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J. Stephen Quakenbush SIL International Gail R. Hendrickson SIL International
and Josenita L. Edep
Manila 2010 ISBN 978-971-18-0435-0 Electronically published at www.sil.org/asia/philippines/plb_download.html ISO 639-3 Agutaynen (agn) www.ethnologue.com
Photographer Brian Graham
QUAKENBUSH, HENDRICKSON, AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR
Tables ...........................................................................................................................................iv Map................................................................................................................................................v 1. 2. 3. Agutaynen in relation to other languages..............................................................................1 The sounds and spelling of Agutaynen ..................................................................................2 The grammar of Agutaynen...................................................................................................3 3.1. Simple sentences ...........................................................................................................4 Kinds of predicates ...............................................................................................5 Kinds of participants.............................................................................................5
3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.2.
Nouns, noun phrases, and pronouns .............................................................................7 Noun markers.......................................................................................................8 Numbers .............................................................................................................10 Plural marker .....................................................................................................11 Adjectives ...........................................................................................................11 Linker ang ...........................................................................................................12 Relative clauses ..................................................................................................13 Verbs inside noun phrases ..................................................................................13 Pronouns ............................................................................................................14
3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.2.6. 3.2.7. 3.2.8. 3.3.
Verbs...........................................................................................................................17 Past, present, and future tense............................................................................19 Focus ..................................................................................................................20 Plural, social, and reciprocal marking ................................................................23 Indicative versus abilitative................................................................................23 Verb affix sets.....................................................................................................24 Causative pa- ......................................................................................................25 Special uses of unaffixed verbs ...........................................................................26 Nominalized verbs..............................................................................................26
3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5. 3.3.6. 3.3.7. 3.3.8. 3.4.
Some additional word classes .....................................................................................27 Negatives............................................................................................................27
QUAKENBUSH, HENDRICKSON, AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 3.4.2. 3.4.3. 3.4.4. 3.4.5. 3.4.6. 3.4.7. 4.
Existentials .........................................................................................................28 Interrogatives .....................................................................................................28 Adverbs and adverbial phrases ...........................................................................31 Particles..............................................................................................................33 Simple conjunctions ...........................................................................................36 Conjunctions in complex sentences ....................................................................37
Conclusion...........................................................................................................................38 Appendix 1: Some Agutaynen sound patterns..........................................................................39 Appendix 2: Some Agutaynen verb affix sets ...........................................................................43 Appendix 3: Some examples of derivational morphology ........................................................47 Appendix 4: Publications .........................................................................................................51
QUAKENBUSH, HENDRICKSON, AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR
Table 1. Letters representing Agutaynen consonant sounds Table 2. Letters representing Agutaynen vowel sounds Table 3. Sample Agutaynen cardinal numbers Table 4. Sample Agutaynen ordinal numbers Table 5. Agutaynen personal pronouns Table 6. Agutaynen demonstrative pronouns Table 7. Two nominalization strategies Table 8. Interrogatives in Agutaynen 2 2 10 11 14 16 26 29
QUAKENBUSH, HENDRICKSON, AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR
speaker. most particularly Pedrito Z. they say. The third author provided countless insights and examples as a native . Such is not the case. form part of a larger family on earth. Even a large book is offered as a small window through which one can glimpse some of its main contours. and served as judge of grammaticality and acceptability for all sample sentences. It is aimed at speakers of Agutaynen who also understand English This brief overview of the grammar of the Agutaynen language is written with an well. including Agutaynen. inspire—illuminate a small part of what every Agutaynen already knows. The Austronesian language family is the most widespread language family most of the languages of Malaysia and Indonesia. This small group of languages shares features that basic similarities that all Philippine languages. Even the languages 1 1 The Agutaynen-English dictionary is currently being edited for publication. Caabay. along with called Austronesian. and who wish to explore on a more conscious level the grammatical patterns of their own language. Still. Edep and. The first two authors of this overview wish to express their debt of gratitude to our many Agutaynen neighbors and coworkers who patiently taught us their language over the past decades. Even own unique grammars—the intricacies of which are waiting to be discovered by those who care unwritten languages spoken by small populations have their own patterns and regularities—their to investigate.1 The dictionary is meant to capture something of the wealth of the meant to give a better idea of how those words fit together to form sentences. including those known locally as Tinagbanwa (or Kalamian Tagbanwa). This overview Sometimes people believe that the only “real languages” are those with an extensive written literature and a history of use on a national or international scale. and inspire Agutaynen 1. This brief overview is offered in the hopes that it will both illuminate and speakers to take even greater pride in what is most beautifully and uniquely theirs. it is clear from many The Agutaynen language is most closely related to language varieties spoken in the Kinalamiananen. Marilyn A. as well as the languages of many islands of Madagascar off the coast of Africa belong to the Austronesian language family. Agutaynen in relation to other languages Calamian Islands. Other people. and Binusuanganen. throughout the Pacific Ocean—from Hawaii to Easter Island to New Zealand. Josenita L. just speak “dialects” that do not have any “real grammar” at all. Agutaynen lexicon—its individual words and their meanings. which has been in process over the past two decades. This grammatical overview is could not fully document the beauty and complexity of the Agutaynen language. distinguish them from other languages of Palawan or the Philippines. and includes all of the indigenous languages of Taiwan and the Philippines.Preface Agutaynen audience in mind. Labrador. It is written to accompany an Agutaynen-English dictionary.
HENDRICKSON. b. as in ma-kal ‘snake’ or da-tal ‘floor’. These 16 symbols are organized in table 1 according to how and where they are pronounced in the mouth.QUAKENBUSH. A hyphen can also be used as an aid for the reader. The “i” and “a” represent much the same vowels as those spelled with the same letters in Filipino or Spanish. m. Table 1. d. g. . to separate similar or identical brief absence of sound that sometimes happens in the hyphen sound only occurs in the middle of words. symbolized by the letter “e. e. as in balay-balay ‘little house’ or mamagbaragat-bagatan ‘they will meet together with each other’. n. The sounds and spelling of Agutaynen The consonants are written with 15 different letters (p. The Agutaynen language has 20 distinct sounds: 16 consonant sounds and 4 vowel sounds. Letters representing Agutaynen consonant sounds p m b t n s r l d k ng g w y h. The GLOTTAL STOP—the middle of a word before another consonant. k. h) and with the hyphen “-”.” Linguists call this a high central it is not necessary to write these distinctions in Agutaynen. however. y. as in “ɨ”. Letters representing Agutaynen vowel sounds i e a The Agutaynen “o” represents a sound somewhere between the “u” and “o” of standard o Filipino. have a vowel. i. Since the dictionary. and o. t. w. s. and symbolize it with the letter “i” with a bar through it. such as letem ‘hunger’ and elen ‘full’. l. This sound occurs in many Agutaynen words. - hyphen represents a The “h” sound occurs only in a few words that are borrowed from other languages. The four vowel sounds of Agutaynen are symbolized by the letters a. it does not head a section of its own in the parts of a word that would otherwise be extra long. ng. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 2 2. Since Agutaynen does not distinguish between the i/e or u/o sounds heard in Filipino. Table 2. r. Agutaynen does. as shown in table 2. distinctive fourth sound of its own.
no pronoun may either be written as part of that word or separate from it. For instance. The grammar of Agutaynen Section 3. (a. as in magkantā ‘you will sing’ or manorō ‘I will fetch water’.8 for the complete set of Agutaynen pronouns. In some cases. HENDRICKSON. But the da in tomabid da has two possible meanings in isolation: ‘you’ or ‘already’. comma. Additional letters may also be used for writing borrowed words or proper nouns in Agutaynen. Sometimes this symbol for a done’ and māboat ‘long’ or tolok ‘torch’ and tolōk ‘crow of a rooster’. Thus. tomabida can only mean ‘you will come along’. If the preceding word ends in a consonant. semicolon. and TOPIC. d.QUAKENBUSH. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 3 consonant. question mark. there is a special symbol that can be used to indicate that two identical vowels māl or tēb to show that their vowel sounds are longer than usual. mal ‘expensive’ or teb ‘high tide’ may also be written as in the surname “Quimay”. it becomes lo after a word ending in l (magadal lo ‘I will study’). For instance. Section 3. as in maboat ‘can be in section 3. .) If the preceding word ends in the vowel. their parts. a in appendix 1. e. u) occur together. the pronoun is simply joined to that word. b. p. Likewise. PARTICIPANT. It is usually clear from the context which particular meaning is intended. choosing a particular way of writing the pronoun can help to clarify the meaning. Consonant clusters are generally not allowed inside a syllable apart from in a few overview to give a detailed analysis of sound patterns in the Agutaynen language. colon. exclamation mark. as in magkantao ‘I There are special rules for writing short pronouns consisting of a single o or a. ng. However. such as the “F” in “Filipino”. borrowed words such as trabaho ‘work’ or traidor ‘dishonest person’. r. n. y. g. Note that when the pronoun is separated off. its presence is hidden unless indicated by the symbol for the long will sing’ or manoroa ‘you will fetch water’. o. l. including the parentheses. e. period. It is not the purpose of this An Agutaynen syllable consists of a vowel with a possible preceding and/or following few specific examples of possible sound sequences and how sounds affect one another are given The 19 regular letters of the Agutaynen alphabet come in the following order in the dictionary: a. -o becomes do after tomabid. or the “u” in “Agutaya”. the “Q” markers found in Filipino and English writing. So tomabid da might mean either ‘you will come along’ or ‘he will come along already’. w. it copies the final consonant of the preceding word. 3. and briefly considers NOUN PHRASES Section 3.2. For example. . k. s. and so on. If the preceding word ends in a different vowel from the pronoun. i.3 discusses various qualities of Agutaynen different kinds of predicates and participants.2 gives an overview of VERBS.4 concludes and . and quotation marks (. Agutaynen uses standard punctuation long vowel will help to distinguish different meanings of similar words. i.1 introduces the terms This grammatical overview of Agutaynen first outlines the structure of simple sentences. Section 3. PREDICATE. : ? ! “ ”). t. the and tomabid do are both acceptable ways of writing ‘I will come along’. h. m. o. In addition to these. tomabido after a word ending in n (agle-men no ‘I am hungry’). (See table 5 same letter as the pronoun.
