1 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.

com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review This guide will be covering animal structure and function by reviewing: Major types of tissues Digestion Circulation Respiration Defenses of the Body Homeostasis/Excretion Endocrine System

MAJOR TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUE Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function. There are four main categories: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue. Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body. Tightly packed cells form a barrier protecting against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss. The cells at the base of the epithelium are attached to a basement membrane a mat of membrane, extracellular matrix. A simple epithelium has a single layer of cells, while a stratified epithelium has multiple layers of cells. The shape of the cells at the surface may be cuboidal (cubes), columnar (bricks), or squamous (floor tiles). Glandular epithelia absorb or secrete chemical solutions. The glandular epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive and respiratory tracts form a mucous membrane by secreting mucus to lubricate the surface and keep it moist. Connective tissue functions to bind and support other tissues. They have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. Collagenous fibers are made of collagen – they are nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise. Elastic fibers are long threads made of elastin, which provides a rubbery quality. Reticular fibers consisting of collagen, are very thin and fibers, branched to form a tightly woven fabric. There are two main types of connective tissues found in vertebrates: Loose connective tissue is the most widespread connective tissue. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. It consists of all three fiber types. Fibroblasts are cells that secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers and Macrophages are amoeboid cells that engulf bacteria and debris. These two types of cells predominate in the mesh of loose connective tissue. Adipose tissue is a specialized form of loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells. Fibrous connective tissue is dense and organized into parallel bundles. They are found in ligaments. tendons and ligaments Cartilage has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of chondroitin sulfate. Chondrocytes are cells that secrete chondroitin sulfate and collagen. The skeleton

2 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review supporting the body of most vertebrates is made of bone a mineralized connective tissue. Blood can one, also be classed as a connective tissue due to its extensive extracellular matrix. Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the animal to the other. The neuron, neuron or nerve cell, consists of a cell body and two or more extensions (dendrites and axons). Dendrites transmit impulses from their tips toward the rest of the neuron, while axons transmit impulses toward another neuron or toward an effector. Muscle tissue is composed of long cells called muscle fibers. Muscle is the most abundant tissue in most animals, with muscle contraction accounting for most of the energyconsuming cellular work in an active animal. Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendons and is responsible for voluntary movements of the body. Skeletal muscle can also be called striated muscle because the arrangement of overlapping filaments gives them a striated appearance. Cardiac muscle forms the contractile wall of the heart. Smooth muscle lacks striations and is found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and other internal organs. DIGESTION Homeostasis Manages an Animal’s Fuel Glucose, a major cellular fuel, is regulated depending on an organism’s current ATP needs. If there are more calories taken in than are needed, the excess can be used for biosynthesis. In humans, energy will be stored as glycogen. Once glycogen stores are full, the excess can be stored as fat. If fewer calories are taken in than expended, fuel is oxidized, causing an animal to lose weight. Undernourishment results when an organism is continually deficient in calories. When this occurs, the stores of glycogen and fat are used up, which causes the body to break down its own proteins for fuel. It is also dangerous to be overnourished when the body hoards fat. It tends to store excess fat overnourished molecules from food instead of using them for fuel. In contrast, when an excess of carbohydrates are eaten, the body tends to increase the rate of carbohydrate oxidation. There seems to be a more-or-less constant weight for people set by the body, suggesting that there are complex feedback mechanisms regulating fat storage and use. In mammals, increases in adipose tissue increases leptin levels in the blood. High leptin levels cue the brain to depress appetite and increase energy-consuming muscular activity. Conversely, loss of body fat decreases leptin levels, signaling the brain to increase appetite and weight gain.

