard as a limit upon regard others. the Christianity's essays. who don't ask questions and then says that charity of except error. Having revamped the second commandment. Bacon missed to withdraw from Machiavelli's if the reader has his substitution of goodness Christianity tue charity with goodness rather moves on for charity and his identification of than Christ. guage "barley-corn.42 Interpretation Bacon veils his militancy. Regard instead the basic needs satisfied by common and basic supplies." will avoid way. politics and Yet White's accounts neglect the locus classicus of Baconian on one's own humanitarianism. as "a political the "unwitting charity recruit followers and as "depersonalized charity." religion "sect" Apart from identifying essays religion" as. typically. "For divinity provision maketh the love of ourselves the pattern: the love of our neighbors but the portraiture." weapo the spirit of capitalism. or That is. of Machiavellianism and shows is revised to support the Accord Bacon's ing to Howard White's seminal and moderation of science. acquisitions. appears best. Then Bacon gifts. by love of self. after That big qualification of the goodness scandal becomes thematic Bacon Bacon turns "to scandal of avoid the and the danger ger of both. or mere inequalities. Bacon replaces the first and fundamental commandment with a foundation in the self. and toward a this social tool of political acquisitiveness. of The revolutionary implications the lord thyself are quickly developed: . He proceeds in an Machiavelli's way and the dan indirect way characteristic of all and but a few Essay 13 exemplifies both Bacon's humanitarianism how each his hard-nosed other. It turns humanitarianism toward self-reliance. and cautions against regard equal for "faces" "fancies. a mere (he develops this in charge 16 17). their rare needs. by his own respectable-sounding "Which he spake. like for The lan food. the imperial study humanitarianism was part acquisitive spirit of Machiavelli's essay 13. because indeed there was never law or sect or opinion did much explanation: so magnify "the Christian and goodness as the Christian at doth. but the words are profound blasphemy."9 Essay Christian 13's first description name of of philanthropia abstracts from the distinctively divine soul. He follows his display of Machiavelli's scan dalous indictment. admits of no goodness to say that "answers to" the theological vir for those excess. disregard men appear to wish or say they wish. charity Bacon's restatements and from its move for those sharing a first to compassion for common bodily pious spirit: care needs and then very delicately to self-advancement as the means of providing. if he does not make it thematic He to of eventually defines Baconian charity uncharitably. and love God. In even fact White ." Love of neighbor for God's sake has been of replaced by for human necessities for one's own. The essay begins with this sly goodness identification." men's or one should for precious what for distribution of things.

chapter of this criticism of and both Aristotelian toward humanity. Depersonalized charity is so channeling desires to provide for needs. be on the grandest especially blunt. "wife children. Bacon active good equates turns out to be private domination with this divine power ("the true the- . various advantages of marriage. "He that hath wife and children essay 13 ap hath of hostages to fortune. must be governed more relies by hope. that are stand Bacon firm. and the no. a "wise and for ships. 9) is inclined to slander things established ("Of envy mischief.10 liberality this movement an unChristian Christian charity charity." These "dispositions are the very errors of human yet nature" so deeply does the error of goodness go "and they are the fittest timber to make great politics of." policy." It is Machiavellian. that is good shall ordained to is what be tossed. place. "A from man shall see men. for they are impediments to Yet "Of Marriage and Single virtue or mischief. that The profoundly given evil teaching barely breaks the surface of pears as muffled effects on earlier essays. as Clifford quiet called and Machiavellian But Bacon's insinuations. 7) discusses coolly kind of discipline to control.The Empire of Progress advancement." malignity. Concentrate on providing for and oneself by a "vocation": "for otherwise in feeding the streams one driest the fountain. but not for building houses. in season. focus on economic needs and attitudes are some way from The Prince." great enterprises either Life" (no. Orwin has 17 restatements. Children generally should be bred to "careers" in "courses" and "dispositions" today. Upbringing and is reshaped to foster mutually ("Of Custom Education. like to knee timber. nature tends most clearly toward "a Envy. While conspicuous other and their relation." and humanity. and both have a place in his politics." deeper sort of and to engage sort of malignancy is inclined to envy. Whatever be the of some natural toward goodness. the and roles cial word might be rather than of character or useful vocations ways of the Lord." He advances both humanity humanity has the malignity." malignant. as ineffectual." The politic man can use for example. The message but bad by nature. Bacon on Essay 13 lacks that chapter's spectacular theme: men by cruelty than by humanity. "are a family life for social have or Similarly." the noblest works and foundations encourages a proceeded ualistic childless not austere Yet Bacon democratic and individ family. that Richard Hooker called Machiavelli. The scale. 13 while Essay contains a managing both with fearsome passage even humanity. as it A deeper were. malignity is the foundation that shapes the Malignity accounts for the leader's humanity. is the point. good. men in other calamities in mere "Such men's are. especially the policy of The occasional. no." to passive good. and hierarchical but engage rather equal "vocations" indulgent. more open statement Advancement's discussion of "active comes 39). not 43 love. appears outside of as opposed the civil Essays. hidden by its show of humanity is that or "habit" that few commentators note it and great politic selves are not good "disposition" fewer weigh it. because more by fear than more indirectly than Machiavelli on fear and more di a show of so rectly hope.

the medicines and hospitals. are converted from their old faith by the humanity of new ways: the hospitality. as a test of goodness. If he be The language compassionate toward the to could remind of the hospitality Bensalem."" The founder of Bensalem's scientific establishment. by Stranger's House and Solomon's House." Neither hath this case it hath an active good any identity with the good of society. cast ashore. Solamona. though society. joins to them. . This whole. and jests truth. though in some incidence into it. in Bacon about "a real needs. Wright) conclusion of good of society. For although it do many times bring forth acts of beneficence." "wish to be an anathema phrasing of "St. a condemnation of Christ. according to their to active which we own humors (which it recedeth is the true theomachy). II The 1. Pilate. indeed in the Essays as a quotes Christ's killer. gratitude a for small benefits. but afflictions a continent that of others. glory. who would in smaller have all men happy to unhappy as they were their friends or enemies. ed. easy pardon and remission of of fenses. in Bacon's New Atlantis. Paul's from Christ for the salvation of his a peculiar brethren. yet it is with a respect private . is a gigantic passion a to form the world for oneself although Bacon finally of issues foggy qualification (which "we have determined") on behalf "society. Christian Europeans. such as was Lucius Sylla and infinite model." dealing Humanity is conspicuous. (Advancement. "If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers. of with strangers to progress: "join are humanity and policy The governor-father of a parade that the cool intimations that policy governs. regard for others' "shows" man. amplification. the affluence and parentlike provision of a civil land strangers afforded on of the island infused the with humane science and technology. and would give form to the world. had laid down the way together. to a man's own power. continuance For that gigantine state of mind which possesseth other the troublers of the world. humanitarian. it shows a citizen of the world." The complex prose twists a New Testament passage to require. the benevolent scientific establishment is first shown in narrator sees to be a While the great figure "shew. The first line claim the first essay at Christ's to be witness to the A very elliptical conclusion of essay 13 may intimate a new." There . faith: the place of goodness in building houses after tougher men have estab lished he is a foundation. and.44 Interpretation which omachy"). its new sense of essay 13 shows how one who would be politic can use the It may hint at Bacon's own use. The topic: what goodness. have determined to be the greater. It is probably not coincidence that Bacon once calls his comprehensive advancement of science a "citizen of world. perfection. ." mentions various aspects compassion (or exhibitions) of goodness: courtesy to strangers and toward the afflictions of others. furthest from good of xxi pretendeth and aspireth good. and that his heart is no island cut off from other lands. confirms Bacon's of procedure in essay 13.

it can also serve its turn III. of hope. league was turned upon himself. Bacon was impressed by Christ's worldly success. says in the essay on "Seditions and from hopes to hopes. for first himself presently after the same no. perhaps. Like Machiavelli. the for the future is the deepest art of and the politics of progress. themselves as a party and lean to side. Unlike Not affections."12 Like Machiavelli. 15). when princes. at least. True. "is the most useful of all The management of wishes satisfaction. One ." poison of Like many an antidote. ("Of Seditions and 15) Machiavelli for a a statement misses Bacon praises and I cannot find in The Prince or Discourses mendation of neutrality that princely decisiveness. hopes. he traces the success to Christ's promise of satisfaction. passages suggest that one should deal with a disunited city by killing putting by 27). can come for Machiavelli's 15 suggests conspicuous recom Essay that great sedition and means of satisfaction people. A face philosopher "sages" shows a which addressing an interna "had become habituated to the pity."13 Machiavelli. Bacon can supply an analogous vision of future fear but hope. Bacon's description singles out of artifice the appearance: stronger he has "an aspect as if he men. it is as a boat that is over-thrown by uneven weight on the one side." great authority from a teaching that displays the or. do not remain neutral in wars among join the war the leaders of the parties (Discourses your neighbors III.The Empire of Progress appears 45 compassionate. men the politic and artificial nourishing Bacon carrying a poison. an indi rect and future satisfaction of the strongest passion. the Refutation of Philosophies. 21). that a ought to be common parents. is. to master the envelopment of of because he had yet daring plans in the mantle of tradition and the half-light tional convention expression of of insinuation." "Certainly. "and against antidotes the as discontentments. SEDITION BY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Also. but take a side and (Prince. Troubles. is one of the best Troubles" entertaining of (no. make as Machiavel noteth well. as Paolo Rossi suggests." league for the extirpation of the Protestants. That like the Aristotelian mover. each of these counsels is quietly qualified. fear of death. Thus or princes might appear as prime "shepherds of the essay's first words. as was well seen in the time of entered Henry the Third of and France. he writes elsewhere. also one's own shows used as metaphor roles of for a prince. one can appropriate for glory the benevolent ence: sect god and mover of nature. The essay the new political sci the formula for a transforming irreconcilable human divisions division of of class and into The analogous mutually Machiavellian or useful labor and advancement." pitied The hint is in a similar phrase from an earlier never published Baconian work. Bacon this pungent little piece.

" much Is this If Bacon encourage royal and episcopal passivity. if only Troubles. Machiavelli had for rule to advance guided rulers to expand war." That summarizes what the earlier established hierarchy toward an equality. often violent conspiracies Machiavelli returned only briefly to urge upon princes a doubt postpone action until Troubles. sacred. perhaps over a allies. and the longest in the Dis courses. The previous essay ("Of "democracies" note of certain respects. it is self-assertion of one's a dominates. he accomplishes sedition under cover of prevention. rather than blasphemies against God or treason against king and estates. But how can kings two and estates be made so of speech dumb to as to be so passive? Bacon de will suggest ways: blandness Bacon and veil sedition and economic velopment to insinuate it. on brink. alien of sedition by slander. sets forth a sect. is identified or by but Bacon as the origin of seditions. more established (and less Machiavellian) Bacon's preliminary wave of Discourses II. are greatest "when things grow to equality"." that "reverence is that wherewith princes are girt from He had already insinuated a fundamental heresy or sedition. eventually shown to and be li products of centious The sign of tempests in states is libels of sedition as earth against discourses (fraudesque in the Latin saying Bacon supplies). those ambitious on conspiracies by hidden Machiavelli's discourse (III. Bacon says. and nobility. Sedi name against what men's tion is inevitable natural. "utility is their 14) bond. he reduces to exploitation and illusion the that do old order's devotions to Nobility. Thus he will not drive them to union and may favor the not weaker so as to weaken both. he and notes both that open discords that "reverence of government is God. Bacon reduces the state traduced.46 Interpretation Machiavelli of suspects leading on. the greatest is when the most honorable. or females Bacon calls them. A prince dealing with a disunited free city may hold it as a benefactor by being an arbitrator between the parties." to weaken both. corresponds to Bacon's "Of Seditions from ful defending princes to against princes. a the other hand. When confronting and teachings. Tempests in states. or authoritatative acts of a "are taken in ill sense. with a first scription: relax. 6). are closer to point. by war. the topic is tempests of state. A Virgilian origin of fame." not need a nobility. Yet these discourses recommend a as expedient and prudent adoption of both sides. and do to obviously deal with "Of Seditions and human religious sects. It is from start to finish about seditious slanders and envies which are speeches. the rebellion of the gods. 21 and 25. pre took and not Essay much 15 follows its first diagnosis. a prince ought a pacifier? to avoid "too can severity" too "disputing. context corrects Just in this Machiavelli. signal In the sequel." passivity: let them they obtain full knowledge. . by contrast." divinity no. the guise of gods being form of domination by fame. especially between plebs and nobles. truth and goodness. It turns quickly encouraging conspiracies. despite attacks upon the supports of royalty lost" and religion. and essays attempted.

Bacon advances a familiar revolution General preservatives turn out to general promise institutions of a progressive everywhere to encompass economy and movement. government. sedition" The first three in organizing attacks preservatives treat material cause of and consist estate. of Essay 15 discusses the materials. political agenda of stock. a prince should be common parent and avoid being a religious partisan." The his political quality. which and before. less. counsel.The Empire of Progress Bacon writes more troubles. and manufactures and idleness faces: he attacks overgrown "scholars. then sets restructure justice." economy to conquer "want and poverty in the Bacon waxes enthusiastic in praise of trade. the old pillars for a new civil order. population growth. the causes and motives." and the justice state." or vaguely stated as injustice of discontents or dangerous forces in motion Bacon does not a even and their strength: "prince. from aristocracy." Al and his de euphemistically of "seditions and meanor throughout the essay is of a counsellor preventing troubles." and the last a politic of hope. fosters quickly should anticipate puts political men and vague inevitable forces. the Baconian conclusion. This prescription may not solve particular problems of departs in principle from the Aristotelian of diagnosis of civil strife strife in the fifth book the Politics. had which had examined especially remedies now between democrats in and oligarchs and commended different be the for different regimes and circumstances. not of a rebel stirring them up." and regard for democracy. "enricheth a state It is a worthy slogan for the political economists to come. and the remedies sedition. as well as for natural scientists more. and would separate kings from support of suit." forth a general diag into nosis and supports "general preservatives" that." preservatives": a general solution that particular states. He of acknowledges a long list motives" of sedition." Bacon great spells out the premise of this attack upon produces great leisurely or pious activities: opus. While Machiavelli a vague in fear of insecurity hopes for "causes victories and inevitable war. for "materiam superabit industry superior to the material and." "fears. in effect. institutions that both the many and the few. He acknowledges slyly that a unworthy "just must answer to the "particular yet he sets forth "general now omits mentioned persons" cure" the justice oppression" disease. the first four encourage economic growth prescribes Of four nine "general preservatives. civilization. Bacon in a war on poverty." bent on conquering nature. neverthe their supports." economy sur "an "the multiplying of nobility and other degrees of an and excess of clergy. especially in "the the most ambitious men. the fifth nourishing an "moderate liberty. His counsel is of unity." Work is gains. enter upon or "discontentment. The crucial is neediness. for they bring nothing to the and waste. Essay 15 uses an example of a democratic . but includes "general of "advancement as central. not violence. and church. Instead. less of the articulate few than of "matter" the many. The rest of as treasure the the essay follows four "pillars of Bacon lists religion. This counsel.