‘the child’.2 This special participant can be called the predicate. Predicate The only necessary part of a simple sentence in Agutaynen is the predicate. Simple sentences which typically tells about something that is happening or something that can be observed. Example (1) is ‘(He/She) ran. and is in some ways what that particular sentence is about. in section 3. including ADVERBS. NEGATIVES. Predicate/Participant ‘The child ran. The topic in Agutaynen (These terms are explained more fully later. These verbs do not take overt participants.2. The special relationship between the topic and predicate is explored more fully in section 3. in that it has a special relationship to the NOMINATIVE PRONOUNS. Example (3). PARTICLES. on the other hand. and ‘his companion’. 3. such as kiminoran ‘it rained’ or galikarem da ‘it is dusk already’. people. The first is the PREDICATE. HENDRICKSON. The topics in (2) and (3) are tang mola ‘the child’ and tang ged ‘the bolo’. . or things a simple sentence consisting of just a predicate. second basic part of a simple sentence consists of the PARTICIPANTS—the There are two basic parts to a simple sentence in Agutaynen. EXISTENTIALS. ‘the bolo’. but only one topic. 2 An exception would be certain verbs that deal with weather or time. the identity of the participant is understood from the context.) Sentences may have several tang. (2) Nanikad tang mola. The topic is typically NOUN MARKER in English.’ (3) ‘He handed the bolo to his companion. INTERROGATIVES.1. Example (2) shows a predicate with one participant. places. or comes from of a special set of participants.QUAKENBUSH. has three participants: ‘he’. (1) Nanikad. in the discussion on types of FOCUS.’ Almost every Agutaynen sentence has one participant that is uniquely related to the TOPIC SUBJECT Dinawat na tang ged ong aroman na.’ Often one or more participants are also given as part of a simple sentence. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR with a sampling of other word classes. The involved in or described by the predicate. 4 and CONJUNCTIONS.3. In this case. Predicate/Participants is similar to what is called the introduced by the predicate. of the sentence.
because they have grown weak. tenged malolobay da ‘As for our beloved parents.’ Kinds of predicates Predicates are often even Predicates can also be NOUNS VERBS Simple sentences may be expanded in various ways to give additional information about tanira. Kinds of participants Participants all play some special role in relationship to a predicate. which also serves as the topic of that sentence. and they don’t have much time left. See (5)–(8) for some predicates that are not ‘His face is red. or why something happens. where. HENDRICKSON.’ (10) Kiminayaw tang kiro. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 5 the participants.’ Doktor tanandia. as in (1)–(3). The three main roles ACTOR. as illustrated in (4). Actor Actor and GOAL. how. but they do not have to be verbs. as in (10) and (11).2. Each of these sentences has one participant.1. or ‘describing words. or information as to when.QUAKENBUSH.’ (8) 3. 3.’ . a participant can take are situations.’ phrases that specify a time or location. ‘The dog barked. they can no longer work.1. indi ra poiding magobra. place. as in (9). (4) Ang mga agmalen ang mga ginikanan ta.1.’ Don ong Puerto tang anao. ig bibilang da lamang tang oras nira. or ADJECTIVES verbs. Time phrase Adjective that specify a person. ‘She’s a doctor. Noun Location phrase Ong bolan ta Hunyo tang pista. UNDERGOER. An actor is typically a person consciously engaged in some activity. (5) Masinggi tang emet na. (7) ‘My child is in Puerto. or ‘action words’. Each of these roles covers a range of ‘The child ran.’ (6) ‘The fiesta is in the month of June. (9) Nanikad tang mola. Animals and even things can be actors. or thing.
The Goal participant can be a person. as in (18). as in (19). ‘We were given one each. ‘They put the new tablecloth on the table.QUAKENBUSH. (12) Inated na tang mola ong iskoilan. as in (17). (18) Pamagkayam tang mga mola don ong plasa. ‘She escorted the child to school.’ instrument. or a place.’ A goal is typically the participant toward whom or which an action is carried out. Referent often refers to a logical cause or concept. (15) Sindolan ami ta tag tale-ta amen. a thing. ‘The sail is moving. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Actor 6 (11) Kakaliek tang layag.’ . Location ‘The children are playing in the plaza. ‘They planted the field with lomabeng beans.’ Goal (17) Lindoakan nira tang koma ta lomabeng.’ An undergoer is typically the participant most directly affected by something an actor Undergoer does. as in (16). Location refers to the place where something happens. tenged anday ekel nirang wi. as in (21). and beneficiary. because they hadn’t brought any water. And beneficiary is a participant on whose behalf or for whose benefit something is done. Undergoer ‘She gave the money to the vendor.’ Goal (16) Bintangan nira tang lamisan ta ba-long mantil. as in (12)–(14). referent. ‘They all were thirsty.’ (14) Agkoawen da tanirang tanan. as in (15). or by some other condition or state of affairs. as in (20). It is sometimes helpful to distinguish four other kinds of participants—location. HENDRICKSON. Instrument refers to something that is being put to use for a specific purpose.’ Undergoer (13) Sindol na tang koarta ong tindira.
’ Mamakal tanandia ta amek ong Diit para ong mga bisita nira. A noun typically names a person. (23) Ibalik na ono ong damal. 3.’ (21) Binakalano si Dodoy ta sapatos na. Beneficiary ‘He’ll just use the remaining nipa shingles for roofing. or bato ‘rock’.2. as in (23). or they may be derived from verb roots by adding certain affixes. as in (22). such as the prefix manig. It is also possible for a participant to be assumed.in maniglotok ‘one who cooks’ or the combination of the prefix palagNouns may appear by themselves in the predicate of a sentence. as in maistra ‘teacher’.QUAKENBUSH.’ (25) Agutayan tang pinagalinano. HENDRICKSON.’ Instrument (20) Ikatep na ra lamang tang paod ang nabo-wan. and pronouns ‘Agutaya Island’. where ‘she’ is the actor. Nouns may consist of simple noun roots without any affixes like the three examples just given.2. ‘I bought Dodoy some shoes. (24) Maistra tanandia. Nouns. ‘They discussed their plans in detail. place. When participants appear as actual words in a sentence.’ . which assumes the hearer or reader already knows what will be returned. and ‘their guests’ the beneficiary. ‘sleeping mats’ the undergoer. ‘Diit’ the location.’ It is possible to have a number of participants with different roles in one sentence. (22) Actor Undergoer Location Beneficiary ‘She will buy sleeping mats on Diit Island for their guests. they take the form of either which are discussed in section 3. noun phrases. Agutayan ‘Agutaya Island is where I come from. ‘He’s a teacher. especially if it has already been ‘He says he will return it tomorrow. as in (24)–(26). identified in the broader context. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Referent 7 (19) Pinagampangan nira ta mo-ya tang mga plano nira. or thing. and the suffix -an in palagsolatan ‘something to write on’.’ NOUN PHRASES or PRONOUNS.
(29) Ang kiro nira pirming kakayaw ong yen.’ NOUN PHRASE. If tang introduces a noun in the predicate of a sentence.’ writer doesn’t have any one specific person or thing in mind. as in (27).’ (30) Magpekelo tang solat ong ni nanay. are discussed below.’ (32) Tang silio lamang tang kaministiran. ‘The child ran.’ (28) Inated na tang mola ong iskoilan. (31) Inalato tang kiro. or elements of a noun phrase. and to introduce undergoers in sentences that focus in a special way on what happens to the undergoer. The idea of FOCUS discussed more fully in section 3. as in (33) and (34). as in (30) and (31). The elements of the noun phrase give sentence. it has the meaning of the numeral ‘one’. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (26) Bato tang binanggil na. 8 ‘A stone is what he threw. as well as the pronouns that may function in their place. however. as in (32). as in (28). ‘I will send the letter to mother. The major Noun markers A common noun phrase is introduced by one of three noun markers: tang (or ang). is ‘She escorted the child to school.1. ‘Only one stamp is needed. HENDRICKSON.’ as in (29). Comparing The marker ta is used to introduce non-specific participants.QUAKENBUSH. It may also help identify it in some other way. (27) Nanikad tang mola.3 on Verbs. that is. a group of words that occur together with a noun. The form ang is more likely to be used when the noun phrase occurs first in the sentence. when the speaker or .’ Tang also introduces other definite noun phrases (where a specific person or thing is involved). ta. When nouns occur as participants of a sentence. 3. A full noun phrase contains at least a noun marker and the main noun. Pronouns may substitute for full noun phrases. ‘Their dog is always barking at me. Tang is the most common noun marker. It is used to introduce actors in sentences that focus in a special way on what the actor does. they require a fuller the reader or hearer additional information about the participant and the role it plays in the contain other descriptive words or phrases that tell about the quality or quantity of the noun. ‘The dog bit me. and ong.2.
’ Full noun phrases may also contain a variety of other elements such as numbers. Each of these elements is illustrated in turn below. the plural marker. HENDRICKSON. as in (41). Juan gave it to (the) Mayor. Da is the plural form for si or ni. as in (38)–(41). as in (39) Ingkelan ni Juan tang yan ong lansangan. It can also occur after an ong.’ (37) Mamakasiono don ong teled ta tang bolan.QUAKENBUSH. ‘I will vacation there for one month. . Nagekel si Juan ta wi ong bokid.’ ‘A dog bit me. indi namansipaning ong kasal. as in (40).’ If the noun is the name (or sometimes title) of a person. ‘I will give a gift to the child. and even verbs.’ ‘(As for) Maria and companions. or inside a noun phrase to show possession.’ (34) Inalato ta kiro.’ (38) si or ni is used. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 9 these two examples with (30) and (31) shows that the distinction between tang and ta in Agutaynen is much like the distinction between ‘the’ and ‘a’ in English. ‘I will send a letter to mother. ‘I will buy sardines at the little neighborhood store. Ni can occur as the sole noun marker in a noun phrase.’ (41) Ang solat ni Maria. relative clauses.’ ‘He gave the money to Maria and companions. adjectives. The marker ong is used to introduce participants toward or for which an action is done. ‘Juan took water to the field. as in (42) and (43). ‘(As for) Maria’s letter. as in (36) and (37). It is also used to introduce location or time phrases. (43) Sindol na tang koarta ong da Maria.’ (36) Mamakalo ta sardinas ong tianggi. then a personal noun marker like (39). (33) Magpekelo ta solat ong ni nanay.’ ‘Juan took the fish to town. sindol ni Juan ong ni Mayor. (40) Sindol na ong ni Maria. (35) Magtorolo ta rigalo ong mola. (42) Da Maria. ‘He gave it to Maria. as in (35). they didn’t go to the wedding.
’ (45) Mamakalo ta tolong bilog ang ki-yoy.QUAKENBUSH. ‘She is the third child of theirs who studied in Manila. Numbers 10 before the noun.’ ‘I will buy three eggs. (44) Mamakalo ta tolong kilong karni.’ (48) Tanandia tang ya-long ana nirang nagadal ong Manila. the form tambilog is preferred. Tata is the word for ‘one’ when Table 3. as in (47) and (48). HENDRICKSON. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 3. They typically occur counting in series.’ Cardinal numbers are words used for counting such as tolo ‘three’. Some sample cardinal numbers are displayed in table 3. ‘I will buy three kilos of meat. When referring to something in isolation. either the classifier bilog or the forms nga and –an are used. as in (45) and (46). (46) Mamakalo ta tolo nga bakan. When used to count specific nouns. ‘I will buy three cows. as in (44)–(46). ‘Gaudencio Abordo was the first governor of Palawan.2. (47) Si Gaudencio Abordo tang primirong gobirnador tang Palawan. Sample Agutaynen cardinal numbers tata/tambilog doroa tolo epat lima enem pito walo siam tampolok 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 tampolok may tata tamplok may doroa … doroampolok doroampolok may tata … tolompolok … tang gatos tang ribo 100 1000 30 20 21 11 12 Ordinal numbers refer to the order of something in a sequence.’ .2.
In such cases there is a compensatory lengthening of the a in ya-. (49) Mamakalo ta mga baldi. it. . ‘Maybe about three. Sample Agutaynen ordinal numbers primiro yadoa ya-lo yapat yalima yanem yapito yawalo yasiam yatampolok/yapolok 3. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 11 number is simply by adding ya. ‘I will buy some buckets.to the beginning of the corresponding cardinal number. may also occur before the noun. as in (53). or adjectives. 3 Sometimes the initial vowel of the number is lost.’ 3. sigoro. as in the initial e in the words for ‘fourth’ and ‘sixth’ (compare epat ‘four’ and enem ‘six’). as in (49). A related but distinct use for the form mga is to mean ‘approximately’.2. Plural marker The plural marker. HENDRICKSON. or after — Mga tolo.4. as in (50) and (51).prefix.3. Many adjectives have a ma. the standard way for forming an ordinal Table 4.3 Apart from primiro ‘first’ and yadoa ‘second’. — Mga alas otso.QUAKENBUSH.2. mga. as in (52). Some sample ordinal numbers are displayed in table 4. as in matambek ‘fat’. is used before a noun to indicate an unspecified number of more first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth than one. ‘At about 8 o’clock.’ (50) Pirapay komiten mo? (51) Tanoapa kiminabot? ‘How many will you take?’ ‘When did you arrive?’ Adjectives Other descriptive words.