3 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review An Animal’s Diet Must Supply Essential Nutrients and Carbon Skeletons for Biosynthesis In addition to providing fuel for ATP production, an animal’s diet must also supply the raw materials necessary for biosynthesis, such as carbon skeletons. Essential nutrients are materials that must be obtained in preassembled form because the animal’s cells cannot make them from any raw material. An animal whose diet is missing one or more of the essential nutrients is said to be malnourished. The malnourished four types of essential nutrients are essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals: Essential amino acids: while the body can synthesize about half of the 20 amino acids, the remaining essential amino acids must be obtained from food in a prefabricated form. A diet with insufficient amounts of one or more essential amino acids causes protein deficiency. Essential amino acids are found in meat, eggs, cheese, and other animal products. The ones found in animal products are “complete,” meaning they provide all the essentials in their correct proportions. Those found in plant proteins tend to be “incomplete,” lacking one or more essential amino acids. acids: Essential fatty acids these consist of the fatty acids animals cannot make, such as fatty acids having double bonds. Most diets furnish ample qualities of essential fatty acids. Vitamins: Vitamins organic molecules required in the diet in amounts that are small compared with the relatively large quantities of essential amino acids and fatty acids. So far, 13 vitamins have been determined to be essential to humans. Minerals: Minerals simple organic nutrients usually required in small amounts. Humans and vertebrates require relatively large amounts of calcium and phosphorus for maintaining bones. Other minerals serve as cofactors for certain enzymes. Water-soluble vitamins include the B complex and Vitamin C. Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Food Types and Feeding Mechanisms Animals generally fit into one of three dietary categories. Herbivores mainly eat autotrophs, while carnivores eat other animals. Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants. These terms represent the kinds of food an animal usually eats and their adaptations for obtaining and processing that food. However, most animals will eat foods outside their dietary category when available. Many aquatic animals are suspension -feeders that sift small food particles from the water. suspensionSubstrateSubstrate-feeders live in or on their food source, eating their way through the food, such as maggots. Earthworms are a specific type of substrate-feeder – deposit-feeders which eat their way through deposit-feeders, the dirt, salvaging partially decayed organic material along with soil. Fluid-feeders suck nutrient-rich Fluidfluids from a living host. Most animals are bulk-feeders that eat relatively large pieces of food. bulkOverview of Food Processing Ingestion, Ingestion the act of eating, is the first stage of food processing. Nearly all animals consume food packaged in bulk form, containing complex arrays of molecules that may be difficult to process.

4 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review Digestion, Digestion the second stage of food processing, is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb. Digestion splits macromolecules into monomers, which the animal will use to make its own molecules or as fuel for ATP production. The splitting process is called hydrolysis drolysis, absorption, enzymatic hydrolysis which takes place by adding water to break bonds. In absorption the animal’s cells absorb small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestive compartment. Elimination occurs when undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment. Digestion Occurs in Specialized Compartments Food vacuoles are the simplest digestive compartments. Newly formed food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes containing hydrolytic enzymes in intracellular digestion In most animals, at least some digestion. hydrolysis occurs by extracellular digestion the breakdown of food outside cells. Extracellular digestion, cavities for digestion enable animals to devour much larger pretty than can be ingested through phagocytosis and digested intracellularly. Many animals with simple body plans have gastrovascular cavities digestive sacs with one opening. cavities, They function in both digestion and distribution of nutrients throughout the body. For example, in hydras, after food enters the cavity, specialized cells secrete digestive enzymes to break up the prey into small pieces. Most of the digestion will occur intracellularly, with undigested material being eliminated through the single opening. Most animals have digestive tubes extending between the mouth and anus. These tubes are called complete digestive tracts or alimentary canals. The tube can be organized into specialized regions canals that carry out digestion and nutrient absorption in a stepwise fashion. Digestion in Mammals Physical and chemical digestion of food begins in the mouth, where teeth will break food into smaller pieces, making it easier to swallow and increasing its surface area. Presence of food in the oral cavity trigger the salivary glands to make saliva. Saliva contains mucin which lubricates the food and protects the lining of the mouth from abrasion. It also contains salivary amylases to break down starch and glycogen. The tongue will shape the food into a bolus bolus. Once swallowing occurs, the tongue pushes the bolus to the back of the oral cavity and into the pharynx, a junction open to the esophagus and the windpipe. The top of the windpipe will move up so its opening, the glottis, is blocked by the epiglottis The esophagus moves food from the pharynx epiglottis. down to the stomach through peristalsis rhythmic waves of contraction by smooth muscles. peristalsis, The stomach has accordion-like folds and a very elastic wall. In addition to storing foods, it secretes gastric juice and uses churning action to mix the gastric juice with the food. The gastric juice has a pH of about 2 in order to kill most bacteria swallowed with food and to disrupt the extracellular matrix binding cells found in the food. It also contains pepsin an enzyme that begains hydrolyzing proteins pepsin,