48 Interpretation recently freed from Christian Spain: the Low Countrymen have "the in the They are the same democracies alluded world. Riches capital for producing further beginning being of the essay plays with moral and religious strictures on wealth-getting. Later. The (no. especially nobles. Bacon encourages the rich. 58). discontented will in their security. 41) encourages the monied to of become financiers arts and trade and manufactures. barely in name." in the Canaries. or pleasure. can evolve as if by chance. and their new order. lacking gentlemen." 19. the remainder shows "The fortune in the first in an how really to pile it up. A growing middle class and a democratization of war." be to "money is like muck. and reformers can avoid corresponding the risks Bacon rarely mentions democracies or republics and discusses the pos sibility warring for liberty only with the greatest reticence (no." republic best mines above ground to in essay 14. redistribution. Therefore if a man can play the true logician. Spanish or of Christian. will occasion great wars (no. if frugal. "Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates" 29) encourages small farmers and merchants. New hopes and new discoveries Riches" economy and new men." The reason investment-oriented Lord Keynes: spread. 28) encourages self-made breed riches from their vocations. judgment matters. men. not good except it Machiavelli himself had so praised republics: free peoples and lib in wealth and population. 29). Perhaps Bacon's new science even "toys" be made to appear such a project. and given over to produc tion. not least young merchants and of new can enliven a new are not improvements. especially if the times be Even the judgment of kings may be thus won to patronize the new logic of science as well as the new science of economics. 33) prescribes colonies of the very plain and the very indus devout trious. thematically economic essays develop Bacon's hopes dle can of various new parties who can advance without plan. however. becoming "Of (no. 19) notes great as invention. they are riches. no. and the Letter (compare "Of Essay 58 calls it a Dedicatory to the Great Instauration). "Of Empire" (no. 34). The third the an preservative draws a political conclusion. to invest their money in such foreign of ventures. are moved to patronize distinguish them and bring them fame. despite his clear awareness that the breakup of the old empire. as it was with the first sugar to have as man well fit. Among the means: invention or in a privilege doth cause sometimes a wonderful overgrowth in riches. Empire. "Above things" all keep is worthy of "treasure monies" and of a state from "few hands. he may do that that can kings. Kings "toy" . thus a means economic growth can itself be an object of royal patronage and to republics. erated acquisitiveness encourage growth According Bacon. This. of the mutual system of exchange and the mid Expense" class. "Of Plantations" (no. That is a theme in "Of for leisure. They nourish the themselves. or independent (no. who. as well as "strangers" immigrants who can perform more delicate manufactures. "Of Usury" (no.

by satisfaction. "Of the Riches" True Greatness of Kingdoms Estates" (no. Machiavelli's sharp speeches. drive from him the followers whom Bacon's project can satisfy. we are between "noblesse. however. perhaps because their revolutionary import is hard to hide. Bacon also keeps up correspondence with leaders of a like state of mind. "And when it is a certain signe. of a wise when government. such king. preservatives The three final deal with They slip from preventing unity or of the the managing of extraordinary hopes. and keep presents a crucial Machiavelli as an example of the advice to be taken from in hope. factions. whose fortunes may that compre- . advance. reserving the revamping of visionary hope for "Of hopes. but that it hath some outlet of Essay 15 stops there. and religion in general. "how people. and it for monarchs to seek "the is" commonaltie. which qualifies his preliminary elevation of democracy.The Empire of Progress may patronize 49 the economic and technical powers that undermine kingly power. including great scientists. as no evil shall appear so peremptory. and when it can hope. Essays 16 and 17 take Christianity under cover of a skirmish with atheism and superstition. good will of the common preservatives quickly and elliptically. 35) and New Atlantis. such as the theologian Richard Hooker had sought in the 1590s. enlightened kings. 48). cal grounds another anti-aristocratic The fourth quietly advances on politi policy: the few are chiefly to blame for This shows. the general preserva tives advanced rates more by traditional political philosophy and theology. Bacon elabo can how hopes it be managed to regulate liberty. nobles. The last that Bacon. and of such as economic and political advancement. and admirers of ancient Bacon keeps enemy philosophy. to avoiding sharp speeches that cut off the hopes of followers for their own prose dictatorships places. from a unity beneath the Church of England. it can hold men's hearts by handle things. in such manner. Preservatives four through nine deal with "removing discontentments" those. hopeful beneath an enemy of the state. saying few friends. The "Princes" is terse." who can repress seditions against "the state" and keep corre "other great men in the state. and compre hensive Bacon chiefs such as Machiavelli. Bacon concludes friendship is only between "superior and inferior. In "Of Followers of Friends" and (no." told. to shows a prince's need for a valiant defender. and ordinary hope for discussions of "Of (no. despite his more pacific counsel of unity. "military spondence with person. It liberty" Bacon sets forth the last five also replaces moderation. other than poverty. strife safe one might say. and History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh. 29)." Perhaps Bacon is that "great kings on with val a shepherd of peoples who also can aid enlightened orous speeches like the ensuing as essays. need a follows Machiavelli in understanding his person" crusade as a war. a Immediately after taking Machiavelli's advice. virtue. 34). "Moderate is the central prescription." Prophecies" (no. cannot and proceeding.

it be there nature nor to the bravery the words. is difficult. ("Of Custom and 39) reference This third is the first to criticize Machiavelli the explicitly. except by custom." engagement of words. Bacon develops this implicit criti of and approves his general rule as to correcting Machiavelli's rule to extol the force of In his quick and quiet way Bacon has involved us in one passages from a writer known for nastiness. for example. murdered the politic Henry III of France. nor the Education. His instance is. especially a religious man. People may become land" . adviser to tyrants. his rule still that nature. they are. or his hath had his hands nor a undertakings. Machiavelli had underestimated the power of other worldly assassins. Confusion brain can in mind. the with aid Pelopidas. nor a Baltazar Gerard. Machiavelli calls by "custom. who liberated his "native from ten one Chiron. Bacon Machiavelli force cism of custom. the very king Bacon mentioned in essay 15 when he used a similar politic "noteth relieves well" to criticize a policy of siding with a sect. accustoming cause foolish speech. rather than desperate measure. IV. III 6. The turn to words is important. impiety Bloody and immorality." kings. however. quence of the responsibility Machiavelli erred about the force of a conse Still. experienced (isperimentati). Friar Clement. Nevertheless. the job more also requires men "experi in such murders. But Machiavelli knew not of a yet Friar Clement. Machiavelli has of men by speech. no. but inefficacy bloody conspiracies are not said to be evil. namely. that for such an one as conspiracy. The context is again the discussion of conspiracies in Discourses. resolute a man should not rest upon achieving of a desperate the fierceness of any man's nature. of Bacon criticizes not a prince's impiety as a and immorality. his error about the force of hope. The examples and of include two disciples tyrants of Plato." hend." of the nastiest not exactly for different customs. Machiavelli immediately turns to conspirators who are moved by words to attack a number of tyrants. but for men tried. holdeth Ravillac. Murdering a revered man. CUSTOM AS THE BUSINESS OF REGULATED OPPORTUNITY And therefore. in bloody deeds. Besides. The four that Bacon names were all Catholic assassins of "desperate. it is hard to be altogether bad. devotion.50 Interpretation other. Since "majesty" even accustomed of some great killers are often bewildered by the "reverence" and enced" target. In welcoming assassins as a matter of course. Jauregay. but take formerly nor a in blood. as Machiavel is no trusting to the force of corroborate well noteth (though in an evil-favored of instance). such as "Traitor!". which warns the victim. the one the Bacon means to comprehend Machiavelli's civil cru sade within his progressive movement. experience in murdering the revered is hard to come by and the first such murder hard to account for. are not so forcible as custom.

they are but the effect of some one's calculation or custom. now except for an implicit One pursuits dig at "the most effectual means. santly. all examples of disdain by the religious for their own deaths. the prediction the Perhaps his fear He seems reflect a greater estimate of men" power of custom. will but the be shrewdly of chosen so as not to alarm. to describe "nature in as and but body with passion or force (no. raiseth. and rely on "society." The velli for Bacon is how to institute He follows his advanced. immediately before "Of Custom scribed all Education").wholly son. and zealotry to a discussion He even since custom (not God) to "is the principal magistrate of man's customs." example teacheth. Machiavelli's writings. the "business" inces mer This suspicion is heightened chant is the most prominent civil by New Atlantis. least to be suspects that can Bacon a wishes associations various and for gain: businesses." After thus hinting at the secrets of the church (and of the roots well ordained and goodness). Bacon reduces religious disputation of custom. more not least in overcoming other worldly empire." left obscure in this essay. and financiers. it may be the same as the universal nature de in the Plan for the Great Instauration and in the New Organon. company comforteth. 40). In places word Essays chants. but their deeds suitable they have Machia been accustomed. discourse and speeches are after as to their learning problem infused opinions. The ambiguous Education" beginning are much to "Of Custom and may their imply as much: "Men's thoughts according according to their and inclination. more and replacement. (no. that appears distinctly human is . the essays on custom fortune (no." Bacon may originate the Effective custom is "custom collegiate. emulation quickeneth. . let men by all means endeavor obtain good While other essays prescribe what customs are effective: start useful. young. manufacturers. to the ends. 38. tyrants. 39). If our deeds are not products of invented. in which a Jewish figure among the Bensalemites. making one's Nevertheless.The Empire of Progress experienced words must or accustomed 51 by ruthless words about bloody deeds." life. and which combine advice to republican conspirators help an and harden the variety followers to come. Useful commends recurs mer discipline people. that customs. which failed to solve." as Five examples of custom's even "reign tyranny" or follow. criticism of Machiavelli thus: "superstition as is now so well men of the first blood are firm butchers. Bacon fears superstition from his hope special than does Machiavelli and hopes for of progress. says. enlarged estimate of custom Advancement of Learning is explicit as to Bacon's compared to Aristotle's (II xxii 8). are applied. Bacon dwells on the role of "societies depend disci Governments and commonwealths mind are on seeds otherwise planted. If so. What societies Bacon has in the churches: desired. essay 39 indicates chiefly how to make them mutual interaction what we and he call usage." copulate and conjoined and because "there glory of plined. including speech or rea impulse.

which follows. business. then much of Bacon's reformulation of religion. shows the "compound available in the new society." They slide and "Of puts it. among and of the advantages. any sense Here he elaborates the difference between Baconian self-reliance and of goodness. yet with a slide and easiness that come from transforming distaste for a necessity into Age" priority. Self-reliance "goodness" be customary. A number of "virtues. because they come home to men's bosoms. Among the disadvantages are the damp "invents. encourages customs that do not scandalize. seems more of settled business than of daring as military Accordingly." is based on wary and anxious neediness of ("Of Nobility. Bacon indicates that and age is an excellent composition for business." no. do re not place one's thoughts too far outside oneself. Bacon places virtue with ability to and succeed. next The two essays explore the systematic connections between individual society. It begins against arguments. 17). disadvantages advantages of lending at interest. Perhaps later intellectuals slight the artifice "society. the dedication says. and economic science association 41) say little about companies or enterprises. economics. the older as young may be judicious before their time his examples are generals emperors but he confines himself to supposing that "heat and vivacity in some The young commonly will shine on executives or managers. 40) exhibits the chief opinion to be infused with social should the mold of a man's fortune is in his as own hands. exploits. rebuttal an argument from the "necessities" of lending borrowing and at by rebutting interest. religious and moral in tenor. The Essays business popular. 41) shows how the author of an himself seven by is showing others how to advance themselves. improvements of and new inventions". (no." involved in the invention Fortune" and preservation of society. "Of custom: (no. he favors projects" as combative but inventive and open to "new or "new things. and utility ("Of less businesses advances I suggest. ethics. can no. 42). do or rather faculties customs." ing of "industries.52 Interpretation (no. is rather democratic and has the bond fosters than a that he a self-reliant opportunism? world of calls Bacon." and or make men fortunate. to lose. and two are crucial: not be too devoted to country Bacon master." While both he His society and Machiavelli the praise young over old. What Superstition. Bacon intimated this he transformed (no. the inventive side. are and however. have "a do not lead toward as wars that the politiques are Fortune" likely easiness." "young our a merchants" "industrious Before eyes. and profitable the encouragement improvements. The lending. em "Of Youth ployments" and (no." young not This . Businesses discipline us in a world of business If this is true. Bacon then and strictly from the viewpoint of economic progress. ism and businesslike "Of Usury" One connection is the art or science of eco art can advance nomics. Bacon overturns moral and religious moneylenders and invents a comprehensive custom for civil society. and politics is designed to promote what we often take for granted as society or civil society. 13). Like Machiavelli. 14). Bacon is more reserved.

Perhaps the new project of progress. In ef Bacon adopts Machiavelli's treatment of Christianity in Discourses II. as it appeared in the succession of Sabinian. Bacon is silent about the patronage of Greek and Roman philosophy and art. has just The asserts what is close to the Machiavellian statement that he questioned: greatest vicissitude of things amongst men. he underestimated its capacity . in any its truth. traducing Gregory the Great that he did what in heathen antiquities. again tacitly denying its claim to be the exists when a pope one and catholic cal after faith. Atlantis. the Latin Essays indicates that his "revival" alleged of antiquities was but the creeping out Renaissance of things forbidden. except for adding a fraudulent retraction that itself mirrors Machiavelli's hints popes' about the impotence Bacon of the unarmed conqueror. 5. name). 58) great effects. a pope whom its predecessors. is designed especially for year. Pope appears defender Gregory the Great Machiavellian event. this pope seems best known for introduc ing the ringing bells at canonical hours for celebration of the eucharist. is the vicissitude of sects and religions. misleading. As Machiavelli an old overestimated Chris tianity's disposition to transform sect. For these orbs rule in men's minds most. He in fundamentally defends Christianity's weakness dealing fying things one Sabinian (also former of sect. "your young shall see visions" rather than merely dream. ("Of Vicissitude of no. any did revive the former antiquities. fect. The paragraphs between dubious correction and imitative paraphrase are Ba con's serious correction of Machiavelli. I do not find that those zeals do who Things. He defends Christianity's efficacy for empire." last long. a real of impiety There is name. slanders. and yet it indicates of opinion as difference.The Empire of Progress openness are 53 as may show foolishness: "for the politic. Like Machiavelli. the adven world and The Europeans in the story left from the far were prepared to sail. as a and defends it barely closely viewed. while tacitly confirming his in the lists less here than Bacon against and not meets the eye. and by digni Bacon deprives of the name) for saving with and of a Actually. This second criticism distances Bacon from Machiavelli's own more respectable name. The defense is. sect." part" moral the older for "the His example: the young are superior. nor The fourth and last reference to Machiavelli occurs in the final and culminat ing and essay. for a edge of the known V. over uncharted seas. Besides. as portrayed in the visionary half-light of New turous young. that the jealousy of sects doth much extinguish the memory lay to extinguish all things. STATES AND STATES OF LEARNING As for the him observation that Machiavel of hath. after a two-paragraph intermission. He defends (while not defending the ecclesiasti having heretofore favored the Protestants.

plagues. This invention earth. as are the Advancement of Learning. Advancement of Glory science is the profit." by profiting in standing at a stay in such. One can predict floods." By serving mankind the scientist can obtain affluence and are revered the Fathers of Solomon's House and glory of leading mankind." inventors. Bacon's for the of the rules and rites of Solomon's House. however. in Bensalem. human sects. the other for "statua's of all principal ment description in scientific establish one galleries. knowledge than by as scientist. however. In such generalizations will be found the true prime for man intimated in essay 15: he ple. such as shows Plato's supposition of natural cycles." will not endure. begins with "two very long and fair best inventions."14 "fortune-teller". 19) had suggested that kings." . Bacon's is part of a sect which the world. learned. or Aristotle's prime mover. rather than alleged causes of eternal nature. In another work." Every reward inven and a tion earns the inventor both a liberal of statue. especially knowledge." The first of these intervening paragraphs is "I's. is the how political science of causing "new sects. Bacon's correction is a to find the causes in nature for effects useful to man. for exam and control some of their effects. sequel reveals Bacon's fundamental science. the Bensalem. The art of prediction affords a tool Machiavelli lacked. Bacon himself observing useful causes and effects and then generalizing about them. however to provide against an were of arts or mind: "toys" established. a tool that (no.54 Interpretation new science able to be transformed into a new sect. not natural disasters. The illustrations feats "of the Essay 58 suggests a that is an art of the the art of prediction and of inven tion. brings advancement of the not things. Empire" the decisive causes of oblivion. The last of the rules useful of the rites is the distribution of largess. which may be of a degree honorable monetary richness ranging up to and gold. in general. The two astronomy as His toy can master for prominent and and can engage the patronage of both the the paragraphs are directed to those tempted by the old learning. Thus the first advantage of Bacon's But it can influence natural vicissitudes that are Machiavelli could not. Bacon shows prominent persons relying on reliance on such "toys. can be pre sented as leading by The regular progress to a new heaven on natural science Like Machia to velli's political rule science. "The of man principle" appeared in "Of Empire": the small "is more cheered and refreshed great. "toy" seek incessant fear that their fame hand. however. correction: can move nature for his benefit. the New an empire of Organon. The leading and so scientists periodically bestow "natural divinations diseases. As a nation-state growth attracts the statesman. the project of the learned. in powerful advancing in knowledge is to wealth and power attract the curious and studious. Bacon provides a niche for those who would otherwise fall for mind the charms of philosophy. "Of well for getting glory by manipulating hope. he discredits tune. and." studded with It shows to learn causes of useful effects.

