THEORY TO EVALUATE THE MARKETING STRATEGY OF IBM It is by the use of marketing theory and concepts; we are evaluating the

determined marketing strategy of IBM in attaining its organisational goals and objectives. Initially the proceedings are related to the importance and the use of information in successful marketing strategies by IBM. Then there is the discussion about IBM marketing strategies in terms of their overall organisational strategy. We will make an analysis over the application of IBM marketing strategies in global context. Lastly we will assess IBM e-business strategies in marketing domain. International Business Machines Corporation, or the IBM, is basically a multinational computer technology and has got hold over IT consulting services. The company has established itself as one of the selected information technology companies since 19th century. Adoption of marketing strategies for IBM has been a planned structure since 19th century and by means of these strategies it has earned enough success all over the world. With its growth in the manufacturing as well as marketing domains of computer hardware and software, it has gained the nickname of "Big Blue". On marketing grounds, IBM follows strict infrastructural services, added by hosting provisions and consulting services in various areas from mainframe computers to the persuasion of nanotechnology. The company considers that to make marketing strategies, it is important to have appropriate decisions that can well enhance all kinds of competitive advantages and can create all kinds of new sources of value for the purpose of improving the organisational revenue growth. As declared in its official website. IBM considers that their strategy and change services target in helping their clients in transforming their economy and related businesses by the scope of identifying strategic options. This further gets added by provisions for developing strategic and planned change programs to meet the demands of their consumers. According to Luq Niazi, Leader Strategy and Change, "When the leaders of an organisation think about their business as components, it becomes clear which ones they need to own - and which they do not"

Importance and use of information in IBM marketing strategy The importance and use of information is very vital for gaining success and thus IBM in particular came up with Social Networking provisions. This is the reason that IBM lays emphasis over making it simple. SN for enterprises has been implemented with enough marketing strategies and this is what providing IBM with technical expertise in the field of organizational/adoption issues. global services. the adoption of unique kind of marketing strategies is predominant. The launcher came up with a new idea and launched it much before anybody can ever think of it. The company uses its technological supports and draws new kinds of driving features. The second big thing to the adoption of marketing strategy is the IBM's mindset in the launching of Lotus Connection. When it comes to the use of information system in IBM. By success of SN. It is through the provision of Social Networking (SN). and deep pockets and above all in gaining loyal customers. the basics of marketing strategies. he hardly will opt for any other company and this is what IBM believes to the core. By few minutes of exploration anybody can well get hold over its functionalities. By means of investments made in the SN domain. The basic approach is in being innovative ad adopting something that is very user friendly and easy for the customer to adopt. It is an absolute means of sharing ideas. IBM is the first major IT supplier that has got potential provisions for SN in the process of changing the entire enterprise along with a credible application to address the market. that IBM could establish its commitment to technology and SN mindset. IBM established its strong hold over competitive market. complains and letters of appreciation in public. Once there is a kind of trust and sense of being facilitated gets into the consumer. It is an information networking process with collaboration-centric approach to SN and helps in information sharing and uninterrupted workflow. IBM proved to be a fine player in the domain of information networking. The launching of more facilities related to SN are relevant to the competition of the market. IBM has gained enough market strengths in the enterprise lineage. IBM kept it easy and user friendly. easy and sharing more than the consumer can expect. Application of innovative ideas in the field of information sharing units can . The proceedings have added many advantages to its organisational global services. Complicacies in the same field can lead to failure of the same. By means of adopting networking opportunities.

IBM marketing strategy in relation to Organisational strategy The measurement of strategic effectiveness in an organizational strategy can be discovered through SWOT analysis. The perspectives of organisational dealings are strategically adopted to meet the demands of HRM. initially joined the company in the position of a salesman. the current CEO. Palmisano. the basic marketing strategy in relation to organisational strategy adopted by IBM is more concerned about the proceedings led by HRM.be of great risk. The application of SWOT and the Johnson and Scholes model proves that IBM has got enough potentiality to gain well crafted assessment about itself. Ø Suitability can be assessed to identify the factors that will support the strategies. opportunities and threats of a particular company. Under this persuasion we can evaluate a company on the basis of three key success criteria. It has been marked that on traditional ground many IBM executives along with aspiring general managers are selected for the purpose of improving sales force and market oriented projects. Its main strength lies in identifying its weaknesses. but under the marketing strategy of IBM. At IBM there is enough encouragement for creative marketing tactics. Added to this there is the initiation led by Johnson and Scholes model for corporate strategy (Rifkin. It can be well marked as Samuel J. . Ø Acceptability is something that will determine the reactions that the organisation will receive by the execution of the strategies. This is a structure that figure out strengths. this risk has been taken again and again with enough success. The approaches are all very professional and the marketing persuasions are well structured as per the organisational structure. Anybody within the organisation can attain these tactics. The typical business culture of IBM is customer centric and for that they make their HR department feel the responsibility. weaknesses. As per the declarations made by the official site of IBM. 2001). IBM. Ø Feasibility is all about the adoption of executing the strategy into practical field. These are marked as following.

