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Alloy their properties and Selection

Submitted To:
Mr. Randhir Kumar Singh Asst. Professor, Metallurgy Dept

Submitted By:
Shailesh Sharma Metallurgy, 7th Sem 3203809304

High Tensile Structural Steel(1.1):

High tensile Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength, storage, etc., is regulated in most industrialized countries. Structural steel members, such as I-beams, have high second moments of area, which allow them to be very stiff in respect to their crosssectional area.

Grades and Applications(1.2):

350 Plate: A high strength structural steel product with nominal yield strength of 350 MPa. General fabrication, structural members, highrise buildings, bridges, storage tanks. 350 Plate - Impact Tested: A structural steel plate product suitable for low temperature applications with nominal yield strength of 350 MPa and guaranteed impact properties at-15C.General fabrication, structural members, bridges, storage tanks. 400 Plate: A high strength structural steel product with nominal yield strength of 400 MPa. General fabrication, structural members, highrise buildings, bridges, storage tanks 400 Plate - Impact Tested: A structural steel plate product suitable for low temperature applications with nominal yield strength of 400 MPa and guaranteed impact properties at -15C. General fabrication, structural members, bridges, storage tanks. 450 Plate: A high strength structural steel product with nominal yield strength of 450 MPa. General fabrication, structural members, highrise buildings, bridges, storage tanks.

Properties and composition of High Tensile Structural steel(1.3):

Case carburizing Steel(2.1):

Carburizing is a case hardening process of adding carbon to the surface of low-carbon steel. This is done by exposing the surface to a Carbon rich atmosphere at an elevated temperature. This results in carburized steel that has a high-carbon surface and a low-carbon interior. When the carburized steel is heat-treated, the case be-comes hardened and the core remains soft and tough. Case hardening produces a hard, wear-resistant surface or case over a strong, tough core. Case hardening is ideal for parts that require a wear-resistant surface and must be tough enough internally to withstand heavy loading.

Grade and its composition(2.2):

Application of Case carburizing Steel(2.2):

Parts that are subject to high pressures and sharp impacts are still commonly case hardened. Examples include faces, or engine in these cases, the surfaces requiring the hardness may be hardened selectively, leaving the bulk of the part in its original tough state.

DTH Hammers, Button Bits, Couplings, Castings, Crown Wheels, Swing Lever and Pressure Rings etc. Another common application of case hardening is on screws, particularly self-drilling screws.

Nitriding Steel(3.1):
Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case hardened surface. It is predominantly used on steel, but also titanium, aluminum and molybdenum. These are steels that are specially formulated to undergo a nitriding operation on a machined part. Nitriding consists of heating the part in an atmosphere containing ammonia. A thin, very hard case results from the formation of nitrides. Nitriding grades contain the strong nitride-forming elements aluminum, chromium and molybdenum.

Grade and its composition(3.2):

o Typical layer thickness. Nitriding : 0.1-2 mm Nitro-carburizing : 0.1-1.6 mm o Hardness: 400-1400 HV. o Hardening depth: up to about 1.5 mm. o Service temperature; up to about 350C. o Quality of the surface: hard, pressure resistant, but porous. o Wear resistance: good to very good. o Toughness: decreases as a result of notch formation in the layer. o Impact resistance: limited.

o Tensile strength: increases with increasing hardness. o Corrosion resistance: better than the base material.

Machine parts which are subjected to mechanical loads fatigue or wear such as: Shock absorbers, piston rods, cylinders, pneumatic/hydraulic tension tools, jacks, drive shafts, gear wheels and moulds. Hardening takes place during nitriding. Aluminum-containing low-alloy steels. Hot-work die steels containing 5% chromium such as HI1, HI2, and HI3 A requirement for a good result is that the material is first hardened (before nitriding) so that the core has the proper tensile strength. Joining of parts can only be done by hard soldering before heat treatment. Low-carbon, chromium-containing low-alloy steels of the 3300, 8600, and 9300 series Air-hardening tool steels such as A-2, A-6, D-2, D-3 and S-7 High-speed tool steels such as M-2 and M-4 Nitronic stainless steels such as 30, 40, 50, and 60 Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels of the 400 and 500 series Austenitic stainless steels of the 200 and 300 series Precipitation-hardening stainless steels such as 13-8 PH, 15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, 17-7 PH, A-286, AM350 and AM355.

Ball Bearing Steel(4.1):

A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races. The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls. In most applications, one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating assembly (e.g., a hub or shaft). As one of the bearing races rotates it causes the balls to rotate as well. Because the balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient of friction than if two flat surfaces were sliding against each other.