While Bacon helps Machiavelli ates contribute to the oblivion of the Greek language. stuffed with Latin quotations. aggressive commerce. To supplement state is needed White's thesis. being in "the universal may last as long "as books than an English kingdom and its dukes. 5)."17 that Bacon's universal science calls for a "world community" "world Yet White prominent acknowledges that New Atlantis hints at a pervasive hidden state. The title: "That and changes of sects languages. 16 Both are among their most writings. Bacon. Bacon's essay each invents a new sect or civilization to rule Machiavelli is more nearly direct in title and text. advancing declining useful in turn. presumably. of expressly "the Bacon allows this contention philosophers'" to the eternity of the Greek philosophy to quotations must be made or conquered. In an himself into the power of Latin as of into the circles of the ironic dedication. a nasty cut.5. Machia change of not. and. progressive civilization devoted to Amidst discourse a rational explanation of sects or and religions. that the matter is in a . Machiavelli's men's minds. upon which White and Kennington do not comment. compare essay 58 as a whole to the corresponding Machia discussion in Discourses. that separately harbor the science. an abstruse astrologer who reads rather like Aristotle. Contrary to Plato. longer. Machiavelli did not. however. At the contention as start of his argument he confronts appear only in from Seneca. twice and ex pressly. Plato. Richard Kennington has argued that an imperial to overcome the world of independent nation states. like Machiavelli. together things" with the accident of floods and plagues." It is difficult to vellian cryptic shocking intimations. destroy the memories of (II.The Empire of Progress forth. It is the scientists 55 art of prediction can that is the scientists' power." White goes on to infer from Bensalem's the absence of political coercion. "certain it is. and no one Baco writing that prescribes or expects world government or world community. and at industrial and scien tific espionage to build up Bensalem at the expense of other countries. care and by Bacon of lead them. at merchants. The pioneering study of Bacon's mix of state and by Howard White. bar to the but a charm to the learned. imperialism. at new and terrible weapons. he sets forth a Baconian "imperialism of the human that and wins sect is mind" by "subversion. 5). probably because in both shocking statements cover more authors' language. Bacon took to put his chief serving the books in the language velli the learned. "world utopia is imposed by imperial power. He finally confutes Plato. blamed language for oblivion of memories version of Essay 58 does a Even the English unlearned the Essays is (Discourses II. Essay 58. maintains that immortality world. he insinu learned. he of assures the Duke Buckingham that "the Latin volume" the last" Essays." Yet Bacon reduces humanitarianism to has shown a a policy for domination nian and empire in essay 13. suggests what and I believe to be Bacon's solution: various civil states. 11. and or hospitality. state. that is. except for chapter titles. As to nature.

Peru attacked Greece and was never heard from again."18 Indies. Mexico attacked Bensalem but was captured by Altabin. only exploring the natural causes chief omits that Machiavelli puts second." and alludes to the At lantis Plato describes in the Timaeus. 29)." fabulous" equated with "Amer surviving mountaineers. In Bensalem an offi what might tells a broadly similar tale of flood and ica. may infer. cause of Like Machiavelli. and then freed before succumbing to the flood. He from this esting. As their norm. asserts people. similar down to "West which is inhabited by a "young He explicitly calls "poetical and the divine or religious features of Plato's Atlantis. Bacon can present restoring the old ways. The drama of the people. Bacon touches preliminarily upon floods as the oblivion." work rebuts the biblical drama: of progress. is America. had set forth. even the priest rejects any ones. The at the tale concerns the research establishment home and industrial and technological espionage abroad. I be his to spread his new ways to the new world." and never at a Bacon takes up after change of sects. Yet all these empires and Estates" Bensalem's. What coherent message may be discerned? Bacon seems to be rebutting old myths that have a supernatural tint. Instances floods in the "West follow. Plato and the Bible. in a the inhabitants to be way that alludes a "a newer or a to the Americas ("their younger Andes"). New Atlantis occur. implications not of a "magicians" of "spirits the air. stay. ingen all this navigation have as disappeared. But his purpose is to imagine cial Uncanny parallels with his imaginary dealing with Christian Europeans newly be accomplished. whose effect is to extinguish the memory of things. The land of the lieve." "angelical" He tells divinely guided golden age but one of an ancient time of great commercial and naval empires. his account Indies" biblically significant attribution a Machiavellian jibe that some sur vivor might conceal the past to get himself a reputation and name. except himself iously rest of and without force. Ba shall venture some at con's I puzzling conflation of the empire of Atlantis. He intimates a new myth that promotes belief in his new project. he turns to observations. the new Atlantis vanquished by Bensalem's new ways.America with those of Mex- . interpretation of the relevant parts. Elliptical indeed. by which a man might make his name immortal. Specifically. to what might be examined in a particular place and topography.56 Interpretation perpetual flux. myths that his rivals for empire over the mind. More inter account rebuts a myth from Plato's Timaeus blaming of the sun and an from the Old Testament blaming fires. Bacon hints. by Bacon's art Christian Europeans accomplished convert to faith in a land The conversion who is for most of the Europeans by a priest (by "vocation") be known looks after strangers (by of "office"). Europeans should look to the power politics set forth in "Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and (no. "our state The Europeans business" ask about the secrecy: how can the island know and unknown of but not by Europe? Despite the connotations of an or knower. strategy title.

both and by sea and both their navy and their camp with a greater Could Bacon refer to British navies land. divine prophecies ("in the . It indicates that apprehension. to Plato's "Atlanticus. The disease and floods. Bacon of of expressly interprets it as a prophecy care to dwell on the rational causes the discovery of America. during their cir "divinations" predictions cuits they bestow "natural recurs divinations" essay to Seneca's alleged diseases. its visionary While "Of shows of poetic how to master discredits false prophecy of a traditional sort." Perhaps the appeals of progress case will undermine spirituality within its Spanish homeland.The Empire of Progress ico and 57 Peru itself intimates. the the prediction poet and philosopher for himself. of new worlds. floods. Might it symbolize Bacon's mode of conquering his and a great practical-spiritual rival. but even life A reader many other tough secrets of state farther from the visionary surface of New Atlantis. industrious plantations. 35) contains the only other reference in the Essays a philosopher to Atlantis or. By the end of a catalogue of some fourteen fool ishnesses. and entoil spiritual handle the Spaniards. "so as to cut off their land-forces from their power on theirs. essay 33. Bacon has discredited heathen oracles. in his Medea. the phrase reminds of the scientists in Bacon's poetic Bensalem. The Christian empire may eventually render itself "without striking the old stroke. For example. The end of the prophecy." It intimates that of may act the poet ("Seneca the Tragedian") to provide "natural for which human nature hungers. and "the tradition in Plato's Ti (Bacon misnames the Critias. Bacon keeps this Atlantis exist amount Yet similar allusions elsewhere. that new world. This strategy humane combines vision the new civil forces the Essays summon soon forth with wars the New Atlantis propounds. Essay and intimates involv ing and the Spaniards." than seas the expanding British plantations in the New World? Essay 29 urges a naval power. the desire to know dangers to come. rather. perhaps to awaken us to These books encouraged Seneca to invent a appear "prediction. In that himself the father of enlightenment could content should no more bear him. perhaps. is the cash value of natural divination. Altabin's extraordinary mixture of ingenuity and humanity is not easy to interpret as a feat of real generalship. it also the art. Christian Spain? Like a "a wise man warrior. they too are hard to explain otherwise." What Bacon makes Seneca to do for Plato." arms against "only dismissing 58 with their oath that they new them all in safety. etc. Bacon's will be humane to conquered lands. the bizarre "Of Prophecies" (no. The New Atlantis form helps make effectual Prophecies" predicts new worlds in America. old a variety of states may nevertheless exist in the Unlike the Greek political ways." he will America carry the ships. The essay ends by predicting political dangers. makes be demonstrated. Bacon takes the fact that land of such a prophecy: lay beyond the Atlantic maeus and might Atlanticus" distorting Bacon emphasis). whose forces in Europe and empire. may be excused for wondering whether these scattered allusions to to a Baconian plan for and world empire.

It of any fleet ever. of new Counsels civil and moral conclude with counsel as concerned with the "stay" to the "causes sects. Catholic Spain remains. which in hands like Seneca's better than modern prophecy. or (Works. substitute turns affec not tions away from supernatural remedies. The account moves Rome to kings and empires. Columbus suppressed the ac enterprise the child of count. While Bacon praises Henry VII for in confronting immediate dangers. rather and praises the explorer for following Plato's antiquities" ecies" seems "Seneca's prophecies.58 Interpretation "Judea. Bacon insinuates English kings to patronize one settles such that the "the discovery lands. is policy. influence will die. from prophecy in Greece and The Spanish Armada is the only subject of greatest two prophecies. and peace? whose Or might he hint at a borrowing from Christ (the Spanish secular navigator). The likeness to "Of Proph too close for coincidence. the great empire and the great vehicle of Christ's em pire. nevertheless. enemy. wishing to "make his his fortune. and ancient predictions. which is itself curiously reinterpreted. the original discovery had been related by a Spanish pilot who died in Columbus's house. in the land produced by Bacon's However science and fortune? obscurities. A bit of dark prose presents Cabot's than prior such as "conjectures" effort as inspired by Columbus's. especially in being projects adept at inspiring those he hoped to attract to great (New Organon I 92. 11:293-94. he tasks him for lacking "providence to pre vent and remove [dangers] afar off (Works. wealth. it is clear History encourages investing of unknown particularly of North America. puts it immediately after the king's defeat of Perkin Warbeck. 6:244). 8:129." East. The Baconian as of state. 11:364. 4:91). An and perhaps the French kingdoms (which are threatened by Guiding the poetic geography of New Atlantis." There be a rea for these elaborate oddities. allusion of comparable King Henry other the obscurity Seventh." science and Bacon praises of Cabot's enterprise and endued with knowledge: he obtained his fleet must by tell ing Henry son "an island rich commodities. It appears the king's unending desire for security instrument. to The remainder of Essay 58 outlines Bacon's greatest policy. Against these Bacon contrives a plot in which he can also embroil and was "the in strength" form the British Spain). The account of remedy for a defect explicitly noted but Cabot's discoveries occurs expressly Bacon a never out of chronological order and as memorable. Bacon elsewhere compared himself to Colum bus." Ostensibly gives for- to "revolutions." and "dexterity" his own providence as tacit explicitly remedied. the latest in line of pretenders whom Bacon presents as magical or supernatural idols.). Is he showing followers how to woo kings? Or is he evoking his own promise of a future land of health." of are no etc. Co lumbus only rediscovered America. the last two. 6:196-97). in the as well as its poetic humanity. in Works." such great Bacon mainly . Bacon singles occurs History out as a "memorable of the Reign of John accident" Cabot's discoveries in North America sailors.

not God. is a strategy of war. Does he anticipate the inde Once he calls what has been planted a world" "country." civil Bacon's authority." mildness. except. For example." "plantations. Of methods of founding. "Of Plantations" (no. of averting oblivion most powerful selves. Virtually the whole remainder of the essay is about war. "Of the True Greatness suggests a of Kingdoms Estates" and (no. . It is his general strategy for a civil society. Bacon removes the tradi virtues. but invisibly the second and Yet deep through reform. Bacon's and licentious. and if "speculative the "help of heresies" occasions. and can spread Like Machiavelli's sect. People as well as crops are thus "planted"." pendence from the old world's kings and nobles that such self-reliant new na tions are likely 58. is the greatest science. to demand? In essay the three always without Bacon has a more comprehensive type of plantation in mind. and three manners of The three properties of a successful sect are opposition to existing authority. but a plantation. and colonies growing in and numbers will expand rival. feeling" ("Of 16)." Bacon cares not at all about religious and marital regulations. although not as tional moral restraints or new sect. will oppose existing directly." policy is in his brief to stop new sects and schisms fostering agreement. and perhaps overwhelm. . provision of license to pleasure. 29) growing can naval empire and also lightly 33) suggests expansion by "plan colonies. plain people of skills and industry will populate new worlds. as is also clear from New Atlantis. This Machiavellian science. that the plantation may spread into generations. Behind the counsel of moderation. here as atheists. "by the eloquence and counsel wisdom of speech handling holy things. the missionary and gold-digging colonies of the other empire. for the sake of population growth. by winning and advancing and ness. wealth. Bacon shows his followers the with strategy the by which a new civilization can conquer. "the . He may be even more sly. and "rather to take off the principal authors them than to enrage them by violence and bitter He would transform a struggle over creed into a plan of mutual tolerance opportunity for rising. Bacon's is more attuned to speculation or learning. Like Machiavelli. Bacon discusses in turn three conditions that are appropriate for the rise or founding of new sects. He treats almost means. "The sinfullest thing in the is to forsake. Eventually "it is time to plant with women as well as men." tation of colony. suggests an economic sort of Nobles invest and patronize. persuasion. he Atheism.The Empire of Progress mulas - 59 from the for producing them. Essays and related works provide the civil supports. however. A little of sign: he substitutes comprehensive term "war" for his first description the third means. is comprehensively planned and not merely anti-establishment Indeed. yet such a sect if linked with a civil movement. to and power.ever he appears one of the "great no. although for a liberty more moderated by and business than Mandragola Clizia portend. like Machiavelli's. the population wealth is the means for growth." treats coolly "signs and miracles". two necessary properties and then a third.

a warlike population. 17. and when a state grows to a great over did. it relies on planning. can exist in a variety of civil states. while all embrace the science of progress. Warfare "number rather cion by peoples and now is more rather competent than vast". Striking. especially its youth. cunning. Does he imply that a civilization devoted to increasing power can with argument new weapons overcome warlike barbarians? Perhaps. There are civil states who and states of gover appear learning. is actually about how to spike and the church. then beneath variety "cloth state" (Works. Even when merchandise" arts and age. Bacon's next step somewhat confirms our suspi that he is subtly intimating the warfare and followers his and sect will have: he an turns from the rise and fall of states to the enlightened political state will rise fall of learning. like Machiavelli's in Dis redirect a guns of II. of and the union of rise. ideology. he notes the differ that makes. The"ancient northern Bacon plans many ways to increase population. both and the a the ordinary who father. of technology." speech and the sort that or enlightenment. Bacon decline and exhibits a that of modern economic states will "learning. later generations would a war of ideas." is conducted in good part by "eloquence and wisdom call in persuasion. forcing some to overflow into colonies abroad? Abruptly. finite. 397.60 Interpretation This war sword. suggests Nevertheless. a slight variation on Machiavellian toughness. 5:587. can be a of enlightened and progressive rising and declining. of keeps from state by a institutions. are causes of downfall? Is Bacon's compassionate economic por and consciously corrupting appeal? Or must we not re member the emphasis of essay 29 upon growth in power. tions whereupon sustentation. "discipline" North in wealth. The sequel intimates the use of of old was waged more the canons and big by strategy of simulation and dissimulation. of One state of ing nor. and occasions for war? That is a tough element of Bacon's civil teaching. Yet here his grows more strange and abstract." he turns to the effect of weapons. and not least by what he men and empire people" Will modern northern here. in Bensalem. One courses wonders whether this discussion of artillery. and skill than force of numbers. Wars follow the fall rise of a great state (Spain is his last example)." inevitably learn further type empire. "the bodies hardest. There nation-states. 156). 3:148. the learning of its middle the two. secrets is regulated scientist-father. yet or Cold the courages warmest". then. a appeal. Bacon expects to contrive with words a a rise and rise by the northern powers (perhaps weather including makes ence America). Bacon notes that rich states tend to become soft and vulnerable. growth in "means of life and peoples increase. it is sure to overflow. Yet essay 58 indicates that even the sect of enlightenment may be . We recall that power. upon military strength. will numbers and power. Does this mean that the economic cast as well as of replace fall "mechanical the arms Baconian states. the soft affluence trayed in Bensalem. the prominence given to merchants.