This is a provision that can collect more consumers all over the world with very minimum investment. Ø The means to create absolute governance framework with special attentions led over management policies and overall practices. It is an exclusive means adopted through the .Global context in IBM marketing planning In global context. It is a mode that usually gets expressed locally and after attaining some success approaches on global grounds. In order to meet the diversified point of views. IBM and e-business strategies The motive of any electronic business is to achieve consumer demands through internet networking. Ø Approaches led by institute consistent processes for target customer is the next step. These are the sources that are collected through the purpose of encouraging customer centricity added by the scope to safeguard customer privacy. 'where' and 'how' the appropriate and relevant customer data can be collected. IBM always follows the process of establishing central framework and then architects the relevant consumer experiences to gain consistency with the brand. This is an approach that is done under the provision of practical market survey. It is through this enterprise that IBM can be considered as a big player in terms of getting hold over the global marketing plans. Ø Process of analysing the context of 'when'. IBM follows the structure noted below. 2001). IBM has proved to sustain in the most difficult situations. In this process the relationship led by the management across all the domains of sales and provided services of the organisation are scrutinized professionally. Its formulisations are inclusive of creating a global brand blueprint. Despite the fact that this marketing strategy adopted by IBM was considered to be an early lead by the field of Internet pure plays. IBM always concentrates in gaining single view from its consumers and that helps in assessing the risk factors of global marketing strategies (Rometty. It has overcome the recent twists and turns led by 'bricks-and-clicks'. However amidst all the hurdles IBM is now achieving milestones through the advantages forwarded by brick-and-click enterprises.

a book by a former CEO of IBM. E-business helped IBM in coming much closer to its consumers and that builds the bridge of reliability and consumer loyalty to the brand. The proceedings led by IBM for the development and implementation of e-business are more strategic and led concentration over diversified functions occurring through electronic capabilities. Louis Gerstner (2003). It is under this strategic implementation that IBM has adopted many . According to 'Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?'.dealings related to information and communication technologies. with individuals. Ø electronic purchasing Ø supply chain management Ø processing orders electronically Ø handling customer service These proceedings are adding special technical standards in the e-business structure of IBM. It is through its e-business strategies that IBM is able to link its internal as well as external data processing systems with more efficiencies and flexibilities.IBM is also a part of the entire value chain proceeding for more profitable dominance over the local as well as global market. As a matter of fact the e-business strategies of IBM are not much different from the other marketing strategies. IBM is enabling itself to all kinds of external activities and is applying determined relationships for respective business dealings. It is also utilising e-business strategies to exchange of data between its partners and associate companies. These activities are noted below. Through e-business strategies. diversified groups and all other corporate. The basic difference however depends over the expansion of management for sending and receiving contracts from the consumer. In case of IBM the role of e-business is very strong. For the development of business proceedings through ICT is considered to be the best means. the approach of IBM for "e-Business strategies is handled under IBM's marketing provisions and under specialised internet teams since 1996. There are some predominant sectors where the ebusiness strategies are applied to gain more trust and money from the consumer.

The reputations of these dealers are marked by IBM first before offering the partnership.local dealers to be a part of its services. In terms of services for each product sold through ebusiness. even if the product performs as designed in development. There is a big project risk involved as the whole project might fail and make a huge loss for the investors. It is more about having the trust of every single consumer. PART TWO NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FOR IBM AND MARKETING STRATEGY FOR THAT PRODUCT The management of new product development involving electronic and computeroriented consumer and systems products is a special case because of the challenges created by high technology and complex systems. rather than having lots of them without the trust. amidst burgeoning and very unpredictable online as well as global marketplace. IBM WILL DEVELOP A COMPUTER THAT WORKS AS A HUMAN BRAIN . These dealers are of course selected through some professional modes. It can be well concluded that the marketing strategies adopted by IBM are very much structured on the basis of trust-based marketing strategies. IBM has got professional and the courage to take a risk for innovative ideas. In a nutshell. IBM provides appropriate training to all those people who are a part of this structure. IBM concentrates in providing its consumer every possible facility that he demands and that too with very balanced services. And not on the company's success in getting it successfully to the market. The products and services provided by IBM can guarantee their utility to the customer's satisfaction. With strategic planning IBM is also into the dealings related to integrated intra and inter firm business proceedings. It is through this theoretical approach that IBM has established itself very strongly. It explores the consumer's domain through proper hold over the local and global proceedings. These factors are external to the project team-in the company organization and culture or in the global marketplace. They are often missed by the technical and engineering personnel in the project because of the tendency to fix narrowly on the product itself and its design and function.

