Quarry to Cemetery Stone - Types of Stone Quarrying - Intro

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From Quarry to Cemetery Stone - Davis Cemetery Presentation
Types of Stone Quarrying & Quarries
Types of Stone Quarrying (Dimension Stone & Aggregate Stone) Open Pit or Shelf Quarrying Photographs Underground Mining Photographs Boulder Quarrying Photographs Aggregate Quarrying Photographs

Types of Stone Quarrying
Stone is usually quarried in (1) Open pits or shelf quarries, (2) Underground mining, (3) Boulder quarries, and (4) Aggregate quarries. Stone meant for use as cemetery stones, mausoleums, buildings, and bridges is considered “dimension stone,” which means the blocks of stone are cut to specific sizes or shapes . In Oliver Bowles’ book Memorial Stones (PDF), he describes the types of granites and marbles used for memorial stones in the past and the distribution of the quarries throughout the United States up to 1955 when the book was published. In the book, The Stone Industries by Oliver Bowles,* Bowles describes dimension stone as follows: “Dimension Stone. – The oldest use of stone and the one that has become increasingly important through the centuries is for building purposes. At first, rough walls were built of scattered boulders, but with increasing knowledge of the use of tools stone was quarried from solid ledges. Before the age of explosives and before steam and compressed air were utilized quarrying was slow and laborious….” “Dimension stone is used for other purposes than for building. In ancient times a pile of stones was raised as a memorial, and from this custom has developed the monument or headstone cut from suitable rock and carved with a fitting inscription. Stone blocks are also used for paving streets and roads and for the manufacture of curbing. In addition, stone has many special uses, such as for electrical switchboards and blackboards.” The other major type of stone is aggregate. Aggregate stone isproduced by using a process which breaks or crushes the stone into various sizes for use as breakwaters, rip rap, road foundation, chicken grit, antacids, and many other uses. Many of the old dimension stone quarries are producing aggregate today rather than dimension stone. Oliver Bowles, in his book, The Stone Industries, published in 1939, described crushed stone as follows: “Crushed Stone. – The use of crushed or broken stone developed much later than that of dimension stone. Stone sledged by hand, usually by convict labor, was used in road construction, and this use increased rapidly. With the invention of cement and with mass production made possible through explosives, power crushers, and screens the broken-stone branch of the industry grew with phenomenal speed. In 1886 the output of crushed and broken stone was smaller than that of dimension stone, while in 1930 it was thirty times as great. Concrete aggregate, road stone, and ballast are the principal products.” (* The Stone Industries: Dimension Stone, Crushed Stone, Geology, Technology, Distribution, Utilization, by Oliver Bowles, Supervising Engineer, Building Materials Section, United States Bureau of Mines, 2nd ed., New York & London: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1939, pp. 4) In Oliver Bowles book, The Stone Industries, published in 1939, he describes open-pit quarrying as follows: “Open-pit Quarrying. – Most rock products of commerce are obtained from open quarries. Material
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Distribution. waste and overburden being left undisturbed. Also. Furthermore. and it is open to the public today in case you’d like to visit it.Intro suitable for use ordinarily is found at or near the surface of the earth. derricks. Many limestone and marble. As rock is separated by blasting or other means. stairs.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . In following these beds down the dip at steep angles and are of limited thickness.. by Oliver Bowles. cableway hoists. and material is transported from the quarry by inclined tracks.Types of Stone Quarrying . Though less advantageous than shelf quarries. with the floor little if any lower than the surrounding land surface. Technology.) (There is a photo tour of this trip available on our web site at: “Photographic Tour of the Bell Marble Quarry. When properly designed and well-equipped they may be operated at a cost which compares favorably with that at many shelf quarries. Geology. in many localities mounting difficulties in the way of open-pit quarrying. United States Bureau of Mines. open pits may be narrow and deep. a rock deposit may not extend above the general level. pp.. quarries are likely to be narrow and deep. Some open-pit slate quarries of Pennsylvania have reached depths of 500 to 700 feet because the desirable beds are relatively narrow and almost vertical. Consequently. are successfully mined underground. 1939. shallow openings may be made in comparatively thin flat-lying beds. – When quarrying of rock first was begun as an industry. This book is available for reading on the Internet Archive web site. an opening is gradually enlarged and deepened.”) file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu. Such pit quarries also require pumping. as in the Appalachian region of the Eastern States. 2nd ed.” “Conditions are not always so favorable. Even today. and by working into the hillside a quarry can be developed. with rising costs. Many limestone beds which provide suitable stone dip at steep angles are of limited thickness. its size and shape depending greatly on the rock structures. Excavations of the shelf-quarry type can usually be class as low-cost operations. where land values are high. and property lines restricted.” (* The Stone Industries: Dimension Stone. have induced operators to change their systems of excavating and to develop underground mining methods. or where a heavy overburden of soil or waste rock makes lateral extensive expensive. (The Bell Marble Works quarry is on the grounds of the Marble Quarry RV Park. Supervising Engineer.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] . “There are two types of quarries. such as are common in limestone districts of the Middle West. for drifts and tunnels may be confined to serviceable rock. the ‘shelf’ quarry and the ‘pit’ quarry. thousands are in regular operation. and pumping expense is avoided. or other means. Access is gained by ladders.) Open Pit or Shelf Quarrying The next photographs are of open pit or shelf quarries . and the most economical method of working is to open up a face of the rock ledge. and a pit must be sunk. New York & London: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Building Materials Section. Inc.. you can still see parts of the drill marks on old stone buildings and some cemetery monuments. As workmen are not exposed to the weather. You can still see the horizontal ledge marks and the vertical drill marks left on the rock in the quarry left by the equipment as it cut out the stone. Where beds are folded and tilted at high angles. Utilization. and quarries reached increasing depths. Through long years of continued operation the most available outcrops were gradually worked away. working conditions are also more favorable. Crushed Stone. In following these beds down the dip greatly increasing depths of overburden are encountered. selective mining can best be accomplished by the underground method. “Underground Mining. drainage is usually automatic. and a few granite and slate deposits. Such ready access and easy transportation are advantageous. Sometimes a ledge of serviceable rock stands above the level of the surrounding country. or mechanical hoists. excavations were made in formations readily available at the surface of the earth. 17-18. The first two photographs below are of the Bell Marble Works quarry located at Columbia in Tuolumne County. Wide.