42. The Trials University Press. Bacon's Novum Organum (Oxford: Clarendon Press. Marwil. The Classical Republicans (Evanston: Northwestern University Press. pp. . University of Toronto Press. Michael Kiernan (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1936). 1965). cf. degli Orfini. A "perfect republic" is the "point of holding Machiavelli at once "rather "fairly conventional. 73-76. II of Harvey C. and Abbott's reply. (Chicago Machiavelli. The English Face of Machiavelli (London and Toronto: Routledge & Kegan Paul. and Cornell the Utopian Roots of the Modern Age (Ithaca: University Press: 1985). If my himself endure. 1989). That does not prevent him from in his religious practice and faith." us Yet he eschews.." 17-39. Chi cago 4. The Machiavellian Moment (Princeton: Princeton University Press. he tells us. Pocock. 141-68. Fink. The Prince. 1889). 1960). 3. Sergio Bertelli (Milano: Feltrinelli Editore. Peace Among "Bacon's Humanitarian Revision of Politics: Francis Bacon and the Willows. Bacone e Machiavelli (Genoa: E. 1885). 1985). too. ed. 9. 1878). Learning. pp. Science. Orsini." Contemporary Review. Francis Bacon about Bacon. 9. 61. J. and Theory about Contemporary Review. an old age." and last. 457-60. and an philosophy" "radically new political with a "rhetoric of which "destabi lizes the xxi morality" conventional of kings. 1976). 197. advocate of a conventional" according to de Grazia. 1983. my discus sion is drawn from pp. 1962) pp. Alan Gilbert. 2. too. to developed earlier and applied. Thomas Fowler's reply to Abbott is more airy and contains nothing beyond Spedding's. trans. Advancement of Learning. p. "The Latest of Bacon. Francis Bacon (New York: and of Counsel (De Hill and Wang. and trans. pp.. 1964)." London: The University p. Bacon is steadfast cannot in making his do enough. 7. 28(1876):141-68. The original spelling and orthography may be found in The Essays or Counsells. "Bacon's Humanitarian Revision 5. Clark Sutherland Northup (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 9. I tend to translate from // Principe e Discorsi. while knowing that he has been accurate. Mansfield. vol. 1968). pp. Faith. pp. William Aldis Wright (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1985). Howard B. even his own progress in enduring." efforts in a recent popular account. xiii-xviii. "The Latest 27 (1875-76):653-78. pp." Bacon He knows uncertainty whether "the world should limits to progress. Francis Bacon (Chicago: troit: Wayne State University of Chicago Press. ed. 8. 1968). may become "dry exhaust. vii-x and 156-218. Francis Bacon: An Account of His Life and Works (London: Macmillan & Co.. 1021. vol. 1936). I generally quote from The Essays of Francis Bacon. and 1900). Rossi. Weinberger. White. 1980). 28. ed. same title and journal. a youth. NOTES 1. 1. White. p. Sebastian de Grazia's Machiavelli in Hell (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2. ed. tales empire and argument of cycles or other names. Theory His Times (Boston: Houghton. 7-12.. 1975). Peace Among the Willows (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. See also Kennington. a strength of years. At this point. Machiavelli. esp. 3 vols. Civill and Morall. Consider the synthesizing it all. 17-39. has an infancy.The Empire of Progress 61 Learning. Jr. Quinton. ed. Mifflin & Co. possessed of Christian" ideas of human nature and the creation and imposture" fall. Machiavelli." intimated "giddy. Bacon's steadfastness produced an effectual plan for our progress. The Chief Works and Others (Durham: Duke University Press. he coun sels averting the eyes from such "turning wheels of lest they make an vicissitude. Raab. paganizing. Press. 6. Proba science bly had Bacon alludes to his own science established and progressing. Abbott." unpublished paper.

New Atlantis. pp. 15. para.. 40. and Roberts. . History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh. 2:172. ed. 6:213-14. 3:426.62 Interpretation 10. 1874). 1623. The Letters and The Life of Francis Bacon (London: Longman. See n. 1964). in The Works Bacon. pp. 16- . James Spedding. 14 vols. "Bacon's Human ed. in New Atlantis. 16. 243-50. itarian Revision Machiavelli. (London: Longman & Co. 1861). 13. quotations in this the next paragraph occur Gough.. and London: Cornell the University Press. Rossi. ed. Francis Bacon. The 25. and Dennis Denon Heath (Boston: Brown and Taggard. s 46-47. 1861). Kennington. ed. New Modes and Machiavelli' Orders (Ithaca 17. Green. 14-26. 88-97. I owe the reference to Michael Kiernan's edition of Essayes or Counsels. Works 11:319. 14. Alfred B. 1924). 72 (1978). p. 15 vols. Longman. Peace 18. 104. From Magic of Chicago Press. 200. "Machiavelli's UnChristian Charity. Trans. reprinted in James Spedding. 1217-28. 11. 90.. I have been helped here as elsewhere by Harvey Mansfield's pp. in The Philosophy Chicago Press. pp. p. Benjamin Farrington. 12. In a letter to the heir to the throne. Robert Leslie Ellis. and 230-39. Historiae Vitae et of Francis Bacon (Chicago: University of to Science (Chicago: University of Francis Mortis. also Among of Willows. 1968)." pp. Gough (Oxford: Clarendon Press." American Political Science Review. 7:436-37. 1979).

seven are drawn from lecture notes and three from other manuscripts among the Collingwood papers in the Bodleian Library. and parts of three letters on current by Collingwood to his student T. originally published as a investigation of economic action. editor's introduction. Anchorage R. $55. Essays in Political Philosophy. Philosophy Edited by David Boucher. To these his are appended a from books 1918 reader's report on which Collingwood's after unpublished manuscript of "Truth Contradiction. wealth. Edited (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1990. of these. cf. No. Despite the curious stipulation required by Collingwood's daughter "that no item should be reproduced in its entirety" (3 10. "Political Activity and the Forms Practical Reason. viii). which discerns a interpretation. author of a recent study of after the death at Collingwood's political thought. Collingwood's essays are organized of into two The first. Professor Boucher has which not managed to fashion a readable and in complements and only offers material never before published but illuminates Collingwood's other political writings. journal article. G. The earliest selection was written during the First World War and the latest during the Second: the essays here collected thus span the whole of Col lingwood's life as a mature writer. also After the parts. Waynflete a new volume of his writings Oxford." by pose some which induction from the study of economic facts. triguing book. G. Fall 1992.00). and the they rarely define or ponder (58). while ten appear in print here for the first time. n. Collingwood." science of Collingwood finds it blinders. Almost half Professor of by David Boucher a century Metaphysical appeared. Collingwood. that undertakes Despite the cleverness and under "prestige" a philo success of "the economics.1 Essays in Political Philosophy makes avail able eighteen selections extracts are reprinted from his published and unpublished writings. or Eight journal articles. Economics has laws" attained great disciplinary laboring by formulating "empirical like. 20. Knox between 1937 and 1940. yet economists presup "fundamental conceptions.Review Essay Collingwood's Embattled Liberalism James W.. Collingwood finds the clue to under conceptions standing these in the idea of economic action. on politics has of R. Muller University of Alaska." and he destroyed the appearance politics penned Autobiography in the late 1930s. 1 . ix + 237 pp. M. Vol." begins with an sophical essay. such as value.

useful. Col a child lingwood distinguishes who economic action from action done on impulse or "an angry man kicking a "runs shouting round the (61. Collingwood understands this transaction one man's apples for another man's oranges. which follows desire "without more (61). between eco nomic and moral action. Economic action always involves is missing in impulsive action. one gives up one good in return for a good that individual preference for those oranges give one wants even more. Here the are end and a the economic action. Collingwood is unpersuaded by "the economic action and a difference between as impulsive ac tion. according to Collingwood. His "thesis" is "that there is epithets as type action. Economic sion and action is marked by a combination of pain and pleasure. the only means to is good" (63).64 Interpretation economic human intention behind facts rather than simply describing them. Of course one do the right for prudential reasons may thing obeying a rule for fear of being or caught. though unity": we aim unity in distinguishable as in and moral action (61). Unlike impulsive action. 63). Each of man finds the he the better preference the exchange what for in making the exchange. but each gets the other because of his own subjective exchange of oranges for receives over what he gives up. over Since it is the man these apples that causes a to up his apples of the exchange for oranges." expedient. which we and profitable. Again. type of action or economic is fundamental fact with which all economic science is concerned" (59). a special as of an empirical psychologist might. chosen: has every prudent man chooses means in relation to an end he for there is a difference between the duality of ends and means in economic action and their means. as the (63). treating others decently for reputation's sake but those actions thetical and categorical aside and have an economic rather than a moral motive. Collingwood is the grounds unpersuaded by "the since utilitarian" who would explain moral action on expediency. Borrowing in effect Kant's distinction between hypo of prudence that imperatives. the ordinarily distinguish by such and "that this utilitarian the like. duty" Only when considerations of utility of are "subordinated to is an action moral. for instance. since everyone does just like he likes: for there is what you difference between sake of some an element simply doing what you and doing dislike for the thing else that you like (61. A like distinction must be made. distinguishes actions into the three categories of impul good "to be good. and moral. A man has to exchange . though not without a doubt as to whether this taxon omy is exhaustive (62). economic. 62) in that economic action involves calculation. "merged in fresh being being Collingwood. In the economic action called exchange. economic action has an end that ado" garden" chair" is "immediately desired" and a means end" necessary hedonist" presupposition of who sees no the that "is only mediately desired. Thus sive. or aver desire. but as one for oranges and another man's other useful not of not as man's exchange of apples apples. he argues that we act morally when we set do expediency something simply because it is right.

we since he only claim chooses to exchange one condition for another that seems better to him. taken from his lecture notes. Even the who finds no choice but to sell his labor. any (69 economic argument against an end of since it" the gambler conceivably be prefers his wager to standing pat. or G. then he finds a market seen but buys dear." but then really "that this case an act of exchange.2 choosing Collingwood calls caprice. While Collingwood that there are some kinds of exchanges which prostitution). But his insistence that value subjective forces him to deny that there is any "right and prevents man who from calling any willing exchange unfair (66). whose "doctrine is that there is anything" for choice. perhaps. in his terms. and choice" pleasure as "a constituent of activity. "useful" "prudent" right. a previous lec chosen" (78). Real and explanations. Such a purchase may "offend our moral consciousness. 65 one good for another through the medium of the Preferences change from hour to hour." ought not to be made (for cannot instance. suppose that all choice is capricious. a presupposition of (84-85). then his preference is ineffectual and he fails to find to have been price a market. Moore. tau did.e. ture. why anybody But Collingwood holds that sons rational choice entails the consciousness of alternatives and of rea for preferring one to another. since he understands goodness as nothing but what we choose. "and there is n. for said buys dear cannot a pittance to strike a bad bargain. is "that we suffer goodness the goodness of a his answer. If he sets too high a price on the good he wants to exchange for another good. this kind Cambridge Realists like reason never any chooses (79). from the economic point of view 4). second selection. or something tological) "unreal" pleasant. he calls our choice rational. Collingwood begins by asking which things are good.. When we can explain why we chose as we (i. or as duty. impulsive. though he dismisses as because it was we chose explanation that the good. Yet one must wonder whether there is not some truth in the almost that gambling is imprudent or universal whether judgment of empirical economists Collingwood's admission of prudential calculation in economic action is finally In the consistent with his insistence on valuing that remains. .Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism market." "profitable. so market values alter. We have already called the eration of encountered the pursuit of the or it may be our consid "expedient. may be the reduced to three: utility. his argument simply leads him to claim that "there gambling." the (86) in economics. Collingwood imprudent: the that the public allows that some economic exchanges are price that a vendor "ought to have price" asked is the is him be highest pay" will (67). E. from arguments in thing is the fact of it being those arguments. here Collingwood elaborates on this type of action. if he sets too low a price on it. he bids us consider why we we choose what we choose. he argues here. but gift. Here thus that from the omission of but. presupposing is no more than a human choice. of Sometimes have no conscious reason goatishness." an act of which would morally demands not remove the situation from admits an economic to a moral plane (65).

cf. 5). While moral action is the League of performed out of duty and economic action aims at wealth. taxonomy of the right. he has not seen "in any country" other . in the second essay (86. economic. with Since sovereignty belongs to all political action. just for lingwood considers political as and economic Nations. actions. and in the relations of these associations states. but in comes part of sequence of a man's desiring. and goods and of the motives for rational make (4-5). reader will argument resembles that of Hobbes in the first first essay. which distinguishes among capri Not that Collingwood means to distinguish between impulse and caprice. the distinctions he wished to more duty" between utility. Instead. to study politics "from a different (92). Col instance. or end. and municipalities. means. Here Collingwood's the Leviathan. which the editor chose to mirror Collingwood's own order of argument. utilitarian. for a political under good some other reason sists ples reason" instance. first. this tripartite division the plan of of action suggests the first part of Essays in Political Philosophy." is consciously understood to action: a be divided into "two distinct or which and a in fact belong or to all "preparatory the logical phase" preliminary sequence of "completing or crowning phase" (88). Political goodness con which so as in "a life lived laws. In the first of these essays Collingwood looks past the substance of the state. not only in states (106-7). and really obeyed or in the English "singular" practice. the mediate act. come first. really laid down observed" binding within (96). or between economics and utility as but his distinction between right and duty. In the time action. actions. beginning five essays on politics. He finds political action epitomized which practice of queueing for tickets. which Action which aims at an end phases. modifies the taxonomy of the first. angle" trade unions. action. political action (such as a society undertakes. 117). expositions in The New Leviathan.66 Interpretation involves ends and means. 86 n. He offers as a justification for collection of writings the "illuminate far or in the short fact that Collingwood's previously unpublished essays clearly than the cursory discussion in An Autobiography. it inheres in all of these associations. cf. he finds ordinarily the focus of political theory. A focus on states leaves the observer perplexed when practical problems arise whose solutions depart from the con fines of state sovereignty action. That this of revision reflects a refinement in Collingwood's thought is the "particular" main theme a new Boucher's introduction." Collingwood describes as princi "really worked out in thought as to apply to a particular region of that region. and dutiful second. The first two essays distinguish utility from caprice. the correspond with cious. the remaining essays of the first part explain how right with and duty differ from the first two which motives and from each other. arguing that it differs from moral action they differ from each other. in making a law) is performed "for (95. asserted but not explained motives. Indeed. does not the The which have noticed that the taxonomy of actions of and moral distinguishes among impulsive. He finds politics not only in states but also in churches. immediate acts. right.

" Again. "as the establishment the Principate by Augustus" begins to by denying that it recognizes rule" (118): to do one's (112). the sake of promul gation and observance of rules peace" in political action is for the its own "its own (108). here is an of the Leviathan makes claim important end of political regulation" life. Collingwood that even civilized rules may and a develop "the law unintentionally. Observers the who confuse economic and political action will miss a price and a difference. action we makes us In a second make and essay on politics. for if did in your action would have a utilitarian motive instead. regularity. if you came upon one man who was threatening on . is to or. According to Collingwood. contributes of wealth political action. family just as the British Constitution" (103 2). Thrasymachus' in the first book when of Plato's Republic. to which it by for well-chosen means. both writers it to the mere law." or obscene view which may be as modest as the suppres falls within the proper prov or as grand ince of of the state in Collingwood's (113). Such a plan sion of "seditious publications. for in rulers stance. sort of you do you really answer the question why you can't have this it" thing. but they are mistaken: "we are always free to break the more ra a real a plan is power to follow out power. Yet he discerns such: distinctive intention behind getting end. or regulation. The political motive volves a simple resolve ment of that "I won't have of what the political importance the Greeks Collingwood's acknowledg called thymos." at any given (111-12).Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism 67 but which exemplifies the choice of "a political value: all orderliness. between fine (99). Some would claim that following a plan but "the unfree. admits examples civilized men follow they have themselves. are not for their own benefit. To make a rule savages regulate one's own conduct along with that of rules others (101). as sake of the in economic action is for the prosperity. something involving tionality and therefore more freedom than the simple power to do what we like moment" rule. claim Contrary to do not rule n. While made follow inscrutable rules. who in the first part In any case. . But if political action has after all end. though both sort of of them were strangers. . to shoot another and you decided to inter fere. they do." shooting people then your not motive would be (97-98). the political regime (100) follows Hobbes in diminishing the and the controversy over justice that it pre political good and reduce By denying form of any standard of good drain disputable regularian content out of the beyond human choice. citing as and custom of both the rules within a n. out of "the . they acting as rulers (100 1). may it not be likened to economic action in its concern means and ends in a word. Collingwood argues that in political follow a plan. Collingwood's third essay on politics any "form of goodness except conformity moral duty cannot be part of a political intention. submission to a rule which applies equally to persons. for utility? unambiguous echo of peace the most cal action Hobbes. Collingwood's that "politi is essentially of importance supposes. feeling like that one can't have this thing going political that.

