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Level Two Grammar

Counters-Level Two As mentioned in level one, Japanese has counting words (counters) for different objects and concepts. The challenge is remembering which counter to use with which object or concept, but with a bit of practice it all becomes automatic. For more on counters visit this site: http://www.japanorama.com/counters.html Below are the counters needed for level two Japanese:

Cylinders
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Cars/Appliances
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

100s-1000s
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Birds
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Small Animals
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Large Animals
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Classifying Adjectives In English adjectives are as they appear to be: adjectives. However in Japanese, adjectives have two different classifications: & adjectives. adjectives are as they sound: adjectives that end in . Examples of this would be and . adjectives on the other had are adjectives that don't end specifically with . Examples of these include and .

Moreover, there are special cases where an adjective appears too be an adjective but is actually classified as a adjective. See the Charts page for a chart of the level two adjectives in their respective classifications. Present, Past, and Negative Forms of Adjectives As with verbs, adjectives can also take on present, past, and negative tenses. The type of adjective ( or ) determines how the adjective will change for each tense/form. Below are guidelines for & adjective transformations. Check Charts for charts/lists of the level two adjectives in their Present Positive, Past Positive, Present Negative, and Past Negative forms. adjectives: To transform from present to past, simply remove the -end and replace with And to transform from present positive to present negative, remove the -end and replace with Furthermore to go from present negative to past negative, remove the -end and replace with Present Positive: Past Positive: Present Negative: Past Negative: adjectives: To transform adjectives from present positive to past positive, replace with its past tense: TO transform from Present positive to present negative, replace with . To transform from Present negative to past negative, replace the -end on with so the ending is now Note that the irregular adjectives that appear as adjectives conjugate like adjectives as well. Present Positive: Past Positive: Present Negative: Past Negative: Modifying Nouns This is used when you wish to describe a person or an object. It can be done easily with & adjectives. For adjectives, you simply place the adjective in front of the noun (i.e. is the same as saying 'loud clasroom'). For adjectives simply take the adjective, add and place in front of the noun (i.e. is same as saying 'quiet person').

Ex:

1. :Ariya is a quiet person, isn't she? 2. :The teacher is a strict teacher, right? Invitations: This is used to make suggestions or offer invitations to do activities. To obtain this, take the verb in its Stem Form and add to the end. This is much like adding to a verb stem but less formal. Ex:

1. :Would you like to eat cake? 2. :Would you like to play tennis? 3. :Would you like to go to the movies on Saturday? 4. :Would you like to meet at 6pm? Want & Don't Want: This is used when you wish to express desires (want/don't want something). For expressing desire, state the noun (desired object) then add to end the sentence. Noun For expressing disdain/saying you don't want something, the pattern is the same with the exception of adding instead of at the end. Noun Ex:

1. :I want a car. 2. :I want medicine.

3. :I don't want the blue shirt. 4. :I don't want coffee. I want tea. Existence: & Knowing the difference between & is VERY IMPORTANT in Japanese. It could mean the difference between correctly ackowledgint something, and rudely denouncing the legitamate existence of a person. Now this doesn't mean you'll never mix them up, nor does it mean you'll be shunned if you do so, if anything you'll receive a few funny looks from your audience. The two are alike in which they both describe/acknowledge existence, and they're both verbs that can be conjugated. However this is where the similarities end. In terms of , this is used to ackowledge the existence or possession of an inanimate object (i.e. =there is a pencil). Moreover, in terms of ,this is used to acknowledge existence of animate objects suhc as people and animals (i.e. =There are 5 people in the house). Ex:

1. :In my bag there is a book, a notebook, and a textbook. 2. :In my family there is dad, mom, younger sister, younger brother, and dog. 3. :Do you have a pencil sharpener? 4. :How many people are in your family? This, That, and That over There:& These are used to describe the general location of objects. means: this, means: that (near you), means: that over there, and means: which. There are more of these words to spcifically describe general location of objects, people, and places. This

That (near you)

That over there

Ex:

1. [Near speaker]: How much is this pencil? 2. [Near the listener]: Please sit here. 3. : Which one is your bag? 4. [Near the listener]: That present is mine. Giving Receiving: These two are the verbs for giving & receiving. Knowing which particles, and the order to use them can help define the meaning of the sentence. Adhering to the following sentence structures will help: Receiver/ 1 Giver/ 2 Object :Person1 received object from person2. Giver/ 2 Receiver/ 1 Object Person2 gave object to person1. Ex:

1. :Who gave you the bag? 2. :Who did you receive that bag from? 3. :The students received a test from the teacher. 4. :The teacher gave the students a test.