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Detection of inter-coil short circuits

in wind generator windings


Ante Elez Ph.D.
Mate Jelavi Ph.D.
Prof. Stjepan Car Ph.D.
Inter-coil short circuit in wind generators
- Short circuits in generator windings lead to severe damage:
long down time,
high repair costs.
- Generator malfunction is especially severe for direct drive machines,
- Detection of generator short circuit could shut-down turbine before short
circuit escalates,
- Requirements upon detection methods:
on-line processing,
reliable,
unambiguous.
Inter-coil short circuit detection methods
- Two fault detection methods are presented:
inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding,
inter-coil short circuit in armature winding.
- Fault detection methods are result of FEM calculations and measurements
on real machine.
FEM
calculations
Calculation
results
Confirmation of
calculation results
on real machine.
FAULT
DETECTI ON
METHODS
Evaluation of calculated magnetic field
waveforms in correct and faulty condition.
1
2
3
4
Inter-coil short circuit detection methods
Working condition No load Nominal load
No fault

Excitation winding fault

Armature winding fault

Nominal excitation current

Decreased excitation current

Description of calculated
and measured model
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 inter coil short circuits of 10% turns of excitation winding coil,
2 inter coil short circuits of 5% turns of excitation winding coil,
3 inter coil short circuits of 2,5% turns of excitation winding coil,
4 inter coil short circuits of 14% turns of armature winding coil,
5 inter coil short circuits of 10% turns of armature winding coil,
6 inter coil short circuits of 5% turns of armature winding coil,
List of analyzed machine conditions for witch calculations and measurements
have been performed.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
O
O
t
pole 1
tp 2tp 3tp 4tp
-
pole 3 pole 4 pole 5 pole 60 pole 59 pole 58 pole 57 pole 6 pole 2
t
O a1
O a2
t
O even
O odd
O fault
MAIN EMF ADDITIONAL EMF
MAIN EMF TOTAL EMF
t
Beven
TOTAL B1
MAIN B1
Bodd
Bfault
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
pole pitch tp
t
O a1
O a2
ADDITIONAL EMF
O a1 tp = O a2 59 tp O a1 = 59 O a2
For 60 pole machine:
O a1 + O a2 = O AN
O a2 = (O AN)
1
60
O a1 = (O AN)
59
60
S = S
For 2p pole machine:
A B n = - (AN knl)
2p1
2p
A B (ni) = - (AN knl)
1
2p
A B (ni) = + (AN knl)
1
2p
knl factor determined by the slope of
generator open circuit characteristic.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
Curve 1 Flux density observed from stator tooth,
Curve 2 Voltage induced in small measuring coil placed on stator tooth,
Curve 3 Integrated voltage waveform from Curve 2.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
Curve 1, 1, 1 for all odd poles, Curve 2, 2, 2 for all even poles,
Curve 3, 3, 3 for pole with inter-coil short circuit.
Flux density over pole pitch monitored from stator core tooth with inter-coil short
circuits in excitation winding on pole no. 59, for tree values of excitation current I0.
I0=45 A,
I0=25 A,
I0=15 A.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
- Best sensitivity for excitation winding inter-coil short circuit detection can be
achieved with measurement of magnetic field inside air gap. Fault detection
sensitivity is decreasing with distance between the measurement point from the
air gap.
- Direct measurement and analysis of magnetic field waveform for unsaturated
machine gives reliable detection of inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
coils.
- Direct measurement and analysis of magnetic field waveform for saturated
machine gives unreliable detection of inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
coils.
- This is valid for magnetic field and flux density measurement in air gap, inside
stator tooth and inside stator core.
- Best sensitivity for excitation winding inter-coil short circuit detection for
saturated machine can be achieved with differential magnetic field measurement
in air gap.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
N N
N
N
N
N
S
S
S
S
S
S
S, N rotor pole
Ms
2tp
wedge
U1
U2
U1 U2~ 0 symmetric condition
U1 U2 = 0 possible inter-coil short circuits
U1 U2
Differential magnetic field measurement in air gap.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
U1, U2 voltage induced in measuring coil wires placed on stator winding wedge,
U1-U2 total measuring coil voltage.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
Curve 1 voltage induced in measuring coil with inter-coil short circuits in one pole,
Curve 2 voltage induced in measuring coil without inter-coil short circuits,
Curve 3 integrated voltage waveform from curve 1,
Curve 4 - integrated voltage waveform from curve 2.
Voltage waveform induced in measuring coil Ms2tp for wind generator.
Inter-coil short circuit in excitation winding
- Differential magnetic field measurement in machine air gap is innovative method
for detecting excitation winding inter-coil short circuits.
- Method is tested on small four pole generator model specially adopted for
simulation of inter coil short circuits. Calculated results have been confirmed by
measurements on real machine.
- If method is properly applied inter-coil short circuits in excitation winding can be
unambiguously detected.
Inter-coil short circuit in armature winding
Inter-coil short circuit in armature winding
Inter-coil short circuit in armature winding
Flux density waveform monitored from rotor pole shoe.
Curve 1 with 14 short circuited turns, Curve 2 with 10 short circuited turns,
Curve 3 with 5 short circuited turns, Curve 2 without short circuited turns.
Inter-coil short circuit in armature winding
1 with presence of armature inter-coil short circuits,
2 without presence of armature inter-coil short circuits.
Frequency analyses of the flux density waveform monitored from a rotor pole shoe.
Inter-coil short circuit in armature winding
- Inter-coil short circuit in armature winding is localized magnetic field
disturbance, and it can bee detected within air gap from stator and rotor side.
- If monitored from stator side distance of the stator slot comprising the short
circuited turn and measuring sensor significantly affects the success of the failure
detection. The pole pitch represents a limiting distance. Therefore, to ensure a
successful and reliable detection of the described failure, quite a large number of
sensors should be incorporated into the machine and placed at the distance one
from another that will enable failure detection.
- In the contrary, when flux density within the air gap is measured from a rotor
pole shoe, only one sensor will be sufficient for a successful and reliable
detection of the analyzed failure. A sensor for flux density measurement should be
fitted on any of the rotor pole shoes. When the sensor, which is rotating together
with the rotor, faces a failure, from measuring data inter-coil short circuits in
armature winding coils can be detected.
Measurement results
1
2
3
analog data,
digital data.
RF
on rotor
1
3
2
on stator
to control
system
1 Hall sensor, measuring coil
2 processing units,
3 wireless bridge.
Measurement results
Curve 1 measurement with Hall sensor on stator tooth, Curve 2 calculation,
Curve 3 measurement with Hall sensor on rotor pole shoe, Curve 4 calculation.
Measured and calculated flux density waveform in wind generator air gap.
Measurement results
Curve 1 without inter-coil short circuits,
Curve 2 with inter-coil short circuits of 2,5% turns in excitation winding coil,
Curve 3 with inter-coil short circuits of 5% turns in excitation winding coil.
Integrated voltage waveform induced in measuring coil Ms2p
Measurement results
Curve 1 measurement,
Curve 2 FEM calculation.
Flux density waveform monitored from rotor pole shoe with inter-coil
short circuits in armature winding.
Conclusion
- New innovative methods for detection of inter-coil short circuits in wind
generator excitation and armature winding are presented.
- Methods are based on FEM calculation results.
- Methods are confirmed with measurements on real machine.
- Fault detection methods are implemented in fault detection system which can be
implemented in wind generator.
Thank you for your attention Thank you for your attention