with may be avoided reining the since an punishment back into line to decide just retribution. between the political action of determining The a proper punishment and the moral action of assessing moral guilt. ness then forgiveness seems like "sentimental "the weakness" (125). "as a means of selfsociety" simply but punishment is the "state revenge. (In this early essay. Such a view. both then punishment seems no better than revenge. forcing a man to amend his ways is immoral "un only be less his habits justified tion on are such that he deserves to be wish hurt. need This brief treatment which the last two essays on politics in take up the question of punishment. incidental pains: a word of straight without any from the stick. There is actually no contradiction between punishment and forgiveness: the pain we inflict by punishment aims at no more than evoking the criminal's "self-con demnation repentance. of crime anticipates desperate this part." since revenge preservation on the part of (126).68 The Interpretation state makes room for private conscience property" the security of person and of only as part of its provision "for (119). only Collingwood by ac knowledges that angry punishment as retribution must be carefully purged of anger. but if forgive Collingwood should is a duty. the best admonishment. claims rest on as moral organization of consciousness. Collingwood does not yet distinguish between right and Nor should punishment be understood as deterrence. that "ex criminals will have to be punished by less a "perfect" (131). Collingwood begins to by and a opposing punishment to forgiveness. The only just punish he deserves" ment is retribution "giving a man the punishment (128). on second essay punishment. Lawbreakers contradict themselves. Since "it is immoral to inflict suffering" on someone cannot deterrence retribution. Indeed. Here he draws a distinction." or moral which in turn makes it possible for us to forgive him." reformation can the same ground (133). they seem contradictory: if punishment is duty. from retribution." allows us to maltreat a criminal in order to barn-door" "a marauder nailed in terrorem to the deter others. like (127)." argues that not Punishment be understood is a second crime published duty.) and a moral duty. court . compounding "cruelty selfishness. Though both the are attributed God enjoined upon man by Bible. or reformation. by the very presupposes laws they break: a forger depends on a banking system that honesty even as he tells himself that dishonesty is justified by his (121-22). The excessive to achieve which deterrence or reforma leads easily to punishments. however. asks whether its purpose is deterrence. however. man is unfit what a criminal deserves (134)." as Likewise. simply "for the sake of frightening other be justified unless it is simply the effect of punishment since people. The citizen's part is to comport himself according to the laws according to the relying on argument the land. "goes to a properly brought-up tremely The brutalized" coarsened and means Collingwood admits. home" punishments entail no encouragement child. first in 1916. lecture written in 1929. that Collingwood silently borrows from Kant.

itself." treason to their monks' way find them appealing only by what "seemed a kind of His students could not but admire the beauty of were ashamed of their admiration: elements were so foreign to their the way life. into the worst. a purely individual and self-centred quest (144) The students. the visit students had found and "moral faults" closely with the in them (145). and from another point of view a man doing his best. been taught that the best monk was a sinner to the worst. the good judge. conversed with especially during the night watch on the his students about their contrary impres the Santorin music. Collingwood sions. ill temper. for whereas a vicious be saved. The good man will be concerned about the moral guilt of the prisoner in the life a aims not at moral purity but at to rules. by forsaking the world and cultivating a fugitive and cloistered was worse than They had. like most men. is the most charming of the essays. despite its lack of social utility. a virtuous monk was a man irremediably sunk in the deadliest of moral errors: a man who had renounced the primary duty of helping the moral principle of salvation. no crude materialists. dignity." had n. as such. self-indulgent. What they found among the all of monks was music. If others found pure while and were proud to have its practitioners in their midst. and if so. devotion. no after living for a few days. that these thinking they of could upbringing. drunkenness. visited the monastery of the Monks of the Prophet Elijah on Santorini (144 1). were willing to grant the social utility of music. monks After the to Santorini. The first Morals. But the monks were removed from society. What good was beautiful music without an audience to hear it? Still. but they up in They had been taught that wrapped monks were at worst idle. The Yet the Greeks way of around the monastery clearly held that view about the monks and their life.Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism 69 simply tries to determine whether a man "has broken the law. then they felt what that their life was of some benefit to themselves. "Monks and Collingwood's account of a yacht trip to the Greek islands in 1939. I suspect. to have a good time. and had thus corrupted the best thing in human nature. Hence some "moral amongst which Collingwood law" lists greed. but "they are punished elsewhere than in the political are not criminal courts" (136). the only number of pure mathematicians. Together with some of his students from Oxford. for result was to increase the mathematics worth if the pure mathematician published. what delinquencies" (135). utilitarian and of hospitality. yacht. the first of part of the book concludes with taken from these. But if their admiration was simply superstition? view . laziness. and corrupt. at best selfishly a wrong-headed endeavour to save their own souls virtue. he on ethics. some dock. After the five two essays essays on politics. will ask only whether the prisoner has broken the law (138). they that pure even while. mathematics was worth Perhaps they already agreed prized pursuits as useless as For instance. In its society conformity (like the length of women's skirts) enforced by fashion and others by the courts. his fellow men. and adultery offenses. grace.

"What is the use of travel if it doesn't broaden your mind? And how can it do that except by showing you the Collingwood's accused at men" goodness of ways of home." capricious for "obligation in one general is merely the denial of do something that contributes (150). does regularianism explain why to one rec ognizes a given rule. agent." prejudices you have learned his at In the final essay understanding tional action of of Collingwood lays rational action. according kinds Colling wood. got that this un it" derstanding action of duty is tautological: "I do this because I have to escape from these difficulties to do (153)." purchasing living" by its means a satisfaction which never then "life is not worth (148). he summarizes the argument of The Idea of History that each historical . he has tion that allows as a practical choice" no no (151). way. and it to the reader. Yet both utility and (151): one can choose which means to lightness still allow a "relic of caprice" is obliged to caprice" use or of how to act within the law. Both unanalysed situation and individuality" action (154). does the element of caprice still present in disappear altogether. reasoning cedes. he has got to do exactly he does. then means are no longer for anything intrinsically Col lingwood likens "the moral flation in economics. I find to the agent not myself or place myself (153). out peculiar the third of the motives for Any sort of ra which obliges one to give up "the particular kind of freedom belongs to action." trust our impression "that the Santorin way of life is a good their honored monks.3 appear in their "unbroken clear or But it is immediately might appear why duty as has to it point inexorably appeared to a single action. utilitarian world. In the reasoning world of the utilitarian. "There is history. about means proliferates while about ends re ends must as means be good for their own sake and cannot themselves else: be sought to something useful bankruptcy" for if ends disappear altogether. the first part. he asks. ought to be bad?" life which. does his discretion duty has no option. choiceworthy. and "every Briefly situation which the historian studies is an individual situation" (155). must have to his students when Collingwood presented this argument as a lecture. even at the risk of Oxford "of corrupting its young during being their nocturnal dialogue. But. "Duty. Moreover. Hence "duty is completely that "a person who other of rational action which means what rational" (152). then we including may find ourselves obliged to defend monks against our Protestant. after all. Collingwood understands duty as an obliga one which springs from "the situation in which. to act rightly one is obliged to obey a rule. where in real goods: if "everything So if the we people one of this unbending utilitarianism to in find themselves rich in banknotes but poor of does is done in the hopes comes. nor utilitarianism offers no explanation why one chooses a given end. Collingwood is his seeks by connecting dutiful to a theme that might surprise us but for the fact that The Idea of History most famous book." a thing called he writes here. secular. To act usefully to one's end. according to the (149). Only when one acts out of duty.70 that Interpretation "utility is But the merely goodness" the only contradicts itself (147).

the historian is able to ask how he came. The apocalyptic theme of the closing paragraphs of . He concludes that "the conscious event is individual acted as ness of duty is thus identical with the historical consciousness" (157). Augustus had to found the Principate. By attributing to to duty many historical actions that seem anything but dutiful. if only the to common sense how. Despite Col up by forsaking "the residue of in other kinds of action in order to do our duty. to pursue Irish Home Rule as an end. Though the individual historical study is or regularian actions of men still confined by of historians who fail to rise above utilitarian analysis. he leaves our most rational actions ment in which we act. Collingwood's understanding of duty." as rational. All of these actions appear to Col not lingwood to have been imposed historian could understand by duty on the men who took them. for instance. though unsuccessfully. (158) can under Instead stand of imagining the history as accidents. and the French revolutionaries had to wield the guillotine. towards the and his life. and that the historian's view is they determined by his own historical situation. thus depends on his philosophy of history.Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism 71 and can only happen once. conscious of himself as standing in the situation in which was aware of end of himself as standing. "the historian may hope to show that he recognized that rule because he had to recognize that rule and obeyed it in that unique way because he had to obey it in that unique way"(158). that Gladstone was the man he was. entirely subject to the accident of the historical mo One can hardly help wondering whether this understand philosophy to the well-worn paths of our own freely. Colling wood's view of history leads to the men unwelcome conclusion that the historian's themselves duty is to understand the he studies not as they understood but in a unique way imposed upon him by lingwood's insistence on deprecating the freedom what caprice" has happened we give since. bids us believe that the choices men make in history are really contingent upon their own willing. the crowning element of his political philosophy. through the means of parliamentary action. which owes much to Hegel. it excuse or our an justify actions that are usually considered morally culpable. that the men who made history did because of their situation. which confines even era. the historian their necessity. Aside from these moral drawbacks. does not underestimate man's ability to act and think Certainly political Collingwood thought himself bound of by duty not to conform to the fashion his day. Yet his took these view runs counter in denying seems and that the men who actions might have chosen otherwise. Instead of supposing that the French revolutionary capri ciously chose to recognize a certain rule.4 ing of duty. to pursue it. the idea duty allows us to understand in history he "Granted. That philosophy. it belies rather than ordinary understanding that duty has a moral or religious basis historical one. and to obey it in a certain way. and thus that Gladstone had to pursue Irish Home Rule. And these questions are historically events of answerable.

What that all philosophy to are made this so conviction growing no evils assurance human things by men. which (2) is the only way to find the independence that a man needs to be happy. but second sharing." show and how Collingwood thought rest of about the public questions of facing country "The Present Need to public debate solution ple the the civilized world. he seeks to make his should act.72 Interpretation which might almost An Autobiography. considered be called a jeremiad against what he the increasing acceptance of fascism in the Britain of the late 1930s. paper been trying merely to supply you on Moral Philosophy in the to students in world as one firm. "The Rules of lecture in 1933. Knox in second appendix of part of Essays in Political Philosophy (232. This neither as as cure" will cannot and no permanent on a view of man assurance is based "conceived natural lifted clean out of nature nor yet as the and sharing to an eminent inward essence of all forces. Philosophy. and called having a It is up to his students to make themselves "at home in that dark and to learn to find their way there. "respect which means not to give in to a reductionism that belityourself. suggesting that a worthy follower would have to have a defensible way of life before he professed allegiance to any leader (172)." originally rather written an aca than demic with in his pedagogy: "I have not materials Schools. degree." own experience useful deciding how they He describes their "whose chief While their parents singularity is that nothing in it can be trusted to stand were brought up in a framework of institutions that seemed certain to last. Amid the ruins of the old system have been born new movements. The older generation can never "entirely collapsed" themselves" adjust customed to the change but darkness." for writing a successful Instead." can only "grope uneasily in the unac Collingwood describes two unsuccessful tacks they took: first they treme good embarked on a bootless attempt of "to rebuild what had in fact been to the other ex this finally destroyed". He begins the first these essays. that "there be obstacles in any human institution which human to human progress (169). Collingwood lays down three rules that his students might follow: (1) "know communism and work. both religious and political (amongst which ness" fascism). in finds the a more sober echo in several of Collingwood's letters to T. which the editor calls "Civilization its Ene his mies. "they rushed and plundered the ruins in which they lived. 5 The and essays the second the book." . there is the provide a great temptation simply to conclude ble" "that the special problems of modern world are inherently is a can insolu (168). allows a conviction "that all scientific problems are in princi he avers. time. M." Collingwood includes serious constructive yourself. all of them sharing "a spirit of he deprecates the growing popular clamor Gently for a leader. (170). plaything of in the creative power which constitutes the things" In his as a brief essay of this part.34)." of a by arguing that philosophy problems not can contribute on intractable social by dictating the correct but soluble" by providing failing which. despairing success." then. "this 6 framework has (171). Collingwood announces a practical purpose Life.

is attacked Liberal and calls were government from the right." and the permanent most precious But the man liberal government of "are the possession ment that has ever acquired in the field politics". . Collingwood defines liberalism and achieve the principle that assists "the progress" individual to discipline himself in it his own moral authoritarianism and (175). even and the United the the most contributors." reducing this multiplicity cies. "Modern is taken from undated manuscript entitled essence" "Man Goes as Mad. This free expression of opinions is to be not just tolerated but and parliamentarism are actually fostered. Lib is not well suited to every political situation: war or violent would not be chosen by a nation in acute danger from crime. portant with "France. and finding some means of Parties. in England. assuring that opinion is freely expressed on political questions (177). which rues its inefficiency emergency Collingwood the power for resolute action by powerful experts as if a state of the permanent and proper condition of good government. new concludes students' desire to leave "a preface world" to their children appealing to his (173-74). which has an urgent need for less talk and more force. England." Therein Collingwood describes "the as of "the idea of a community governing itself by to a fostering the free expression of all political opinions that take shape within unity. according to their argument. and not indispen for sable means at that. repro duced here as as the third essay of the second part. which claims that liberalism is only an attractive cloak wage-earners. fears that even of parliament civil service. Liberal government is also at tacked from the left. beneath which capitalists plunder the Within the capitalist sys tem. "the home of the parliamentary is giving way to government by the cabinet principles of system. (3) "orientate yourself. Collingwood judges it civilization. That Politics. liberalism is happy Combining a on mean a between overbearing democratic "respect for human liberty" with an authoritarian government." which allows a man more to rise above fear and anger and to treat love as than an animal appetite. by In his 1927 to Ruggiero's History of European Liberalism. to the a body of public opinion acts" wisdom of their brutalize the populace sufficiently educated in politics to understand (180). over and free govern crimi is possible only when government "can appeal. free debate occurs only among the exploiters. though achievements" of our eralism "certainly it is hardly it one of greatest finished (178).Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism 73 and ties human nature and denies a proportion between the He body and the soul. For "the last three this idea of political States" life has im been developing. discerning ignorant democracy." insistence practised enemies" now under "the necessity for skilful and attack from "powerful and danger of ous (176). the heads of nals. of opinions it. To take away the right of public debate is so to as to leave them unable to do more than "to throw up another" one gangster government after (181). territorial constituen simply means. education since it improves the nation's politics and provides a political centuries" to citizens." attack upon which liberalism is the theme an the following liberalism essay. majority votes.