Grade and its composition(4.2):

Properties of Ball Bearing Steel(4.2):

Hardness: Ball bearing steel has enormous hardness because the manufacturing process of bearing steel requires melting and degassing of the metal followed by certain metallurgical processes. It is then tempered and quenched. Bearing steel has a bending strength of 2400 MPa (Pascal Unit) and can withstand high stress and centrifugal forces. But it has a low corrosion resistance. Bearings materials can either be through-hardened or case-hardened and may also require vacuumprocessing to ensure purity. A minimum expected hardness for

bearing components is 58 Rc (measurement of hardness) but it has generally higher hardness levels.

Strength: Carbon increases the strength of bearing steel. Strength ensures that parts (i.e., bearings) made from it do not deform on the application of stress and load. Ductility and weldability, however, decrease with increasing carbon content. In addition to this, bearing steel is designed to have high fatigue strength and life and needs to respond uniformly to the heat treatment process. It should have a compact structure with a consistent grain flow and a fine grain size that imparts high impact toughness to the alloy. Physical Properties: Bearing steel has a density of 7.85 gm per cubic-cm, coefficient of linear expansion (i.e., the change in length per unit length resulting from a 1 degree rise in temperature) of 0.00001 per K and thermal conductivity of 30-40 W mK. Bearing steel is magnetic in nature and is a good thermal and electrical conductor.

Ball bearings are used for dental and medical instruments. In dental and medical hand pieces, it is necessary for the pieces to withstand sterilization and corrosion. Hard drive bearings used to be highly spherical, and were said to be the best spherical manufactured shapes, but this is no longer true, and more and more are being replaced with fluid bearings. German ball bearing factories were often a target of allied aerial bombings during World War II; such was the importance of the ball bearing to the German war industry

In horology, the company Jean Lassale designed a watch movement that used ball bearings to reduce the thickness of the movement. Using 0.20 mm balls, the Calibre 1200 was only 1.2 mm thick, which still is the thinnest mechanical watch movement. Aerospace bearings are used in many applications on commercial, private and military aircraft including pulleys, gearboxes and jet engine shafts. Materials include M50 tool steel (AMS6491), Carbon chrome steel (AMS6444), the corrosion resistant AMS5930, 440C stainless steel, silicon nitride (ceramic) and titanium carbide-coated 440C. Skateboarding. The wheels in a skateboard contain two bearings in each of the four wheels. Most commonly bearing 608-2Z is used (a deep groove ball bearing from series 60 with 8 mm bore diameter) Agricultural Equipment. The many moving parts in a piece of farm machinery depend on several different types of bearings to operate. Under the heavy loads and dusty conditions, these bearings need to be lubricated, repaired, or replaced often.

Transportation, Almost every car, bike, bus, truck, trailer and train will
have bearings. In cars you will find bearings in the wheels, diff, alternator and gearbox. The most common bearing found in these applications is the Tapered Roller Bearing.

Spring Steel(5.1):
Carbon spring steel is held in a wide range of sizes. Detailed below are our most common specifications. Carbon steel strip and spring steel sheet is available most commonly in the hardened and tempered condition, though certain sizes are available in the annealed condition. Round and flat bar is stocked in the as rolled condition. Most spring steel specifications are held to British Standard steel specifications including BS1449 & BS970.

Grade with composition and properties(5.2):

Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords used for stage combat due to its resistance to snapping or shattering. Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of lock picks due to its pliability and resilience. Applications include piano wire, spring clamps, antennas, and springs.

Low alloy high Strength Steels(6.1):

High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a specific chemical composition but rather to specific mechanical properties. They have carbon content between 0.050.25% to retain formability and weldability. Other alloying elements include up to 2.0% manganese and small quantities of copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, titanium, calcium, rare earth elements, or zirconium. Copper, titanium, vanadium, and niobium are added for strengthening purposes. These elements are intended to alter the microstructure of carbon steels, which is usually a ferrite-pearlite aggregate, to produce a very fine dispersion of alloy carbides in an almost pure ferrite matrix. This eliminates the toughness-reducing effect of a pearlitic volume fraction yet maintains and increases the material's strength by refining the grain size, which in the case of ferrite increases yield strength by 50% for every halving of the mean grain diameter. Copper, silicon, nickel, chromium, and phosphorus are added to increase corrosion resistance. Zirconium, calcium, and rare earth elements are added for sulfide-inclusion shape control which increases formability. These are needed because most HSLA steels have directionally sensitive properties.

Grade with their chemical composition(6.1):

Grade of LAHS steel with their properties(6.1):

They are used in cars, trucks, cranes, bridges, roller coasters and other structures that are designed to handle large amounts of stress or need a good strength-to-weight ratio. HSLA steels are usually 20 to 30% lighter than a carbon steel with the same strength.

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