dynamics. “The key idea of cognitive computing is to engineer mind-like intelligent machines by reverse engineering the structure. Cornell University and the University of California-Merced are collaborating. depending on the purposes behind identifying the groups. some researchers from Stanford University. said Dharmendra Modha. In order to develop the project. a researcher at IBM who is leading the collaboration. Marketing campaigns are often designed and implemented based on this type of customer segmentation.9 million. SEGMENTATION OF THE MARKET THE COUNTRY CHOSEN IN THIS CASE IS UNITED KINGDOM NEUROSCIENCE. object. and interrelationship from the sensory data”. the project is supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that has invested $4. said Modha. SUPERCOMPUTING. . function and behavior of the brain”. NANOELECTRONICS Market segmentation is a strategy that involves dividing a larger market into subsets of consumers who have common needs and applications for the goods and services offered in the market. These subgroups of consumers can be identified by a number of different demographics. “The mind has an amazing ability to integrate ambiguous information across the senses. space.IBM is carrying out a project focused on developing a computer that would work as a brain. and it can effortlessly create the categories of time. Besides. and it will require the combined work of neurobiologists. “There are no computers that can even remotely approach the remarkable feats the mind performs”. This type of technology is called “Cognitive computing”. computer and materials scientists and psychologists. so it can solve problems by considering the real context in which the things are happening.

Differentiation in quality is what IBM will be aiming for in this product as this product will of superior quality and design which will give IBM a competitive edge over other companies which plan to launch such a product in the future. A MARKETING MIX FOR THE NEW PRODUCT OR SERVICE Product .In this case we can segment the market by the age group of the people who will be using the end product. such as being urban dwellers DIFFRENTAITION AND POSITIONING OF THE OFFERING IN THE CUSTOMERS MIND In marketing product differentiation is the process of distinguishing a product or offering from others. This involves differentiating it from the competitors products as well as ones own products. For example if IBM is planning to get over a million units of sale in this particular year. to make it more attractive to a particular target market. then objectives should be defined in such a way That actual performance can be compared with the objective. this type of computer will be mostly used by the older group of people who understand what is nanoelectronics and its applications. Psychographic segmentation – based on lifestyle preferences. MARKETING OBJECTIVES Short term targets for milestones with defined measurable achievement. SELECTION OF TARGET MARKET Target Marketing involves breaking a market into segments and then concentrating your marketing efforts on one or a few key segments.

Physical evidence Physical evidence is an essential ingredient of the service mix. consumers will make perceptions based on their sight of the service provision which will have an impact on the organisations perceptual plan of the service. An efficient service that replaces old credit cards will foster consumer loyalty and confidence in the company. AN INDICATION OF THE COSTS OF THE MARKETING STRATEGY AND WHEN IBM SHOULD EXPECT A RETURN ON THEIR INVESTMENT .The product is cognitive computing Price The price would be based on development costs plus profits Place The place of launch would be united kingdom Promotion The product would be promoted to the age group of over 25 yrs People British organisations aim to apply for the Investors In People accreditation. Process Banks that send out Credit Cards automatically when their customer's old one has expired again require an efficient process to identify expiry dates and renewal. which tells consumers that staff are taken care off by the company and they are trained to certain standards. Hence efficiency is our aim.

(2003) Who Says Elephants Can't Dance. it would take five years to get back the investment. Staff Writer.wss/ibvstudy/igs/a1006209?cntxt=a1005848 [retrieved on 19th Nov.uk/essays/education/ibm-marketing- strategies. 2002 http://news. http://www935.9.com/IBM-meets-lowered-estimates/2100-1014_3885259.com/services/au/index. 2009] http://www. Ginni (2001) Five marketing tips for the digital age. Putnam Books.modha.php#ixzz2POd4dukp .ibm. 2009] Spooner.There is a strong opinion that costs of the projects would be above 10 million as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that has invested $4.org/ Read more: http://www. McGraw-hill books Rifkin. (2000) The Age of Access.wss/home [retrieved on 19th Nov. New York WEBSITES IBM Global Business Services. Leading a Great Enterprise through Dramatic Change. J. 2009] Rometty. Louis V. Hence according to calculation which are based on profits over a period of time.com/services/uk/index. http://www-935.co. John G. Harper Paperback Bruce Barkley (2008) Project management in new product development.html [retrieved on 20th Nov. CNET News April 17. (2002) IBM meets lowered estimates.cnet.ukessays. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Gerst.ibm.