It would be easy to miss the fact that Collingwood is actually criticizing liberalism for a moderation that the that its founders millenialism would have thought realistic: argument is not untinged with explains he decries in Kant. which comes religion. serve each Only other by Adam Smith's "extraordinary doctrine" that actually serving themselves kept them from seeing the truth in the life in liberal society (185). he our neglect has left "weapons destructive. Christianity into its and discarding the rational and superstitious residue (188). "un thought" ideology in the stomach of socialist (184). suffered a curious fate during the scientific revolution the Renaissance. he blames liberalism to international relations or to private business the understand" generous principles established in domestic his politics. inquires into Collingwood finds "vital warmth" the for the the appeal of originally published as an article in fascism and Nazism. attacks failure. Collingwood is friendlier to this attack from the left. since it aims to vindicate liberal princi method of the socialists (182). Modem science carefully divided parts." in fact.7 by waging war upon their oppressors and establishing the temporary dictatorship of the proletariat. For Collingwood. to apply their own principles consistently. smoul was govern and national dering everywhere. essay of The central the second part. wars more expensive. Here of another cause of decline from liberalism: the loss In the spirit of of its at the heart. Thus liberals themselves. but liberals are perhaps too apt the left and right for the ills that have come over them. reason 1940. against hardly justifies the intemperate application of from left and right. by Christianity. must reap the harvest of "the failure of our grand That socialists' critique of according fathers" to Collingwood.74 the Interpretation exploited class can ples." civilization" degenerate into dead dogmas. but against those principles them (186). of after a vital by (187). John Stuart Mill's argument that uncontested opinions he argues that just as "Greco-Roman heart. Greco-Roman youth. "not the incomplete selves" liberal principles." from Hegel socialists a glorification of class (183-84). who have but he rues the redress find only "anti-liberal" borrowed from "Kant's essay that ushers in a "happy warfare on Universal and History" the idea of a revolution millenium. met its demise when its in the collapse of its civilization spiritual was suc heritors "lost underpinnings ceeded liberalism is threatened which. however. It is "madness" to abandon of to blame ideologues liberal principles. An "Illuminism" preserving what was logical became orthodoxy among . Collingwood teases the are ideas they have borrowed digested lumps of bourgeois cal "obsolete" that by arguing "they that the politi are." hatred (a thing hardly known in the seventeenth century) Within the body politic. tone that Collingwood argues in a moderate "nothing is gained by blame: some thing perhaps. Instead. which was held exempt from men ment control. this "external private realm of illiberalism" mirrored in the business. not itself for by trying having applied it to (184). In the us with case of more foreign affairs.

finding a worrisome residue of our savage past. The was. we We misunderstand the customs savages. German imperi philosophy" Great War. but it disdained the religious beliefs that might have helped to sustain it (189). nor the publicist's confidence to propaganda is our sustained by fact. "harks back consciously to the Roman and its "worship of a appeals to what Collingwood calls "the pagan that have though Empire" day. (199). leaves us proud to be "sensible. essay of the second which describes our "util rejection of Our itarian magic. We are afraid to embrace our emotions. these gifts came to each because of God's love for human us and the intercession liberal of Christ (190). As we are apt to discredit its expression of in art and discountenance emotion. What is not useful we tend to suppress." "silly" survivals" been allowed by Christianity is in Italy and Germany (195). Fascism. our rejection of emotion may prevent us from understanding essay of the second part. can a psychological ideals. diminishes the individual and exalts the state. but he finds its genesis in the Prussian philosophy. The Christian view of nature which entails principles survived long after Christianity fascism had been discredited. supposing that they must be based on the same utilitarian calculus us that moves and our own actions. the fas cists seem fight the power not of demons (191)." or man which in turn is the ground of our liberal rights. most people believe in "liberal-democratic power. While liberals hardly be troubled to defend men. rational." Yet the fascists that their oppo and Nazis have "a to driving with dynamism. Yet if magic helps to "resolve conflicts" emotional to make necessary adjustments in our practical ourselves lives. considers what Collingwood calls "the Prussian distin (202).Collingwood's Embattled Liberalism educated 75 men." in the and the "false imperialism" and evil of the Germans. "This strange . religion as useless things (198). but of liberalism. nor the populist suggestion that creature of big business. taken from a manuscript called "Fairy Tales. The truth is that while liberal argu and ments. hold that every act is justified by its utility (197). neglect of emotion also the theme of the sixth part. in "distilled" Collingwood's view. cerebral. them we emotion." philosophy" guishing instead between "right imperialism the which he calls "a necessary over the less mankind" rule of element the more civilized education of who would civilized. who did not scruple to disguise their hostility towards religion. from Christianity. extracted from an address to Belgian in 1919. are merely him irresistible. Neither the that it owes its Marxist it is the success claim that fascism is a class movement. in that makes which 'Leader. impose the tyranny alism caused the which of one civilized people over another (201). the fascist "thinks with his blood." Collingwood observes that our thoroughgoing which expresses businesslike".'" his thoughts may be (192). Christianity seems to him the speech and real source of political principle of "free free thought for everyone" the idea that every man has "infinite dignity worth. He begins by denying that imperialism "is fundamentally The seventh students evil. Even in the or countries which have succumbed to Nazism." civilization." nents lack.

it ruled must make provision into its does not supply these vacancies auto for accepting people who begin among the (211). or we and language in the a service of civili world. his who "was too great a thinker to believe in it Hegel's entirely. threaten "disaster death.9 He defines will determine together how they rulers and second society as a community whose members live. unpeopled. The first law of politics is that there are a ruled. every nation (even Bel we must not yield omnipotent. riddled the craters of shells and scorched black with the fumes gases. He flatly and Prussians were "spiritual that "this spiritual theory" caused could the Great War that "only the eradication of this bring peace (203). which means that the ruling rulers. Green. The is "permeable." of poisonous In his alternative" view no (206).76 Interpretation but not embraced was expressed by Hegel." "very which formula" for the "crude message" (202-3). uncultivated. (210). power of the Christian God limited by the moral law which created and would not break. the state could "only be defined as a will to Prussians' dictatorship as absolute as was "conquering and power. those explains who make laws and those who law that the division between rulers and ruled obey them (209). of race." in Nietzsche's disease. But he again. third silent. Colling- . H. it served as the basis for what nally Collingwood later published. The to be imitated by his subjects (212)." At a minimum it must be so because of the fact of death. The error of the Prussian philosophy is in its he belief in the Even the unlimited power of the state: for power must always was have limits." Marx made proletarian rational state. it will that "the Prussian philosophy is and not crushed". Collingwood's penultimate essay the longest of the second part to the same danger by considering what he calls "three laws of delivered as a Hobhouse Memorial Lecture. of it rises (205). in less readable form. own ranks as the ruling matically. Collingwood therefore Nations as recommends international when law and the League warns of proper antidotes to the omnipotent state (204). as the twenty-fifth chapter of politics leads up Origi The New Leviathan. The third law is that rulers are those who take class the initiative. play its part. The digression begins by considering Harold Laski's complaint against T. wood long but tersely written digression by this digressive writer. body must replenish itself or be ruled extinguished can competent persons from the class" Only "recruitment of eventual defect of the supply Since. Colling illuminates what he means by the three laws. nation. negation of zation and self. will imperialistic". who refused to call Tsarist Russia a state because of its strong inclination to despotism. of of class." the with "see Europe "there is desert. however. In a Collingwood divines from the ruler sets an example original meaning of the Greek word arche. but state should to the Prussian disease concludes of supposing that the be Collingwood by pos ab ing this stark alternative: either we embrace "mutual service and devotion. its In the Prussian view. a 8 Schopenhauer's claims pessimism was a sign that the Collingwood disease" attributes undergoing to Hegel's philosophy. the destruction civilization" In the gium) nations' civilized must task of civilizing the world.

Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism What he 11 wood sides with was Laski. Col lingwood why rior intelligence provides asks a ascendancy over their subjects. that as as political rulers political scientist they can be faulted not for criticizing their ene the Green did. he an mentions that the Chamberlain government concealed "the horrors deception" the concentration camp" from the public war. Madness com story" tically unpleasant to show petes with of rationality in claiming the right to rule madness that puts Orthodox Christians in mind most of all of the creative kind rant has the appeal of Politics." Collingwood suggests that the cobbler should "stick to his and that as a political scientist Green had no business making same of a condemnation of Russia. Col lingwood's conclusion seems to be that political scientists and statesmen should position be held to different standards. very murky. like someone "what sort of meat had been offered is a perfectly beastly sort of telling you not what had replied. Green mixed up values ("practical statements." his practical reaction to last. perhaps because it After a would be hard to digression why this criticism of Chamberlain is any of more scientific than Green's criticism of Russia." crazily than to do it intelligently.10 the meat but what him. up into the inopportune not. Collingwood that he never expected the sudden collapse of the French in 1940. and hopeless He asks whether was criminal or of need which reminds us of the division between ruler and for the rulers to recruit from among the ruled. the blindness of the many might keep them from acknowledging the superior fitness of the one-eyed man (217). G. arguing meaning that Green "state" "confused. "H. exertion: "it is much easier to speak and act and write are. '"It [is]. you just let yourself go. but for But he leaves his show failing to criticize them. Collingwood seems to be hinting that Chamberlain and his men were wrong to try to hide the villainy of the Nazis from people who would later have to fight them mies. found Russia's treatment he was asked thinking meat'. Wells wrote a fantas that." Green. Though supe rational basis for rule. Plato's ty "a reversed action of the Third Law For sanity of requires the madman engenders more madness by his example." "to prevent indignation from "this flaring ruled. and. shouting admits with a mob "is the do" easiest thing anybody can (221). In retrospect. which divides them from England and makes them . although in the kingdom of the blind the one-eyed man should rule. and there you The impressionable democratic mob finds new leaders who carry the madness to new extremes. At the time. on second the meaning point the "state. he finds its cause in the legacy of the French weakness for Napoleon. by the demonic. men abhorrent." word in which Collingwood realization suggests that the turning in its history was Machiavelli's that rulers should enlist rulers achieve the active energy of the ruled (215)." it is. his bent" because he who." this false currency. when whose in Collingwood's terminology) "indignation got the better of with of facts ("scientific scientific acted statements"). and of the importance of examples set by the rulers (213-14). In other words." was confused the "scientific" of with the practical question of how Russia ought to be treated.

" government says fighting of which is hardly illuminating. but "what only "that we are seeks we are fighting for. is "fighting for the destruction of Eng live up to its own ideal by allowing that "the very ideal of civilization is some men to exploit false. since only civilized cowards forbear from exploiting their fellows (225). from the right. Collingwood assures his readers. The New Leviathan the philosophy. though what war propaganda: Collingwood means to offer his "just the present He concludes the draft preface by paying emergency demands. To answer that question forces him to must ask what a before he the brief revolt can understand a will society. then in progress. is to be commended The editor for having brought together the disparate essays of student this volume and making them a whole. he know what a man society is. be "more fools they. With . Rebels against civilization left. Collingwood to provide his "own answer. but is (226). win Civilized men live "definite come to rules". claim." civilized society was consciously and systematically (228). By this account The New Leviathan is a piece of war writing. M. but he disclaims any scientist's abil ity to predict the issue of the Second World philosophers War. and no homage to Hobbes." and Marx. by the strength of our hands and the stoutness of our (223). In order what to show that "we are civilization fighting in defence civilization. "has to hearts" made by us. the new volume of Collingwood's The New Leviathan begins. 10). in turn. Colling civilization" wood's attempt to elucidate what he took to be "the replaced revolt against in his book "law own time (224). a civilized society reader might do to defend not itself. whose "Leviathan was the first book in which the idea of a expounded" more. Knox did in compiling The Idea of History.78 Interpretation blandishments of susceptible to the leaders who sympathize with German tyr was anny (222). encouraging us to embark Boucher. He gether concludes the essay by claiming that his discussion "alto for neutral" between political systems. As German like Hegel The future. viewed which centerpiece of his own study Collingwood's to the political undertook as a companion volume book here re (3 n." civilization. (This preface was by a shorter one when the was published and in 1942. from the and they agreement with their own will fellows rather than relying on violence to enforce their (224). who thought they could foretell the future. to defeat the knows. somewhat as earlier Collingwood's a par- T. Ac cording essays leaves on to the plan established off where by its editor." nobody enemy." land fights The against Germany. which prefers barbarism on ac count of the latter claim." he has to know is. Germany. society. prosperity. they their livelihood without taking it from others. The book's final essay is a draft preface to The New Leviathan.) He and understands civilization as a condition of under peace." order. of makes Collingwood's final he and most neglected work. but only in compass required present crisis what to prepare a man to consider the against civilization. that it fails to others. So The New Leviathan limn a theory in the and of man. and civilization.

do": The New Leviathan. 3). In the theoretical first account of the new volume. that is to say actions that interfere with the life he is trying to (81. preface to his autobiography: Winston S. its which is as good a testimonial as I could give to a book. but that it has contradictory qualities. One concludes necessary: should compare man's sessions of psychoanalysis before Collingwood's brief discussion on a given occasion of duty that "a duty is the act which in The New Leviathan. or its doctrine strange. Collingwood (Cambridge: Cambridge of these essays University Press. 124. One pretend notable feature is Collingwood's critique of psychology. Though Collingwood dismisses the psychologist's argument that our reasons for choice are all unconscious. he advances always persuasive view of the dangers convince some such facing a trenchant. 4. 559-86. Collingwood. (230) NOTES 1. Barbarism (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2. he account of bines and variations on James Mill's utility. be as R. Collingwood's account of his life ends with a ringing promise to "fight in the My argument about History."" has done it "so eloquently. Compare the second paragraph Churchill's (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 167. There is enough of Collingwood in this book to and a the reader that he as was a serious thinker devoted teacher. that he and Civilization." no one incisively. if he has free will. 4 Leo Strauss. should freely will to Man. In the more practical second part. Society. Here Collingwood from experience: that he consid "took psychology seriously enough to undergo a full 50 it" (81 n. 9. that the psychologist may be able to help a man to understand and correct "capricious if they "are actions. just as a surgeon can amputate a healthy limb. psychology can alter healthy actions as easily as morbid ones. G. 1939). 58-59). 1942). 1989). and done so with lively interest. to offer a comprehensive account of human action. The Social and Political Thought of R. and few Our own appreciation part of passionately Collingwood com must more modest. so "for everyone except those who he admits actions" 'morbid' lead" suffer from really serious psychological disease the only writes sensible advice is James Thurber's: 'Leave Boucher reports alone'" your mind (82-83). . But I cannot feel that I have a clear estimate of its worth. daylight" 5. Unfortunately. Churchill. no. Not that it is unintelligible. "On Collingwood's Philosophy of (June 1952). But in the first judgment Henry and Jones wrote in his now reader's report on Collingwood's as well: manuscript "Truth Contradiction." published appendix to this book. Hegel's account of duty in a welter of ideas thought provoking than consistent. Hobbes's more right.Collingwood' s Embattled Liberalism with 79 tiality while ern and may be forgiven he concludes his own study have warned us "of the dangers "many that academics" the remark that which confront mod so of civilization. if not liberalism. 1930). by the adequacy of Collingwood's understanding of history was suggested The Review of Metaphysics 5. My Early Life: A Roving Commission (London: Thornton Butterworth Ltd. however. which for him is both possible and to make it or the act which at that a moment character and circumstance combine inevitable.. might well be applied to Essays in Political I have Philosophy read every word of it. ering himself qualified to comment on 3." against fascist irrationalism: An Autobiography of 6. such nor that problems are unfamiliar. Psychologists but he sternly confines their empirical science to describing the actions of men insofar as they are not determined by reason. G. cf.

History. see also." 8. in the introduction to against the common view "that the time that Collingwood wrote An Autobiography his of political views had swung sharply to the left" (7-30). reads here in and Boucher. place of "is. but Essays in Political Philosophy. Boucher's convincing argument whenever about that a part of him "used to stand up and cheer. See The New Leviathan.80 Interpretation 1. See Strauss. Political Thought ofR. 10. "On Collingwood's Philosophy 9. 243. 152. in a sleepy voice. The Social presumably in error. "it" 563.G. Collingwood. The text 11. 184-91. See his famous remark I began reading Marx": An Autobiography." .

more truthful. 250 pp. cloth $32. course. property from their associations with interpretation. defense of libertarianism. of Com in Central occurred Eastern Europe. and to say it somewhat of archly. Not justice. won out in the The China demonstrated that all the Communist Utopians had left. they had was [sic] few moral principles. just those mere rhetoric and moral brute force. to speak of its palpable fragility in China would before Professor Machan's book had been published. Nino Langiulli St. a plan for a brand new world no great patch in which everyone would all find his a The Communists' opponents had dream. longer social without moralistic and dreamlike rhetoric of "justice for but armed with those run. paper $16. liberty. Francis College. grandiose enthusiasm won out over the cautious no time turning their dream into reality: the creation of an idyll of justice for As an escapee from Communist Hungary. Individuals and Their Rights (La Salle. lost all. he have been able to offer the reader a less pessimistic. In this lies the originality conceptions of his thesis: the attempt to rescue the mechanis- life. 20. At the same as individuals whose rights hinge the right to property pursuit of the necessary condition for the practice of virtue and a noble the happiness. theoretically not and practically. a authority. 1989). Vol. the That text.Book Review Tibor Machan. though no less ironic text to serve as and his epigram.95. It is. Machan Communists' might even have celebrated the fact that the the opponents without the grandiose all. stale and of lifeless to up the tattered trousers of the established order. Fall 1992." dream. says dera's The Book of Laughter Forgetting. say place. from Milan following: Kun- Yes. few moral principles and episode the love of liberty.. if there ever was anything else. 1 . moreover. what you will the Communists were more intelligent. They had a grandiose program. but cially on that liberty both of presupposed by time it is a defense the reality of persons as resulting from them. Brooklyn I Had the munism events of 1989 the and collapse. more espe Machan's book is defense few and principles. not of was mere rhetoric and brute force. No. compromises and So. Illinois: Open Court. of not power.95.

and a metaethical one. This in a unified texture his affirma tions and their denials. the truth of the fact" definition In the case of rights. like many other truths. from the time that human beings . egoism." ethical It is an attempt to establish modern virtue on an ancient basis. Correlatively. timeless (p. unalterable. and law. and Ideology American Experience. poli tics." His taking of ac these positions is concomitantly an affirmation of those very positions the critics deny. is "context the definition of rights. time. the contextual boundary is that of social morality. how clearly or unclearly this known. Professor Machan this reader concurs. The Main Debate. ethical capitalism. 1). issue. two postscripts. over the course of seven chapters. that he must confront an epistemological believes. Machan studiously various critics of political and laboriously takes into account what he calls "the the cognitivism. that human beings possessed rights was they now have. But to say that definitions are relational is not to deprive them of their objectivity. together is not deprived of objectivity. individualism. Just as a right not existing apart from a context of persons within a world it" living ple. and of which he is the editor. requirement of modern The first is to dispel the foundationalism. were such other forums as philosophical and political journals volumes to which Many "partially as well as of the aired" in in two also he contributed. i. speak ing the truth means speaking necessarily and with absolute without that p means saying that ~p is gether. 2). and an even more instructive ideas developed in the book. count of critics of foundationalism. Machan tells his readers. tological propagandistically. //the pigment. David Hume." in which not all that one wishes for is available just by wishing (p. for certain results would obtain maintains (p. and results meta-ethical naturalism. Rather. an That unity is established instructive introduction. n A In to discuss classical ethical egoism order philosophically and not merely and on ideologically. unalterable timeless statement that corre sponds to some final. At the same and Adam Smith to the truths in Aristotle. John Locke.82 Interpretation tic materialism and empiricism and to join them instead to a certain kind of moral individualism which he calls "classical egoism. an . so too a scientific principle sun's rays shine on skin holds exam conditionally Machan ever yet objectively. it is bound to that wider "context of human reality of bound. impossible) dispelling certainty (saying foundations alto The application here is that Machan wishes to define the concept of rights truthfully and soundly without having at the same time to imply that the truthful definition is "some final. or casually. issue. preface. to wed the truths in Thomas Hobbes. 1).e.