5 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review into smaller polypeptides. Pepsin is first secreted in an inactive form known as pepsinogen by the chief cells in the gastric pits. Parietal cells in the gastric pits secrete hydrocholoric acid, which converts the pepsinogen into active pepsin. Pepsin itself can also activate pepsinogen. The epithelial cells lining the stomach are constantly replaced to prevent the stomach from digesting itself. Churning and enzyme action results in a nutrient-rich broth known as acid chime The opening from chime. the esophagus, the cardiac orifice, usually dilates only when another bolus arrives. The opening to the small intestine is controlled by the pyloric sphincter which helps regulate the passage of chime into sphincter, the intestine. The small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal. The first section of the small intestine is the duodenum where acid chime is mixed with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, duodenum, gallbladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall itself. The pancreas produces several hydrolytic enzymes along with an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate. The bicarbonate acts as a buffer to offset the acidity of the chime from the stomach. The liver produces bile which is stored in the gallbladder bile, until needed. Bile salts aid in the digestion and absorption of fat. Pancreatic amylases continue to break down starch, glycogen, and smaller polysaccharides into disaccharides. Maltase will complete digestion of maltose and split it into simple sugars. Sucrase can hydrolyze sucrose while lactase digests lactose. The disaccharides are built into the membranes and extracellular matrix covering the intestinal epithelium. Protein digestion continues (pepsin helped in the stomach) as several enzymes break polypeptides down into amino acids. Trypsin and chymotrypsin are specific for peptide bonds adjacent to certain amino acids. Enzymes called dipeptidases split small peptides. Carboxypeptidase splits one amino acid at a time from the carboxyl end of a polypeptide while aminopeptidase works from the other end. Many protein-digesting enzymes are secreted from the intestinal epithelium, but trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are secreted by the pancrease. Enteropeptidase triggers activation of these enzymes once in the intestinal lumen. Nucleic acids are broken apart by nucleases into component nucleotides. They are further broken down into nitrogenous bases, sugars, and phosphates by nucleosidases. For fat digestion, bile salts from the gallbladder coat tiny fat droplets in emulsification Once emulsification. enough surface area is exposed, lipase is used to hydrolyze the fat molecules. The jejunem and ileum mainly function in absorbing nutrients and water. Absorption of Nutrients Most absorption occurs in the small intestine, which contains large circular folds with fingerlike projections called villi Each epithelial cell of a villus has many microscopic villi. microvilli. microvilli This enormous surface is an adaption that greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption.

6 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review The core of each villus is a set of capillaries and a small vessel of the lymphatic system called a lacteal. lacteal Nutrients are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium then across the capillaries or lacteals. Both passive and active transport are used to move nutrients across the epithelial cells. Amino acids and sugars pass through the epithelium into the capillaries and are carried away by the bloodstream. Glycerol and fatty acids are recombined into fats within epithelial cells and are then mixed with cholesterol and coated with special proteins to form chylomicrons most chylomicrons, of which are transported through exocytosis into lacteals (the lymph will eventually drain into larger veins). Any capillaries and veins that drain nutrients away from the villi will converge in the hepatic portal vessel leading directly to the liver. The liver will screen any nutrients received and make any necessary adjustments and break down any toxins present. The large intestine or colon is connected the small intestine at a T-shaped junction, where a intestine, colon, sphincter controls the movement of material. One arm of the pouch is called the cecum which leads cecum, into the appendix A major function of the colon is to recover water – most of the 7 L of fluid secreted appendix. into the lumen each day is reabsorbed along with nutrients. Wastes of the digestive tract, the feces feces, become more solid as they are moved along by peristalsis. The terminal part of the colon is called the rectum, rectum where feces are stored until they can be eliminated. CIRCULATION For some animals, it is unnecessary to have a circulatory system – they are able to use diffusion to transport substances throughout their body. For animals with many cell layers, gastrovascular cavities are insufficient because diffusion distances are too great for adequate exchange of nutrients and wastes. Both open and closed circulatory systems have three basic components: a circulatory fluid (blood a set of tubes (blood vessels and a muscular pump (heart blood), heart). blood blood vessels) heart In an open circulatory system there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid. The general system, body fluid is more correctly termed hemolymph One or more hearts pump the hemolymph into an hemolymph. interconnected system of sinuses which are spaces surrounding the organs. One or more hearts pump sinuses, the hemolymph into an interconnected system of sinuses sinuses. In a closed circulatory system blood is enclosed in vessels with one or more hearts pumping blood system, into large vessels that branch into smaller ones coursing through the organs. Materials are exchanged by diffusion between the blood and interstitial fluid bathing the cells. The cardiovascular system consists of a heart with one or two ventricles that pump blood out of the system heart, along with arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries Arteries carry blood away from capillaries.