‘All our pigs are fat. (58) Katambek tang baboy mo! form dorog4 can be used before this same ka. as in (58). (61) ‘big house’ mabael ang balay 4 Possible variants to dorog are doro (with a final glottal stop) and dorong (with the linker –ng). as in (59).’ (57) Masiadong matambek tang baboy mo. ‘Their pigs are all just little.QUAKENBUSH. (56) Bakalen ta tang baboy ang mas matambek. as in (60).-an to the adjective root. ‘Let’s buy the pig that is fatter. . (54) Poros matatambek tang mga baboy amen. and masiado ‘very’.2. as in (56). as in (61). 12 ‘I’m looking for a white chicken. as superlative may be formed by adding the affixes ka.’ ‘Your pig is very fat. as in the two instances in (62).’ illustrated by the extra ta in matatambek in (54) and the extra ge in gege-ley in (55).’ (55) Gege-ley pa lamang tang mga baboy nira.’ The first syllable of an adjective root may be repeated in order to indicate plural.5. ‘Let’s look for a fat pig.form as a means of intensification. An exclamation is formed by prefixing the adjective root with ka-. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (52) Magdilem ita ta matambek ang baboy.’ Linker ang Elements within a phrase are joined together with the linker ang. it is added onto that word in its contracted form -ng. ‘Your pig is so fat!’ (59) Dorog katambek tang baboy mo! ‘Your pig is really fat!’ (60) Ang baboy mo tang katambekan ong tanan.’ (53) Pagdilemo ta manong bokay. happens to follow a word ending in a vowel. The as in (57). HENDRICKSON. ‘Your pig is the fattest one of all. If the ang 3. The Adjectives may be intensified by the modifiers mas ‘more’.
(69) Mambeng ang magpalayog ta boradol. be introduced into noun phrases by the ang linker. ‘It’s fun to fly a kite. (65) Bakaleno ra tang tolong bilog ang bakang matatambek ang initao ong Villa Sol nongapon. Sometimes these verbs work the same way as verbs in relative clauses.) (66) Natoman da tang nalipat. tense and focus. where we might 3. ‘Please bring in the things that were laid out to dry. . ‘The one that got lost has been found.’ (64) Telekan mo tang ba-long rilong binakalo ong Manila. as in (69) and (70). follow the noun they modify.2. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (62) tolong molang gege-ley ‘three little children’ Relative clauses 13 3.’ ‘Flying kites is fun.2.’ Verbs inside noun phrases It is also common for a verb to follow a noun marker inside a noun phrase. ‘Look at the new watch I bought in Manila. (See section 3. (68) Tomabang amo ong mga pamagobra ong koma.’ (70) Mambeng tang pagpalayog ta boradol. as in (63) and (64). HENDRICKSON. in that it refers to an activity in the ‘abstract’ without reference to any specific time. Each of the noun phrase elements described so far is demonstrated in the long noun phrase in (65). ‘The pig that got lost has been found. otherwise expect a noun.’ because they refer to an actual participant that is understood and the verbs are fully marked for (67) Opon mo kay tang mga bine-lad.6.’ In other cases the verb acts more like a noun. as in (66)–(68). ‘Help those who are working in the field. may also (63) Natoman da tang baboy ang nalipat.4 for different ways that verbs can be marked. Relative clauses typically Partial sentences that help identify or describe the noun. ‘I will buy the three fat cows (that) I saw in Villa Sol yesterday.QUAKENBUSH. called relative clauses.7.
the rows of pronouns are classified according to PERSON st or reader (2nd person). each one with typical roles that they play in a sentence.) The nominative pronouns sentences. Number indicates whether the one (1.2. Person there is a further distinction as to whether the listener or hearer is included ‘inc’ versus excluded ‘exc’. or to another party (3rd person). ‘We ran. ‘The teacher escorted us to the principal’s office. as in (72). HENDRICKSON. Agutaynen personal pronouns Nominative 1sg 2sg 3sg 1inc 1exc 2pl 3pl o a (tanandia) ita ami amo (tanira) Genitive o mo na ta amen mi nira Oblique yen nio nandia yaten yamen nindio nira Neutral yo yawa tanandia ita yami yamo tanira In table 5.’ ‘(He/she/they) ran. as in (71).3. and for undergoers in sentences that focus on what happens to the undergoer.2 on verbs for a fuller discussion of focus. to the listener and NUMBER. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 3. Pronouns Pronouns are words that substitute for full noun phrases. Nominative (Undergoer) tanandia and tanira are listed in parentheses above because they are commonly omitted in actual Nominative (actor) referred to is only one (singular ‘sg’) or more than one (plural ‘pl’).’ (72) Inated ami tang maistra ong opisina tang prinsipal. There are four sets of PRONOUNS 14 PERSONAL the complete list. Table 5 shows Table 5. in Agutaynen. In the case of 1st person.3) refers to whether the pronoun refers to the speaker or writer (1 person). Pronouns in the Nominative column are used for actors in sentences that focus on what the actor . as in (73). (See section 3. does.’ (73) Nanikad.QUAKENBUSH.8. (71) Nanikad ami. The columns of pronouns are grouped according to what role they can play in a sentence.2.
we’ll just go home. (78) Yami.’ Genitive (possessor) Genitive (actor) Pronouns in the Genitive column are typically used for actors in sentences that focus on (75) Molik ami ong balay amen. as in (77).’ DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS literally or figuratively. Table 6 lists the primary demonstrative pronouns. HENDRICKSON. Oblique pronouns may also occur in isolation with a possessive meaning. as in Neutral (78) and (79). AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 15 what happens to the undergoer. They are also commonly used for possessors inside noun phrases when they follow the noun. as in (75). as in (80). They can also be Oblique (goal) used for possessors that precede a noun. as in (74). typically give an idea of how near or far a participant is. (74) Inated amen tang mola ong iskoilan.’ Pronouns in the Oblique column are typically used for goal.” ‘Whose house is this?’ ‘(It’s) ours. either .QUAKENBUSH. ‘(As for) us. (76) Sindol nira tang koarta ong yamen. ‘They gave the money to us. as in (76).’ Neutral (79) “Sinopay galiliag ang paning?”—“Yami!” ‘Who wants to go?’ ‘We (do)!’ Oblique (80) “Ninopa tang balay ang na?” – “Yamen. molik ami ra lamang.’ Oblique (possessor) (77) Sirbien ta tang yaten ang mga kasimanoa! ‘Let’s serve our fellow townmates!’ Pronouns in the Neutral column can be used to introduce a sentence or in isolation. ‘We escorted the child to school. ‘We will go home to our house.
They are also used after certain words that otherwise require an oblique marker. The Nominative set of ‘This house is so beautiful!’ ‘This is the one I like. HENDRICKSON.’ Paningo ra lamang atan.’ (82) Narin tang galiliagano. their plans did not succeed.’ For illustrative purposes. their plans did not succeed. indi nadayon tang mga plano nira. with the conjunction tenged ‘because’. indi nadayon tang mga plano nira. The forms na. ‘This house here is the one I like. as in (81). ‘Because of that problem. or substitute for an entire noun phrase. They can also occur before and after the main noun with an intensifying effect. (86) Tenged ong problimang asi. as illustrated in (86) and (87). as in (82). (84) (85) ‘My child is not here. ta. Agutaynen demonstrative pronouns Nominative close to speaker close to hearer far from speaker and hearer na/nani/narin sia/asia si/asi Oblique ta/tani/tarin atan don but the following generalizations can be made. ‘I’ll just go there (where you are). (88) ‘Come here!’ . and si function as shorter The exact rules for when each of these forms is preferred have not been fully determined. ‘Because of that. a number of common idiomatic uses of demonstratives are given Tania! in (88)–(97). (81) Kasinlo tang balay ang na! alternatives for the longer forms associated with them in table 6. as in (84) and (85).QUAKENBUSH.’ The Oblique set of demonstratives typically refers to a location or direction.’ (87) Tenged don. (83) Nang balay ang na tang galiliagano. demonstratives usually occur in a noun phrase after the main nou. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 16 Table 6.’ Anda tarin tang anao. sia. as in (83).
’ Ya ray ang agganingeno. there is also a ‘discourse’ demonstrative ya.’ ‘He’s arrived. Verbs can also tell about something an undergoer Verbs are typically ‘action words’ that tell about something an actor does.’ (99) Sia yay ang kirong nangalat ong yen. which usually bear some relation to physical Asia ra. ‘she is reading’ or pagini-yak ‘she is crying’. as in agkoawen ‘he is thirsty’ or napatay ‘he died’. Verbs This section defines some basic categories of verbs and illustrates the types of information that verb affixes carry.’ ‘He’s not here (where I am). Agutaynen verbs are both intricate and complex.QUAKENBUSH. as in pagbasa simply happen in nature without any explicit actor or undergoer.’ (as in handing something to someone) ‘They’re already here (in this general location). Active verbs can be either transitive (taking . Nani ra. (94) Anda atan.’ ‘Here it is. especially in the way they are affixed. (98) ‘That’s just what I’m talking about. 17 ‘Here I am. which refers to something that has just been specified or identified in the immediate context. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (89) (90) Nanio. ‘He’s not there (where you are). A few verbs tell about things that Verbs that require an actor are called ACTIVE VERBS./They’re on their way. as in kokoran ‘it is raining’.’ ‘He’s not there (away from both of us). (96) (97) Si ra. ‘That one is the dog that bit me. 3. (93) Anda tarin.’ In addition to the demonstratives of table 6. (95) Anda don. as in after a trip) ‘They’ve left. as in (98) and (99).’ ‘He’s not here (where you and I are). (92) Anda tani.3. experiences. distance.’ (back in this general location. (91) Narin da tanira. HENDRICKSON.
