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Activity 1.1 a : Transverse and Longitudinal Waves.

1. If the vibrations of a wave are at right angles to the direction of the wave, it is called a wave.An example of this type of wave is 2. If the vibrations of a wave are along the direction of the wave, it is called a wave. An example of this type of wave is 3. Given a string tied to a pole, how would you shake the string in order to produce : (a) a transverse wave? .

(b) a longitudinal wave?

4. State the difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave.

Date: Activity 1.1 (b) 1. Waves can be drawn on paper using lines to join adjacent points of the waves which are .These lines are known as the lines are straight, then they are known as circular, then they are known as 2. The direction of propagation of a wave is always of the waves. . to the of the wave.If but if the lines are

3. Draw the direction of propagation of wave for each of the following wavefronts. a) b)

Actvity 1 .1(c) : 1. The wavelength of a wave is the or . The unit for wavelength is oscillations made in . multiplied by . . . between two successive . second

2. The frequency is the number of The unit for frequency is 3. The velocity of a wave is equal to

4. The time taken for a vibrating system to make a complete oscillation is known as 5. The number of complete oscillations made by a vibrating system is known as 6. The distance travelled by awave in one second is known as . 7.If the period of an oscillating system is 0.2 s and its wavelength is 60 cm, what is the velocity of the wave formed by this oscillating system ? Given T = Therefore f = = and =

1 T


By using the formula v = f Therefore v=

8. Sketch a displacement-distance graph for a wave, showing two complete oscillations.On your graph, mark: (a) The wavelength of the wave, (b) The amplitude of the wave Activity 1.1 (d): 1. The natural frequency of a pendulum depends on the independent of . of the pendulum and is

2. Explain what happens to a vibrating system after it is allowed to vibrate over a long period of time. 3. Resonance occurs when the applied of the driving vibration is equal to the of the vibrating system. 4. If two strings on the same guitar are tuned to exactly the same frequency and one of them is plucked, a) What will happen to the other string?

b) What is the effect stated in (a) called?

5.Sketched the displacement time graph for a vibrating system that is experiencing: a) Very slightly damping.



b) Very heavy damping.



ASSESSMENTS. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS. 1.Which of the graph shown below represents a wave of an amplitude 2.0 cm and frequency 20 Hz?


2.The diagram shows a wave traveling in the sea.

Which points are exactly one wavelength apart ? A P and R B Q and S C Q and T 3.A wave transfers A molecules. C matter B energy D force D S and T

4.Water waves are being generated in a ripple tank at a rate of 5 Hz .This means that in one second the number of wavefronts passing through a fixed point is: A 0.2 B 2.5 C 5.0 D 10.0 E 12.0

5.Which of the following is an example of longitudinal waves ? A B C D Waves in a ripple tank. Light waves in water. A vibrating guitar string. Sound waves produced by a string.

6.In air, what is the wavelength of sound of frequency 2500 Hz ?The speed of sound in air is 330ms-1. A 0.004 m C 0.132 m E 6.7 m B 0.003 m D 7.58 m

7.A source vibrates at a frequency of 20 Hz and produces waves of wavelength 0.02m.What is the speed with which the waves travel out from the source? A 0.001 ms-1. C 0.40 ms-1 B 0.02 ms-1 D 20 ms-1

8. The incidents listed below involve resonance except : A A glass will break when a Soprano sings infront of it. B Certain parts of a bus vibrated as the bus moves. C An egg breaks as it falls down on a floor. 9. Displacement


What are the effects on frequency and energy of the wave shown in the above displacement time graph as the time increases. Frequency Energy A increase no change B increase decrease C no change increase D no change decrease 10. Which of the following produces longitudinal waves?

STRUCTURED QUESTION. Q1. A wave source of frequency 1000 Hz emits waves length 0.10 m.How long does it take for the waves to travel 2500 m ?

(a) Explain the meaning of the expression the frequency is 1000 Hz ?

Q2. Figure below shows a student setting up waves on a long lastic cord.The students hand makes one Complete up-and-down movement in 0.40 s, and in each up-and-down movement the hand moves Through a height of 0.30 m. The wavelength of the waves on the string is 0.80 m.

0.3 m

For this wave, determine : (a) The amplitude

(b) The frequency (c) The speed.

Q3(a) Figure below shows the graph of the variation of the displacement of a wave with distance along the wave at a particular time.


State values for: (i) the amplitude of the wave.

Distance/m 10


(ii) the wavelength of the wave.

(b)Figure below shows the graph of the variation of the displacement of the same wave with time at a part
displacement/m 0.6

time/s 0 -0.6 2.5

State the values for : (i) the time for one complete cycle.


The frequency of the wave.

(c) Calculate the speed of the wave drawn in the above figures.

ASSESSMENT 1.2. 1.The diagram shows a light ray with an incident angle of 5 being reflected by a plane mirror MN. The mirror is then rotated clockwise through an angle of 15.


What is the new angle of reflection of the light ray? A 5 B 10 C 15 D 20 2. Which diagram shows the correct pattern of reflected water waves? A

STRUCTURED QUESTION. 1. When a wave is reflected from a plane surface, the angle of angle of . is equal to the

2.If a ray of light strikes a plane surface at an angle of 45 to the normal, the angle of the reflected ray to the normal is .

3. Sometimes while hiking, you may be able to hear your shout being reflected from a cliff. What is this effect known as, and what causes this to happen ?

4. Draw a diagram to show how a plane mirror reflects light waves from a lamp placed infront of it. (Follow the instructions listed below) (a) Draw a straight line perpendicular to the incident wavefronts to show the line of propagation of the wave.Show the direction of propagation. (b) Draw a dotted line which is perpendicular to the plane mirror to indicate the normal. (c) By using a protractor measure the angle of incidence i. (d) Then draw a line which is at an angle r from normal to represents the direction of propagation of reflected light waves.Note that i = r. (e) Draw straight dotted lines representing the reflected wavefronts which are perpendicular to the line drawn in (d).

Incident wavefronts

Plane mirror


* Application of reflection of waves in daily life (MC, Transparency 9)