7 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review the heart to the capillary beds which will converge into venules which converge into veins that bring beds, venules, blood back into the heart. Fish A fish heart has two main chambers, one atrium and one ventricle. Blood pumped from the ventricle travels first to the gills in gill circulation The gill capillaries converge into a vessel circulation. that carries oxygen-rich blood to capillary beds in all other parts of the body in systemic circulation. circulation Blood then returns to the atrium of the heart. Blood must pass through two capillary beds in each circulation. Frogs/Other Amphibians Frogs and other amphibians have a three-chambered heart with two atria and one ventricle. The Ventricle pumps blood into a forked artery that splits the ventricle’s output into the circulations. pulmocutaneous and systemic circulations The pulmocutaneous circulation leads to capillaries in the gas-exchange organs where the blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide before returning to the heart’s left atrium. Most of the returning oxygen-rich blood is pumped into systemic circulation, which supplies all body organs and returns all oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium. Double circulation provides a stronger flow of blood because the blood is pumped a second time after being through the capillary beds. There is some mixing of oxygen-rich blood with oxygen-poor blood in the frog’s ventricle. Reptiles also have double circulation with pulmonary (lung) and systemic circuits. In reptiles, there is less mixing of the blood with some division of the ventricle. Crocodiles and alligators even have a completely separated ventricle. Mammals 1. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs using the 2. Pulmonary arteries. As the blood flows through 3. Capillary beds in the right and left lungs, it loads oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide. Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins to the 4. Left atrium of the heart. Oxygen-rich blood flows into the 5. Left ventricle as the ventricle opens and the atrium contracts. The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood out to body tissues through the systemic circuit. Blood leaves the left ventricle 6. Through the aorta, which conveys blood to arteries leading throughout the body. 7. The aorta also supplies oxygen0rich blood to the arterioles and

8 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review capillary beds in the abdominal organs and legs. 8. Oxygen-poor blood from the head, neck, and forelimbs is channeled into the anterior (superior) vena cava. 9. Oxygen-poor blood from the trunk and hind limbs is channeled into the posterior (inferior) vena cava. 10. The two venae cavae empty their blood into the right atrium. One complete sequence of pumping and filling is the cardiac cycle The contraction phase is called cycle. systole, diastole. systole while the relaxation phase is called diastole The cardiac output is the volume of blood per minute that the left ventricle pumps into the systemic circuit. Four valves in the heart prevent backflow and keep the blood moving in the correct direction. Between each atrium and ventricle is an atrioventricular (AV) valve that keeps blood from flowing back into the atria. Semilunar valves are located at the two exist of the heart. A heart murmur is a defect in one or more of the valves that causes a hissing sound when a stream of blood squirts back through a valve. The sinoatrial (SA) node or pacemaker sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells node, pacemaker, contract. It generates electrical impulses much like those produced by nerve cells. The impulses spread through the walls of the atria to make them contract in unison. A relay point called the atrioventricular (AV) node located between the right atrium and right ventricle delays the impulses for 0.1 seconds before spreading to the walls of the ventricles. These impulses can be measured by an EKG). electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) Structural Differences of Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries All blood vessels’ lumens are lined with an endothelium a single layer of flattened cells that provides a endothelium, smooth surface to minimize resistance to the flow of blood. Capillaries have very thin walls that consist of only endothelium and its basement membrane. Arteries have thicker middle and outer layers than veins. Veins have thin walls that convey blood back to the heart at low velocity and pressure. Blood Pressure The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel and that propels blood is blood pressure. Arterial blood pressure of a healthy resting human oscillates between about 120 mm Hg at systole and 70 mm Hg at diastole. The Lymphatic System So much blood flows through the capillaries that loss of fluid adds up to about 4 L per day – there is also some leakage of blood proteins. The lost fluid and proteins return to the blood through the system. lymphatic system Fluid enters this system by diffusing into tiny lymph capillaries intermingled