‘The child ran. and participant (the Agutaynen verb carries can be called and but it is easier to use the three commonly understood FUTURE. and intentionality are all directly reflected through these affix sets.QUAKENBUSH. The most common roles are those of or FOCUS. referent. and goal. PRESENT. affects which sets of affixes . Other possible roles include location. called STATIVE VERBS. (100) Kino-kod na tang nioy. HENDRICKSON. Active intransitive verb Active transitive verb Verbs that describe a condition or change of state of an undergoer but do not allow an actor are ‘He grated the coconut. The first kind of information has to do with time. the verb root can take. There are two main kinds of information that a verb carries in addition to its literal ASPECT possible to make a verb from almost any root by adding the proper affix. It is bisiklita ‘bicycle’ and baboy ‘pig’ become verbs by adding the prefix mag-.’ Stative verb (103) Napatay tang baboy nira. forms. Tense. plurality.’ (101) Nanikad tang mola. Verb roots are forms like basa ‘read’ or i-yak ‘cry’. For example. or intransitive (taking only an actor). TOPIC) or MOOD. intentionality. as in (100). VOICE plays in relationship to that verb. as in (101). Linguists may classify these categories of distinctions in terms of TENSE—PAST. Each of these characteristics of Agutaynen verbs is discussed in turn below. the nouns meaning. instrument. ‘Their pig died. transitive or intransitive. undergoer. SOCIAL. that basic part of the word to which affixes may be added. ‘The puppy is thirsty. as in magbisiklita ‘to ride a bicycle’ and magbaboy ‘to raise pigs’. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 18 an undergoer as well as an actor). beneficiary. focus.’ The literal meaning of the verb is carried primarily by the verb root. Whether a verb is active or stative. Each of these roles has a corresponding focus signaled by affixes on the verb. Agutaynen verbs also typically indicate whether something happens PLURAL. A verb can show ‘more than one’ in three different ways—through and RECIPROCAL actor. The second kind of information that an having to do with the role a selected Two other kinds of information Agutaynen verbs carry have to do with plurality and naturally or intentionally (INDICATIVE) versus potentially or accidentally (ABILITATIVE). Sometimes Agutaynen verb roots are also used for special effect without any affixes at all. as illustrated in (102) and (103).’ Stative verb (102) Agkoawen da tang kirong ge-ley.
as in (106). ‘People go to church on Good Friday. pamangano pa.’ or ‘Harvesting is tiring. request. I’m still eating. It may have happened periodically. it is easy to think of them working with respect to time in the three basic tenses—past. as in (111)–(112). Or it may be something that happens regularly or make a statement about something expected to happen. as in (108). The infinitive sometimes functions in the place of a noun phrase. ‘He will arrive later. or to issue a command. (110) Mamangan ita ra! The future form of a verb can also be used in a timeless or ‘infinitive’ sense. ‘Back when we were small.’ ‘I’ll teach you to sew. and is (105) Nagalin tang mola. (106) Asing ge-ley ami pa.’ or ‘Running is fun. and future tense 19 work. we were always playing on the beach. present. It can be used to (113). and future. already finished. Past. Past tense is used to indicate that something has occurred in the past. Or it may be something ongoing in the actual present. (104) Kiminoran talabi. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 3. (107) Pamagsimba tang mga taw mga Biyernes Santo.1. as in (110).’ ‘Let’s eat!’ (109) Komabot tanandia lagat-lagat. ‘It rained last night. as in (111)– Future tense is used to indicate something that has not yet happened.’ While no particular set of terms completely captures how the affixes of Agutaynen verbs present.’ ‘It’s tiring to work in the harvest. or invitation.’ over a period of time in the past.QUAKENBUSH. (112) Mapilay ang mangayeg. Present tense is used to indicate that something is or was ongoing.’ (113) Toldokana yen ang magbedbed. (111) Mambeng ang manikad. ‘It’s fun to run.3. as in (107). as in (109).’ ‘The child left.’ (108) Ba-lo kay lagi. pirmi aming pamagkayam ong baybay.’ ‘Just a minute. . HENDRICKSON. as in (104) and (105).
as in (115). or is of an active sentence in English. HENDRICKSON. instrument. in which case both verbs take the same tense. location.’ Focus 3. undergoer.QUAKENBUSH. ‘They will help one another to harvest.3. though they do so from different perspectives. (Active) (119) The cat was bitten by the dog.’ The infinitive also occurs in constructions with certain other verbs such as galiliag ‘he (115) Poiding mangayeg mandian. (118) The dog bit the cat. and so on.’ or ‘It’s possible to harvest today. as in (121). For example. while (119) focuses more on what happened to the cat. Both (118) and (119) describe the more on what the dog did. (116) Namagtarabangan tanirang nangayeg. and the future form in (117). ‘We ran. One might say that (118) focuses possibilities than just active and passive.’ Topic (nominative pronoun) the topic is an undergoer. (120) Nanikad ami. Actor focus signals that the topic is an actor. as in (120). ‘He doesn’t want to come along. ‘They helped one another to harvest.2. or with verb-like words such as poidi ‘can’. as in (114). The focus relation to the verb. The second kind of information that Agutaynen verbs convey has often been called It is similar to the ACTIVE VOICE and PASSIVE voice distinction found in English. ‘He can work in the harvest today. which signal what role the topic of that sentence plays in introduced earlier: actor. undergoer focus indicates that does not appear overtly) is identified by a nominative pronoun. (Passive) The main difference between Agutaynen and English is that Agutaynen has more FOCUS. or by the noun marker tang (or its variant ang). (114) Indi galiliag ang tomabid.’ (117) Mamagtarabangan tanirang mangayeg. as is indicated by affixes on the verb. An overt topic (as opposed to one that is simply assumed and . the verbs for both ‘help’ and ‘harvest’ take the past form in (116). goal. Example (118) same situation.’ Sometimes two verbs occur together in a ‘serial’ construction. There is a possible focus for each kind of participant. while (119) is passive. and beneficiary. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 20 wants’. referent.
he might choke. taben matelkak. m-. ‘I only gave him a cracker.’ ‘Juan will go along on the next trip. ‘She gave the new watch to her sister.QUAKENBUSH. not candy.’ (123) Aroy! Sinopay nagtorol ta kindi ong ni Dodoy? ‘Oh my! Who gave candy to Dodoy?’ Undergoer focus (124) Ang sindolo ong nandia ay biskoit lamang. undergoer. Undergoer focus is most often marked by affixes such as the prefix i. ‘That hen is surely going to lay an egg. Actor focus Goal focus ‘Don’t give your younger brother candy. Actor focus sentences often marked with prefixes such as mag-. as in (129)–(131).’ (126) Sigoradong mangi-yoy da tang manong asi. HENDRICKSON.’ (130) Komiten mo kay tang martilio ong ni Juan.’ (127) Molik ita ra. and (123) focuses on the actor ‘who gave candy’. while (124) focuses on the undergoer ‘what was given’.’ Actor. or with the infix -om-. belag ta kindi. Compare sentences (122)–(124).’ The topic of a sentence can be shifted depending on which participant is in focus. (129) I-dol mo kay tang solato ong ni Maria.’ (128) Tomabid si Juan ong moman ang biahi.or the suffixes –en or Undergoer focus sentences –on. Actor focus is most (125)–(128). ‘Please give my letter to Maria. (122) Indi oldan mo tang ari mo ta kindi. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Topic (marked by tang) 21 (121) Sindol na tang ba-long rilo ong logod na.) (125) Magdilem ita ta mano. ‘Please get the hammer from Juan.’ . mang-. ‘Let’s go home. (See section 3. and goal focus are the most common focus types. as illustrated in ‘Let’s look for a chicken.8 for a more complete treatment of these and other affix sets.3. Example (122) focuses on the goal ‘the younger brother’.
Referent focus is marked by affixation that includes the prefix pag.QUAKENBUSH.’ Goal focus sentences 22 additional four less common focus types. ‘I’ll give the child a cookie.’ Goal focus is typically marked with the suffix –an. ‘Please cook the chicken.’ Beneficiary focus Beneficiary focus Beneficiary focus indicates that the topic is the one for whom or on whose behalf (137) Geret-geretano tang baboy ta papa ta ponsi. namely: referent. undergoer. and goal focus are the three most common focus types. (134) Pinagampangan nira tang mga plano nira. ‘I will slice up some banana stalks for the pig. as in (138) and (139) it is spelled with ‘Y’ because it precedes a vowel.set of affixes associated with undergoer focus. (136) Bedbedano tang angkeno ta ba-long lambong na. ‘They talked over their plans.’ Referent focus Referent focus (135) Pinagsoayan nira tang tanek. instrument. as in (132) and (133).) (138) Ikatepo ra lamang tang ba-long paod. It may be a logical concept. there are an Referent focus typically indicates that a topic is a matter of consideration or conversation. . but it often takes the same –an affixation as goal focus.’ Instrument focus indicates that the topic is being put to some specific use. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (131) Lotokon mo kay tang karning mano. While actor. as in (135). ‘They fought over the land. or a logical cause. beneficiary.’ something is being done. ‘I will sew my niece some new clothes. Instrument focus typically uses the i. as in (136) and (137). (132) Oldano tang mola ta biskoit. Instrument focus (139).’ (133) Laygayan mo kay ta masinlo tang soltiros. as in (134). ‘Please advise the young man well.together with the suffix –an. Beneficiary focus does not have a unique set of affixes with which it is associated. and location. HENDRICKSON. (In I will use the new shingles for roofing.
(141) Naning kaldirong mabael tang pinagdongkolano. Plural. Location focus verbs typically ‘I stepped on a thorn in the place where we played.) (140) Nalikedo ta bantol-bantol ong pinagkayaman amen. The first is by the (SIMPLE) with an actor focus verb marked for plurality. ‘The children are already singing. as opposed to in the main predicate of a sentence. ‘They collected their stories. HENDRICKSON.3. three ways. It is not necessary to mark verbs for plurality in this way. but it is common to do so. 3. on the . ‘This big pot is the one I cooked rice in.2. versus whether it has the potential to happen either through capability or by chance.3. (See section 3. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Instrument focus 23 (139) Yalio tang teged ta agonan.’ Indicative versus abilitative (145) Pamagsoroayan tanirang tanan.’ ‘They are all fighting with one other. as in (140) and (141). Example (143) shows a plural undergoer with an undergoer focus verb marked for plurality. indicating that an action is carried out by the (144) Magigkayamo ong nira. as in (147). especially for actor focus verbs.’ Two other kinds of plural marking can occur on actor focus verbs—SOCIAL and RECIPROCAL.QUAKENBUSH. ‘I will use the digging tool for digging up agonan root. In (146) and (147) the verbs are INDICATIVE. and reciprocal marking Agutaynen verbs can indicate that a topic consists of more than one member in one of PLURAL. (142) Pamagkanta ra tang mga mola. Example (144) illustrates the social marking. Agutaynen verbs also indicate whether something is done intentionally or occurs meaning that the action is either intentional on the part of the actor. indicating that something is done together as a actors toward one other. ‘I will join in playing with them. or occurs naturally.3. Examples (148)–(150).4.’ 3.7 for a more general discussion of verbs occurring inside noun phrases.’ Location focus Location focus indicates that the verb is referring to a place. Example (145) shows reciprocal marking. group. naturally. social.’ occur inside noun phrases.’ Example (142) shows a plural actor occurring (143) Pinanimet nira tang mga istoria nira. as in (146).
indicates future tense and actor focus.’ ‘The plants are already sprouting. as in (150) and (151).prefix and -en suffix in (155) indicates present tense and undergoer focus. ‘Oh good. ‘She sang my favorite. social.’ ‘Please sing it again. have ABILITATIVE VERBS 24 out. that indicate either that the action can (or cannot) be carried ‘I will be able to pay off my debt now. beneficiary. and suffixes follow the root. The affixes themselves can take three forms: prefixes precede the demonstrate the three types of affixes on the same verb root kanta ‘to sing’. goal. The combination of the ag. referent. she’s singing it again now. and unmarked for plurality. ufture). (148) Mapagbayado ra tang otango.QUAKENBUSH. tense (past. In (152) the prefix Verb affix sets convey a combination of information about focus (actor. intentionality (indicative. (155) Salamat. and number (unmarked. undergoer. reciprocal). (146) Magbayado tang otango ong tsianggi.’ . indicating intentional action. Verbs can also be affixed to indicate causation.indicates past tense and undergoer Focus. ‘She will sing now. verb root. present.3. plural. (152) Magkanta ra tanandia. location. as in (148) and (149).’ ‘I won’t be able to go along with them.’ (154) Kantaen mong moman patigayon. (149) Indio matabid ong nira. abilitative). HENDRICKSON. infixes occur inside the root. or that the action happened unintentionally. instrument).’ ‘I happened to meet your sister in Puerto.’ (150) Nabagato tang logod mo ong Puerto.’ Each of these examples are indicative (as opposed to abilitative). In (153) the infix -in.’ (147) Pamansitolpot da tang mga iloloak. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR other hand.5. The suffix -en in (154) indicates future tense and undergoer focus. agkantaen na si mandian. (153) Kinanta na tang yen ang paborito. (151) Aroy! Napotol mo ra tang toldoko! ‘Oh no! You’ve cut my finger cut off!’ Verb affix sets 3. ‘I’ll pay my debt at the little store. Examples (152)–(154) mag.
