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Latest achievements in the compounding of high performance carbon black concentrates

AMI's Thermoplastic Concentrates 2012

Mike Irish, Vice President, BUSS, INC., Carol Stream, IL - USA Hans-Ulrich Siegenthaler, BUSS AG, Pratteln, Switzerland

CONTENTS

Contents
Carbon Blacks and their characteristics
Uses and applications of black concentrates Quality requirements and control principles Key features of the Buss Kneader and actual results Buss Kneader plant concept and layout Summary

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CB BASICS

The Fundamental Properties of Carbon Blacks


A carbon black is characterised by a number of important properties

Microstructure (crystalline layers) Surface area / Particle size Structure (morphology of primary aggregate) Surface chemistry

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CB BASICS

Commercial availability of Carbon Black


Primary particle

Available as Powder (fluff) Pellets

Aggregates

LOW STRUCTURE

HIGH STRUCTURE

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CB BASICS

Properties related to Carbon Black particle size

Fine particles Darker Stronger Harder Higher Higher Slower

Property Masstone colour Tint strength Dispersion Conductivity Viscosity Wetting

Large particles Lighter Weaker Easier Lower Lower Faster

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CB BASICS

Properties related to Carbon Black structure

High Structure Easier Slower Lower Lighter Lower Higher Higher Lower

Property Dispersability Wetting time Gloss Masstone colour Tint strength Conductivity Viscosity Loading capacity

Low Structure More difficult Faster Higher Darker Higher Lower Lower Higher

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CB APPLICATIONS

Uses of carbon black


Carbon blacks are combined with polymers in order to impart a variety of properties
Electrical conductivity Colour and opacity UV resistance Thermal conductivity Reinforcement

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CB APPLICATIONS

Applications for carbon black masterbatch


The production and subsequent let down of 40 to 50% black masterbatch is commonly used in: General purpose (colouring) Engineering plastics (colour, jetness, UV, conductivity, antistatic) Speciality film, geomembranes (UV) Pipes (UV, antistatic) W&C compounds (UV) Fibres (colour, tint, gloss)

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CB APPLICATIONS

Value added applications


Where the highest level of dispersion is needed for: End-user specifications / requirements or Severe conditions imposed during the transformation step Examples - Pipe - Cable extrusion compounds - Fibre production - Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) application

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CB COMPOUNDING

Steps in the compounding of carbon blacks

Feeding Wetting Dispersive mixing (break up of pellets to particles/aggregates) Distributive mixing

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CB COMPOUNDING

Requirements of the compounding system


Highest degree of dispersion No thermal degradation of temperature sensitive polymers No damage to physical structure of carbon black Consistent and reproducible product quality Highest possible throughputs

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BUSS KNEADER

Shear mechanism in the Buss Kneader


relaxation reorientation splitting

shearing

relaxation reorientation rotation + - stroke

product flow
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BUSS KNEADER

Buss Kneader mixing mechanism

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BUSS KNEADER

Differential features of Buss Kneader compounding technology

Controlled and uniform shear mixing Precise temperature control Very high filler loading capability

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BUSS KNEADER

Drilled pins for thermocouple placing

Direct immersion in polymer


Precise stock temperature Temperature profile of process Process control ON-LINE

Thermocouple located in pin and directly immersed in polymer

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MX TECHNOLOGY

Process Technology: Features


Optimised screw geometry: Newly designed and patented process elements for balanced conveying, mixing and energy dissipation. Balanced Volume and Torque
MKS: 3 flight design
Do/Di = 1.55 Do/stroke = 6.67

quantec EV: 4 flight design


Do/Di = 1.56 Do/stroke = 4.77

MX: 4 flight design


Do/Di = 1.71

Do/stroke = 5.50
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PROCESS RESULTS

CB Concentrates compounding MX
Formulation 1: Formulation 2: PE + 40% carbon black PE + 40% carbon black and mineral filler

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PROCESS RESULTS

Results of CB Concentrates compounding


Formulation 1 PE + 40% carbon black Formulation 2 PE + 40% carbon black + inert filler

Data

Output (kg/h)

Screw speed (rpm)