9 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review among capillaries of the cardiovascular system. Once it is inside the lymphatic system, the fluid is called lymph Along a lymph vessel are organs called lymph nodes These nodes filter lymph and lymph. nodes. attack viruses and bacteria. Inside a lymph node is connective tissue filled with white blood cells for defense. Blood is a Connective Tissue with Cells Suspended in Plasma Blood plasma is about 90% water. Among its many solutes are inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions, sometime referred to as blood electrolytes. Some ions help buffer the blood and maintain osmotic balance. Plasma also contains plasma proteins which act as buffers against pH changes, help maintain the osmotic balance between blood and interstitial fluid, and contribute to the blood’s viscosity. Various types have specific functions, such as lipid escorts or clotting factors. Plasma also contains substances in transit from one part of the body to another. Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen, while white blood cells function in defense. Platelets are pieces of cells involved in clotting. Red blood cells, or erythrocytes are the most numerous blood cells. Their main function of oxygen erythrocytes, transport depends on rapid diffusion of oxygen across their plasma membranes. As a result, they have a small size and biconcave shape for a large surface area. Mammalian erythrocytes lack nuclei to leave more space in the tiny cells for hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein that transports oxygen. They also lack mitochondria. An erythrocyte contains about 250 million molecules of hemoglobin, with each able to bind to four molecules of oxygen. The five major types of leukocytes are moncytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Their job is to fight infections. Platelets are fragments of cells that function in blood clotting. Cellular elements of blood are replaced constantly throughout a person’s life. All blood cells develop from a single population of cells called pluripotent stem cells in the red marrow of bones. These stem cells arise in the early embryo, with the population renewing itself while replenishing the blood with cellular elements. A negative-feedback mechanism controls erythrocyte production. If the tissues to do not receive enough oxygen, the kidney converts a plasma protein to a hormone called erythropoietin which erythropoietin, stimulates production of erythrocytes. Blood clotting occurs due to a sealant – this sealant is always present in an inactive form called fibrinogen. fibrin. fibrinogen Clots form when this plasma protein is converted into fibrin Anticlotting factors in the blood usually prevent spontaneous clotting in the absence of injury. However, a clot called a thrombus can occur that block the flow of blood in a blood vessel.

10 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review RESPIRATION The part of an animal where gases are exchanged with the environment is called the respirat ory respiratory surface. surface Animals do not actively transport oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, so movement of these gases is by diffusion. Respiratory surfaces tend to be thin and have large areas. All living cells must be bathed in water to maintain their plasma membranes. Gills Gills are outfoldings of the body surface that are suspended in water. In water, there is no problem keeping the cell membrane of the respiratory surface moist, but oxygen concentrations in water are low. The warmer and saltier the water, the less dissolved oxygen it can hold. Ventilation increases the flow of the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface. Crayfish and lobsters have paddle-like appendages that drive a current of water over the gills. Arrangement of capillaries in a fish gill enhances gas exchange and reduces the energy cost of ventilation. In countercurrent exchange blood flows in the opposite direction to the movement of exchange, water past the gills. As blood moves through a gill capillary, it becomes more and more loaded with oxygen and simultaneously encounters water with higher oxygen concentrations – this results in a diffusion gradient favoring the transfer of oxygen from water to blood. Tracheal Systems and Lungs Air has a much higher concentration of oxygen and oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse much faster in air than in water. When a terrestrial animal ventilates, less energy is needed because air is far lighter and much easier to pump than water and because much less volume needs to be breathed to obtain an equal amount of oxygen.

Tracheal Systems
The tracheal system of insects, made up of air tubes that branch throughout the body, is one variation on the theme of a folded internal respiratory surface. The largest tubes, called tracheae, open to the outside. The finest branches extend to the surface of nearly every cell, where gas is exchanged by diffusion. Larger insects must use ventilation with rhythmic body movements to expand the air tubes like a bellows.

Lungs are restricted to one location, with the gap between the lungs and other parts of the body bridged by the circulatory system. Amphibians have relatively small lungs without a large surface area – they rely heavily on diffusion across other body surfaces. Most reptiles and all bird and mammals rely entirely on lungs for gas exchange. Turtles are an exception.

11 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review Mammalian lungs are located in the thoracic cavity and have a spongy texture. A system of branching ducts conveys air to the lungs. Air enters through the nostrils and is filtered, warmed, humidified, and sampled for odors. The larynx is used for breathing when the glottis is open. The wall of the larynx is reinforced with cartilage When air is exhaled, it rushes by a pair of vocal cords in the larynx. cartilage. From the larynx, air passes into the trachea, with rings of cartilage maintaining the shape. The trachea trachea forks into two bronchi leading to each lung. Within the lung, the bronchus branches into finer and finer tubes called bronchioles At the tips, the bronchioles end at a cluster of air sacs called alveoli bronchioles. alveoli. The lungs are ventilated by breathing the alternate inhalation and exhalation of air. Mammals breathing, ventilate using negative pressure breathing Air is pulled into the lungs during inhalation, as the breathing. diaphragm contracts. During this time, the rib muscles contract to expand the rib cage and increase volume. During exhalation, the rib muscles and diaphragm relax, with air being forced up the breathing tubes. The volume of air an animal inhales and exhales with each breath is called tidal volume Since it is volume. impossible to completely collapse the alveoli, a residual volume of air remains in the lungs. Ventilation is more complex in birds, which have eight or nine air sacs that act as bellows to keep air flowing through the lungs. Breathing Control Breathing control centers are located in the medulla oblongata and the pons. The medulla’s center sets the basic breathing rhythm. It also monitors the carbon dioxide level of the blood and regulates breathing activity appropriately. Oxygen concentrations usually have little effect, except when the oxygen level is severely depressed. Respiratory Pigments Transport Gases Most animals transport oxygen bound to special proteins called respiratory pigments instead of dissolved in solution. These pigments circulate with the blood in specialized cells. They greatly increase the amount of oxygen that can be carried in blood. Hemoglobin consists of four subunits, each with a cofactor called a heme group. Hemoglobin also helps transport carbon dioxide and assists in buffering. Only about 7% of released carbon dioxide is transported in solution via blood plasma. Another 23% binds to the multiple amino groups of hemoglobin, and about 70% is transported in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions. Carbon dioxide from respiring cells diffuses into the blood plasma and then into the red blood cells, where it is converted to bicarbonate. Carbon dioxide first reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into a hydrogen ion and a bicarbonate ion. As the blood flows through the lungs, the process is rapidly reversed.