komiten ‘to get/take’.6. mangoma ‘to farm’. and past forms of indicative. ‘Let’s make Maria sing!’ frequently used to indicate the presence of an ‘indirect’ actor who causes someone else to perform an one who actually does the sewing.) The following charts show the affix sets for future.” as in (159). ‘I will have Ana sew this fabric. in (157). the indirect actor ‘us’ causes Maria to sing. HENDRICKSON. Undergoer focus sets Set 1 Future Present Past i– agCV–* –in– Set 2 –en. This prefix is action.3. lotokon ‘to cook’.) Other Focus Sets Goal/Beneficiary Future Present Past –an ag– –an –in– –an Beneficiary/Location/Referent pag– –an agpag– –an pinag– –an iagCV-inInstrument Sample verbs: telekan ‘to look at’. Likewise. (156) Pakantaen ta si Maria. (157) Ipabedbedo tang tilang na ong ni Ana. for instance.) Sample verbs: magadal ‘to study’. (A more complete listing of affix sets is given in appendix 2. In (156). Actor focus sets Set 1 Future Present Past mag– pag– nag– Set 2 mang– pang– nang– Set 3 –om– CV–* –imin– Set 4 m– g– min– (*CV stands for a copy of the first consonant and vowel of the verb root. pagampangan ‘to talk about’. –on ag– –en.’ . ‘Ana’ is the The causative prefix may not always involve an additional actor.QUAKENBUSH. 3. Causative paAn additional affix that may occur before a verb root is the causative prefix pa-. but the speaker or writer is the one indirectly causing it to happen. molik ‘to go home’. as illustrated in (158). AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 25 singular verbs according to the focus types they may signal. present. (*CV stands for a copy of the first consonant and vowel of the verb root. komoran ‘to rain’. ag– –on –in– Sample verbs: itabid ‘to include’. It may also indicate that something is “allowed” to happen rather than “caused. ikatep ‘to use for roofing’.
+ kanta ‘sing’ manig.)’ (159) Magpapoaso kang lagi tang koran ba-lo molik. from verb roots. these can also be referred to as STATIVE VERBS.8. unaffixed roots are used together with the completive particle da or ra ‘already’ in an adjectival sense. Two nominalization strategies manig.-an + solat ‘write’ palag.’ Special uses of unaffixed verbs Sometimes verb roots appear without any affixation for special effect. to mean ‘a Table 7. as in (160). Another strategy for place the verb is done. ‘The bicycle is broken.-an + pid ‘wipe’ manigkanta ‘singer’ maniglotok ‘cook’ manigtoldok ‘teacher’ manigdongkol ‘one in charge of cooking rice’ palagsolatan ‘desk’ (for writing on) palamidan ‘rug’ (for wiping feet on) .QUAKENBUSH. This 3. HENDRICKSON.+ dongkol ‘cook rice’ palag. forming a noun from a verb is by adding the prefix palag. turning a verb into a noun meaning ‘one who does that verb’. Mamangan ita ra! ‘The fish is done (cooked).+ lotok ‘cook’ manig. 26 ‘He spoke loudly. (161) Langga ra tang bisiklita.+ toldok ‘teach’ manig. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (158) Pinabael na tang bosis na.3. because they indicate that the participant has undergone some kind of change due to an event and now is in the state described by the verb. Let’s eat!’ Nominalized verbs It was explained in section 3. where the use of the bare root sikad ‘run’ adds a feeling of intensity or immediacy.3. Although they are unaffixed.functions much the same as the –er suffix in English.’ Samples of both these nominalizing strategies are given in table 7.’ (162) Lotok da tang yan. sentence would be appropriate at the height of a story. (161) and (162) are examples of this kind of stative verb.7. (Literally.together with the suffix –an.2 on nouns that certain affixes can be used to form nouns 3. ‘I will first let the rain stop before heading home. He made his voice big. (160) Aroy! Sikad tanirang tanan! Todo-todo! ‘Oh my! They all took off running! Fast as can be!’ More commonly. the prefix manig. For example.
’ or ‘They walk fast. ‘Her singing is nice. They are and illustrated below. as in (163).4. verb into what is called a GERUND in English.’ Belag ka. Some additional word classes EXISTENTIALS. or identity. as in (168). 3.QUAKENBUSH.’ (169) Indi namangan tang mola. questions. It can also be used to express a lack ‘Is his illness serious?’ ‘Not really. PARTICLES. typically negates a quality. A of desire or intention. Negatives and CONJUNCTIONS. indi. HENDRICKSON.4. So pagkanta is ‘singing’.’ ‘No. A few additional word classes are considered in this final section.’ There are several ways to change words from one word class to another. which turns the (163) Masinlo tang pagkanta na. and pamanaw is A third way of forming a noun from a verb is by adding the prefix pag-. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 27 ‘walking’. when belag is followed by another full word or phrase.’ or ‘She sings nicely. Anda rang pisan! second negative. It was Juan! Belag. noun roots can be 3. as in (165) and (166). (170) India ra galiliag ang tomabid? — Indio! ‘Don’t you want to come along?’ ‘No. INTERROGATIVES. as in (164). A There are three kinds of commonly occurring negatives in Agutaynen statements and illustrated in (168). As third negative. ADVERBS. it becomes belag ta. ‘Not yet. Some examples of these and other kinds of derivation are given in appendix 3. verb to noun examples given above. Adjective roots can be used to form verbs.1.’ (164) Madasig tang pamanaw nira. (165) Anda ray koarta mo atan? ‘Don’t you have any money there?’ (166) Kiminabot da tanira? ‘Have they arrived?’ (167) Grabi tang masit na? — — — — ‘None at all!’ Anda pa. as in (167). Si Juan! (168) Si Pedro tang nandeg? ‘Was Pedro the one who won?’ ‘The child didn’t eat. belag. Each word class is explained NEGATIVES. as in (169). a kind of noun that can be counted can be changed to an abstract or generic noun. etc. It wasn’t Pedro. ‘Their walking is fast. The negative anda expresses the absence of something. especially when used without an explicit verb. in addition to the used to form adjectives. typically negates an action. Belag ta si Pedro. as in (170). I don’t (want to)!’ .
‘There’s somebody at home now. word such as tani ‘here’.’ Yadi! (178) May taw ong balay mi mandian? ‘Is there anybody at your house now?’ Interrogatives ‘Lots!’ 3. (177) May taw ong balay mi mandian? ‘Is there anybody at your house now?’ – – May atan. Example (171) would occur in an environment where a parent was telling a urgency. 3. usually occurs by itself in order to issue a prohibition. ayaw ‘don’t’. Just don’t let it rain/I sure hope it won’t rain. (173) Tomabido rin ong nindio ong damal.’ ‘There are a lot of people at home now. as in (177).’ ‘There are many people at home now. A word for ‘many’ can be used in place of may.’ The word may does not occur by itself. on the other hand. Words used to ask questions are called interrogatives.2.’ Existentials The presence of something or someone is typically expressed by the existential word may. Ayaw lamang komoran. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 28 in (171) and (172). ‘There is. (174) May taw ong balay mandian.3. as in (175) and (176). HENDRICKSON.4. as in (174). can occur in isolation. as in (178). A fourth negative. as child not to do something. Note that most end with the form –pa. The presence of ayaw in (172) communicates an added note of (171) Ayaw! ‘Don’t!’ ‘No! Don’t go in there!’ (172) Ayaw! India ra tenled atan! The same form can also be used to express a strong wish that something not happen.4. atan ‘there (near)’ or don ‘there’ (far) is used. (175) Dorong taw ong balay. then a location (176) Yading taw ong balay mandian. ‘I would like to accompany you tomorrow. The words for ‘many’. If the Pparticipant is left implicit. listed in table 8. Agutaynen interrogative words are .QUAKENBUSH. as in (173).
HENDRICKSON. Pirapa ‘how much/many’ is commonly used to ask the price of something as in (185) or the amount or number of something. as in (191) and (192). as in (186).QUAKENBUSH. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 29 Table 8. (179) Onopa tang bindoat na?/Onopay bindoat na? ‘What did he do?’ (180) Tanopa tanandia komabot? ‘When will s/he arrive?’ ‘Where did Juan go?’ (181) Ong aripa napaning si Juan? (182) Monopa tang pagpa-deng ta balay? ‘How does one build a house?’ ‘How did s/he find out?’ (183) Monopa nata-wanan na? (184) Monopag kabael tang balay nira? ‘How big is their house?’ (185) Pirapa tang bayad mo ong nandia? ‘How much did you pay him?’ (186) Pirapang kilo tang nakomit mi? ‘How many kilos did you get?’ Sample questions using each word are given in (179)–(192). Interrogatives in Agutaynen onopa tanopa aripa monopa pirapa sinopa ninopa ong ninopa angay komosta what when where how how much/many who whose to whom why how is generic term for ‘how’ as in (182)–(183). Note that while monopa is a . komosta ‘how is’ is used for asking about the general wellbeing or quality of a participant.
(193) Siminabid tanandia ong Villa Fria? ‘Did he go along to Villa Fria?’ Possible positive responses Yes-No question by rising intonation something. ‘Yes. indi pa gakabot tang paray ang nagalin ong San Vicente? ‘Hasn’t the rice arrived yet from San Vicente?’ .’ Indi siminabid. siminabid. (195) Anda. he didn’t go along. Another kind of question is the YES-NO QUESTION. location. such as the amount. any of the three responses in (195) are possible negative responses. ‘No.’ Siminabid. Yes-No questions may be formed by using a rising intonation (indicated by a question mark) positive responses. ‘Yes. HENDRICKSON. Any of the three options in (194) are possible (194) Ee.’ — ‘He went along. indi siminabid. siminabid tanandia ong Villa Fria? ‘Did he go along to Villa Fria?’ Yes-No questions with onopa as explicit question marker (197) Onopa. time. Similarly. quality.’ Anda. that requires substantive content. as in (193).’ — — It is also possible to use the word onopa ‘what’ to introduce a question as in (196)–(198). state. or owner of response. because they ask for a response which expects a positive or negative on what would otherwise be a statement. he went along. ‘No. (196) Onopa. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (187) Sinopa tang kandidato mo? 30 ‘Who is your candidate? (Which one do you favor?)’ ‘Whose chicken is this?’ (188) Ninopa tang manong narin? (189) Ong ninopa sindol? ‘To whom was it given?’ ‘Why do you suppose s/he didn’t come?’ ‘How are they?’ (190) Angay bato indi tanandia napaning? (191) Komosta tanira? (192) Komosta tang pa-bat nira? ‘What kind of harvest did they have?’ The questions in (179)–(192) are all called CONTENT QUESTIONS.’ Possible negative responses — Ee. ‘He didn’t go.QUAKENBUSH.