Spec energy (kWh/kg)

TempT7 (C)

T / 100 rpm (C)

Formulation 1
Formulation 2

525
800

750
750

0.171
0.114

242
208

7.9
3.5

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PROCESS RESULTS

Results Semicon-processing MX vs MKS

PE Copolymer + 35 - 40% Conductive CB


Buss Kneader Type Throughput (kg/h) Screw speed (rpm) Spec. Energy (kWh/kg) Saving (%) Temp T7 (C) T7 (C) T (C) / 100 rpm

MKS Pilot MX Pilot

180 500

450 750

0.250 0.172

0 31

212 209

---3

20.0 7.0

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QUALITY ISSUES

Quality Characteristics for Plastics Pipe Systems for Water Supply Polyethylene (PE)

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QUALITY ISSUES

Filter Pressure Value Test

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QUALITY ISSUES

Filter Pressure Value Test

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QUALITY ISSUES

Filter Pressure Value vs. Output Rate


FPV vs. Output Rate
1.70 1.60 1.50

FPV [bar*cm^2/g]

1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.90 0.80 150

Trial 1.2 Trial 1.1

Ref Split-Feed 70/30 Split-Feed 60/40

Trial 1.3
160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

Test Mixture: MB 100g Base Polymer 400g Total 500g (containing 40g C.B.)
G [kg/h]

70/30

60/40

Ref.

Linear (Ref.)

Linear (60/40)

Linear (70/30)

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QUALITY ISSUES

Film Test

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QUALITY ISSUES

Film Test

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QUALITY ISSUES

Film Test

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TYPICAL LAYOUT MX

Typical Layout CB Concentrate Plant


water transport system for pellets pellet outlet centrifugal dryer water bypass system drive cabinet control cabinet vertical inlet screw degassing unit oil heating / cooling units water heating / cooling units

fines removal sieve water tank

kneader

control PC with rack melt pump diverter valve under water pelletiser
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TYPICAL LAYOUT MX

CB Concentrate Plant with gravimetric feeding system

BUSS COMPOUNDING PLANT

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TYPICAL LAYOUT MX

Applications
CB Compound Type Buss Kneader line configuration

CB Concentrates

15 or 22 L/D, Melt Pump 2 or 3 Inlet Screws, under water pelletiser (screen changer optional)

Semiconductive CB Compounds
Black jacketing Compounds

15 or 22 L/D, Melt Pump 2 or 3 Inlet Screws, under water pelletiser (screen changer optional)
15 L/D, Melt Pump 1 Inlet Screw, under water pelletiser

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TYPICAL LAYOUT MX

MX Sizes and Output Rates (kg/h)


CB Concentrate Semi-conductive CB Compound
5-25
150-250 500-750 700-1300 1500-2500 2500-3500

Black Jacketing Cable Compound


5-25
250-350 650-950 1200-1900 2400-3200 3000-4500

MX 30
MX 58 MX 85 MX 105 MX 125 MX 140

5-25
250-350 650-950 1200-1900 2400-3200 3000-4500

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TYPICAL LAYOUT MX

References
Most recently installed MX Kneaders for CB compounding in addition to the MX 58-15/22 in Buss lab: Major Producer, BE Major CB prod., CN Major Compdr., CN Major Producer, RU Major Producer, RU Major Producer, TH MX 140-15 F 260-8 MX 140-22 P 140 MX 105-15 F 200-6 MX 125-15 P 140 MX 125-15 F 250-6 MX 105-15 P 110 Semicon & CB Masterbatch CB Masterbatch Talcum Masterbatch CB Masterbatch CB Masterbatch Semicon & CB Masterbatch

Totally world wide sales CB MB: approx. 30-40 machines (incl. older types)

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SUMMARY

Summary - Carbon Black Compounding


Successful compounding of carbon black masterbatch requires Highest output rates while maintaining an on-going level of quality and consistency Optimum dispersion and product homogeneity as the key for: End-user properties Extrusion properties Processing parameters Controlled shear mixing without damage to polymer and carbon black structure The Buss Kneader provides the optimum in product dispersion leading to improved product and end-user performance

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