Employing the best talents in the industry. The company strongly believes that devising effective marketing strategies requires making appropriate decisions that can well enhance all kinds of competitive advantages and can create all kinds of new sources of value for the purpose of improving the organisational revenue growth. IBM is today the largest as well as the most profitable information technology employer in the world. Evaluation of marketing strategy of IBM International Business Machines Corporation. and IT consulting services. This is followed by a discussion on IBM marketing strategies in relation to its organisational strategy. it becomes clear which ones they need to own . Leader of Strategy and Change at IBM. Four specific aspects of marketing strategy evaluation are assessed in this study. "when the leaders of an organisation think about their business as components. It is by the use of marketing theory and concepts that the study evaluates the marketing strategies of IBM and its role in fulfilling the firm' overall goals and objectives. Initially the proceedings are related to the importance and the use of information in successful marketing strategies by IBM. Despite of the adverse economic conditions. According to Luq Niazi. is a multinational IT company involved in the manufacture and retail of computer hardware and software applications. In this domain the marketing strategy of IBM has been considered on empirical grounds. Lastly e-business strategies of IBM in the marketing domain are assessed.devised and efficient marketing strategies have been the key to IBM' global success.and which . The paper also makes an analysis of the application of IBM marketing strategies in global context. better known as IBM. Well .Marketing strategies of IBM Marketing Strategies of IBM Introduction This study aims at examining the use of theoretical marketing approaches in the practical business scenario. the firm achieve a significant increase in its net revenue and income in 2008 compared to previous years.

For IBM. There are several tactics that firms use for defending their market share. IBM' strategy is "cheaper and better than IBM". Based on IBM' market share and dominance in the IT industry. IBM also realises the importance of maintaining good relationships with its customers and in line the firm lays great emphasis on trust . 2005). In line with its quest for further growth and market leadership. counterattack. reliability. Being the courageous market leader that IBM is. mobile defence and strategic retreat (Ries and Trout. durability. Being a market leader. Understanding the innovative demands of customers lies at the core of developing effective marketing strategies. product design etc (Kurtz and Boone.they do not". IBM has strategically reduced its exposure to hardware by diversifying into software and services. adoption of this strategy has been very effective in developing its . the firm also considers understanding the requirements and needs of customers as crucial for developing effective marketing strategies. the firm adopts a diversification strategy. an important marketing strategy which IBM uses against its competitors is the defensive marketing warfare strategy. customers wait for IBM' new prospects as they know that the Big Blue will constantly introduce new and better products which makes the firm' own products obsolete. In such a context. Another key marketing strategy employed by IBM for sustaining its market leadership is product differentiation strategies. Trust based marketing strategies stress on the need for organisations to gain ethical hold over consumer dealings and also be honest and open about its products and the services. In addition. The importance of IBM' growth strategy has heightened in the current economic situation with companies in the computer industry having faced a massive drop in the industrial production and productivity of computer hardware and the future growth for this segment also appearing dim. Aware of IBM' tactic. the firm can be aptly described as a 'market leader'. Product differentiation can be achieved using a variety of factors such as distinctive products. The defensive marketing strategy involves the firm employing tactics to maintain its market share. the firm adopts the best defensive marketing strategy which is "self attack".based marketing strategies. 2006). This clearly indicates the great emphasis that IBM places on the performance and decision making capabilities of leaders in devising effective marketing strategies. such as fortification. IBM uses a product differentiation strategy based on quality of performance.

