# Useful Formulas for Power System Analysis & Power Factor Correction The formulas on this web page may

be utilized in designing power factor correction systems and harmonic filter banks.

Programs Harmonic Analysis Program

Formula Symbols
C
fs

System Frequency

f I
I1, I2 Imax peak

Frequency (Hertz) Current (amps)
Currents of bank or stages being switched and of bank or stage already energized A peak value calculated without damping. In practical circuits it will be about 90 percent of this value

Ih Kvar kVAtx Ztx kVAr KVA kV KW
Leq

RMS current (amps) at harmonic (h) Reactive Power (kvar) Three-phase transformer rating Nameplate impedance (%) Three-phase capacitor bank rating Total Power (kVA) kilovolts (kv) Real Power (kw) Total equivalent inductance per phase between capacitor banks or stages, in microhenrys Power Factor (no unit) Real Power (KW) Reactive Power (kvar) Total Power (KVA) Initial Desired Three Phase

PF P Q S Subscript I Subscript d Subscript

reactance () Harmonic at which filter is tuned Power factor angle  Formula Index A) Capacitors Connected in Parallel B) Capacitors Connected in Series C) Capacitive Reactance D) Capacitance E) Capacitor Kilovars F) Power Factor G) Kilovars Required to Change Power Factor H) Equations for Total Power Factor I) Total Power J) Reactive Power K) Voltage Rise L) Released System Capacity for Power Factor Improvement M) Loss Reduction for Correcting Power Factor N) Capacitor Current O) Total Harmonic Distortion P) Root Mean Square. h . TPF S) Resonant Frequency. DPF R) Total Power Factor. RMS Q) Displacement Power Factor.Subscript Single Phase Subscript LN Line to Neutral Subscript LL Line to Line Subscript SC Short Circuit Th Vn Vrms VLL Single Frequency TIF at harmonic (h) Harmonic Voltage magnitude Root mean square (rms) value of voltage Rated maximum voltage in kilovolts Root mean square (rms) value of current Symmetrical rms short-circuit current. in amperes I rms Isc Vpk Peak magnitude Xc XC XL R Xn n Capacitive Reactance (ohms) Capacitive reactance () Inductive reactance () Resistance () Filter inductor .

Q V) Crest Factor.T) I*T Product U) Quality Factor. CF W) Inrush Current Calculation for Single Capacitor Bank Switching X) Inrush Current Calculation for Back-To-Back Capacitor Bank Switching Formulas A) Capacitors Connected in Parallel B) Capacitors Connected in Series C) Capacitive Reactance Xc .

D) Capacitance C E) Capacitive Kilovars F) Power Factor G) Kvars Required to Change Power Factor where: = Initial Power Factor Angle = Final Power Factor Angle .

H) Equations for Total Power good for both 3 phase and single phase calculations I) Total Power J) Equations For Reactive Power K) Approximate Voltage Rise for Addition of Capacitors where: .

RMS Q) Displacement Power Factor R) Total Power Factor.L) Released System Capacity for Power Factor Improvement M) % Loss Reduction for Correcting Power Factor N) Capacitor Current O) Total Harmonic Distortion P) Root Mean Square. TPF S) Resonant Frequency .

T) I*T Product U) Quality Factor. Q V) Crest Factor. CF W) Inrush Current and Frequency Calculation for Single Capacitor Bank Switching X) Inrush Current and Frequency Calculation for Back-To-Back Capacitor Bank Switching .