12 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review BODY DEFENSES

Nonspecific defense mechanisms First line of defense Skin Mucous membranes Secretions of skin and mucous membranes Second line of defense Phagocytic white blood cells The inflammatory response Antimicrobial proteins

Specific defense systems (immune system) Third line of defense Lymphocytes Antibodies

First Line of Defense Skin forms a barrier that is usually impenetrable to bacteria or viruses. Additionally, mucous membranes that light the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts bar the entry of microbes. Skin and mucous membranes can also use chemical defenses. For example, secretions from sweat glands can be acidic enough to kill many bacteria. Saliva, tears, and mucous secretions contain antimicrobial proteins such as lysozyme which digests the cell walls of many bacteria. Mucus is the fluid secreted by cells of mucous membranes – it can trap microbes and other particles that contact it. Second Line of Defense Microbes that penetrate the first line of defense face the second line of defense. Internal mechanisms of nonspecific defense depend mainly on phagocytosis the ingestion of invading organisms by certain phagocytosis, types of white cells. Phagocytic cells called neutrophils constitute about 60%-70% of all white blood cells. Any cells damaged by invading microbes release chemical signals that attract neutrophils. As a result, the neutrophils enter the infected tissue to engulf and destroy microbes. However, neutrophils tend to self-destruct as they destroy the microbes. Monocytes provide a more effective phagocytic defense. They migrate into tissues and develop into large macrophages that are especially effective and longlived. Macrophages extend long pseudopodia that can attach to polysaccharides on a microbe’s surface. Once it engulfs a microbe in a vacuole, a lysosome will kill the microbe by either generating toxic forms or oxygen or digesting it. Some microphages migrate throughout the body, while others reside permanently in certain tissues. Eosinophils provide a defense against larger parasitic invaders and can discharge destructive enzymes when positioned against the external wall of a parasite. Nonspecific defense also includes natural killer (NK) cells They destroy virus-infected body cells by cells. causing them to lyse. Damage to tissue triggers a localized inflammatory response In the inured area, precapillary response. arterioles dilate and postcapillary venules constrict to increase the local blood supply. This response is

13 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review initiated by chemical signals. Some of these signals are from the invading organism while others are from the cells of the body, such as histamine produced by circulating leukocytes called basophils and histamine, basophils mast cells found in connective tissue. Leukocytes and damaged tissue cells also discharge prostaglandins and other substances that further promote blood flow. Increased blood flow is an advantage because it delivers clotting elements to block the spread of microbes to other parts of the body and initiates repair. Additionally, phagocytic cells can now easily migrate to the damage site. Molecules called chemokines attract phagocytes to the area. Neutrophils are the first phagocytes to arrive, followed by macrophages. Pus that accumulates consists mostly of dead phagocytic cells and fluid and proteins that leaked from the capillaries during the inflammatory response. Severe tissue damage or infection may lead to a systemic nonspecific response. Certain leukocytes can release pyrogens to set the body’s thermostat at a higher temperature to kill off microorganisms. A variety of proteins function in nonspecific defense through either attacking microorganisms directly or by impeding reproduction. The complement system consisting of about 20 serum proteins, carries system, out a series of steps leading to the lysis of microbes. Interferons are a set of proteins secreted by virus-infected cells that induce neighboring cells to produce chemicals that inhibit viral reproduction. One type of interferon can also activate phagocytes. Third Line of Defense There are two main types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). Both cells) types circulate throughout the blood and lymph and are concentrated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic tissues. They recognize and respond to particular microbes; thus, they display specificity. A foreign molecule that sparks a specific response from lymphocytes is called an antigen antigen. The term antigen comes from antibody-generator – each antigen has a particular shape and stimulates certain B cells to secrete specific antibodies with it. B cells and T cells can recognize specific antigens by their plasma membrane-bound antigen receptors. receptors Antigen receptors on a B cell are actually transmembrane versions of antibody molecules (also known as membrane antibodies). The antigen receptors on a T cell, called T cell receptors are receptors, structurally related to membrane antibodies. When an unspecialized cell differentiates into a B or T lymphocyte, segments of antibody genes or receptor genes are linked together by a type of genetic recombination, resulting in an enormous variety of B and T cells in the body. Antigen molecules bind to the antigen receptors of only one specific lymphocyte. This will cause it to form two clones of cells. One clone consists of a large number of effector cells that combat the same antigen, while other clones are of memory cells that have receptors specific for the same antigen. This antigen-driven cloning of lymphocytes is called clonal selection The idea of clonal selection is: selection.