the adoption of unique kind of marketing strategies is predominant.wide SN mindset. This is the reason that . IBM proved to be a fine player in the domain of information networking. global services. that IBM established its commitment to technology and developed an enterprise . By means of adopting networking opportunities. It is through the provision of Social Networking (SN). Complicacies in the same field can lead to failure of the same. In line. IBM is the first major IT supplier that has got potential provisions for SN and is in the process of changing the entire enterprise along with a credible application to address the market. The proceedings have added many advantages to its organisational global services. IBM has gained enough market strengths in the enterprise lineage. IBM established its strong hold over competitive market.brand identity and image. By means of investments made in the SN domain. the firm strives at building customer trust and loyalty. In all of its marketing activities. The second big thing to the adoption of marketing strategy is the IBM's mindset in the launching of Lotus Connection. The basic approach is in being innovative and adopting something that is very user friendly and easy for the customer to adopt. The launcher came up with a new idea and launched it much before the though had developed in anyone' mind. the basics of marketing strategies. By few minutes of exploration anybody can well get hold over its functionalities. By success of SN. complains and letters of appreciation in public. Importance and use of information in IBM marketing strategy The importance and use of information is vital for gaining success. IBM adopted the strategy to take up Social Networking to the work place. The launching of more facilities related to SN are relevant to the competition of the market. It is an absolute means of sharing ideas. IBM kept it easy and user friendly. It is an information networking process with collaboration-centric approach to SN and helps in information sharing and uninterrupted workflow. When it comes to the use of information system in IBM. SN for enterprises have been implemented with enough marketing strategies and this is what is providing IBM with technical expertise in the field of organizational/adoption issues. deep pockets and above all in gaining loyal customers.

Incorporating the Johnson and Scholes' model for corporate strategy into this structure creates three success criteria for evaluating a firm (Rifkin. 2001). easy and sharing more than the consumer can expect. weaknesses. the basic marketing strategy in relation to organisational strategy adopted by IBM is more concerned about the proceedings led by HRM. he hardly will opt for any other company and this is what IBM believes to the core. Application of innovative ideas in the field of information sharing units can be of great risk. The typical business culture of IBM is customer centric and in hence a substantial amount of responsibility is placed on the HR department. employees are greatly encouraged to initiate creative marketing tactics.  Suitability can be assessed to identify the factors that will support the strategies. The application of SWOT and the Johnson and Scholes model proves that IBM has got enough potentiality in developing well crafted assessment about itself. but under the marketing strategy of IBM. Once there is a kind of trust and sense of being facilitated gets into the consumer.IBM lays emphasis over making it simple. As per the declarations made by the official site of IBM. Its main strength lies in identifying its weaknesses. These are as following. The perspectives of organisational dealings are strategically adopted to meet the demands of HRM. this risk has been taken again and again with enough success. The approaches are all very professional and the marketing persuasions are well structured as per the organisational structure. At IBM. It has been marked that on traditional ground many IBM executives along with aspiring general managers are .  Feasibility is all about the adoption of executing the strategy into practical field. IBM marketing strategy in relation to Organisational strategy The strategic effectiveness of an organizational strategy can be measured using SWOT analysis. This is a structure that figure out strengths.  Acceptability is something that will determine the reactions that the organisation will receive by the execution of the strategies. opportunities and threats of a particular company.

but in IBM. These are the sources that are collected through the purpose of encouraging customer centricity added by the scope to safeguard customer privacy. 'where' and 'how' the appropriate and relevant customer data can be collected.selected for the purpose of improving sales force and market oriented projects. IBM has proved itself as a strong contender by managing to sustain in the most difficult situations. Global context in IBM marketing planning In the global context.  Process of analysing the context of 'when'. IBM follows the structure noted below. It has overcome the twists and turns it initially faced in adjusting to the 'bricks-and-clicks' business structure. the current CEO. Palmisano. It can be well marked as Samuel J. This is an approach that is done under the provision of practical market survey. With his determination and marketing strategies he achieved the position that he currently occupies (Spooner. IBM always concentrates in gaining single view from its consumers and that helps in assessing the risk factors of global marketing strategies (Rometty. In order to meet the diversified point of views. growth of the organisation and the people working for it are directly proportionate to performances led in the field and the adoption of the marketing strategies which respond adequately to competitive pressures. IBM always follows the process of establishing central framework and then architects the relevant consumer experiences to gain consistency with the brand.  The means to create absolute governance framework with special attentions led over management policies and overall practices. It is a mode that usually gets expressed locally and after attaining some success approaches on global grounds. 2002). IBM. initially joined the company in the position of a salesman. Though it is unusual for a CEO's profile. Overcoming all the hurdles IBM is now achieving milestones through the advantages forwarded by brickand-click enterprises. 2001). . It is through this enterprise structure that IBM has transformed into a major player in terms of getting hold over global marketing plans. Its formulisations are inclusive of creating a global brand blueprint.