" thought to which Machan adds unnecessarily. 7). is the tools. changeless. according to Machan (p. He settles on and for the Aristotelian view of the basic substantive rather reality (noncontradiction. 5). At this and perfection the qualities of divinity not humanity rules of point in his epistemological propaedeutic. Machan suggests appropriate conception of knowledge by regarding the language the way Aristotle did in one of his formulations of the principle of noncontradic tion: "It won't be possible for the same things to be and not to be [not] just [as] a matter of the word but he where it's a matter of the on thing" (p. is to require infallibility. although he can choose use a particular language. i. similar Hampshire is to (4) The model of knowledge invoked by means "to be unaltera Lehrer's.Book Review began to ence and exist.e. (2) The rules of language are not created ex nihilo but develop as gradually through the case with other recognition of their suitability a and effective ness. the of are optional activities in human life is that the language is seem basic have tool" Machan implies that Hampshire order of and others like him to reversed analogy. beyond that a shadow of conceivable doubt in p" about (p. The fact that there are mathe to the principle of excluded middle matical objections does not vitiate Aris totle's basic concepts metaphysical position. logically of really possible) scenarios not to defeat definition 'knowledge' be rejected because to do a so is to lose the ideal concept of which can knowledge attained altogether by requiring "fantastic" be He sense answers Hampshire by asserting: only by an omniscient (1) Language is not conventional in the have it to live up to mind (p. 5). to that a person can choose to have or not it. cal ples of he does not leave himself any epistemologi princi foundations. Referring to knowledge accounts in the work of Keith Lehrer and Stuart Hampshire.. A system of in this case one which includes those "individual" "rights" of confirmed and resting on such principles and learned from Aristotle "is (p. a more incorrigibiMty. 5). repeatedly in all action. 7). no other ground to show that something is the actual ground of being possible. (p. is impossible reality. entailment relation. To pendent of seek "an independently identifiable and reality. Machan answers the first by asserting that con of such knowledge which rights holds that mutual- textual aspects of and sufficient knowledge should be admitted into the meaning of necessary wherein conditions. self- repeats such a requirement for knowledge is impossible ground and one defeating. "Games (p. forever Machan certain. (3) Language is whereas not a mere game.. 6). which rules of games are analogous to the rules life and not the other way around. 83 Here he addresses himself to the a challenge offered to the exist knowledge by Kantian-Platonic/Cartesian model of knowing is a kind of timeless. "and also on the perception" processes of sensory . "to know that p" bly. and that Gettier-type counterexamples possible and not should merely serve conceivable a (i. identity and excluded middle) understood in a than in a purely formal sense.e. although Machan does what not impose or himself or his readers ment of meeting calls a fantastic Kantian-Platonic/Cartesian his readers without knowledge. 6). What is the require model of more." inde human consciousness.

the individual has been invented rights of the since no there is a human nature. while being members of a species. i. The would other things. more nor his arguments. and to discard by way various ontological positions which of sound argu ments. through choosing some of their behavior. that this may have been a mistake of omission. the deny human choice or views freedom. among tual system. something that is natural. He formulates exists and and addresses always to the following dilemma: "the individual has or existed." the "distinction" between facts be values. and to speak of those philosophic doctrines which accept a materialist course of mechanistic physics such as positivism. The dissolution first. such as Among not the positions he considers are mechanistic and scientific Newtonian physics. my formulation to him. are the cause of some of their own actions. individuality in the significant political sense of dilemma lies possessing individual natural rights (p. Thus they would possess not merely numerical individuality but. Machan than hints that he with a considers a teleological view of nature neither obsolete incompatible rigorous nonreductivist science. to consider.84 Interpretation In addition to a proper epistemological basis for his support argument about ontological "indi viduals" "rights. which reconciles individuality and human nature in such a nonreductivist way as to offer a conception of human beings who. or interest. 9). not something that human beings are. the division or separation is distinction he disavows. have the nature of human beings. however. contract." and Machan turns for further says to the issue. He mentions "the having ontological priority in these discussions family" but argues. namely that while the distinction is version of It is the dogmatic true. that one there are not two worlds the world of the world of values but . he says.' concept of alism" Machan then human addresses himself to the issue that "individu himself has been the associated with those philosophical concepts which entail a rejection of concept of nature. In the Darwinian natural selection. these rights cannot be grounded only on either convention. then. presumably Locke's and more recently Sartre's. in which case there is no human nature and natural and rights. Machan is deaf to the criticism that the concept of not exist or individual" is recent.e. and then in finding the adequate one. a concept that either did did have ontological the alternative of priority in medieval or ancient discussions. contracts. but no individuals have natural exist individuals to have such rights" (pp. This is to say facts and not. in arguing that individualism has had an inadequate philosophical base. and occur or exist. an albeit an understandable one due to inadequate development of the concept of of what was of our concep recent so-called invention a the individual then be not an invention but discovery implicit in the 'family. would Although he congenial does not put it in the following the way. Machan proceeds. For these interests "the not presuppose something else. between and between nature and morality. considers as The third issue that Machan central argument preparatory groundwork for his and is the "is" metaethical one of "ought. such that the conventions. 8-9). He that if it is the case that individuals rights. Aristotle's. Skinnerian behaviorism..

We is worth quoting in its as human individuals are responsible for doing well at living our lives. "They are objec tive relational features living" or aspects of (pp. built-in (instinctual) prompters be argued for how to carry on with their lives successfully. whatever contributes "disvalue. conception of which he . All this rests on a conception of ethics as a firmly-based yet contextual system of guidelines required by human beings because they lack automatic. intrusions by others. Machan. as a human individual be left free Each person. free choice) and thereby take advantage of and create a number of options to forge a successful life. then.Book Review world with 85 pair. and most noble ethical system on which to ground a sound politics. Nor of are the standards of value or goodness by the best way to live. B Having established the groundwork for his central thesis." to perishing comes to be regarded as or goodness or so that the idea of value derives from the fact life. being is the kind of differing living being kinds lives find the that discovers that the rear "adapt" to its environment through the capacity to it (i. proceeds to develop the argument through a set of proposals which he defends which against their critics. Then the indeed that emerges will prove to be the best (P. Morality. especially those not immediately accessible to sensory He then proposes a theory to explain how values are indeed a spe fact. moral into existence.e. 27) this It is equally worth summary especially the novel points expressed in the last two The individualism which Machan defends is that so as examining in somewhat greater detail to illuminate further not only the thesis as a some parts of whole but it also and sentences. that live rationally conduct. stay way in life apart from others or join with them when this is mutually agreeable. It each person should aspire to implies. But lives which are not all identical. implies a system of moral and political principles. in and. cies of complex values come says that with with the emergence of of living things. defensible sphere of authority to make his or her for example. In what follows it will that the human self ought to be understood along not Hobbesian but egoism Aristotelian lines. politically. in the body of his book. Human best way of life is to range . play it safe or take risks. develop or falter. own and should seek protection against. that regarding their chosen everyone must from. morally. interrelated it this aspects. Machan are means of Good and bad features by living fact-based human being. his thesis. This is goodness. is the set of general principles that members of the human species what must discover in a order to live a successful concept of value or human life. must be left with a rightful. 18-19). be inferred. and the emergence human life. values come into Since living bad of things can perish. He provides a brief summation of entirety. This. The theory existence. One interrelated pair is the kinds "fact-value" Machan puts way: Values may be regarded as of fact and many facts must awareness. short. when understood.

The rational and free a creative role in governing the wrongfully as well as rightfully in sustaining and morality. can act enhancing that life. then individual. must also the a and enhance individual lives be guide to public and economic policy. But while Machan admits egoism he defends he of calls classical and an egoism this. because of moral and political values arise. The name for the power to choose the conduct of their life so as to sustain government and enhance exists life is "natural right. live.86 Interpretation to collectivism. 21). individual not a collectivity which is individual brain is do necessary individual human beings who collectivities none of these. Egoism self-interest is by these doctrines. Such he regards as a sound system of moral ity. must be such possible. The task liberal of separating a version of egoism for the basis for ethics and for capitalism without overstretching the very concept of egoism or version having it collapse into the Hobbes-Lockean it. Hence course of with other individuals. Indeed. For this the reminder and prerequisite. of of opposes To Marx's notion that "the human essence is the true is the man. uals what This is done they must individuals to flourish in the best way best. thought living beings form the form of consciousness they and since this of consciousness namely rational and conceptual implies the capacity for creative original thought. Herein lies the originality his book." The name for those rights that Hobbes to protect of is "negative right. Government is established. The since main reason he gives for his treatment other the human essence is that virtue of human beings are distinguished from possess. is hardly conceivable in society where some individuals have the ity to tell others what to do rather than what not to do (p. not by rules telling individ do for and to one another but what they must not do to and that they enable for one another. This admission is qualified with the admonition that a rational self-development. whereas If this is so. . a are then it is correct to argue that it is that an capable of original ideas. The rules that govern communities. 29). to with one another as protect individuals from chosen con and against interference they engage in their duct. Machan adds the it is born. according to Machan. Machan considers ethics as conceptually prior to politics or economics. there fore. not since merely a crutch for libertarian politics or capitalist economies. the finds in Aristotle. die. Since individuals spend most of their time moral principles which sustain his life. enjoy." collectivity true of Machan opposes the notion that "the human essence individuality in man" (p.e. i. then." Most one this sounds like the natural rights doctrine of and Locke on or hand and the individualistic political economy of required Adam Smith.. He believes that his such version will escape is formidable. classical ego author ism. he expressly admits that he would abandon negative liberty and libertarian poli tics if classical egoism were to demand their abandonment. the logical and and Machan knows ethical solecisms of formulations of the Hobbes-Lockean version offered by Milton Friedman and George Stigler. suffer.

. and in general for himself the honorable course.31). they be of the class of moral or of in tellectual virtues. 26) Man is eternally a utility-maximizer in his home. are noblest and best and gratifies the most as a authoritative element and in all things obeys this. . Aris totle appears to be contrasting the moral individual with the egoistic one. page endnote on 214. . and not self-love or self-interest. then the notion of self-interest or egoism collapses into those In versions of and it that Machan wishes to avoid. whether The end for the sake of which actions are performed. self-loving human it is "closer to is the eighth being" because it is know "sensible" more than the other version and what we about human beings" (P. in Milton Friedman an George Stigler. above all things. 30) private). self. Machan quotes from Jack . . he asks: "Why 'egoism' call in this way a most obvious objection.Book Review every individual serves his own history have served their "private . for example. were always in accordance with to try to secure himself. The Aristotelian text egoism" which point of departure for Machan's "classical the ninth book of the Nico ethical machean is from the chapter of Ethics. (P. church. everywhere. . as found. The moral individual performs noble actions and obeys reason. if justly. a man were always anxious or . The great Saints of interest' just the most money grubbing miser has served his interest. such as or risking life to save another's. at all events But such a man would seem more than the other a he assigns to himself the things that in himself is (P. and therefore the man who loves this and gratifies it is most of all a lover of self. The objection is one of the present has to the book. or Machan totle's replaces the isolated and atomistic individual with what he calls Aris "self-sufficient. in the this sentence after the completion of the quotation. 37) arise Machan is of not oblivious to the objections that support immediately In about this use second Aristotelian material as for ethical egoism. so is a man. Some such actions one's may require the sacrifice or denial of interest. the most authorita He anticipates in the first place?" tive element in him. . as .. he jection to his few that the use of Aristotle for libertarian reviewer ends. (P. in his office (be it public in his in his scientific work in short. . is the actions themselves and the satisfaction derived from self- performing them. no one will call such lover of that he a man a lover of self or blame him. in which Machan discusses the Aristotelian anticipates another serious ob passage with respect to interpretations of it. . The private interest is whatever it is that drives an individual. should act any other of the virtues. fact. If self-interest is not some times denied sacrificed. with and just city or any other systematic whole most properly identified the most authoritative element in it. temperately. 87 private interest.

" possible this social form is precisely the human life (i. This means that the kind of life the city makes appear nature. implicit in human nature. It is no sin to be selective in one's Aris totelianism. is concerned with the development in as peaceful. is not an ethics of for others.e. the life cannot be thought of solely as condition of reason and liberty). Hence but as a a matter of choice necessary for a human life.88 Interpretation of Wheeler's essay "Rand and Aristotle: A Comparison totelian in which Wheeler rightly says: Ethics. "Man is a political animal by merely that human beings are social by nature but rather that individuals become hu man in and through the city." Objectivist and Aris In a certain sense. envious. may is abhorrent involve self-denial or self-sacrifice. It does some individuals the "resources" may be inherently human. While "social Machan." or man A problem must be noted here with Machan's Aristotelianism. 33). rights. and. 61). . to as living properly. Indeed. no Greek can be labeled an egoist any more than an altruist. The objection to standard egoism about its inability to resolve conflicts of self-interest in principle or in objection fact is for classical egoism inasmuch as in this version question-begging it would never be in a in one's genuine self-interest to The thrust of classical do the morally wrong thing (p. noncalculating loyalty.. says must be a matter of choice (p. the entire project of or the attempting to society of man. Ethical egoism or individualism. Its politi self- form. lustful. he repeats. "though not necessarily fraternal ner as can be obtained (p. it greed. interests with benevolence and interest of as a whole seems clearly to start with Hobbes the Hobbesian view Machan does individual thought is this not answer this objection. i. It would that he disregards the singularly characteristic line of Aristotle's Poli a line which does not mean tics. sufficient. 61). In this way. in that he well be the best person can (p. 37). which entails behavior good behavior that is incompatible and with morality generosity. but one of self-development. or power. however. in general. will. ambition. however.." But these. to the question ultimate 'egoism'?" Machan's replies that or she will "the "Why call beneficiary of he or she moral conduct be" is the agent. Machan insists that egoism because the standard version of antisocial it tends toward greedy. The response that the notion of the emerged later from its implicit locations in Nor is the response classical and medieval not sufficient answer. already said. whatever is morally dubious in egoism disappears for him. to conducting themselves rightly. The whole issue of egoism and altruism reconcile one's own is modem. He adds that the point of morality is to sometimes give human beings "a guide to doing all in life. 61). cal the doctrine of natural expansion of familial.e. ethical egoism is that "everyone ought to possible" strive to not abide become the best individual human making ity" being (p.

