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IS 800:2007 6.3.2 Compression Member 6.3.

3 A compression member is a structural member which is straight and subjected to two equal and opposite compressive forces applied at its ends. Different terms are used for a compression member depending upon its position in structures .Strut is a compression member used in the roof truss and bracing. Column is a vertical compression member supporting floors in the building. 6.3.4 Design Strength a)The allowable working stress in compression is assumed and the cross sectional area required for the axial load is computed. b)The calculated sectional area may be increased by 50%_100% to account for the eccentricity of the load or for the bending moment. c)Suitable cross section is chosen from IS Hand Book no. 1.the slenderness ratio of the column is worked out. d)From table 4.4 of the text the allowable compressive stress ac is determined for the calculated slenderness ratio. e)The compressive stress ac ,cal in the column is calculated by dividing the load with the sectional area provided ac,cal=P/A f)The bending stress in the column is calculated by dividing the bending moment with the section modulus bc,cal=M/Z g)The permissible bending stress is taken either to be 0.66fy if the bending is about the minor axis, of the text is about the major axis. In the latter case permissible bending stresses are reduced to account for lateral instability. h)The column section is checked for combined stresses as follow: The ratio of ac,cal to ac is worked out. If ac,cal/ ac 0.15 then, ac,cal/ ac+ bc,cal/ bc+ bcy,cal/ bcy 1. 36

6.4 Effective Length The effective length l, of a compression member is the distance between these points. Therefore it should be derived from the actual length and end conditions .The end conditions are accounted for through the use of effective length factors ,which when multiplied by the actual length L give the effective length. Since the effective is based on the end conditions for the compression member. 6.4.1 Riveted Connection A rivet is made of a round ductile steel bar piece called sank, with a head a one end. The head can be different shapes. The usual form of rivet head employed in structural steel construction is the snap head. The snap head and pan heads from a projection beyond the plate face, and where this is an objection as in bearings, where continuity between plate and plate , or between plate and masonry is necessary-a counter sunk head is employed. 4.4.2 Bolted Connection A bolt may be defined as a metal pin with a head at one end and a sank threaded at the other end to receive a nut. Steel washers are usually provided under the bolt as well as nut. a)wires and cables-wire ropes are exclusively used for hoisting purposes and as guy wires in steel stacks and towers. cables are used in suspension bridges. Since cables are generally long and their flexural stiffness is negligible, initial sag and other geometrical effects must be accounted for in the design. The advanced of wire rope and cable are flexibility and strength.