IBM' approach for e-Business strategies is handled by specialised e . It is through its e-business strategies that IBM is able to link its internal as well as external data processing systems with greater efficiency and flexibility. E-business . diversified groups and corporate clients. In case of IBM the role of e-business is very strong.business teams operating under IBM's marketing department. Developments attain by the partners of IBM in global terms is also directly related to the marketing strategies followed by IBM. The marketing strategies adopted by IBM to meet global demands and competitions are well inclusive of a robust infrastructure. In this process the relationship led by the management across all the domains of sales and provided services of the organisation are scrutinized professionally. The internet provides a medium for businesses to reach out to customers globally at very low costs. IBM understands the fact that partners can add much hold over the local market and can reach the consumer with more in-depth formulations. It is an exclusive means adopted through the dealings related to information and communication technologies. with individuals. a book by a former CEO of IBM. It has the provision for optimising flexibility and a hub-and-spoke architecture for collecting consumer demands on global arena. Louis Gerstner (2003). IBM also appoints a leader who can perform as a single customer advocate and is very much accountable for all the sorted touch points. Through e-business strategies. According to 'Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?'. IBM is equipping itself with all kinds of external activities and is applying determined relationships for respective business dealings. IBM and e-business strategies The motive of any electronic business is to efficiently meet consumer demands through internet networking. This is the reason that they believe in developing capitalized relationship with these partners for future opportunities. There is also well marked acknowledgement for all the innovative ways adopted by the partners of IBM.  The process of appointing efficient team leaders and strong management initiators. Approaches led by institute consistent processes for target customer is the next step.

IBM provides appropriate training to all those people who are a part of this structure.based marketing. It is through the appropriate use of these theoretical approaches that IBM has established itself very . Conclusion From the above discussions. With strategic planning IBM is also into the dealings related to integrated intra and inter firm business proceedings. The firm also utilises e-business strategies to exchange of data between its partners and associate companies. The basic difference however depends over the expansion of management for sending and receiving contracts from the consumer. It is under this strategic implementation that IBM has adopted many local dealers to be a part of its services.      electronic purchasing supply chain management processing orders electronically handling customer service cooperating with business partners These proceedings add special technical standards in the e-business structure of IBM. These dealers are of course selected through some professional modes. The proceedings led by IBM for the development and implementation of e-business concentrate on the diversified functions occurring through electronic capabilities. There are some predominant sectors where the e-business strategies are applied to gain more trust and money from the consumer. it can be derived that the marketing strategies adopted by IBM are built on the structure of trust . defence marketing warfare. These activities are noted below. conveying the message of reliability and in urn enhancing customer loyalty to the brand. In terms of services for each product sold through ebusiness. The reputations of these dealers are marked by IBM first before offering the partnership. product differentiation and diversification marketing strategies. IBM is also a part of the entire value chain proceeding for more profitable dominance over the local as well as global market. As a matter of fact the e-business strategies of IBM are not much different from the other marketing strategies.helped IBM in reaching closer to its consumers.

(2005) Marketing warfare. The products and services provided by IBM can guarantee their utility to the customer's satisfaction.com/services/uk/index. http://www. (1996) Building IBM: Shaping the Industry. In line.G. Ginni (2001) Five marketing tips for the digital age.ibm. A. USA. W. (2000) The Age of Access. A. J.cnet. John Wiley and Sons Inc. the firm explores the consumer's domain through proper hold over local and global proceedings. Staff Writer. 2009] . 12th edn. IBM strives at fulfilling the needs and expectations of its customers and in enhancing customer trust and loyalty. UK. CNET News April 17. (2003) Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? Leading a Great Enterprise through Dramatic Change.com/services/au/index. and Boone.strongly in the traditional marketplace as well as in the burgeoning online marketplace. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.ibm. USA.wss/home [retrieved on 19th Nov. IBM Global Business Services.P. 2009] Spooner. (2006) Principles of Marketing. (2002) IBM meets lowered estimates. Thomson South-western. and Rastelli. L.com/IBM-meets-lowered-estimates/2100-1014_3885259.E. L. and Trout. Louis V. (2002) Marketing . Ries. John G.htm [retrieved on 20th Nov. Putnum Books. 2002 http://news. D. L.935. http://www-935.Essential techniques and strategies geared towards results. New York Rometty. IBM is a courageous risk . Harper Paperback Ham. References Emerson. USA. Gerst. J.taker that places great emphasis on innovative ideas for further growth. 2009] Kurtz.wss/ibvstudy/igs/a1006209?cntxt=a10058 48 [retrieved on 19th Nov. In a nutshell. Rifkin. Pearson.

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