or other valuables] that may be of value (p. Locke's doctrine rights fits com fortably with Locke's political doctrine. second. although not to guaran conditions persons necessary tinues. Machan takes the term ean sense of one's own first in the Lock must person. He says that once it is the tee conditions that every individual ought to pursue a good life. Aristotle's ethics. moreover. while the domain itself is concretely "property" expressed authority is an in the right to property (p. This. Machan ment substitutes Aristotelian ethics understood as an egoism of self-develop for Lockean ethics. then that are necessary to make this possible. be the final authority in conducting his exchangeable sons" or her life and.Book Review Machan's politics 89 politics are Lockean. But he readily admits that are and of private his moral inventions. Ethical egoism. He. skills. 140). 95). he con be treated in such a way that their right to acquire not domain of personal be difficult if authority be respected. asserts reached human life extreme doctrines of individualism as property. The Aristotelian ethics fits with the Aristotelian political society. such that the individual. Complete rational impossible without this domain of personal of authority. understood even as a benevolent egoism. 123). "anything tradable or to per [items. in turn. The respect for the domain justice. of however. and jurisdiction. that the are notions of the they sovereignty discoveries based on a better understanding later point in history. which as is primarily of natural cooperative in character. in the sense of self-direction or from others.e. This is not to say that Machan's attempt to provide a sound and even hu mane moral theory for libertarianism is accepted not original and interesting. ethics and which Locke claimed governed the that should This is to say that "eudaimonistic guide human conduct prior to the consideration individualism" is the ethics of civil law (p. But he rejects the view of those critics who exaggerate the point and draw invalid inferences from it. demands that and retain some conduct would it. are for justice (p. i. These individual that at a and of claim.. are unwarranted. those that understand the individual entirely unique and separate from everyone else. The problem may be one of an appropriate fit here. namely self-governance. 137). seems to be ill fitted for a Hobbes-Lockean politics. The Lockean place of ethic fits with the Lockean state of nature because the latter is the Hobbesian war of everyone against everyone. starting it does with the desire that unites men and women and the fear that unites master and slave. while at time personal privacy critics property did not receive emphasis. expression of liberty. whereby every man is an executive and an execu tioner of the law of nature. capable of which isolated self- sufficiency. The concept of privacy is he defends is that which signifies the aspect of a person which autonomy. not others. is the separate . again admits at this point were Machan period in his argument that prior to the modern individuals the same thought of by prominent thinkers as part of a and whole. but his law wish and desire are to relate this to an Aristotelian ethics understood as ethical egoism which establishes natural the content of the state of nature.

or give away the things which belong to him and such that he (not others) is responsible for whichever choice he makes as to their disposition (p. the right of selfishness. deliberation about and choice from alternatives implies jurisdiction over the alternatives. hand and of defenders of capitalism on the other.90 Interpretation for private moral presupposition property such that an individual possesses nat urally the authority to keep. 143). 141). without regard property is the for right to enjoy his possessions and dispose of the other men. alternatives and then both deliberation could clear and choice would about be so restricted that each of me" its members (p. He is and dictate of right reason. A political economy which permits and guarantees to its participants not only the ownership of property but the derivative right to exchange wish or use it as they is one which is best moral life. That for such a for the possibility of human individuals living a political economy does not at the same time guarantee suited equal economic results and avoid market failures is not and should not be a ground government to property in the name of The coercive power of government exists. It may be no accident. life requires a reflective deliberation on available responsibility for the decisions or choices made from these Of course. . (P. 141). lost (p. in and confidence about criticism leading a moral life is in the Politics concerning common in the tragedy of common own and says that what is tragic ultimately property ership is that even if an individual were determined to fulfill his responsibili ties. He Aristotle's Hence property rights are necessary for the practice of the moral life (p. Machan finds a medieval suggestion of his view in the thought of William of Ockham (who. rational moral At any rate. 147). independently from society. The here. and is placed in the twelfth century rather than in the late thirteenth supposed to also have held that "private property is a that "natural right [being] nothing other than early fourteenth). 150-51). He quotes Marx as The right of man to same arbitrarily. to protect the lives and property of its members so that they may engage in a rational pursuit of self-development (pp. but it is mildly ironic that hints capitalism can be found in an English medieval Franciscan. through some oversight. 153) that Marx is speaking of the worst pessimistic view of Then he correctly private points out property and an inordinately are arguments against both too obvious to be repeated possibility of human intentions. 144). precisely in the forms of defense and crime fighting." a power to conform to right of reason" modern (p. use. Machan's defense of property rights and a free enterprise political economy is a disavowal of Marx's conception of private property and human individuals on one saying: disregard property rights altogether or to redistribute a moral imperative to redress economic inequalities. alternatives. Without a his actions. says moral confusion sets quotes Machan. it could not and would not be clear what his responsibilities are (p. In a totalitarian regime of a socialistic kind. 144). "Nothing is up to rightly say distinction between what is ours and what belongs to someone else.

employed "own. and of property are not instruments between individuals but "conditions survival. as entailed by The only respect in which the Lockean natural right position each person it is joined to classical egoism or is in the is responsible for his her own actions of conflict moral sense." criticisms are directed at those champions of cap pretending to be value-free social scientists. the logical transition from the principles 'Rights' are a moral concept that provides an guiding individual's actions to the principles guiding his relationship to others the concept that preserves and protects link between the moral code of a man and individual morality in a social context the the legal code of a society. 154). though." existence required by man's nature for his proper "nature" The words within "proper" quotation marks are those of Ayn Rand. and the legal code may mean merely the coercion link between the moral code of an individual and the legal code of a that the government may employ to keep people from interfering with each ." mention or suggestion of have reason to hope for support respecting the rights of others. liberty. then Machan would from Rand. they defend the even. 172) This not say enough in order to establish what it claims to estab transition from the principles guiding an individual's logical "the lish. however. when these economists attribute no more merit to the system than its adds that this purport adversaries of capital efficiency for producing what people want (p. He edly value-free posture is so transparently false that the ism trade it to discredit the transparently best discipline which studies it (p. If there were a actions to the principles guiding his relationship to passage does others. but it too does to fit his As Rand puts it. these "scientific. argues superiority of private property over collectivism or welfare-statism Machan. The moral code of the individual may involve only self-interest in a purely hedonistic sense. Marx was mistaken. (P. that Marx was not mistaken when he con the right to private property with egoism. 154). The rights to life. on economic system and the Machan does concede. whereby (p. between ethics and politics. namely. 155). to build for libertarianism. 172). There is no mention of how the society is to be forged.Book Review Machan's italism more 91 interesting who are economists tempting to be purely theory of science. the meaning that Machan wishes it to bear." clause would not another more bear lengthy foun from Ayn Rand is wishes by Machan to strengthen the moral not seem dation he needs. the entire clause can be understood. Indeed. In at in a false albeit not falsifiable positivist economists who defend the free market presuppose a normative viewpoint as well as a controversial conception of the good (p. in a purely Hobbesian sense. Although and are stressed. in taking the Lockean theory of rights as entailing the view of the individual as essentially an isolated monad and the view of the relationships between individ uals as essentially those of Machan admits separation when separation and conflict. When they defend the superiority of the free market system. the quotation "proper" with moral weight In this way. nected however.

Gewirth 's defense of a welfare-state ence theory values of rights between only others can produce fails to take account. then. do Well-being not is in different. but rejects a rights theory defends what or politically. the appeal rests not on moral grounds but on sheer force of government to establish and maintain equality which.e. in turn. asks Machan. 198). The which authorized such an imposition would substitute the concept of need concept of Rawls' justice the basis for legitimacy theory John version of the welfare-state raise that inequalities the worst are mor as ally as and legally are justified if they those people who are off. remedy the must unfairness of nature. 199). liberty.92 Interpretation Without the concept of other's pleasure. it value of would individuals legally as enforceable duties that they do (p. far needs concerned (i. course. Furthermore. essen says that the paradox lies in the theory that moral character tially obtained by accident. such as that offered which by Alan to Gewirth. only taken and regained. can a person earn the right to anything Rawls' of value by improv to ing out the lot of the poor and needy. But in the attempt to reconcile the right to liberty with the right to well-being.. makes as theory of requires. 200). regarding it impose laws for the on right is a mistake. according to Machan. 198). Gewirth. Individuals may lack it apart from what others don't do to or for them (p. duty as its correlative. then Rawls effort deny at least implic How any merit to individual moral deeds. While the as a dispute. These rights are derived from a conception of human nature as having a moral aspect. according do or to Machan. secure equal who he calls the "supportive of state" is supposed for each individual the rights freedom and well-being. is understood as the only index of fairness. Freedom cannot be given. of the differ for the individual and those which exists not almost all adults can produce for themselves (p. to a higher one standard of living The is paradoxical at best (p. the economically disadvantaged). and property. well-being is For if it were a right. . of The who appeal character or virtue that Rawls to improve the lot those have lost in life must fall on deaf ears unless. Machan concludes that the welfare state promotes rights which are and entitlements within a keyed to system government capitalist a harsh rights formulated first by Locke and defended by himself and other libertarians limits individual rights to those of life. morally." state. not have. only that for the individual's life (p. therefore. the concept of rights cannot Machan considers do the job logically. A right to freedom others because autonomy is something that an individual possesses if take it away. Everyone is in possessing these rights. 197). Character is itly because character is what explains a person's not obtained through effort but by accident. This is to say that each human individ- need interventions because the individuals equalizing forces to remedy both nature and A doctrine of natural socioeconomic system. says Machan. Rawls believes that "no nor merits a more must deserves his in Machan greater natural welfare capacity favorable starting is place society. If this is so. does not it is vital prove that well-being is something others must provide an individual.

In such ancient texts as Plato's Apology Crito as well as becomes human. according to Plato must and Aristotle. 203). and property just (p. as was pointed out earlier review. in this He Machan does mention the first opposition. The doctrine of that a government natural rights defended by Machan includes the expectation which protects the rights of life. ethics. This is characteristic sentence of nature.. Empires. the tribe and the empire.e. The task must remedying the inequalities and harshness of life be the responsibility of "voluntary cooperating individuals and (p. not to speak of greater only greater inequal injustices. 203). the individual Stretching between the to redeem concept of from its Hobbes-Lock egoism and opposition ean origins altruism is even more dubious." a of by This is the purport of line Plato's Apology: "The life of without inquiry is not a human It is the burden not the speech of "The Laws" stood as natural but as of in the Crito. liberty. Aristotle's Politics. neither individuality nor a human life high are probable. the city is only higher worth than the individual inasmuch wherein under as the individual becomes human only through the tions of city. The worry that individuals will not accept this responsibility cannot be relieved by the appeal to a coercive state which. decent. to the of second in the of context of issue the priority the family responding to those critics who raise the to the individual and those other critics who . experience has now taught everyone but the most dogmatic of ideologues. leads a human life. Just as the opposition is neither an ancient opposition nor a and collectivism true one. the ontological priority of the individual with egoism as the basis for He is quite right and persuasive about the concept of the individual lying more argu implicit in concept of ancient thought only to be discovered required by modern thought. it is evident that the human individual i. being large an societies. only in and through the city. that between egoism and altru to ism. Tribes do not manage not achieve civilization.Book Review ual 93 other has the responsibility to pursue the best possible life for himself and that individuals may not interfere with either the effort or lack of it to meet of groups" that responsibility. Yet the one the individual by an ethical egoism is that is compatible with ment Epicureanism than the libertarian with Aristotelianism. In the other political associa the ancient world. and that will be prosperous. so too the between individualism state) is (or between the individual and the and neither ancient nor true. but does refers not attend it. produces ities and greater suffering." the meaning of that political animal Aristotle's Politics: "Man is the characteristic life. will produce a society in Professor Machan has one: written a book that is excellent in every respect but the nagging doubt it leaves in the mind of the reader about the central thesis. do a to generate the kind of freedom individual have to lead human life.

or as Socrates duty or not virtue self itself. Still further. selfbe the basis for ethics. Yet Aristotle well without one. as Machan criticism. If either egoism or altruism it is a false disjunction disjunction egoism- because the sometimes a person may choose for himself. ahistoricism. the notion is discovered in modern philosophy but then trans formed an within the context of and contractarian political philosophies. then it is not evident how the person could distinguish between right and wrong on one hand and self-interest on the other. but it love. the individual has concern a decisive preoccupation himself belongs by social consent. Not only is the irrelevant for Aristotelian ethics. He says as let go of the notion of egoism. the state. by way called rational. of sometimes for others on grounds of a different a ethic such as cannot that would interest may be say. come our reason the erotic or aggressive kind. over in those . especially since the self does not irrevocably not surrender its natural rights. does one could still argue. but in this case he must and He cannot do so. much. appearance of concreteness is created by attribut ing for desires fears of a person to the abstraction of "the individual. individual" In this trans abstraction. might concede a Perhaps Professor Machan egoism little." In the Hobbes-Lockean and with social over polity. somewhat which in turn he calls an ethical egoism. it is simply irrelevant.94 Interpretation concept of the not altogether say that the to the issue individual is a modern invention (p. He attends non- satisfactorily. or. he ancient can hardly be expected to replace the of modem view of polity one without being accused nostalgia. specifically Aristotle's ethics. at least to understand that is not so untroublesome altruism opposition posed as a a basis for ethics. not even if this self-interest is of insists on doing. Furthermore. And giving up the notion of rights means giving up the libertarian concep tion of polity. if interests are limited to the self as by the (for how else could they be defined in an egoistic sys tem). and got Machan may not be pre along fairly it. we must assume tic atomism of Hobbes-Lockean individualism for the teleological individualism should of any metaphysical and epistemological that he is prepared to drop the mechanis and organic Aristotle. for while he is correct about a abstract notion of the individual lying implicitly in both ancient and medieval philosophy. While Machan does replace a modem view of ethics with an pared to yield the notion of ancient with an rights. reason sometimes fails us in moral choices and often our passions. Last but least. worse. it is defined virtue. romanticism. Since Machan himself is that there is dubious about such philosophers as Rawls believing no need of grounding for ethics. formation by as Hobbes is the and Locke "the The is just as much an artifice. however. because of either choices. 8). because the notion of egoism is tied to the notion of rights. that even rational self-interest do the trick. and selfish an ancient individual by which he any Machan tries to remedy this concept of the abstract releasing it from its modem context and by tying it to he has for the community to one.

for as millions of the world's people are shedding the shackles of col lectivism.Book Review These enter criticisms are not meant to a 95 denigrate with a splendid into brief philosophical discussion book but solely to it. is not only conscious of the weaknesses of the position but attempts to save it from those weaknesses. . unlike many libertarians. The effort is especially laudable and timely. Professor Machan. on they appear to be yearning choosing a political economy based liberty. economic or rhetorical. for and whether political.

.

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Miss Nilza Galindo. Rao Distributive Justice: A Third World Response to Recent American Resenha de Evolutionary Thought (Part I). n. Epistemologia e Historia da Ciencia.. 4) Alejandro Cassini Problemas y Limites del Fundacionismo Clasico.00 (US$ 8. 1 April 1992 1) Eugene J. 6133 13081 Campinas. 2) Andrew Ward Wittgenstein and Homuncular Psychological Explanations. 3) Joao Teixeira - A de enxergar. - . Antonia Soulez Volume 15. Brazil. SP. The Philosophy of Action [IV(2)]. 7) Rubem G. 6) Alberto Cupani A filosofia da ciencia de Mario Bunge e a questao do "positivismo" . Discussoes: Gilles G. n. [111(2)]. 3) Matthias Schirn. 2 October 1991 1) Oscar Nudler Hacia un Modelo de la Historia Epistemica Occidental. de 1) Roger Vergauwen Maliandi Popper. n. 5) Zeljko Loparc Sobre o metodo de Descartes.6es pre- liminares of transcendentais. - Epistemology and its Implications for Humankind. - Discussao/Nota: Carlos Lungarzo 0 Grupo Wittgenstein de Paris. Popper [IX(2)]. CP.00 each. Wittgenstein [Vm(2)]. 2) Julio Cabrera Contra la Condenacion Universal de los Argumentos "Ad Hominem". Lintz A Critical maquina - Study on the Foundations of Geometry.00. Annual Subscription for individuals US$ 15. 2) Graciela F. Meehan The University - and the Community: Social Science and Public Authority. n. 1 April 1991 Las Bases Logicas de la Intencionalidad. Scepticism [XI(2)] and Foucault [XII(2)] can be ordered for US$ 8. Nelson and Kant. Granger Review The Institution of Philosophy. 2 October 1992 Special issue devoted to the subject "Philosophy Special Issue: MANUSCRITO's Special Issues and Cognitive Science" on Hume [1(2)]. - Volume 15. Rousseau MANUSCRITO is published twice yearly by the Centro de Logica.00 individuals and US$ 12.00 for Institutions of the Latin America). Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Resenha: Joao de Fernandes Teixeira cado. 3) Marco Antonio Frangiotti Considerac. Common Sense [IH(l)].P. Institutions US$ 20. Cuestiones Fundamentales de una Teoria del Signifi- 4) A.MANUSCRITO An Internacional Journal Editor: Marcelo Dascal of Philosophy Wrigley Associate Editor: Michael Volume 14. from the journal's Executive Secretary. Truth [VI(2)]. Silvio Seno Chibeni Review of Einstein's Revolution sobre os princi'pios - Volume 14. - Resenha de Scientific Reasoning.

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