each antigen, by binding to specific receptors, selectively activates a tiny fraction of cells from the

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body’s diverse pool of lymphocytes; this relatively small number of selected cells gives rise to clones of thousands of cells, all specific for and dedicated to eliminating that antigen.
The selective proliferation and differentiation that occurs the first time the body is exposed to an antigen is the primary immune response Selected B and T cells generate antibody-producing effector response. B cells called plasma cells, and effector T cells, respectively. During this time, the individual may cells become ill. Illness will diminish as the antibodies and effector T cells remove the antigen from the body. In a secondary immune response the response is faster. Antibodies produced during this response, response are more numerous and have greater affinity for the antigen. The immune system’s ability to generate secondary immune response is called immunological memory. Lymphocytes, like all blood cells, originate from pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow or liver of a developing fetus. Those that migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus (gland above the heart), will develop into T cells. Lymphocytes that remain in bone marrow become B cells. While B and T cells are maturing, their antigen receptors are tested for potential self-reactivity. For the most part, lymphocytes with receptors for molecules already present in the body are rendered nonfunctional or destroyed by apoptosis, leaving only lymphocytes that react to foreign molecules. This capacity to distinguish self from non-self continues to develop as the cells migrate to lymphatic organs. Failure of self-tolerance can lead to autoimmune diseases. T cells have a crucial interaction with one important group of native molecules. They are a collection of cell surface glycoproteins encoded by a family of genes called the major histocompatibility histocompatib (MHC). complex (MHC) In humans, the MHC glycoproteins are also known as the HLA. MHC molecules mark body cells as “self.” Class I MHC molecules are found on almost all cells, while class II MHC molecules are restricted a few specialized cell types. The MHC provides a biochemical fingerprint virtually unique to each individual. Through a process known as antigen presentation an MHC presentation, molecule carries a piece of an intracellular protein antigen, carries it to the cell surface, and “presents” it to an antigen receptor on a nearby T cell. Thus, T cells are alerted to an infectious agent. Cytotoxic T cells (TC) have antigen receptors that bind to protein fragments displayed by class I MHC molecules. Helper Helper T cells (TH) have receptors that bind to peptides displayed by class II MHC molecules. Thus, whether or not T cells respond to a pathogen depends on the ability of MHC molecules to present a fragment of it. Class I MHC molecules, found in almost all cells, are poised to present fragments of proteins made by infecting microbes, usually viruses, to cytotoxic T cells. Class II MHC molecules are made by only a few cell types, chiefly macrophages and B cells. These cells, called antigenantigen - presenting cells (APCs) in this context, ingest bacteria and viruses and then destroy them. Class II MHC molecules in these cells collect peptide remnants and present them to helper T cells. During T cell development, those that show an affinity for class I MHC or class II MHC become cytotoxic T cells or helper T cells, respectively.

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Immune Responses
The immune system can mount two types of responses to antigens: a humoral response and a cellmediated response. Humoral immunity involves B cell activation and results from the production of antibodies that circulate in the blood plasma and lymph, fluids that were long ago called humors. CellCellmediated immunity depends on the action of T cells. Humoral responses are generally used against free bacteria, toxins, and viruses present in body fluids. T cells of the cell-mediated response are active against viruses and bacteria within infected body cells and against fungi, protozoa, and parasitic worms. The interaction between an antigen-presenting cell (APC) and a helper T cell is greatly enhanced by the presence of CD4. CD4 is present on most helper T cells and binds to part of the class II MHC protein. . Once a helper T cell is selected, it proliferates and differentiates into a clone of activated helper T cells and memory helper T cells. Activated helper T cells secrete cytokines proteins or peptides that cytokines, stimulate other lymphocytes. For example, the cytokine interleukin- 2 (IL- 2) helps B cells that have interleukin- IL ILcontacted antigen differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Macrophages also secrete interleukin- IL ILinterleukin-1 (IL- 1) that activates the helper T cells.