-pa may be written separately. (204) Tanoapa kiminabot? (205) Ondion mo pa? (206) Inono na pa? (207) Ari amo pa? ‘What will you do with it?’ ‘What did she do to it?’ ‘Where are you (plural)?’ This -pa may be replaced by the particle ra ‘already’.4. will they stay at your house?’ 31 meaning ‘do’ as in (199). AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (198) Mga komabot tang logod mo magalin ong Manila onopa. When the pronoun consists of a single vowel. as in (202)–(204). HENDRICKSON. (199) Mandopa tanandia? ‘What will he do?’ (200) Indi tanandia naonopa. (201) Gonopa si Mayor? The word onopa is also noteworthy in that it can be affixed and used as a verb.)’ ‘What does the Mayor say?’ Pronouns may come between an interrogative root and its final –pa. when or where something ADVERBS OF MANNER. (No harm came to him/her. These Adverbs typically modify or give information about how. TIME. (202) Sinoapa? ‘Who are you?’ (203) Ariapa paning? ‘Where are you going?’ ‘When did you arrive?’ In other cases. (208) Onora lamang tang boaten mo mandian? ‘What in the world will you do now?’ (209) Pirarang bisis tanandia nandeg? ‘How many times has he won already?’ Adverbs and adverbial phrases 3. or LOCATION are closely linked with the predicate.QUAKENBUSH. the interrogative is still usually written as one word. It can also mean ‘say’. as in (200). or ‘happen’. as in (205)–(207). as in (201). It takes the ‘Nothing happened to him/her. occurs.4. ong balay mi tanira koma-yat? ‘When your brother arrives from Manila what (will happen). as in (208) and (209). .
(218) Paninga tani! ‘Come here!’ These words may be used by themselves. as in (212) and (213). ‘The teacher suddenly arrived. as in (216) and (217). (212) Nagkanta tanandia ta masinlo.’ It is also possible to have adverbial phrases of manner consisting of an adjective introduced by More common than (212) and (213). atan ‘there close to hearer’.’ ‘The pig is always eating. examples are nongaina ‘earlier (same day)’ or lagat-lagat ‘later (same day)’.’) Adverbs of time are words that tell something about when an event takes place. as in (221)–(223). ‘Her singing was nice.’ (213) Napanaw tang mola ta madasig.’) ‘They walked quickly. and don ‘there farther removed’. ‘She sang nicely. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR ADVERBS OF SPEAKER ATTITUDE.’ (Literally. give information about whether the speaker or Adverbs of manner are words like golpi ‘suddenly’ or pirmi ‘always’. or together with an ong phrase to . (217) Mamasiaro ong nindio lagat-lagat. ‘She sang nicely. Specific are tani ‘here close to speaker’. would be (214) and (215).’) Adverbial phrases are used less frequently than simple adjectives in nonverbal sentences. ‘I will visit you later (today). The primary adverbs of location ‘The teacher arrived just a little while ago. which come before the the marker ta. on the other hand. ‘The child walked quickly. (216) Nongaina lamang kiminabot tang maistra. (215) Madasig tang pamanaw nira.’ (211) Pirming pamangan tang baboy. These adverbial phrases usually occur at the end of a sentence. 32 writer desires that something happen. as in (218)–(220).’ (Literally. Each of these types of adverbs is discussed in this section. as in (210) and (211). Adverbs of time do not take the linker ang or the marker ta. (210) Golping kiminabot tang maistra. for instance. HENDRICKSON.QUAKENBUSH. specify a particular location. verb and are linked to it by the linker ang. (214) Masinlo tang pagkanta na.’ Adverbs of location tell about where something happens. ‘Their walking was quick.
’) ‘It’s always raining.’ (226) Pandama atan. It might flood. The two main (unfavorable).’ (Literally. one or two-syllable words that intensity of a predicate. as in (226) and (227).’ Particles are a small group of commonly occurring.’ Adverbs of speaker attitude indicate whether the speaker or writer desires that something favorable happen. as in (228)–(231). or the speaker or writer’s attitude toward the content of the sentence.’ (223) Mamasiaro don ong balay nira. It is also commonly used with verb roots with a stative meaning. are neither nouns nor verbs. The particle da is often used with past tense verbs in a way that .5. ‘Just put it there on the table. adverbs of speaker attitude are balampa (favorable). Two ‘now/already’. unaffixed. or rather is warning that something undesirable might happen. as in (231). you might fall.QUAKENBUSH. itaben mabo-loga. ‘The baby is still crying. ‘He doesn’t know yet. ‘I will take a stroll over to their house. They typically give information about the timing. ‘Take care there.4. Itaben mamā. as in (232). 33 ‘What are you doing there?’ ‘I will transfer there (away from speaker and hearer). completion. The particle pa can also be used to mean ‘additionally’ or ‘what’s more’.’ Particles 3. ‘I hope that your situation is good there. ‘I do hope that he will arrive. ‘I hope that you are doing well. (228) Pagini-yak pa tang molang ge-ley. versus itaben (224) Balampa masinlo tang pagkabetang mi atan. as in (224) and (225). HENDRICKSON.’ ‘Sit here beside me!’ (221) Pakaronga tani ong tepado! (222) I-tang mo lamang atan ong lamisan. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (219) Pandoapa atan? (220) Loma-tedo don. (225) Balampa komabot ka tanandia. as in (230). (229) Indi pa gata-wanan na. or very common Agutaynen particles related to timing and completion are pa ‘still/yet’ and da emphasizes completion.’ (227) Pirming kokoran.
The form ngani indicates strong agreement in (242). as in (239). (233) Nataposong lagi.’ The time related particle lagi ‘immediately’ is illustrated in (233)–(235).’ ‘The fish is cooked (now). as in (236) and (237). the ‘Your Father is going to spank you for sure!’ Some particles indicate that the speaker is making a response in agreement or disagreement.QUAKENBUSH. as in (244).’ (237) Bakalen mo ra lamang. (235) Boaten mo kang lagi patigayon. Particles of agreement include ka. ‘The food there is delicious. (236) Ge-ley lamang tang balayo. increases it. too. The form ka can diminish the intensity of a statement in such a way that it indicates otherwise unexpressed reservations on the part of the possible disagreement. and ngani.The particle baya. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (230) Nakabot da tang padi. in contrast.’ ‘Please do it now. (231) Lotok da tang yan. ‘My house is just small. That’s (just) cheap!’ ‘Their pig is really fat!’ (238) Matambek ang pisan tang baboy nira! (239) Palona enged ni Tatay mo! particle lamang ‘just/only’ diminishes intensity. It is frequently used in conjunction with the particle ka (in its forms kay or kang).’ . as in (240)–(242). And it’s cheap. ‘I finished it right away.’ (234) Taposono kay lagi naning mga gobraeno. (240) Masinlo tang balay ang na! ‘This house is nice!’ speaker. For instance. The particle enged ‘really’ makes a statement more emphatic. as in (243). Barato lamang sia! ‘Just buy it. ‘(Yes). it is nice. ka kaman. while pisan ‘extremely’ Some particles indicate the degree of intensity to which something is true. kaman. 34 ‘The priest has (already) arrived. indicates strong insistence in the face of — Masinlo kaman. as in (238). which diminishes its intensity.’ (232) Masabor tang pamangan don. Barato pa.’ ‘I’ll just finish up these things I’m working on first. HENDRICKSON.
HENDRICKSON. ge-ley pa ka enged.’ A different kind of grammatical particle ay is sometimes used to indicate that the topic of a sentence comes first for special effect. it’s (acceptably) nice.’ (243) Masinlo tang balay? ‘Is the house nice?’ (244) Masinlo tang balay? ‘Is the house nice?’ — — — — Mo-ya ka!/ Mo-ya ka kaman! 35 ‘Good morning to you. ‘Even if you go there. they won’t let you in. ‘(Yes). instead of the usual order of the predicate appearing first. as in (253) and (254).’ (252) Paninga man don.’ ‘(You better believe) it’s nice! Masinlo baya! (245)–(247). AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (241) Mo-yang damal-damal! ‘Good morning!’ (242) Masinlo tang balay ang na. The topic comes first especially when the speaker or writer is . ‘I would like to buy a pig. it will still be little. india pa-leden nira.QUAKENBUSH. it IS good!’ (250) Masabor pala! case. too!’ ‘It really is very nice!’ Masinlo ngani! Masinlo ka.’ ‘I wanted to talk with her but I didn’t reach her (before she left). as in (251) and (252). (248) Angay bato indi pa golik si Tatay? ‘Why do you suppose Father has not yet come home?’ (249) Masabor bato tang pamangan ang na? ‘Do you suppose this food is good?’ ‘Oh. ‘This house is nice. as in (245) Mamakalo rin ta baboy. as with bato ‘do you suppose’ in (248) and (249). The particle din (or ka rin) indicates a desire on the part of the speaker or writer. ‘Even if it grows up. and pala ‘so!/after all!’ in (250).’ (246) Nagigampango rin ong nandia piro indi kinabotano! (247) Sirigoilas ka rin! ‘Oh. The particle man indicates that even if one thing holds true. for some Java plums!’ Some particles indicate that the speaker or writer is either uncertain or surprised about something. something else will be the (251) Mambael man.
’ (258) Mangomita kay ta kotsara may tinidor. both meaning ‘and’. HENDRICKSON. Simple coordinating conjunctions are may and ig. it’s been destroyed.’ or ‘As for their house. (259) Dinapan na tang pamangan ig bintang na ong aparador. meat and milk. Ig is the other. vegetables.’ The conjunction obin ‘or’ indicates an alternative. as in (262) and (263). and is typically used at the end of a list. may is less common. In these cases. the ay is written joined onto the word it follows.’ ‘Their house has been destroyed. The use of ay under these circumstances is optional. The conjunction Conjunctions are words that connect sentences or similar parts of a sentence with each (261) Mamakalo ta protas. (255) Onopang klasiay ta protas tang bakalen mo? ‘What kind of fruit will you buy?’ (256) Onopang bolanay tang adalem tang talsi? ‘Which month is the ocean the deepest?’ Simple conjunctions 3.’ ‘Please get a spoon and a fork. as in (259) and (260).’ (260) Pinalabi na si manong ig belag ta yo. karni asta gatas. ‘Our pig died yesterday.’ (254) Ang balay nira ay nalangga ra. as in (257) and (258). more common word for ‘and’.’ ‘She favored (my) elder brother and not me. golay.’ Sometimes the particle ay is also used at the end of a phrase formed by an interrogative and a content word.QUAKENBUSH. as in (261).6.4. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 36 introducing it for the first time. ‘He covered the food and put it in the cupboard. (253) ‘Ang baboy amen ay napatay nongapon. Asta ‘and (also)’ is similar to ig. or offering a description of it. (257) Kosi may kiro tang pirming agkayamen tang mga mola.’ or ‘As for our pig. and usually connects a pair of similar nouns. ‘Cats and dogs are what children always play with. it died yesterday. ‘I will buy fruit. as in (255) and (256). (262) Ong aypa tang mas masinlo—ang masinggi obin ang kolit? ‘Which one is prettier—the red one or the white one? ‘Will you go by motorcycle or will you just walk?’ (263) Magmotora obin magpanawa ra lamang? .