which owns many quarries across the United States today. and he recommended the “Sierra White” granite from the Raymond quarries and the Georgia Granite for use in the Winters Cemetery because of the high mineral content of the water used to water the lawn at the Winters Cemetery.Types of Stone Quarrying .Intro Bell Marble Works Quarry located at Columbia.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . I spoke with a salesman at the Cache Creek Monument Company in Woodland. of Cold Spring. lower granite quarry at Raymond in Madera County. It is now owned by the Cold Spring Granite Co. Tuolumne County This photograph is of the older. Minnesota. file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] .

Vermont Ryan-Parker Quarry on Crotch Island. owned and operated many marble and granite quarries throughout the United States even as far north as Alaska.Types of Stone Quarrying .Intro Lower. the Vermont Marble Co. The quarry in the postcard photograph shown below was owned by the Vermont Marble Company.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] . Maine During the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . Barre. file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu. older granite quarry at Raymond which produces “Sierra White” Granite Upper granite quarry at Raymond Granite which produces “Sierra White” Granite Boutwell Granite Quarry.

Brandon.Intro The “Oriental Red marble quarry at Swanton. Vermont One of the Deep Marble Quarries in West Rutland." Bedford.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] .Types of Stone Quarrying . Indiana Underground Mining Postcard photo of the exterior entrance into the Italian Marble Quarry.Opening Quarry "Key Block. Vermont View of interior of one of the marble quarries at West Rutland.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . Proctor. Vermont. Indiana . one of the many quarries belonging to the Vermont Marble Company. Vermont” Bedford. Vermont file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu.

1972. Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin 32.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] . pg. Tuolumne County. Peak and Plateau: A Guide to the Geology of Colorado. by John and Halka Chronic. file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu. Colorado   Boulder Quarrying Another type of quarry is the boulder quarry from where blocks of stone are cut from boulders.Intro Exterior view of entrance to the Yule Marble Quarry near Marble. 99) Postcard photograph of the interior 3-room view of the Yule Marble Quarry located near Marble.Types of Stone Quarrying . This second photograph below shows where they quarried a boulder that was located near the Bell Marble Works quarry in Columbia.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . Colorado (from Prairie.

near Academy. Louis County.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] . Louis Limestone in Bussen Quarries. Quarry. Inc. by Norman S. Hinchey.. Joliet. 1947)   [Top of Page] file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu. Illinois State Penitentiary. south of Koch.Types of Stone Quarrying .. Crusher Plant and Stone Quarry. Columbia.Intro Boulder quarry of Academy Granite Company. et al.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . Below are some photographs of aggregate quarries. Tuolumne County Aggregate Quarrying The majority of quarries operating today are aggregate quarries. Illinois St. St. Fresno County Boulder quarried at the Bell Marble Works Quarry. Missouri (from Limestones and Dolomites in the St. Louis Area.

and placed inside another web site ©.Types of Stone Quarrying . All rights reserved. It is not to be captured. Peggy B. and George (Pat) Perazzo.Intro Commercial use of material within this site is strictly prohibited.html[12/4/2012 11:44:04 PM] . file:///D|/My%20Documents/eBooks/types_stone_quarrying_menu.Quarry to Cemetery Stone . reworked.

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