Cell-Mediated Response
A class I MHC molecule captures a small fragment of one of the proteins synthesized by a cell. If the cell contains a replicating virus, peptide fragments of viral proteins are captured and transported to the cell surface. Class I MHC molecules will expose foreign proteins that are synthesized in infected or abnormal cells to cytotoxic T cells. Interaction between the antigen-presenting T cell and cytotoxic T cell is greatly enhanced by CD8 CD8. When activated, the cytotoxic C cell differentiates into an active killer – it kills its target cell by releasing perforin a protein that forms pores in the target cell’s membrane, causing ions and water to perforin, flow into the cell. The death of the infected cell will mark the pathogen for disposal.

Humoral Response
IN the humoral response, B cells bearing antigen receptors are selected by binding with specific antigens. The B cell proliferates and differentiates into a clone of antibody-secreting plasma cells and a clone of memory B cells. Antigens that evoke this type of B cell response are known as T- dependent antigens because they can stimulate antibody production only with help from TH cells. Other antigens function as T- independent antigens Repeated subunits of these antigens bind simultaneously to a antigens. number of membrane antibodies on the B cell surface. This provides enough stimulus to the B cell to generate antibody-secreting plasma cells without help of IL-2.

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Antibody Structure and Function
An antibody interacts with a small portion of the antigen called an epitope A single antigen usually epitope. has several effective epitopes, each capable of inducing the production of specific antibodies. Antibodies constitute a group of globular serum proteins called immunoglobulins (Igs A typical Igs). Igs antibody molecule has two identical antigen-binding sites specific for the epitope that provoked its production. Each molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains joined by disulfide bridges to form a Y-shaped molecule. The two tips of the Ychains, shaped molecules are the variable (V) regions of the heavy and light chains, since the amino acid sequences vary from antibody to antibody. The tail of the Y-shaped antibody is formed by the constant regions (C) of the heavy chains. These are responsible for the antibody’s distribution in the body and for the mechanisms by which it mediates antigen disposal.

Antibody-Mediated Disposal of Antigen
The binding of antibodies to antigens to form antigen-antibody complexes is the basis of several antigen disposal mechanisms. The simplest of these is neutralization in which the antibodies bind to neutralization, and block the activity of the antigen. Antibodies can also bind to the surface of a pathogenic bacteria to eliminate them using phagocytosis. In oposnoization the bound antibodies enhance phagocytosis oposnoization, of the microbes. In agglutination the antibodies clump the bacteria together to neutralize and agglutination, opsonize the microbes. The large complexes formed are easily phagocytosed by macrophages. In complement fixation, antigen-antibody complexes activate the complement. Completion of the fixation complement cascade results in the lysis of many types of viruses and pathogenic cells. The classical pathway is triggered by antibodies bound to antigen (humoral immune response). The alternative pathway is triggered by substances naturally present on many bacteria, yeast, viruses, and protozoan parasites. Ultimately, the pathway leads to cell lysis. Natural or Artificial Immunity Immunity conferred by recovering from an infectious disease is called active immunity because it depends on the response of the infected person’s own immune system. Active immunity can also be acquired artificially, by immunization Vaccines include inactivated bacterial toxins, killed microbes, immunization. parts of microbes, and viable but weakened microbes. Antibodies can also be transferred from one individual to another, providing passive immunity such as between a mother and her child. immunity, HOMEOSTASIS/EXCRETION The ability of animals to regulate their internal environment is called homeostasis An animal is said homeostasis. to be a regulator for a particular environmental variable if it uses mechanisms of homeostasis to moderate internal change in the face of external fluctuation. Conformers on the other hand, allow Conformers,

17 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review some conditions within their body to vary with certain external changes. Homeostasis results in relatively constant rates of gains and losses. Thermoregulation Each animal has an optimal temperature range. Within that range, many animals maintain a nearly constant internal temperature as the external temperature fluctuates. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other. Heat is always conducted from an object of higher temperature to one of lower temperature. Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface. Radiation is the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero. Evaporation is the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as a gas. An ectotherm has a low metabolic rate that is not enough to have much effect on body temperature. As a result, ectotherm body temperatures are almost entirely dependent on the temperature of the surrounding environment. In contrast, an endotherm’s high metabolic rate generates enough heat to keep its body substantially warmer than the environment.

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