’ ‘They arrived on Cuyo and then went directly to Agutaya. and in (276) animan ‘therefore’ marks a result. In (274) and (275) agod in (269).’ (273) Indio siminabid ong bokid. (272) Si Tatay boi pa.4.’ These conjunctions indicate how one event or idea in the sentence is temporally or logically Some Agutaynen conjunctions that commonly join sentences are illustrated in this section. The conjunctions mintras ‘while’ and asta ‘until’ indicate a duration of time. you will just lose money. (270) Indio napaning tenged dorong obrao. piro si Nanay patay da. as do oman and tapos. (266) Mango-koda ta nioy tapos lameten mo kay.’ ‘The child is reading while eating. Other conjunctions mark logical relations. ‘Father is still living. Conjunctions in complex sentences 37 related to another event or idea. indi mapamakal ta sapatos na. The conjunction mga ‘if’ marks a condition. (264) Ogatano mo kay tang daing ba-lo priton. In (270) and (271) tenged ‘because’ marks a reason.’ .’ ‘I didn’t go along to the field. (268) Nagbantay tang kiro asta naramal. and then squeeze it to get out the milk. Although they usually occur in the middle of a sentence.’ (271) Tenged korang tang koarta na. (274) Magadal ita ta mo-ya agod mapasar ita. they can also occur at the beginning. (269) Mga india magderep ong nigosio mo. ‘Let’s study hard so we will pass. as in (264).’ ‘Grate a coconut. The conjunction ba-lo ‘before’ marks a sequence.’ In (273) kondi ‘but rather’ marks a contrast that specifies an alternative. but rather I just went fishing. (265) Kiminabot tanira ong Cuyo oman namagdiritso ong Agutaya. ‘I wasn’t able to go because I had so much work to do. ‘If you don’t work hard in your business. In (272) piro ‘but’ marks a contrast. ‘Please rinse the dried fish before frying it. as and para ‘so’ mark a purpose. (267) Pagbasa tang mola mintras pamangan. but Mother has already passed away. he won’t be able to buy shoes. both meaning ‘then’ in (265) and (266). as in (267) and (268).7.QUAKENBUSH. ‘The dog stood guard until dawn. HENDRICKSON. malogia lamang. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 3.’ ‘Because his money is lacking. kondi nanilawo ra lamang.
this overview—prepared especially for inclusion in the another. negatives. animan napasar ka. Much more remains to be described of the rich grammatical system of the Agutaynen language. Sets of verbal affixes indicate whether something is done intentionally (indicative) or happens accidentally or potentially (abilitative). Predicates typically consist of verbs. present. Agutaynen linguists. time or location. particles. and conjunctions. It is also possible to form nouns from verbs by various means. adverbials. After Agutaynen simple sentences consist of a predicate and one or more Pparticipants.QUAKENBUSH. and most particularly focus (which indicates the role of type of participant has a possible corresponding focus of its own: actor focus is more focused on what may also specify if the topic is plural. Meanwhile. therefore he passed. relative clauses. The most complex part of Agutaynen grammar has to do with verb affixation. etc. Conclusion place of Agutaynen as a Philippine language and as part of the Austronesian language family. undergoer. the use of expressions or interjections. The three most basic types of participants are actor. Particles.’ 38 4. ‘Eat well so you will grow fat/healthy. or appear overtly as noun phrases or participant types include referent. this overview briefly considered various other word classes—namely.’ (276) Nagadal tanandia ta mo-ya. undergoer focus is more focused on what happens to the undergoer. adjectives. and instrument. but can also be nouns. or if an action is reflexive (two or more participants doing the same thing to each other) or social (done in reference to a larger group). or other phrases that specify such information as pronouns. HENDRICKSON. adverbials. variation in the use of the noun marker tang/ang. Each affixes also mark entse (past. existentials. . it concentrated on specific grammatical structures. future). and goal. Sometimes verb roots are the actor does. interrogatives. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR (275) Mamangana ta mo-ya para manambeka. Other possible This overview of the grammatical structure of the Agutaynen language briefly considered the outlining the sounds and spelling of the language. Verb affixes used without affixation for special effect. location. processes for deriving one word class from and verb classes and their affixes are some of the topics that deserve further analysis by future Agutaynen-English Dictionary (yet to appear)—is offered as a current resource to all who wish to learn more about the Agutaynen language. ‘He studied hard. Participants may be simply assumed. beneficiary. The same set of that sentence’s selected topic—a specially marked participant closely associated with the verb). Finally.
CVC ‘sky’ Langit koran tanek ki-lep ‘rain’ ‘land’ CVC. although some have orthography. with the latter three or four syllables. VC. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 39 Appendix 1: Some Agutaynen sound patterns Syllable patterns two being the most frequent patterns.CVC doldol belkag ‘molar’ onom eyep abel ‘thunder’ ‘dark’ V.CVC (optional initial glottal if utterance-initial) ‘cloud’ ‘blow’ ‘cloth’ VC. Following are examples of each syllable type written in standard da Personal Nominative Marker CV. HENDRICKSON. The majority of roots are bisyllabic. yet’ wī bā dōn CV.QUAKENBUSH. and the letter e represents the high central vowel /ɨ/.) pa si CV There are four basic syllable patterns in Agutaynen: V.VC (no intervening glottal) ‘there’ ‘expensive’ māl tēb ‘high tide’ CV. (The sequence ng stands for the velar nasal /ŋ/. CV and CVC.CVC (optional initial glottal if utterance-initial) ambon ‘fog. mist’ anloy ‘comb’ almang ‘kind of sea snake’ .V (no intervening glottal) ‘flood’ ‘water’ ‘already’ ‘still.
As demonstrated in the above words. Reduplicated stems may break the above generalization. a sentence or phrase level rather than on the word level. it seems that placement of stress occurs more on importance in an extended utterance. traidor ‘dishonest person’ and kriminal ‘criminal’. or a sonorant l.CV. HENDRICKSON.CV(C) ‘star’ 40 kanino‘shadow’ bitokon palangat alibotod ‘fly (insect)’ ‘seed’ ‘crab’ (C)V.CV. m. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR CV. the voiced velar stop g. The g segment occurs especially frequently due to its presence in two common verbal Some ways sounds affect each other which certain sounds influence neighboring sounds. consonant clusters are generally not allowed within a ‘intelligent’. however. Some speakers substitute glottal stops for these occurrences of g. or ways in . Stress Although it has not been formally investigated. consonant.CV. ng is permissible before another prefixes. mag.QUAKENBUSH. n. The following examples illustrate various common phonological processes.and ag-. The sequence ts (pronounced much as Consonant sequences across syllable boundaries are restricted by the following general rule: Only the glottal stop. Some borrowed words break this rule. to allow the sequence Cr as in brait English ‘ch’) is also allowed in borrowings such. as in tsopa ‘cup measure’ and tsismis ‘gossip’.CV(C) alimango dalomasig kalipapa ‘wing’ ‘cockroach’ Permissible sequences syllable. r. Stress on individual words loses Stress falls predictably on the penultimate syllable of words in isolated elicitation. as in lebleb ‘wall’ and bedbed ‘sew’.
HENDRICKSON.QUAKENBUSH. . Vowel deletion Balet Telet + -en balten ‘to respond to/pay back’ A syllable-final nasal assimilates to the point of articulation of a following consonant. s or k drops out completely). a following b. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR NASAL ASSIMILATION mangbakal sikad delep alap 41 Puerto ‘buy’ ‘run’ ‘pick’ ‘city name’ mamakal manikad mangalap mamuerto ‘to buy’ ‘to run’ ‘to pick’ ‘to travel to Puerto’ -imin- teled -om-/-em- lopok tokaw lobog koran ko-kod ‘rain’ ‘lie’ ‘grate’ ‘swim’ mandelep kiminoran limimpok limimbog mango-kod ‘to swim’ ‘rained’ ‘to grate’ ‘explode’ ‘go first’ ‘lie’ ‘enter’ ‘lay down’ ‘entered’ ‘to rain’ ‘exploded’ lopok teled tokaw lobog koran ‘rain’ komoran lompok tongkaw tenled lombog simingkaw siminled ‘went first’ ‘to lie down’ ‘to enter’ ‘to explode’ ‘explode’ ‘go first’ ‘enter’ ‘to go first’ the case of –ng assimilation. Vowel deletion and metathesis papa+ belag Æ Æ + belet palbag palbet ‘to separate’ ‘to loan’ The sequence bel becomes lb after Vowel Deletion. (In Æ Æ Æ Æ Lo Betang + -in- + -an + lobog bintang lolbog teltan ‘put/placed’ ‘to replace/substitute’ ‘is lying down’ A word-medial e or o drops out when a verb affix would otherwise create a three-syllable word. p.
p. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Vowel deletion and consonant cluster simplification natelobot i+ pelek + teled Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ + petek na-tek lo-ton te-led i-lek 42 ‘to throw out’ ‘is entering’ ‘was shattered’ to- + -on + tokaw to-kaw ‘to use up completely’ ‘is going first’ A b. HENDRICKSON. Strengthening rÆd torol ‘give’ mandol pa-dolon ‘to distribute’ actor focus i -dol kereng lÆd telek ‘stand’ kimindeng pa-dek ke-deng ‘to ask for’ undergoer focus ‘standing’ ‘stood’ ‘to give’ Uundergoer focus ‘watch’ ‘look at’ vowel deletion and consonant cluster simplification.) Spirantization tÆs torol tabid ‘give’ sindol An r or l becomes d after a consonant.QUAKENBUSH. pa-dolon and pa-dek also illustrate takaw ‘steal’ ‘go with’ sinakaw ~ tinakaw siminabid ~ timinabid ‘gave’ undergoer focus ‘went along with’ ‘stole’ A t optionally spirantizes to s before a high front vowel. (Note: i-dol. . or t becomes a glottal stop before another consonant after vowel deletion.
although fairly common in Actor Focus.) Actor Focus Abilitative Future Present Past Actor Focus Plural Future Present Past Actor Focus Plural Abilitative Future Present Past Other Actor Focus Future Present Past Set 1 mapag– gapag– napag– Set 1 mamag– pamag– namag– Set 1 mapamag– gapamag– napamag– Social magig– pagig– nagig– Set 2 mapang– gapang– napang– Set 2 mamang– pamang– namang– Set 2 mapamang– gapamang– napamang– Sets 3 and 4 ma– ga– na– Sets 3 and 4 mamansi– pamansi– namansi– Sets 3 and 4 manga– ganga– nanga– (Abilitative prefixes for Sets 3 and 4 have long [aa]. This infix is optional. For example: /mang–potol/ Æ /mamotol/.) Other Actor Focus Abilitative Future Present Past Social mapagig– gapagig– napagig– each other’. which then deletes.) Reciprocal ma(ma)g– (–Vr–)* –an pa(ma)g– (–Vr–) –an na(ma)g– (–Vr–) –an (*-Vr. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 43 Appendix 2: Some Agutaynen verb affix sets Actor focus sets Actor Focus Future Present Past Set 1 mag– pag– nag– Set 2 mang– pang– nang– Set 3 –om– CV– –imin– Set 4 m– g– min– (A final velar nasal in a prefix assimilates to the point of articulation of a following consonant.QUAKENBUSH. (Plural forms are optional.is a copy of the first vowel of the verb root. The Reciprocal mapa(ma)g– (–Vr–) –an gapa(ma)g– (–Vr–) –an napa(ma)g– (–Vr–) –an . mamagsoayan. followed by an /r/. as is the ma sequence in the prefix. magsoroayan. Both add further to the sense of plurality. Examples: magsoayan. and mamagsoroayan are all possible ways of saying ‘they will fight last option is more likely to be used for a larger group. The first option is more likely to be used for two people or for a small group. with no intervening glottal. HENDRICKSON.
**CV stands for the first consonant and vowel of the verb root. Abil. pang– –on agpang– –en. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 44 Future forms of sample actor focus verbs Actor Focus Root Simple Abilitative Plural Pl. Root tabid ‘accompany’ Root tabid ‘accompany’ Set 1 adal ‘study’ magadal mapagadal mamagadal mapamagadal Set 2 koma ‘farm’ mangoma mapangoma mamangoma mapamangoma Set 3 tabid ‘accompany’ tomabid matabid mamansitabid mangatabid Set 4 olik ‘go home’ molik maolik mamansiolik mangaolik Social ‘join in with’ magigtabid Reciprocal ‘go together’ magtabidan magtarabidan mamagtabidan mamagtarabidan Social Abilitative mapagigtabid Reciprocal Abilitative mapagtabidan mapagtarabidan mapamagtabidan mapamagtarabidan Undergoer focus sets Indicative Future Present Past i– agCV–** –in– Set 1 –en. –on* ag– –en. ag– –on –in– Set 2 (*The choice between –en and –on seems largely to be one of vowel harmony. long [aa] in Plural Indicative Future Present Past Set 1 ipang– agpang– pinang– Set 2 pang– –en. for instance petek–en are copied as part of the affix to indicate present tense.) Abilitative Future Present Past present.QUAKENBUSH.) Sets 1 and 2 magana- ‘shatter’ but lotok–on ‘cook’. agpang– –on pinang– . HENDRICKSON. which (Abilitative prefixes for undergoer focus verbs have short [a] in future and past.
–an Instrument ipangagpangpinang- Plural abilitative Goal/Beneficiary mapang– –an gapang– –an napang– –an Beneficiary/Location/Referent mapang– –an.-an. agpag– –Vr– –an pinang. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Plural Abilitative Future Present Past Sets 1 and 2 mapanggapangnapang- 45 (Plural forms are optional. mapag– –an ga. agpag– –an –in– –an. gapag– –Vr– –an napang.QUAKENBUSH. pinag– -Vr. mapag– –Vr– –an gapang. gapangna-.-an. and only rarely used in nonactor focus verbs. napag– –an Instrument ma-. pinag– –an Instrument iagCV-in- Abilitative Goal/Beneficiary ma– –an ga– –an na– –an Beneficiary/Location/Referent ma.-an.-an. pag– –Vr– –an agpang. pag– –an ag– –an.-an.-an. napang- Plural indicative Goal/Beneficiary pang– –an agpang– –an pinang– –an Beneficiary/Location/Referent pang. gapag– –an na. napag– –Vr– –an Instrument mapanggapangnapang- .-an. mapangga-. HENDRICKSON.-an.) Affix sets for other focus types Indicative Goal/Beneficiary –an ag– –an –in– –an Beneficiary/Location/Referent –an.
QUAKENBUSH. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 46 Future forms of sample non-actor focus verbs Undergoer1 Gloss Simple Abil Plural Pl Abil ‘include’ itabid matabid ipanabid mapanabid Undergoer2 ‘shatter’ peteken mapetek pameteken mapametek Goal ‘look at’ telekan matelekan panelekan mapanelekan Referent ‘fight over’ pagsoayan mapagsoayan pagsoroayan mapagsoroayan . HENDRICKSON.
-an NOUN nioy kamosi mepet mola coconut kamote old person kanioyan COLLECTIVE NOUNS coconut grove kamote patch the elderly children kakamosian kamepetan mamola/ kamamolan young person N1ÆN2: Noun roots changed into related nouns NOUN1 taw yan fish manigyan NOUN2 fisherman adi bolong king medicine personhood inadian kamomolong pagkataw kingdom healer personhood/character NÆAdj: Noun roots changed into adjectives NOUN tambek nem inner being neman ADJECTIVE kind. The following are illustrative examples of roots from one word class being changed to Count nouns changed to collective nouns by adding ka. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 47 Appendix 3: Some examples of derivational morphology another through affixation. HENDRICKSON. thoughtful Dios God fat madinioson matambek godly fat/healthy AdjÆNoun: Adjective roots changed into nouns ADJECTIVE masinlo mambeng happy NOUN kambengan happiness mabanglo adalem mo-ya fragrant deep good pretty pabanglo kadadalman kao-yan kasinloan perfume the depths goodness beauty .QUAKENBUSH.
AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 48 NÆV: Noun roots changed to verbs NOUN kodal dogo paod fence magkodal pagdogo mamaod VERB make/build a fence bleed/is bleeding treat (medically) add sugar to make leaf roofing shingles blood bolong leaf roofing shingle medicine sugar vinegar asokar bolongon langgaw asokaran langgawen (teba) make (tuba) into vinegar VÆN: Verb roots changed to nouns VERB ondiot daya climb up grate dock ride NOUN manigondiot dayador ko-kodan babakan tarayan tarampetan beretangan boroaten palagsinikadan paraglotokan paglotok paraglotokon manigtayaw pagtayaw iloloak climber ko-kod babak tāy tampet betang boat sikad lotok cheat/trick descend cheater/trickster instrument for grating bottom/downstairs docking place vehicle deeds container race track cooking dancer place/put do/make run cook something to cook in/on way of cooking dancing plants tayaw dance loak abri plant open sew paragtayawen loloakan style of dancing (rice) field opener shield/amulet one who sews things to sew drinks merchandise salesperson sagang bedbed inem block/hinder pangabri panagang manigbedbed beredbeden irinemen barakalen bakal talpo drink buy wash clothes taralpoan manigpabakal tinalpoan/sinalpoan paranalpoan laundry (to be done) laundry (already done) sth to wash clothes in . HENDRICKSON.QUAKENBUSH.
HENDRICKSON. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR panaw penay walk rest pamanaw igperenay manner of walking rest time way.QUAKENBUSH. path 49 paranawan bagat patay ayeg olik meet die harvest go home kamatayen kinamatay paragbagatan pagbaragatan pangangayeg igorolik/orolikan death meeting place the time/event of meeting harvest time going home time cause of death VÆAdj: Verb roots changed into adjectives VERB inem talig i-yak cry palai-yak ADJECTIVE cries easily bakal silag drink buy trust palainem mabakal fond of drinking easy to sell trustworthy pasinsia be angry forgive bring down harvest matataligan masisilagen mapinasinsiaen ta nem grouchy/easily angered patient/forgiving humble pababak ayeg mapinababaken arayegen kabot panaw arrive walk parakaboton paranawen expected to arrive can be walked ready to be harvested AdjÆV: Adjective roots changed to verbs ADJECTIVE mabael mo-ya malemek neman big good soft mambael mago-ya pabaelen VERB grow bigger get better make bigger well-behaved palemeken pao-yaen magpanem-nem make soft/soften be good fix/make better .
AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 50 AdvÆV: Adverb roots changed to verbs ADVERB madasig golpi suddenly nagolpian VERB startled oman loay-loay then slowly quickly omanen loay-loayan padasigen do over make slower make faster .QUAKENBUSH. HENDRICKSON.
1987. Amsterdam: Benjamins.org/asia/philippines/plb_download. Stephen. J. nominal markers. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines. 1997.). National Science Council of Taiwan. Available for download at: http://www. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR 51 Appendix 4: Publications 4. Department of Linguistics of National Taiwan University. 437–477. In Danilo T. comp. Linguistics and language education in the Philippines and beyond: A Also presented at the Taiwan-Japan Joint Workshop on Austronesian Languages. LSP Special Monograph Quakenbush.sil.pdf festschrift in honor of Maria Lourdes S.org/asia/philippines/plb_download. Payne (ed.1.).). Manila: De La Salle University. In Cecilia Odé and Wim Stokhof (eds. Agutaynen texts. Linguistic Society of Taiwan. Writing Agutaynen pronouns: Making the most of a mixed-up world. 1999. Available for download at: http://www. Taipei. Stephen. and tense/aspect/mode. Gail R.sil. Stephen. http://homepage. Studies in Agutaynen. Stephen. Language use and proficiency in a multilingual setting: A 28.edu. Steve. 1992. Stephen. 23-24 June 2005.html#agn Quakenbush. HENDRICKSON.org/asia/philippines/plb_download.html#agn Quakenbush. Doris L. Part II.tw/~gilntu/data/workshop%20on%20Austronesian/9%20qua Quakenbush. Word order and discourse type: An Austronesian example. Typological Studies in Quakenbush.QUAKENBUSH. J. Proceedings of the Seventh International Atlanta: Editions Rodopi B. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures 11(1):7–88. Some Agutaynen-related publications Hendrickson. Pragmatics of word order flexibility. Agutaynen glottal stop. In Language 22. Child-giving and child-receiving in a lowland Philippine society. J. 22-27 August 1994. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Manila: Summer Institute of . and Melissa S. 685–694. Agutaynen grammar essentials statement.ntu. Available for download at: kenbush. 279–303. Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. J. J. Available for download at: http://www. Bautista. 1989. Quakenbush. Melvin.sil. Amsterdam and Quakenbush. Leiden. Stephen. J. Part I. Philippines.V. 2005. University of North Dakota 35:119–131. Studies in Agutaynen. 1999. Dayag and J. Some Agutaynen grammatical details: Personal pronouns.html#agn sociolinguistic survey of Agutaynen speakers in Palawan. 1991. Stephen Quakenbush (eds. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures 11(1):91–113.
Health booklet. Health booklet. Bible Society Comics. 17 pp. 143 pp. 10 pp. Peregrina A. Ang Bitala tang Dios: Ba-long Inigoan/ Ang Bagong Magandang Balita: Bagong Tipan. Ginotay-gotay: A collection of poems in Agutaynen. Baluyot. Si David ang Maiteg. Ruth C. Health booklet. Manila: Summer Institute of 1997. 45 pp. [85 pp]. Steve. expressions: An Agutaynen-Filipino-English phrasebook. Gail R. Some publications in the Agutaynen language Abejo. Pedrito Z. Manila: Agutaynen Translation Advisory Committee. Gualberto A. 32 pp. 1. [David the Brave]. Manila: Philippine Bible Society. AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Linguistics.. Nangit.. Rolando Z. Victoria M. Bolong ang herbal. Edep. HENDRICKSON. 12 pp. Manila: Agutaynen Translation Advisory Committee. Manila: Philippine Bible Society. Edep. 1996. Onopay boaten ta mga may taw ang napaso? [What to do when a person gets burned]. 1997. 157 pp. 52 Quakenbush. The Story of David. 2. Magistoria ita! Mga pinanimet ang mga istoria—Agutaynen-Filipino-English. 32 pp. 2000. with illustrations by Joseph Z. Pacho. 1987. Agutaynen phonemic statement. Llavan. The Story of David. Si David ang Bantog. [Let’s tell a story! A collection of stories]. Marilyn A. Onopay boaten ta mga may taw ang agtrangkason? [What to do when someone has the flu]. Mga bitalang pangaldaw-kaldaw/ Mga salitang pang-araw-araw/ Everyday words and Linguistics. Josenita L. [Herbal medicine]. 1997. 4. [David the Great]. Caabay. [The . 1989. and Melissa S. Caabay. Manila: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 193 pp. et al. MS. Bible Society Comics. Filipino and English. Agutaynen-English dictionary. Llavan. 1998. Josenita L. et al. (to appear). and James Maxey. Hendrickson. 2004. 1998. Edep..QUAKENBUSH. 1998. Kantang padengeg ong Dios.2. MS. comps. Manila: Agutaynen Translation Advisory Committee. 1999. Rauto. Melvin. Onopay boaten ta mga may taw ang galo-tan ta wi tang sinangoni na? [What to do when someone gets dehydrated]. Marilyn A. Labrador. Cedronio C.
HENDRICKSON. 53 . AND EDEP : AGUTAYNEN GRAMMAR Word of God: New Testament (Agutaynen)/ The New Good News: New Testament (Tagalog)].QUAKENBUSH. Manila: WPS/Philippine Bible Society.